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Showing 1 - 46 of 46 Journals sorted alphabetically
Accounts of Chemical Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63)
Acta Analytica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
American Journal of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 31)
Analitika i kontrol` (Analytics and control)     Open Access  
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Analytica Chimica Acta : X     Open Access  
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Analytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 238)
Analytical Chemistry Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Analytical Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Analytical Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Chemical Data Collections     Hybrid Journal  
Chinese Journal of Analytical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Composites Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Comprehensive Analytical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Current Analytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Drug Testing and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Electroanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Field Analytical Chemistry and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Polymer Analysis and Characterization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Analysis and Testing     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Analytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Essential Oil Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Progressive Research in Chemistry     Open Access  
Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Microchemical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Nature Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Nigerian Journal of Chemical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Opflow     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Pharmaceutical Analytical Chemistry: Open Access     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Phytochemical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Polish Journal of Chemical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Surface and Interface Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
TrAC Trends in Analytical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 46)
Trends in Environmental Analytical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Vibrational Spectroscopy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
World Journal of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
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Journal Cover
International Journal of Analytical Chemistry
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.285
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 21  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1687-8760 - ISSN (Online) 1687-8779
Published by Hindawi Homepage  [343 journals]
  • Evaluation of the Effects of Processing Technique on Chemical Components
           in Raphani Semen by HPLC and UPLC-Q-TOF-MS

    • Abstract: In this study, the effects of different processing techniques on the chemical components of Raphani Semen (RS) were evaluated. An established high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was adopted for the simultaneous determination of glucoraphanin, sinapine thiocyanate, raphanin, and erucic acid in the fried products of Raphani Semen to evaluate the chemical changes during frying processing as well as optimize the best frying technology of Raphani Semen. Then, the chemical components in the fried Raphani Semen were identified by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS). A total of 54 compounds in processed Raphani Semen were identified by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS. The results showed that the content of glucoraphanin and sinapine thiocyanate was the highest in the fried products at 130°C for 10 min, and the effect of “Enzyme Killing and Glycosides Preserving” was the best. Therefore, this condition was chosen as the best frying technology of Raphani Semen. This study provided a more scientific basis for evaluation of the quality of Raphani Semen fried products and optimization of the frying technology of Raphani Semen.
      PubDate: Tue, 04 Jan 2022 09:20:13 +000
  • Spectroscopic Determination of Fluoride Using Eriochrome Black T (EBT) as
           a Spectrophotometric Reagent from Groundwater

    • Abstract: Fluoride health problem is a great concern worldwide, most often as a result of groundwater intake. Thus, determination of fluoride is vital to take appropriate measures upon fluoride contamination of water. Potentiometric method of analysis is reliable for the determination of fluoride in various samples. In addition, spectroscopic methods are found important to quantify fluoride levels from water; however, several factors hinder its easier determination. Among the bottlenecks, the use of toxic chemicals and tedious steps in preparing chemicals (e.g., SPADNS method) are to mention a few. In this study, a spectrophotometric method was developed for the determination of fluoride from groundwater using Eriochrome Black T (EBT) as a spectroscopic reagent. Experimental parameters that influence the determination of fluoride including ligand type, kinetics, pH, and ligand-to-metal ratio were assayed. Evaluation of fluoride levels showed that Beer–Lambert’s law is obeyed in the range of 0.3–5.0 mg/L at 544 nm. The calibration curve, resulting in good linearity (R2 = 0.9997), was considered during quantitative analysis of the samples and in the spiking analysis. The limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) of the method were found to be 0.19 and 0.64 mg/L, respectively. The precision studied in terms of intraday and interday at three concentration levels showed less than 5.4% RSD. Applicability of the method was investigated by analyzing groundwater samples spiked with fluoride standards, and satisfactory recoveries in the range of 98.18–111.4 were demonstrated. The developed spectrophotometric method has been successfully applied for fluoride determinations in groundwater samples. Thus, it could be used as an attractive alternative for the determination of fluoride from groundwater.
      PubDate: Tue, 28 Dec 2021 11:20:05 +000
  • Study of the Catalytic Activity of the Compounds Hydrotalcite Type Treated
           by Microwave in the Self-Condensation of Acetone

