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 Surface Engineering and Applied ElectrochemistryJournal Prestige (SJR): 0.225 Citation Impact (citeScore): 1Number of Followers: 7      Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles) ISSN (Print) 1068-3755 - ISSN (Online) 1934-8002 Published by Springer-Verlag  [2469 journals]
• Implementation of the Nanostate Phenomenon in Materials Science of
Functional Nanocomposites Based on Industrial Polymers

Abstract: The conceptual directions of creating functional composites based on polymer matrices for metal–polymer systems are considered. An algorithm has been developed to develop a methodology for the implementation of the nanostate phenomenon in materials science and technology of composites and metal–polymer systems. The methodological principles of the implementation of the nanostate phenomenon in materials science and the technology of functional materials based on polymer matrices for metal–polymer systems with high performance characteristics are proposed.
PubDate: 2022-06-01

• Electrochemical Investigation of 4-Hydroxy n-[2-Methoxy Naphthalene
Methylidene] Benzohydrazide as Corrosion Inhibitor of Mild Steel in Acidic
Medium

Abstract: The corrosion rate of mild steel in hydrochloric acid and in sulphuric acid was determined by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in 0.5 M concentrations of HCl and of H2SO4 using 4-hydroxy n-[2-methoxy naphthalene methylidene] benzohydrazide (HNBH) as an inhibitor The inhibition efficiency of HNBH for the corrosion mitigation of mild steel was studied by varying the concentration of the inhibitor and temperature. It was found that the inhibition efficiency of HNBH increased with increase in the inhibitor concentration in both media. The maximum of 80% inhibition efficiency at the optimum inhibitor concentration of 2.5 × 10–4 M was achieved. However, with an increase in temperature, the inhibition efficiency decreased. The corrosion inhibition by HNBH took place through physisorption. The adsorption isotherm fitting with the experimental data was identified to find out the mechanism of inhibition. The results indicated that HNBH functions as mixed type inhibitor and follows the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The surface of the specimen was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy.
PubDate: 2022-06-01

• Analysis of Materials for a Working Dielectric of a Monoblock
Multifunctional High-Voltage Pulse Capacitor

Abstract: The analysis of dielectric materials that can be used as a working dielectric of a monoblock multifunctional high-voltage pulse capacitor is carried out. In particular, the properties of liquid dielectrics that can be used as an impregnating dielectric are considered. The properties of a polypropylene film, which is recommended for manufacturing capacitors with a high repetition rate of charges-discharges, are studied as well. Some recommendations are made for the use of dielectrics for the dielectric system of a monoblock multifunctional high-voltage pulse capacitor.
PubDate: 2022-06-01

• Electrodynamic Apparatuses for Solutions’ Concentration

Abstract: — This work is devoted to creating an energoefficient apparatus design for concentration solutions and the engineering methods of its calculation. The results of the complex studies of electrodynamic vacuum-evaporation apparatuses are presented. The scientific and technical concept of the directed energy action technology applicable to the electrodynamic apparatuses is substantiated. The system analysis is given for the energetics of the traditional dehydration equipment. The electric thermal energy method was used to determine their technologic and energy problems. The way these problems are solved in the electrodynamic apparatuses is shown. The physical scheme and mathematical model of the electrodynamic vacuum-evaporation apparatus of continuous operation are developed. Assumptions that take into account the evaporation specificity under the electromagnetic field are formulated. The system of differential equations establishing the interaction between the solution and electromagnetic field under vacuum is presented. The nonstationary model with the use of the methods of the similarity theory and “dimension analysis” was transformed into ratios in dimensionless alternatives. The experimental modeling problems were determined. The results of the complex experimental studies into the microwave vacuum-evaporation apparatuses are presented. The effects of electromagnetic field power, the type and concentration of solution, and the level of pressures on the evaporative capacity were determined. The constants of equation in the summarized alternatives that with an error within 8% establishes connection between the number of the energy action and dimensionless complexes, which characterize the technological parameters, are defined. The major results of this work are the design of the module of the vacuum microwave, continuously operating evaporation apparatus and the data of its bench-tests. It is shown that the created apparatus ensures the product concentration to 90 obrix at a temperature to 40oC and energy consumption to 2.7 MJ per 1 kg of evaporated moisture.
PubDate: 2022-06-01

