Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2685 journals)
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CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (235 journals)            First | 1 2     

Showing 201 - 236 of 236 Journals sorted alphabetically
Nanochemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Natural Volatiles & Essential Oils     Open Access  
Noise Control Engineering Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
npj Science of Food     Open Access  
Ochrona Srodowiska i Zasobów Naturalnych : Environmental Protection and Natural Resources     Open Access  
Open Chemical Engineering Journal     Open Access  
Periodica Polytechnica Chemical Engineering     Open Access  
Petroleum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Physics and Chemistry of Glasses - European Journal of Glass Science and Technology Part B     Full-text available via subscription  
Plasma     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Plasma Processes and Polymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Polymer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 86)
Polymer Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Polymer Composites     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Polyolefins Journal     Open Access  
Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Reaction Chemistry & Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Reactions     Open Access  
Research on Chemical Intermediates     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Revista Cubana de Química     Open Access  
Revista ION     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Ingeniería Química     Open Access  
Russian Chemical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Solid Fuel Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
South African Journal of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Surface Engineering and Applied Electrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Sustainable Chemical Processes     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Synthesis Lectures on Chemical Engineering and Biochemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription  
The Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
The Chemical Record     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Theoretical Foundations of Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Transition Metal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Transylvanian Review of Systematical and Ecological Research     Open Access  
Upstream Oil and Gas Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Visegrad Journal on Bioeconomy and Sustainable Development     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

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Ochrona Srodowiska i Zasobów Naturalnych : Environmental Protection and Natural Resources
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.137
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1230-7831 - ISSN (Online) 2353-8589
Published by Sciendo Homepage  [370 journals]
  • Analysis of Pollutant Emission in Poland From Road Vehicles of the

    • Abstract: This paper presents the results of analyses that were focused on pollutant emissions from road vehicles classified into the generalised categories with respect to vehicle use. The analyses were performed using the authorised results of Poland's pollutant emission inventory, carried out in 1990–2020 by the National Centre for Emissions Management (KOBiZE) at the Institute of Environmental Protection – National Research Institute (IOŚ-PIB) in order to meet requirements for the national emissions reporting under EU legislation and the UNECE Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution. The following road vehicle categories were analysed: passenger cars, light duty vehicles, heavy-duty trucks, buses (urban buses and coaches) and L category (motorcycles, mopeds, quads, microcars). The emissions of selected pollutants that are harmful to the health of living beings were studied, i.e. nitrogen oxides, non-methane volatile organic compounds, sulfur compounds, particulate matter size fractions, carbon monoxide and lead compounds. The shares of national annual pollutant emissions from each studied vehicle category of the total pollutant emissions from road transport were determined. With the aim to assess trends in improving environmental properties of road vehicles, there were determined changes of the energy emission factors for individual pollutants in all the vehicle categories under the study. The results obtained showed dynamic decreases in the energy emission factors for nitrogen oxides, non-methane volatile organic compounds and carbon monoxide. In the case of particulate matter emission, the improvement was not as pronounced. The evident reduction in the emissions of sulfur and lead compounds in the 21st century was confirmed to be a consequence of practical elimination of these compounds from road vehicle fuels.
      PubDate: Thu, 08 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Air Pollution and COVID-19: Any Causal Link'

    • Abstract: Several studies have amply proved that air pollution negatively impacts human health. The nature of its effects on COVID-19 has, of late, become an area for investigation across the world. The present study reviews reports in the literature that centred on whether the presence and impact of air pollutants magnified the symptoms and actions of COVID-19 and whether preventive measures taken, starting with lockdown, affected air pollution levels. This may help to establish causality, if any, between pollution and COVID-19. Studies were chosen to ensure representation of all continents with diverse climatic conditions with the exception of Australia. Most of the studies concluded that air pollutants declined as a result of the lockdowns imposed to constrain the spread of COVID-19. A significant reduction in NO2 is observed along with the resultant increase in tropospheric ozone in the atmosphere. The inference is untrue in hostile meteorological conditions. According to some studies, reduction in pollutants aided in contracting the spread and severity of COVID-19. On the other hand, hostile weather conditions incited the spread and magnitude of COVID-19. A governmental policy inference could be that government intervention through imposing a lockdown would reduce air pollution and ensure the health safety of the people, but economic growth considerations need to be balanced against the benefit for public health.
      PubDate: Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Efficiency of the System of Environmental Fees in Poland