    • Abstract: The self-condensation reaction of acetone, producing diacetone alcohol (DAA), is of great industrial importance. It was used to study the catalytic activity of Mg-Al catalysts synthesized by the coprecipitation method. For this purpose, we synthesized Mg-Al based hydrotalcite with a molar ratio of 3, obtained either after conventional heating or after microwave irradiation with of 100 W for three minutes. Structural and chemical properties of the obtained catalysts were characterized, using different techniques: X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), equipped with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), and specific surface area of the catalysts were determined by the methylene blue (MB) adsorption method. Also, these catalysts were tested in the self-condensation reaction of acetone at 273 K in the liquid phase without solvent, a reaction which requires very high catalytic activity. The microwave treatment improves the catalyst activity, and the conversion of acetone to diacetone alcohol increases from 13.2 to 18.3% after 8 h of reaction. Moreover, the microwave-treated hydrotalcite catalyst, calcined at 723 K and rehydrated under a flow of N2, is the most active and gives conversion of acetone of 52% under the same reaction conditions.
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Dec 2021 09:50:02 +000
  • Microdroplet Actuation via Light Line Optoelectrowetting (LL-OEW)

    • Abstract: Meanwhile, electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWOD) is a well-known phenomenon, even often exploited in active micro-optics to change the curvature of microdroplet lenses or in analytical chemistry with digital microfluidics (DMF, lab on a chip 2.0) to move/actuate microdroplets. Optoelectrowetting (OEW) can bring more flexibility to DMF because in OEW, the operating point of the lab chip is locally controlled by a beam of light, usually impinging onto the chip perpendicularly. As opposed to pure EWOD, for OEW, none of the electrodes has to be structured, which makes the chip design and production technology simpler; the path of any actuated droplet is determined by the movement of the light spot. However, for applications in analytical chemistry, it would be helpful if the space both below as well as that above the lab chip were not obstructed by any optical components and light sources. Here, we report on the possibility to actuate droplets by laser light beams, which traverse the setup parallel to the chip surface and inside the OEW layer sequence. Since microdroplets are grabbed by this surface-parallel, nondiverging, and nonexpanded light beam, we call this principle “light line OEW” (LL-OEW).
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Dec 2021 07:35:01 +000
  • Synthesis, Optimization, and Characterization of Ecofriendly Production of
           Gold Nanoparticles Using Lemon Peel Extract

    • Abstract: This study examines the importance of utilizing green synthesis using lemon peel for gold nanoparticles over other chemicals since it is environmentally friendly, available, and cheap. Several parameters were optimized to ensure the extraction of the GNPs concentration of lemon peels using HAuCl4 and lemon peel extract having a ratio of 2 : 1. For the optimum result, the ratio used was 2 : 1. The gold nanoparticles fabrication happened in 10 minutes. The initial observation was the color change of the solution. The UV-visibility spectroscopic studies are performed to confirm the result. The experiments are done concurrently to ensure the solution is mixed on the proper ratio. The GNP is also characterized by the different techniques in their sizes and electronic transmission microscopy, essential in extracting gold nanoparticles. Other elements of the composition are removed by the EDAX methods, the FTIR method, and the TEM methods, all of which reveal the real reason behind the required extraction capacity. Most gold nanoparticles show a maximum absorption rate at the peak of 535 to 579 nm. The result obtained from the TEM and the SEM analysis revealed that the grain size is analogized to the average size of 6.67 nm. With a simple synthesis of the price, some processes show that the medically available nanoparticles are necessary. The used method in this paper to fabricate GNPs is cheap, easy, fast, and sustainable and it can be done with ease in any laboratory.
      PubDate: Mon, 13 Dec 2021 10:50:02 +000
  • Rapid Simultaneous Determination of 43 Pesticide Residues in Schizonepeta
           tenuifolia by Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry

    • Abstract: A simple, fast, and reliable method was established for simultaneous determination of 43 pesticides in Schizonepeta tenuifolia. The samples were prepared using solid-phase extraction (SPE) method. Pesticides were extracted from Schizonepeta tenuifolia using acetonitrile, cleaned with Pesticarb/NH2, and eluted by mixed solvents of acetonitrile and toluene (3 : 1, v/v). Selected pesticides were identified using DB-35MS capillary column and detected by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Samples were quantified by external standard method. Recoveries for the majority of pesticides at spike levels of 0.2, 0.5, and 1 mg kg−1 ranged between 70 and 120% (except for Chlorothalonil, Thiamethoxam, and Dicofol), and the relative standard deviations (RSDs n = 6) were 1.32%–13.91%. Limits of detection (LODs) were 0.0011–0.0135 mg kg−1, whereas limits of quantification (LOQs) were 0.0038–0.0451 mg kg−1. The satisfactory accuracy and precision, in combination with a good separation and few interferences, have demonstrated the strong potential of this technique for its application in Schizonepeta tenuifolia analysis.
      PubDate: Mon, 13 Dec 2021 06:20:02 +000
  • Standardization and Quality Control of the Herbal Medicine Mist Nibima,
           Employed to Treat Malaria and COVID-19, Using Physicochemical and
           Organoleptic Parameters and Quantification of Chemical Markers via

    • Abstract: Mist Nibima is an essential herbal medicine used to treat malaria, bacterial, yeast, and COVID-19 infections. However, the drug has not been standardized and its active chemical ingredients are also not known. This study employed physicochemical, organoleptic, qualitative, and quantitate phytochemical analysis to established standards for Mist Nibima. Additionally, UHPLC was used to quantify the alkaloid cryptolepine in the drug using calibration curve. The chemical ingredients in Mist Nibima were thereafter characterized using UHPLC-MS. Organoleptic evaluation shows that Mist Nibima is a very bitter, cloudy, broom yellow decoction with the following physicochemical parameters: pH = 6.10 ± 0.08 (at 28.3°C), total solid residue = 5.34 ± 0.27%w/v, and specific gravity = 1.0099 ± 0.0000. The total alkaloid (23.71 ± 1.311%) content of the drug is 3 times its total saponins (7.993 ± 0.067%) content. Methyl cryptolepinoate (37.10%), cryptolepine (33.56%), quindoline (20.78%), 11-isopropylcryptolepine (5.16%), and hydroxycryptolepine (3.14%) were the active chemical ingredients in the drug with the concentrations of 18.64 ± 0.255, 16.85 ± 0.231, 10.42 ± 0.143, 2.56 ± 0.034, and 1.70 ± 0.023 µg/mL, respectively. Administration of a single oral therapeutic dose (30 mL) of Mist Nibima corresponds to ingestion of 559.2 ± 7.662, 505.5 ± 6.930, 312.6 ± 4.285, 76.8 ± 1.028, and 51.0 ± 0.699 µg of methyl cryptolepinoate, cryptolepine, quindoline, 11-isopropylcryptolepine, and hydroxycryptolepine, respectively. This translates into a corresponding daily dose of 1677.6 ± 22.986, 1516.5 ± 20.790, 937.8 ± 12.855, 230.4 ± 3.084, and 153.0 ± 2.097 µg of methyl cryptolepinoate, cryptolepine, quindoline, 11-isopropylcryptolepine, and hydroxycryptolepine. These results could now serve as tools for authentication, standardization, and quality control of Mist Nibima to ensure its chemical and pharmacological consistency and safety.
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Dec 2021 06:05:01 +000
  • Antioxidant Activity In Vitro Guided Screening and Identification of
           Flavonoids Antioxidants in the Extract from Tetrastigma hemsleyanum Diels
           et Gilg