• Protection Properties of Organosilane-Epoxy Coating on Al Alloy 6101 in
Alkaline Solution

Abstract: The mechanical property and the corrosion protection of organosilane-epoxy coating on Al alloy 6101 in an alkaline solution are studied. The evaluations include potentiodynamic polarization (PDP) measurements, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) studies, effective weight loss, water contact angle, peeling off test, surface adhesion and scratch tests, etc. It is concluded that the optimal ratio of organosilane-epoxy to toluene of the dipping solution is 1 : 4.5. The peeling off strength of this coating on Al alloy is 0.144 F/N, the critical load to scratch damage of the coating surface is 20.982 g, the water contact angle becomes 106°, and the inhibition efficiency of the coated Al in an alkaline solution of NaOH with pH 11 obtained from PDP measurements, EIS and effective weight loss tests show that the protection efficiency of this coating in the base solution reaches about 99% at the optimal ratio of organosilane-epoxy to toluene, which indicates the validity of the coating on this Al alloy.
PubDate: 2022-06-01

• A New Sensor Based on a La3+/Co3O4 Nanoflowers Modified Screen Printed
Electrode for a Sensitive Simultaneous Determination of Levodopa and
Tryptophan

Abstract: An electrochemical sensor for a sensitive determination of levodopa using La3+/Co3O4 nanoflowers has been developed and tested. The La3+/Co3O4 nanoflowers modified screen-printed electrode (La3+/Co3O4/SPE) delivers excellent electrocatalytic ability to the oxidation of levodopa. The electrochemical properties of the La3+/Co3O4/SPE for detecting levodopa were tested by cyclic voltammetry, differential pulse voltammetry (DPV), and chronoamperometry. The La3+/Co3O4/SPE detects low concentrations of levodopa. Under optimized conditions, DPV exhibited a linear dynamic range from 5.0–900.0 µM, with the detection limits of 1.5 µM for levodopa. Also, the modified electrode was utilized for the simultaneous determination of levodopa and tryptophan using DPV. Having a good sensing performance, the constructed electrochemical sensor showed a potential practical application in the quantitative analysis of levodopa and tryptophan in urine samples.
PubDate: 2022-06-01

• Corrosion Inhibition of Aluminum in 1.0 M HCl Solution Using Cystoseira
Myrica Extract

Abstract: Potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, mass loss, and hydrogen evolutions techniques were used to investigate the effect of the plant extract Cystoseira myrica as corrosion inhibitor for aluminum in 1 M HCl. All those measurements showed that the effectiveness of inhibition increased with an increase in the extract dose and in temperature. The inhibition efficiency of the extract reached 93.7% at 300 ppm, 25°C. Thermodynamic parameters of activation and adsorption were computed and discussed. Polarization curves showed that the extract studied behaves as mixed kind inhibitor. The Langmuir adsorption isotherm was obtained for the adsorption of the extract on the Al surface. Using the mass loss technique, it was revealed that adding KI enhances inhibitory efficiency from 77.3 to 91.6% owing to the synergistic effect. The surface analysis of aluminum was performed using different techniques. All other data approached were compatible and in line with each other.
PubDate: 2022-06-01

• Electrochemical Phase Formation in Metals under Low Force: Part 1.
Increase in the Density of Electrodeposits

Abstract: The existence of the phenomenon of the electrochemical phase formation in metals and alloys via a supercooled liquid state stage is further discussed. In order to experimentally verify the existence of the phenomenon in point, the density of metal deposits subjected to the action of a centrifugal force applied perpendicular to the crystallization front during the electrodeposition process was studied. For this purpose, an installation and electrochemical cells were developed and manufactured, which ensures of metals electrodeposition under the conditions of a low force impact, in the field of a centrifugal force, in particular. The performed experiments identified the effect of an increase in the density of metal deposits under a low force superimposed perpendicular to the crystallization front during the electrochemical phase formation. This effect was confirmed by a decrease in porosity and a decline in the intensity of the X-ray diffraction maxima from the metal electrodeposits obtained under the impact of the conditions mentioned above. The identified effect is another proof for the existence of the phenomenon under discussion.
PubDate: 2022-06-01