    • Abstract: The study addresses the principles of functioning of Poland’s system of environmental fees and focuses on the assessment of the existing system in terms of its efficiency. The analysis of revenues from the charge due to burdening the environment and their redistribution were carried out based on data published by Statistics Poland (GUS) and those available in the reviewed subject publications. The issue of rising costs related to the fee system functioning was stressed and an attempt was made to assess the system efficiency based on revenues and costs, as well as the number of entities under the charging system contrasted with those actually paying environmental fees. In view of appropriate social and technological conditions, confirmed by data on the access of national administration to the Internet, a solution was proposed to reduce environmental fees through the digitalisation of data reporting and collection. There was also a proposal presented to modify the environmental fee system in terms of its normative scope which could increase its efficiency.
      PubDate: Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Geographic Information Systems (GIS) as Supporting Tools in the Monitoring
           and Water Management of Lakes in Poland: A Review

    • Abstract: A multitude of spatial relations between the lake and its catchment prompts both water managers and scientists to use Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The paper presents the possibility of using GIS systems in the monitoring and management of Polish lakes, taking advantage of the dynamic development of geoinformatics. The focus is on the possibility of using GIS systems when creating documents necessary for the implementation of subsequent water management plans, as required by the Water Framework Directive. This review presents the currently existing spatial databases of Polish lakes and discusses the impact of the use of morphometric data of lakes on the process of water monitoring. Attention was paid to the problem of delimiting the catchment areas of lakes and the legal consequences of determining their boundaries. Tools used in the interpolation of limnological parameters and the models most often used in GIS software for water quality prediction are discussed.
      PubDate: Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Reviewers of the „Environmental Protection and natural resources” Vol.
           32 No 1(87), 2(88), 3(89), 4(90), 2021

    • PubDate: Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 GMT
  • Public perception of nature conservation promotion in public spaces in

    • Abstract: The purpose of this preliminary study was to learn about citizens’ perceptions of promotion activities related to wildlife and nature conservation in public spaces in Warsaw, Poland. One hundred and fifty individuals, randomly approached, agreed to participate in the survey, 48 of whom were professionals in natural sciences. The survey contained 13 substantive questions, whereby predefined answers or were open-ended. The vast majority (81%) of respondents were interested in nature and environmental problems. They expressed views that the current efforts and activities in Warsaw to promote conservation of nature and endangered wild animal species are insufficient. In most cases, the respondents were able to list some activities for nature education they had observed in a number of the city's public spaces. The survey suggested that age and education of the respondents did not affect their attitudes toward nature conservation. However, the survey did indicate that women were more interested and concerned with nature protection than men, and they were willing to take part in the survey, when approached, more often than men. This study helps to consider directions for further research in this area.
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Jun 2021 00:00:00 GMT
  • Analysis of Factors that Determine Inclusion of LULUCF into Realisation of
           EU Climate Policy Objectives 2021–2030 in the Non-ETS Sectors

    • Abstract: Starting in 2021, Poland's emission reduction target for 2030, in the sectors not covered by the European Union Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) is −7% compared to the emissions level in the non-ETS sectors in 2005. This is a big change in comparison with the target for the period of 2013–2020, which assumed potential emissions increase relative to the same baseline and was +14% by 2020. In order to cope with the need to make a much greater reduction effort, Poland will likely need to use flexibility mechanisms to support achieving the more ambitious target.One the possible mechanism is the use of removals to cover likely excesses of annual non-ETS emissions through an additional individual limit on the number of removals generated in the land-use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF) sector. However, this possibility is conditional on a range of factors associated with emission inventory and reporting, legal regulations and accounting procedures.The present study addresses these factors in detail and highlights the linkages between them. It provides a comprehensive cross-cutting analysis of the issue and gives an insight into the scattered legal regulations in relation to the discussed subject. In conceivably straightforward ways, there are described the specific concepts and processes depicting the inclusion of removals in accounting to meet the reduction target in the non-ETS. The article points out the potential opportunities for Poland to comply with the obligations imposed by EU regulations.
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Jun 2021 00:00:00 GMT
  • Land Use and Land Cover Change for Resilient Environment and Sustainable
           Development in the Ethiopian Rift Valley Region