    • Abstract: This study aimed to investigate the extract with high antioxidant activity of Tetrastigma hemsleyanum Diels et Gilg and identify the antioxidant components in vitro. α, α-Diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical assay, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and hydroxyl radical scavenging method were used to screen the extract with high antioxidant activity. The antioxidant capacity of the extracts was evaluated by the free radical scavenging ability of DPPH. The ability of extracts to scavenge 2, 2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) free radical was evaluated by TEAC assay. The FRAP method was used to evaluate the ability of extracts to reduce Fe3+. The ability to scavenge hydroxyl radicals produced by the interaction of hydrogen peroxide and Fe2+ was measured by monitoring the change in the absorbance of the reaction mixture at 536 nm. Then, high-performance liquid chromatography-DPPH (HPLC-DPPH) and HPLC-hydroxyl radical scavenging methods were used to screen the antioxidant components in the extract. The molecular weight of the above antioxidant components was investigated using the qualitative analytical method of high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-Q-TOF LC/MS). Based on the concentrations of the samples (0.2–4 mg/mL), the DPPH free radical scavenging ability, ABTS+ free radical scavenging ability, hydroxyl free radical scavenging ability, and Fe3+ reducing ability of the ethyl acetate extract (EAE) were stronger than that of the crude extract (CE), petroleum ether extract (PEE), and n-butanol extract (BE). The EAE has higher antioxidant activity than CE, PEE, and BE. Six antioxidant components, rutin, quercetin, isoquercetin, astragalin, kaempferol, and kaempferol-3-o-rutoside, were identified in the EAE.
      PubDate: Tue, 23 Nov 2021 11:20:00 +000
  • Simultaneous Determination of Amphenicols and Metabolites in
           Animal-Derived Foods Using Ultrahigh-Performance Liquid
           Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    • Abstract: Amphenicols are widely used to prevent and treat animal diseases. However, amphenicol residues accumulate in livestock and poultry and harm consumers. We hypothesized that one can combine solid-phase extraction (SPE) with ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) to simultaneously determine amphenicols and metabolites in pork, beef, lamb, chicken, and their products and meet government regulations for maximum residue limits. We extracted crude samples with ethyl acetate and ammonia water (98:2, v/v), purified the samples with a CNW Si SPE column, defatted the samples with acetonitrile-saturated n-hexane, and then determined the resulting analytes by UHPLC-MS/MS. The limit of detection of the analytes in livestock and poultry meat was 0.03–1.50 μg/kg, and the limit of quantification was 0.05–5.00 μg/kg. Measured chloramphenicol, thiamphenicol, and florfenicol concentrations were linear over the range 0.50–50 μg/kg; and the florfenicol amine concentration was linear over the range 5.00–200 μg/kg (all with correlation coefficients >0.9990). The recovery of the spiked samples was between 72% and 120%. The intraday relative standard deviation (RSD) ranged from 1% to 9%, and the interday RSD ranged from 1% to 12%. Based on the above results, the current method is sensitive, accurate, and reproducible with the detection limits being well below the maximum residue limits as per Chinese standard GB 31650-2019, and thus, our research hypothesis could be confirmed.
      PubDate: Wed, 03 Nov 2021 05:35:01 +000
  • Optimization of Residual Hexane in Edible Oils Analysis Using Static
           Headspace Gas Chromatography

    • Abstract: This study aims to determine the residual hexane in four edible oils in Malaysia using a simple, rapid, and automated method in order to improve the efficiency and productivity of the analysis. Gas chromatography (GC/FID) equipped with a headspace autosampler (HS-20) was used to perform the analysis. Incubation time for each injection was successfully optimized from one hour to 30 minutes (50% reduction) compared to the official AOCS method Ca 3b-87. Out of the four tested edible oils, only the hexane residues detected in sunflower oil exceeded the maximum residue limit (MRL) set by the European Union regulation. Significant difference of the results obtained between large calibration range (0–938 mg kg−1) and small calibration range (0–68 mg kg−1) suggests that there is a need to use a lower standard calibration concentration to avoid misinterpretation of analysis results. Method validation applies to the technical hexane; 2-methylpentane, 3-methylpentane, cyclohexane, and methylcyclopentane, the signal-to-noise (S/N), as well as the limit of quantification (LoQ) values was found to be 218.20, 221.45, 746.37, 97.37 and 0.85, 0.84, 0.25, 1.93 mg kg−1, respectively. Good linearity, repeatability, and low carryover of this method have provided an alternative way to analyze the content of the residual hexane in edible oils in a more efficient manner. Current study might provide a fundamental reference for the improvement of the AOCS official Ca 3b-87 method for determination of hexane residues in fats and oils analysis in the future.
      PubDate: Fri, 29 Oct 2021 07:35:02 +000
  • Electrospun Membrane for the Extraction of Acrylamide in Pet Food Samples