• Electrochemical Glucose Sensing Using Molecularly Imprinted
Polyaniline–Copper Oxide Coated Electrode

Abstract: Diabetes is a chronic condition in which the body cannot produce or effectively utilize the produced insulin. Insulin is a hormone that regulates the blood glucose level (BGL). The long-term increased BGL can have serious health effects. Time-based monitoring of BGL is necessary for diabetic patients to avoid severe health conditions. For this purpose, a non-enzymatic electrochemical sensor for the non-invasive detection of glucose was prepared and tested in the framework of this research. The sensor was developed by combining the features of a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) and the highly conductive nature of polyaniline (PANI) and copper oxide nanoparticles (CuONPs). The CuONPs were electrodeposited onto the bare graphite electrode in the presence of 1.8 M H2SO4 solution. Using aniline as the monomer in presence of 0.5 M H2SO4, the copper oxide-coated pencil graphite electrode was electropolymerized to obtain a non-imprinted polyaniline/copper oxide-coated graphite electrode. Glucose was added to the electrolytic solution for the preparation of a molecularly imprinted polymer electrode. Cyclic voltammetry and amperometry were used to characterize the electrochemical response of the modified electrode in the presence and in the absence of glucose, as well as the selectivity of the sensor towards glucose detection in the presence of the interfering species. The morphological characterization of the fabricated electrode was investigated using scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, 3D surface profilometry, X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, and goniometry. From the electrochemical and morphological characterization results, it was inferred that the modified graphite electrode possesses imprinted sites, which helps to increase selectivity towards glucose sensing.
PubDate: 2022-06-01

• On Realization Peculiarities of Electrostatic Instability of a Fluid’s
Charged Surface in Different Geometries

Abstract: — Peculiarities of the electrostatic instability realization of a fluid’s charged surface on the charged and uncharged drops’ vertices in an external electrostatic field in a cylindrical jet and a flat surface are studied. It was shown that the critical values of the electric charge surface density under the above conditions on the threshold instability realization are different in magnitude regardless of the phenomenological similarity. The reason presumably consists in the spatial change distinction (of the situations under consideration) of the electric field intensity in proximity of the growing emission projection during instability realization of the fluid’s charged surface. Equilibrium and nonequilibrium drops, jets, plane shapes, and their symmetry were discussed.
PubDate: 2022-06-01

• Functional Capabilities of Electromagnetic-Acoustic Transformations in
Current Mode in the Metal Melt

Abstract: The paper deals with a symmetric problem on the basis of physically substantiated estimates of the processes of electromagnetic-acoustic transformations (EMAT) of energy during the flow of an electric current through a melt and the key parameters of the open problem of the system “Power source parameters–Parameters of the magnetic field and magnetic pressure of the skin layer–Parameters of acoustic disturbances.” When formulating the EMAT problem in technological applications, it was shown that the key parameter is the geometry of the container with the object of processing and the material of the mold. When solving the problem, it is the parameter of the skin layer and the time dependence of the discharge current. It was established that the part of energy during the formation of the magnetic pressure in the skin layer from the amount of the energy stored in the capacitor bank of the pulse current generator is approximately 10–4–10–2. The value of this part depends on the period of the discharge current and is proportional to the $$\sqrt T$$ . When acoustic disturbances propagate in the melt, the main share of energy losses is determined by the difference in the acoustic rigidity of the melt and the shape of materials. The frequency spectra of the pressure of sound waves at the parameters selected for the analysis can cover the range of up to hundreds kHz, which is a good reason for the realization of resonance effects and the active formation of dissipative structures. Attention is focused on the fact that the EMAT effects are manifested in the melt not only under the influence of an acoustic field but also under that of an electromagnetic one in the skin layer. They are separated in time, but the acoustic field can occupy the entire volume of the melt and its effect is longer in time.
PubDate: 2022-06-01

• Study of Corrosion Behavior of Coatings Produced on Steel with
Electrospark Alloying Using a Hand High-Frequency Vibrator