    • Abstract: Land use and land cover change (LULCC) are the result of different interacting socio-economic and environmental causes and consequences that have been known since the beginning of agriculture. The study intended to explore the implications and drivers of LULCC in the Ethiopian rift valley region of Gidabo river sub basin from 1986 to 2019. The researchers have triangulated the data from Landsat 5 (™), and Landsat 8 (OLI) with data obtained from key informants, focus groups and field observation, which is helpful to determine the interaction between the environment and the community. It is also important to mitigate environmental disaster (erosion, landslides, and climate change) and sustainable utilization of natural resources. The LULCC of the past 33 years implied that about 58.4 % of the area was changed to other Land use land cover (LULC) classes. This refers to the fact that about 14% of agroforestry, 2% of the settlement, 1.1% of the forest, and 1% of bare land were expanded at the expense of 10.3% of shrub/woodland, 6.3 % of grassland, and 1% of cropland classes. Therefore, as a result, the highest land cover (46.7%) was observed on the agroforestry system. Participants in group discussion and informant interviews attributed the expansion of agroforestry to the drivers, such as population density, cultural values (Songo, Babbo), traditional beliefs, land policy, and the insecurity resulting from climate change. Whereas, the drivers related to unproductive land, resettlement, urbanisation, and lack of agricultural inputs were considered as threats that will adversely affect the agroforestry system of the area. The study concluded that the high expansion of the agroforestry system has significant contribution to achieve a resilient environment and sustainable development, which integrates the socio-economic and environmental needs of the community. But greater attention should be given to the changes observed in shrub/woodland, grassland, and bare land to enhance environmental protection.
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Jun 2021 00:00:00 GMT
  • Stakeholders’ Perceptions of the EU ETS Revision and Development

    • Abstract: The European Green Deal (EGD) communication supports strengthening and expansion of the European Union Emissions Trading System (EU ETS). Possible linkages with other carbon markets worldwide are also subject to both experts’ and policy-makers’ discussions. Results of the survey on the state and expectations concerning the development of the EU climate policy measures, in particular, the EU ETS, are presented in this article. The survey was done online. There is a group of questions dealing with the EU ETS performance and future development, and another concerning available information assessment and individual self-assessment in terms of relevant knowledge.
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Jun 2021 00:00:00 GMT
  • Reduction of waste production during juice processing with a simultaneous
           creation of the new type of added-value products

    • Abstract: The paper presents a new method for the reduction of waste production during juice processing through the reformulation of cloudy juices by ultrafiltration (UF), resulting in simultaneous production of a new type of cloudy juice of reduced sugar content. In contrast to the traditional juice production process, the final product was UF retentate. During UF, sugars were partially removed, while fibre and other macromolecular components present in a cloudy fraction, with health-promoting properties, were retained. Such treatment gives the possibility to reduce waste production during juice processing, because in the traditional approach, the cloudy fraction is usually treated as a waste after the clarification step. After UF in apple cloudy juice, the total content of soluble solids and sugars decreased from the initial values 11.0% and 10.4% to 9.2% and 8.8%, respectively; while in apple-beetroot cloudy juice, it reduced from 11.4% and 8.2% to 8.7% and 5.8%, respectively. At the same time, the cloudy fraction was retained and concentrated. The retention of soluble solids and sugars after the UF of apple juice was 66% and 67%, respectively, that is, 34% of soluble solids and 33% of the sugars were removed to the permeate. In apple-beetroot juice, 68% and 71% of soluble solids and sugars was retained, respectively.
      PubDate: Tue, 19 Nov 2019 00:00:00 GMT
  • Characteristics of the butterflies on various forms of land uses