    • Abstract: A simple microextraction procedure was developed using an electrospun nanostructured membrane to determine acrylamide in pet food samples. Polyvinyl chloride, polyvinyl alcohol, and polyvinyl alcohol/hydroxyethyl cellulose electrospun membranes were prepared and investigated as a sorbent to extract acrylamide. The characterization of the synthesized electrospun membrane was accomplished using field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). FESEM images showed uniform morphology and beadless nanofibers. Quantification was done by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. A series of microextraction parameters were optimized before quantitative analysis of dry pet food samples. The calibration curve exhibited good linearity with a correlation coefficient of 0.996 across a 1–100 μg/kg concentration range. The recovery of acrylamide for pet food samples spiked with 5 and 10 μg/kg was in the range of 79.6–113.9 (n = 3). The intraday precision of the method was less than 12% for three replicated real spiked samples at the 5 μg/kg level. The results demonstrated that the electrospun nanostructured membrane has good extraction selectivity and minimal matrix effect with an enrichment factor of 180-fold.
      PubDate: Fri, 22 Oct 2021 06:20:01 +000
  • Determination of Dabigatran Concentration in Human Plasma and Breast Milk

    • Abstract: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is an important cause of death following childbirth. Dabigatran etexilate can be a useful prophylaxis in susceptible women during the postpartum period. However, it is not clear whether dabigatran is excreted into breast milk in amounts which can be harmful to the suckling baby. We have developed an accurate, sensitive, and specific assay for the quantitation of dabigatran in both human plasma and breast milk. This is particularly useful for the determination of the extent by which dabigatran is secreted into breast milk in relation to its systemic availability. Dabigatran was enriched from both matrices using solid-phase extraction prior to separation on a C8-RPLC column and detection using SRM on a QqTrap mass spectrometer. The assay was validated for specificity, sensitivity, linearity, precision, accuracy, and stability of the analyte in human plasma and breast milk. The lower limit of detection for dabigatran was 20 pg/ml in plasma and 75 pg/ml in breast milk. This assay will aid future studies for the measurement of dabigatran concentrations in human breast milk to help determine if dabigatran etexilate can safely be administered to breast-feeding women.
      PubDate: Fri, 22 Oct 2021 06:05:01 +000
  • Formulation and development of Serratiopeptidase enteric coated tablets
           and analytical method validation by UV Spectroscopy

    • Abstract: Serratiopeptidase (SRP) is a proteolytic enzyme that emerged as one of the most potent anti-inflammatory and analgesic drugs. The purpose of the present study was to formulate and evaluate enteric-coated tablets for SRP and investigate their stability using a simple and validated analytical method by ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy. The colloidal silicon dioxide (2.50%), sodium starch glycolate (3.44%), and crospovidone (2.50%) were used as appropriate excipients for the development of core part of tablets. To protect the prepared tablets from acidic environment in the stomach, white shellac, castor oil, HPMC phthalate 40, and ethyl cellulose were used. The seal coating and enteric coating attained were 2.75% and 6.74%, respectively. SRP was found to be linear at 265 nm in the concentration range of 25–150 µg/mL. The results revealed that our developed method was linear (R2 = 0.999), precise (RSD % = 0.133), and accurate (% recovery = 99.96–103.34). The formulated SRP tablets were found to be stable under accelerated conditions as well as under room temperature for 6 months (assay %: >97.5%). The in vitro drug release study demonstrated that enteric-coated tablets were able to restrict SRP release in both acidic environments: 0.1 N HCl and simulated gastric fluid (pH 1.2). Moreover, at 60 minutes, the formulated SRP tablets revealed 13.0% and 8.98% higher drug release in phosphate buffer (pH 6.8) and simulated intestinal fluid (pH 6.8), respectively, compared to the marketed tablet formulation. This study concludes that enteric-coated tablets of SRP with higher drug release in the intestine can be prepared and examined for their stability using validated analytical technique of UV spectroscopy.
      PubDate: Tue, 19 Oct 2021 06:05:00 +000
  • Chromatographic Fingerprinting Based on Column Switching Technology for
           Quality Evaluation of Tianmeng Oral Liquid