Abstract: The comparative corrosion resistance in acidic, alkaline, and neutral environments of pure metals (steel, nickel, titanium) and of nickel and titanium coatings produced on steel using electrospark alloying with a high-frequency vibrator is investigated. It is established that the phase structure, roughness, and porosity of received coatings depend on the electrode material and on the modes of coating application that affect the corrosion behavior. A positive influence of the high-frequency alloying with nickel and titanium on an increase in the corrosion resistance of the steel surface is shown.
PubDate: 2022-04-01
DOI: 10.3103/S1068375522020041

• Initiation of Electrical Discharge in Water Using a Thin-Layer Conductor

Abstract: The results of experimental study of pressure waves produced during electrical discharges in water initiated with a thin-layer copper conductor in the form of a nylon thread coated with a thin copper layer are presented. The experiments are performed in two different modes that provide discharges of shorter and longer periods. Use of the thread with a thin copper layer is a promising approach to initiating electrical discharges in water because it allows the shorter prebreakdown stage, lower prebreakdown energy losses, spatially more stable discharges, and improved effectiveness of discharge impact. The amplitude of pressure waves produced during short electrical discharges is comparable to that observed when using a thin solid copper conductor for initiation, with the amplitude of generated pressure wave growing exponentially with the wire length: more than a twofold increase in the amplitude is observed as the wire length increases from 20 to 50 mm. Similarly, it is shown that the thread with thin copper layer has a good stability under the conditions prevailing during electrical discharges in water.
PubDate: 2022-04-01
DOI: 10.3103/S1068375522020120

• Possibilities and Prospects for Improving the Tribological Properties of
Titanium and Its Alloys by Electrospark Deposition

Abstract: This paper discusses the essence and technological characteristics of the process of electrospark deposition (ESD), its advantages and disadvantages with a view to its application for improving the tribological properties of titanium and its alloys. A summary of the available data and results in the literature devoted on the ESD of titanium and its alloys has been made. Based on the published data, a comparative analysis of the technical parameters and technological capabilities of the most common equipment, including contactless ESD, is presented. The geometrical and physico-mechanical characteristics of the coatings obtained with different equipment and the nature of their change depending on the technological parameters of the ESD mode and the type of the anode and cathode materials are shown. A summary of the data on the wear resistance of the coatings obtained with different electrode materials and modes are given. It has been demonstrated that ESD can be successfully applied to improve the wear resistance of titanium surfaces. Suitable electrode materials and process parameters for ESD on titanium alloys are indicated.
PubDate: 2022-04-01
DOI: 10.3103/S1068375522020090

• Peculiarities of the Evolution of Electrical Discharge Cavitation in a
Magnetic Field

Abstract: The article is devoted to studying the electrical discharge cavitation development in a liquid working medium (water, aqueous electrolytes) placed in an external magnetic field. The main stages of an electrical discharge in an aqueous medium under the influence of an external magnetic field on the discharge gap are considered. A theoretical analysis of the preconditions for the magnetic field’s influence on the development of an electrical discharge in aqueous media is implemented. The experimental data obtained using high-speed photographic recording and measuring the cavitation intensity by the iodometric method allowed the authors to propose a concept for controlling the electrical discharge cavitation processes by external magnetic fields.
PubDate: 2022-04-01
DOI: 10.3103/S1068375522020053

• Impact of Silica Concentration on the Calcium Phosphate-Based Composite
Coatings Prepared by Pulsed Co-Electrodeposition

Abstract: In this study, calcium phosphate/nano silica (CaP/SiO2) composite coatings with different concentrations of silica were developed on the pretreated titanium using pulsed co-electrodeposition to improve their biocompatibility. The scanning electron microscopy images showed that silica nano-particles could act as nucleators for the CaP crystals during electrodeposition; therefore, all composite coatings showed different morphologies, in comparison with the pure CaP one. Increasing the concentration of silica particles in bath to 1 g/L changed the morphology of the composite coatings from the clove-like structure to the sunflower-like one. Next, the composite coating obtained from the bath containing 1 g/L silica revealed poor coverability, and some uncoated areas were found on the surface of the pretreated titanium substrate. In addition, the results of cell culture test demonstrated that the coated areas were more biocompatible so that the fibroblast cells were only adhered onto the areas covered with the CaP-based coating.
PubDate: 2022-04-01
DOI: 10.3103/S106837552202003X