    • Abstract: The purpose of the work was to identify the occurrence of butterflies depending on landform uses and human influence on the population domination structure. The research was conducted in the ‘Krzywda’ field-and-forest Site occupying 172 ha. The area consists of the land leaving in fallow, meadows and wasteland including about 68 ha of swamps that are strongly eutrophic due to human economic activity. The area is subjected to artificial succession inhibition processes in the form of mowing and cutting of trees and shrubs. 32 species of butterflies were recorded during the research, that is, 20% of all species within this group occurring in Poland. The research has approved the great spatial and quantitative diversification of the occurring area of butterflies depending on the form of the land uses. The greatest number of species and their greatest populations were found in the land laying in fallow without the removal of the biomass. The least number of species and their specimens were collected in the unmown laying fallow land. Lycaena virgaureae was the most numerous species collected. The correct domination structure characterized by a small number of numerous species and a large number of species consisting of a low number of specimens. Processes observed in the studied Site subjected to various types of land use influence the occurrence diversity of this group of insects.
      PubDate: Tue, 19 Nov 2019 00:00:00 GMT
  • Legal aspects of the resolutions determining the acceptable types and
           quality of fuels under Polish legislation

    • Abstract: The article focuses on the selected aspects of introducing a resolution by a self-government of a province, which allows to determine the acceptable types and quality of fuels. The impact of polluted air on human health is significant. The actions carried out by the local authorities should be aimed on seeking effective air protection remedies; nonetheless, the scale of these activities seems to be still insignificant. One of the legal mechanisms is introducing resolutions determining the acceptable types and quality of fuels by a self-government of a province in order to protect the health of Polish residents and reduce the negative impact of air pollution on the environment. The question, however, is whether such resolutions could be audited with respect to the execution of such a resolution and whether they effectively lead to air quality improvement.
      PubDate: Tue, 19 Nov 2019 00:00:00 GMT
  • Herpetofauna of the Kozubów Landscape Park

    • Abstract: The research was conducted in 2016–2017 in the 6,613-ha Kozubów Landscape Park (KLP). It focused on the occurrence and distribution of amphibians and reptiles, the biology and phenology of selected species and the existing threats.The KLP, established in 1986, is located in the Nida Basin, covering the eastern part of the Wodzisławski Ridge. This area is characterised by diverse landscape features formed on a chalk substrate. A significant part of the KLP (48.8%) is covered by forests growing on the tops and slopes of loess hills intersected by valleys and gorges. Hornbeam forests and fragments of riparian forests have retained a semi-natural character. The steep, non-forested slopes with a southern and south-western exposure are overgrown by thermophilic xerothermic grasslands. Xerothermic plant communities show a relatively low species diversity, because the main type of substrate in this area is loess. Two nature reserves, Polana Polichno and Wroni Dół, are located within the KLP borders.The following amphibian species were found in the KLP: smooth newt (Lissotriton vulgaris L.), great crested newt (Triturus cristatus Laur.), European fire-bellied toad (Bombina bombina L.), common spadefoot toad (Pelobates fuscus Laur.), common toad (Bufo bufo L.), European green toad (Bufotes viridis Laur.), European tree frog (Hyla arborea L.), edible frog (Pelophylax esculentus L.), pool frog (Pelophylax lessonae Cam.), moor frog (Rana arvalis Nilss.) and common frog (Rana temporaria L.). Reptiles are represented by the sand lizard (Lacerta agilis L.), viviparous lizard (Zootoca vivipara Jacquin), slow worm (Anguis fragilis L.), grass snake (Natrix natrix L.), smooth snake (Coronella austriaca Laur.) and common European adder (Vipera berus L.). The study also included the phenology and reproductive biology of common toad and common frog.Major threats to the herpetofauna are posed by grass burning. Unfavourable changes include decreasing water levels and drying out of water bodies.
      PubDate: Tue, 19 Nov 2019 00:00:00 GMT
  • Protected areas of the Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship

    • Abstract: The Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship is one of the smallest provinces in Poland, but it clearly stands out with a very well-preserved natural environment. Because of exceptional features of animate and inanimate nature, large parts of the province are covered by various forms of nature protection. There is 1 national park (NP), 72 nature reserves (NRs), 9 landscape parks, 21 protected landscape areas and 40 Natura 2000 sites within the administrative borders of the province. The most unique natural features are found in the Świętokrzyski National Park (ŚNP), but the largest surface of the province is covered by protected landscape areas. Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship is the first in Poland in terms of the share of protected areas (as much as 65.2%), strongly outdistancing other Voivodeships. Small natural objects are much more numerous than large protected areas. At present, the Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship has 705 natural monuments (NMs), 114 ecological sites (ESs), 20 documentation sites (DSs) and 17 nature and landscape complexes (NLCs). Moreover, new protected areas and sites may still be established within its borders.
      PubDate: Tue, 19 Nov 2019 00:00:00 GMT
  • Xerothermic pavements – a meadow biodiversity richness. Jaworzno
           case study

    • Abstract: Xerothermic pavements are plant communities located in sunny and dry sites, comprising many protected and valuable species. In Poland, thermophilic pavements occur in fragmentary patches, and because they are semi-natural communities, they require active protection. Several sites covered by pavements occur in Jaworzno town; the main threat posed on them, that is, overgrowing by bushes and trees, is removed naturally. The town authorities have decided to support sheep grazing, due to which biodiversity of xerothermic pavements is maintained and local sustainable farming is reinforced.
      PubDate: Tue, 19 Nov 2019 00:00:00 GMT
  • The role and significance of stingless bees (Hymenoptera: Apiformes:
           Meliponini) in the natural environment

    • Abstract: This article refers to the biology and ecology of stingless bees (Meliponini), living in tropical and subtropical areas. Similar to honey bees (Apis mellifera), stingless bees (Meliponini) belong to the category of proper social insects and are at the highest level of social development. This group of insects comprises about 500 species and they are the most common bees pollinating the native plants in many tropical areas. Families of stingless bees are usually quite numerous, reaching up to 100,000 individuals. They are characterised by polymorphism, age polyethism and perennialism. This article presents the structural complexity of natural nesting of these tropical insects and their ability to settle in artificial nest traps. The main significance of stingless bees for humans is their role in the natural environment as pollinators, which is an essential factor influencing biodiversity.
      PubDate: Fri, 28 Jun 2019 00:00:00 GMT
  • Herpetofauna of the Pieprzowe Mountains Nature Reserve and adjacent areas

    • Abstract: The study was focused on determining the sites of amphibian and reptile occurrence in the Pieprzowe Mountains Nature Reserve (area 18.01 ha) and adjacent areas (total area 58.81 ha). The investigations also involved the biology of breeding in the selected species, as well as determining threats and protection measures.Situated in the eastern part of the Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship, the steppe-like Pieprzowe (Pepper) Mountains Nature Reserve was established in 1979. Its aim is to protect xerothermic assemblages inhabited by many species of rare plants including the largest European aggregation of roses growing wild. The area is located on a steep, sometimes rugged escarpment, which is part of the Vistula River erosional margin. The escarpment exposes Cambrian black pepper-like shales. The slope base is overgrown by a narrow belt of willow thickets. Above occur assemblages of xerothermic thickets with a few trees. The highest parts of the nature reserve are overgrown with xerothermic grasslands with the prevalence of feathergrass steppe (Festuco-Stipion class). The reserve is surrounded by riparian forests, waterlogged meadows and reservoirs of the Vistula former riverbed, the largest of which is an oxbow lake (5.16 ha).The following species were documented in 2016-2017: smooth newt Lissotriton vulgaris L., great crested newt Triturus cristatus Laur., European fire-bellied toad Bombina bombina L., common toad Bufo bufo L., European green toad Bufotes viridis Laur., European tree frog Hyla arborea L., edible frog Pelophylax esculentus L., pool frog Pelophylax lessonae Cam., marsh frog Pelophylax ridibundus Laur., moor frog Rana arvalis Nilss., common frog Rana temporaria L., sand lizard Lacerta agilis L., grass snake Natrix natrix L. and common European adder Vipera berus L. The studies were focused on biology of breeding and phenology in common toad and common frog.The main threats posed on herpetofauna include: human presence, littering, fire raising and changes of water balance.© IOŚ-PIB
      PubDate: Fri, 28 Jun 2019 00:00:00 GMT
  • Indicators of peat soil degradation in the Biebrza valley, Poland