    • Abstract: Separation power was limited when the conventional high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprinting method based on a single column was used to analyze very complex traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) preparations. In this research, a novel HPLC fingerprinting method based on column switching technology by using a single pump was established for evaluating the quality of Tianmeng oral liquid (TMOL). Twelve batches of TMOL samples were used for constructing HPLC fingerprints. Compared with the 16 common peaks in fingerprinting with a single column, 25 common peaks were achieved with two columns connected through a six-way valve. The similarity analysis combined with bootstrap method was applied to determine the similarity threshold, which was 0.992 to distinguish expired samples and unexpired samples. Principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) were also applied to classify the TMOL samples, and results revealed that expired and unexpired samples are classified into two categories. The HPLC fingerprinting based on column switching technology with better separation power and higher peak capacity could characterize chemical composition information more comprehensively, providing an effective and alternative method to control and evaluate the quality of TMOL, which would offer a valuable reference for other TCM preparations.
      PubDate: Wed, 29 Sep 2021 06:50:01 +000
  • Determination of Carrageenan in Livestock and Poultry Meat by
           Ultrahigh-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    • Abstract: Ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) has become the main method for the detection and analysis of food additives because of its good separation, high selectivity, and high sensitivity. The aim of this study was to establish an UHPLC-MS/MS method that can quickly and accurately measure the content of carrageenan in livestock and poultry meat. Chromatographic separation was performed on an ACQUITY UPLC BEH HILIC C18 column (2.1 mm × 50 mm, 1.7 μm) using a gradient elution with methanol and 0.1% (v/v) formic acid in water as a mobile phase. The quantitative analysis was executed using a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer in which electrospray ionization, multiple reaction monitoring, and negative mode were operated. The retention time was about 1.3 min for carrageenan. The carrageenan content showed a good linear relationship from 0.05 to 1.00 g/kg. The limit of detection (LOD) was 0.06 g/kg, and the limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.18 g/kg. The standards were spiked at three levels (low, medium, and high) and were analyzed in six replicates. The recovery values of carrageenan in pork, beef, lamb, chicken, and duck meat were 82.06–111.55%, 85.43–112.50%, 89.55–116.00%, 83.80–102.15%, and 82.41–110.90%, respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) were all lower than 7.51%. The developed method shows a high recovery rate and good precision and can be used for the rapid detection of carrageenan in livestock and poultry meat.
      PubDate: Sat, 25 Sep 2021 05:35:01 +000
  • Proximate Analysis of Poultry-Mix Formed Feed Using Maize Bran as a Base

    • Abstract: The purpose of this research was to demonstrate the proximate analysis of poultry-mix made using maize bran as a basis. Red beans, soya beans, and benny beans were the three samples utilised in this study. This work investigates the appropriate poultry mix for birds breed for meat and egg. Thirty grammes of proteinous feedstock were weighed and homogeneously combined with 70 grammes of maize bran. The following was revealed in a proximate analysis of the feeds: moisture ranged from 1.18% to 1.54%, unrefined lipids 0.99–3.08%, total carbohydrate 57% to 72%, ash content 38.48% to 38.92%, unrefined protein 18.38% to 22.53% and unrefined fiber 2.0% to 4.65% respectively for broilers and layers. In terms of nutritional concentrations, all feed samples showed a substantial variation. Based on the findings of the study, it can be stated that Soya bean-maize bran is an excellent poultry-mix formulation that has deep well-disposed benefits and meets nearly all nutritional needs for meat and egg-producing birds.
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Sep 2021 06:50:01 +000
  • Simultaneous and Rapid Determination of Six Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors in
           Patients with Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Using HPLC-MS/MS

    • Abstract: Objective. To develop a new method for quantitatively analyzing six tyrosine kinase inhibitors (gefitinib, erlotinib, icotinib, afatinib, osimertinib, and crizotinib) used in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Methods. The analytes were detected in the selected reaction monitoring mode on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer with the positive ionization mode. Carbamazepine was utilized as the internal standard. The pretreatment of the plasma sample was completed based on protein precipitation with acetonitrile, and the analytes were separated on an Agilent Zorbax SB-C18 reversed-phase column (2.1 mm × 100 mm, 3.5 μm, Agilent, USA) using gradient elution. The mobile phase consisted of 0.1% formic acid in water (phase A) and 0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile (phase B). The flow rate was 0.3 mL/min, and the injection volume was 5 μL. The column temperature was set and maintained at 35°C. Results. The calibration curves were linear over the range from 5.0 to 1000.0 ng/mL for gefitinib, crizotinib, and osimertinib; from 50.0 to 4000.0 ng/mL for icotinib and erlotinib; and from 5.0 to 400.0 ng/mL for afatinib. Linear correlation coefficients were >0.990 for all regression curves. The intra- and interday accuracy and precision of the method were within ±15.0% and not more than 15.0%, respectively. The mean recovery of all the analytes ranged from 70.18% to 110.76%, the matrix effect was from 88.85% to 127.58%, and stability was within ±15.0%. Conclusion. This newly developed method was sensitive, simple, and robust and could be used in therapeutic drug monitoring of six tyrosine kinase inhibitors in NSCLC patients.
      PubDate: Fri, 17 Sep 2021 06:35:02 +000
  • Identification and Simultaneous Determination of the Main Toxical
           Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids in a Compound Prescription of Traditional Chinese
           Medicine: Qianbai Biyan Tablet