• Antimicrobial Activity of Silver Nanoparticles on Pseudomonas aeruginosa:
Influence of Particle Size Controlled through Mixed Current

Abstract: The antibacterial behaviour of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on polyurethane (PU) catheter substrate was demonstrated in the present study. The deposition of AgNPs on PU was developed using the electroless deposition method. Controlling the size of sliver particles on PU and analysing the usage of PU containing AgNPs as an effective antibacterial and antiviral candidate with minimal cytotoxic effects on the cells were the aim of this study. The superimposed partial anodic and cathodic polarization curves under respective parametric conditions were studied in order to control the size by using the mixed current value. The interaction of AgNPs-deposited PU with Pseudomonas aeruginosa caused a significant effect on the antibacterial activity. The AgNPs-deposited PU materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The deposited AgNPs were found to be agglomerated, but poly-dispersed and crystalline in nature. The average size of the deposited particles was around 48–1580 nm. P. aeruginosa produced an inhibition zone having a diameter in a range of 15.8–18.0 nm. The bacterial growth was suppressed in the presence of a lower agglomerated size of silver particles. These results conclusively proved the importance of the knowledge of role of the mixed current in electroless deposition to control the size and the deposited AgNPs on PU as antimicrobial agents/material for therapeutic purposes in medical applications.
PubDate: 2022-04-01
DOI: 10.3103/S1068375522020065

• Electrochemical Deposition of Zinc Sulfide from a Na2SO3-Based Electrolyte

Abstract: — Aspects of electrochemical deposition of zinc sulfide from an aqueous electrolyte based on sodium sulfite and zinc sulfate are addressed, and conditions for electrochemical synthesis of ZnS films are identified. The range of potentials for ZnS deposition is demonstrated to be limited by the potential at which the current reaches the critical value associated with diffusion-limited electrochemical reduction of the sulfite ion. The synthesized films are found to contain excess sulfur, which can be removed by thermal treatment to obtain stoichiometrically correct films. A reaction mechanism leading to the formation of zinc sulfide is proposed.
PubDate: 2022-04-01
DOI: 10.3103/S1068375522020028

• Enhancing the Electroplated Chromium Coating for Corrosion Protection of

Abstract: The effect of the addition of graphene oxide (GO) particles to the chromium electroplated coating on the surface of commercially pure aluminum (Al 1100) was studied in this paper. The synthesized coatings microhardness was characterized by the atomic force microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and the corrosion behavior was evaluated by using polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in the 3.5 wt % NaCl solution. The obtained Cr/GO nanocomposite shows remarkable improvement in the value of the surface microhardness, and the highest value achieved at the sample composed with 10 wt % of GO equals 1526 HV0.5. The results gained from polarization and electrochemical impedance microscopy demonstrated that the sample with the 5 wt % of GO has better corrosion resistance, which is due to the coating compactness and active galvanic couples.
PubDate: 2022-04-01
DOI: 10.3103/S1068375522020107

• Photoelectrocatalysis Response with Synthetic Mn–N–TiO2/Ti Electrode
for Removal of Rhodamine B Dye

Abstract: The photoelectrocatalytic (PEC) degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) organic dye using manganese (Mn)-nitrogen (N) doped titanium oxide (TiO2) electrode was investigated under two applied electrochemical modes such as cyclic voltammetry (CV) and linear-sweep voltammetry (LSV). The synergetic effect between light variation and photocurrent response demonstrated that the TiO2 thin films were active under the ultraviolet (UV) light illumination with a photocurrent value (Ipa) of 2.65 µA; meanwhile, the Mn–N–TiO2 was periodically activated under visible (Vis) light illumination with Ipa of 3.63 µA. In addition, the photolysis was evaluated to compare the degradation effect under varying light illuminations without catalyst with the PEC system. The good ability of TiO2 to degrade RhB under UV light was found with a percentage degradation value at 0.5 mg L–1 of 63%. In comparison, the Mn–N–TiO2 was activated under Vis light with 0.5 mg L–1 of 74.2%.
PubDate: 2022-04-01
DOI: 10.3103/S1068375522020077

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