    • Abstract: Peat mineralisation leads to net loss of CO2 to the atmosphere, as well as to release of other elements from the decomposed soil organic matter (SOM) to groundwater. This results in the degradation of peat soils and the ecosystems they support. Here we evaluated the practical indicatory suitability of the existing and proposed new indices for the assessment of peat soil degradation in the Biebrza river valley encompassing, unique on European scale, peatland ecosystems. We studied relationships between soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (Ntot), dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) in a series of degraded peat soils in the Biebrza valley. Samples were taken from soils developed on peat deposits that varied in thickness and the degree of peat decomposition, from undegraded to highly mineralised peats. The relationships between changes in the SOC content and changes in the values of the remaining variables (SOM, Ntot, DOC, DON, C/N ratio), were statistically tested. Linear and non-linear regressions were used to establish the relationships amongst the variables examined. The losses of soil C and N occur independently and differ between stages of peat soil mineralisation. From our study, it results that the peat mineralisation intensity may be estimated based on the loss of SOC. We found that 1% loss of SOC corresponded to 1.028% loss of SOM, regardless of the degree of peat soil mineralisation, whereas SOM solubility, measured by the content of DOC, varied based on the intensity of peat soil mineralisation. The content of DOC decreased with the decrease in the SOC content, whereas the DOC/ SOC ratio increased depending on the intensity of peat decomposition. The C/N ratio is not a reliable indicator of peat mineralisation, because its values are driven not only by the nitrogen natively present in peat soils but also by nitrogen from external sources. The contents of SOC and Ntot did not decrease uniformly during peat decomposition because C and N show various mobility in the processes of SOM mineralisation. We found that the DOC/SOC ratio was most indicative of peat soil mineralisation intensity.© IOŚ-PIB
      PubDate: Fri, 28 Jun 2019 00:00:00 GMT
  • Carbon Leakage in the context of increasing the EU greenhouse gas emission
           reduction targets – the ways the EU and global emission behave and what
           influences its scale

    • Abstract: The lack of equal globally binding GHG’s emission reduction targets is currently leading to a set of diverging GHG’s emission prices across the world (or even no price for GHG’s emission in some regions). This may result in distortions with direct implications on competitiveness of the industries in regions with strict climate policies (as the European Union) and can cause the issue of carbon leakage. Carbon leakage is defined as ‘the increase in emission outside a region as a direct result of the policy to cap emission in this region’.This paper is the first part of the set of two analysis aiming at the carbon leakage assessment. In the following paper (aimed to be published this year), we will assess the impact of free allowances for emission intensive trade exposed industries (EITE) and the NDCs in the rest of the world countries – for the sake of brevity, we decided to remove these results from the current paper, but they will be presented later this year. The purpose of this paper is to assess the possible scale of the carbon leakage using different assumptions and policy scenarios and identify channels to efficiently prevent the carbon leakage phenomenon. The analysis has been carried out using the computable general equilibrium d-PLACE model developed within the Centre for Climate and Policy Analysis (CAKE). See:'lang=en Our model is a recursive dynamic multi-regional and multi-commodity tool in which emissions are modelled in great detail, for example, the process and each fossil fuel combustion related emission are modelled separately. Furthermore, the big advantage of the applied model is a very detailed modelling of EU ETS as well as non-ETS emission targets. In the paper, the simulations using two versions of model was presented – with and without endogenous technical change to elaborate on how the assumptions on technical change affect the modelling results and consequent scale of the carbon leakage. Moreover, this paper aims mainly at the assessment of different channels of carbon leakage; therefore, we do not take into account either NDCs in the rest of the world or free allowances for emission intensive trade exposed sectors. These problems will be handled in the next paper, aimed to be published later this year.Using the above mentioned CGE (computable general equilibrium model, we captured the main factors, that determine the carbon leakage rates. We assessed the contribution of three channels – demand channel, competitiveness channel and carbon intensity channel to the risk of carbon leakage. It turned out that carbon intensity channel and competitiveness channel are the most important, while demand channel contributes to changes in GHG’s emission only in the most restrictive scenario. Moreover, energy channel was further decomposed to the impact of sectoral structure and influence in emission intensity within each sector – the impact of these two channels is also similar, but dependent on the analysed scenario. Such a decomposition allowed us to determine the main channels through which the carbon leakage occur and pursue relevant policy recommendations.
      PubDate: Fri, 28 Jun 2019 00:00:00 GMT
  • Herpetofauna of the Podkielecki Landscape Protection Area