    • Abstract: Qianbai biyan tablet (QT) is a compound prescription of traditional Chinese medicine which is used to treat nasal congestion, rhinitis, and nasosinusitis, with Senecio scandens as its main plant material. Several pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) were reported in Senecio scandens and others of Senecio species. Although Senecio scandens is assigned as the legal plant material of QT, whether replaced use of it by other Senecio plants can bring toxicity is unknown because of the lack of quantitative data about toxic PAs between different Senecio species. In the present study, adonifoline, senkirkine, and another PA presumed as emiline have been identified in QT; however, there was no senecionine detected in all tablets. PA contents in QTs varied in different companies and different batches. Adonifoline existed only in Senecio scandens, and senecionine was detected in all eight Senecio plants investigated in the present study. Data showed that replaced use of Senecio scandens with a low level of senecionine by other Senecio plants such as Senecio vulgaris containing a high level of senecionine is advertised to be forbidden. Data of the present study may be used as a reference to make new drug quality regularity and recommendation guideline for the safety of QT.
      PubDate: Thu, 09 Sep 2021 10:35:01 +000
  • Novel Trends in Electrochemical Biosensors for Early Diagnosis of
           Alzheimer’s Disease

    • Abstract: Background. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a multifactorial progressive and irreversible neurodegenerative disorder affecting mainly the population over 65 years of age. It is becoming a global health and socioeconomic problem, and the current number of patients reaching 30–50 million people will be three times higher over the next thirty years. Objective. Late diagnosis caused by decades of the asymptomatic phase and invasive and cost-demanding diagnosis are problems that make the whole situation worse. Electrochemical biosensors could be the right tool for less invasive and inexpensive early diagnosis helping to reduce spend sources— both money and time. Method. This review is a survey of the latest advances in the design of electrochemical biosensors for the early diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease. Biosensors are divided according to target biomarkers. Conclusion. Standard laboratory methodology could be improved by analyzing a combination of currently estimated markers along with neurotransmitters and genetic markers from blood samples, which make the test for AD diagnosis available to the wide public.
      PubDate: Thu, 02 Sep 2021 06:05:02 +000
  • Chemical and Antimicrobial Analyses of Juniperus chinensis and Juniperus
           seravschanica Essential Oils and Comparison with Their Methanolic Crude

    • Abstract: Juniperus chinensis and Juniperus seravschanica are commonly used in the traditional folk medicine to treat microbial infection. In this study, the essential oils obtained from the leaves of J. chinensis growing in Malaysia and J. seravschanica growing in Oman were analysed by head space-solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) and screened for antimicrobial activities against Escherichia coli (NCTC 10418), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (NCTC 10662), Bacillus subtilis ATCC6059, Micrococcus luteus (ATCC 9341), Staphylococcus aureus (NCTC 6571), and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA; ATCC 33591). To compare the antimicrobial activities of extracts using different extraction methods, methanol extraction was performed to obtain crude extracts from the leaves of J. chinensis and J. seravschanica for antimicrobial analysis. The HS-SPME-GS-MS analysis of the essential oils from the leaves of J. chinensis and J. seravschanica identified 37 and 36 components, respectively. Essential oils from these two species had distinctive chemical component profiles, with α-pinene (27.2%) as the major component of J. chinensis essential oil, while dl-limonene (45.2%) constitutes the major component of J. seravschanica essential oil. Essential oils of these two species shared only six similar terpenoids compounds: α-pinene, β-pinene, γ-elemene, sabinene, elemol, and 3-cyclohexen-1-ol. Overall, the essential oils showed antimicrobial activities against all the six bacterial strains tested, with the highest antagonistic activity against M. luteus and B. cereus; while, methanolic crude extracts showed the highest activities against S. aureus and MRSA strains. The methanolic crude extracts demonstrated significantly higher antibacterial activity against the Gram-positive bacteria (); while, the essential oils of Juniperus did not show significant differences between Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Future studies are needed to investigate the active compounds present in the essential oils and methanolic crude extracts that confer the selectivity in the antimicrobial activity.
      PubDate: Mon, 30 Aug 2021 09:05:01 +000
  • A Rapid Screening Method for Sibutramine Hydrochloride in Natural Herbal
           Medicines and Dietary Supplements