    • Abstract: The study was conducted in 2016-2017 in the Podkielecki Landscape Protection Area (area 26,485 ha). It was focused on the occurrence and distribution of amphibians and reptiles, the biology of the selected species and the existing threats.Established in 1995, the Podkielecki Landscape Protection Area surrounds the city of Kielce from the north, east and south-east, and adjoins several other protected areas. It covers the western part of the Świętokrzyskie Mountains (part of the Klonowskie and Masłowskie ranges) and the southern part of the Suchedniów Plateau. The studied area is mostly covered by forest and thicket communities (48.1%) and farmlands (39.9%), followed by built-up areas (7.8%), industrial areas (0.5%), roads and railways (2.7%), and surface water bodies (1%).The protected area is developed mainly on Palaeozoic rocks, including Cambrian and Ordovician sandstones, Silurian and Carboniferous shales, and Devonian marls. Podzolic soils predominate among soils. The largest rivers include Lubrzanka, Czarna Nida, Bobrza and Belnianka. There are no natural lakes within the PLPA limits, and the largest artificial reservoirs include the Cedzyna Reservoir, Morawica Reservoir, Suków Sandpit and two sedimentation reservoirs of the Kielce Power Plant. The area includes 2 nature reserves: Barcza and Sufraganiec.The following amphibian species were recognised during the investigations within the borders of the studied area: alpine newt Ichthyosaura alpestris Laur., great crested newt Triturus cristatus Laur., smooth newt Lissotriton vulgaris L., European fire-bellied toad Bombina bombina L., common spadefoot toad Pelobates fuscus Laur., common toad Bufo bufo L., natterjack toad Epidalea calamita Laur., European green toad Bufotes viridis Laur., European tree frog Hyla arborea L., pool frog Pelophylax lessonae Cam., edible frog Pelophylax esculentus L., marsh frog Pelophylax ridibundus Pall., moor frog Rana arvalis Nilss., and common frog Rana temporaria L. The reptiles were represented by sand lizard Lacerta agilis L., viviparous lizard Zootoca vivipara Jacquin, slow worm Anguis fragilis L., grass snake Natrix natrix L. and common European adder Vipera berus L. The study also included the phenology and breeding biology of the common toad and common frog.The most crucial herpetofauna conservation problems identified here include amphibians killed on roads by vehicles. The study area is intersected by very busy roads, in particular: European route no. E77, national roads nos. 73, 74 and S74, and regional roads nos. 745, 750 and 764. For this reason, future road reconstruction projects should consider the assembly of various crossing roads for wildlife, particularly on the 600 m long section of national road no. 74 near Cedzyna Reservoir. Other threats include illegal waste dumping, pollution of surface waters, fire setting, overgrowing and desiccation of small water bodies.© IOŚ-PIB
      PubDate: Fri, 28 Jun 2019 00:00:00 GMT
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