    • Abstract: Herbal weight loss drugs are becoming more widely used in the fight against obesity, but ineffective regulation of these products have resulted in harmful additives. These products may contain adulterants such as sibutramine hydrochloride that may result in serious adverse health events including death. This work established a color precipitation reaction-based rapid screening method for illegal adulteration of sibutramine hydrochloride in natural herbal medicines (NHM) and dietary supplements (DS). While a variety of chromatography- and electrophoresis-based systems have been reported to measure this analyte, they generally suffer from high costs, complicated sample preparation, and a costly analytical infrastructure. In contrast, we present a simple, handheld kit to assay for sibutramine. The performance metrics of this tool include an average detection time of approximately 3 minutes, which is markedly shorter than conventional methods (HPLC or HPLC-MS, etc.), a detection limit of 0.1 mg per aliquot, and an accuracy of 99.02% (n = 820). More strikingly, the sensitivity is 100% (n = 278), and the specificity is 98.52% (n = 542). The rapid test kit developed from this screening method was evaluated by FDA. In summary, this screening method is a rapid, simple, and low-cost tool for the detection of sibutramine in NHM and DS with superior selectivity and sensitivity. For these reasons, this method is especially suitable for underdeveloped settings because it can be employed onsite without any instrumentation. In addition, this approach could rapidly exclude most of the negative samples to boost efficiency in large-scale samples assay. If necessary, positive samples can undergo further alternate testing methods to confirm the positive results of sibutramine hydrochloride content.
      PubDate: Thu, 26 Aug 2021 06:35:04 +000
  • Evaluation of Neuraminidase Inhibitory Activity of Compounds and Extracts
           from Traditional Medicines by HPLC-FLD

    • Abstract: A simple and effective method was established and validated to determine 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU) for screening the natural neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) from traditional medicines (TMs) by high performance liquid chromatography combined with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD). 4-MU and TMs compounds were separated on a Hedera TM ODS column (5 μm, 4.6 × 250 mm) using an isocratic elution of 55% methanol at 35°C. The flow rate was 1 mL min−1. The excitation and emission wavelength were performed at 320 nm and 480 nm. Some extracts of TMs and compounds were selected as examples to demonstrate the feasibility of the new HPLC-FLD method. It was found that the results of most compounds except for the auto fluorescence substances determined by HPLC-FLD were in good agreement with NA enzyme-based inhibitory assays. Comparing to traditional NA enzyme-based inhibitory assays, the HPLC-FLD method could prevent interference from fluorescence pigments of compounds. It was considered a simple, effective, and economical technique for the screening the natural neuraminidase inhibitors from traditional medicines.
      PubDate: Wed, 25 Aug 2021 06:35:02 +000
  • Synthesis of Zearalenone Immunogen and Comparative Analysis of Antibody

    • Abstract: Background. This study aimed to explore the zearalenone (ZEN) immunogen synthesis method, immunogenicity, and antibody characteristics and to lay a foundation for the establishment of immunoassay methods for ZEN single residue and ZEN and its analogs total residue. Methods. Based on the molecular structure and active sites of ZEN, oxime active ester (OAE), condensation mixed anhydride (CMA), formaldehyde (FA), and 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether method (BDE) were designed and used for immunogen (ZEN-BSA) synthesis. The immunogens were identified by infrared (IR) and ultraviolet (UV) spectra and gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and were then used to immunize Balb/c mice to prepare ZEN polyclonal antibody (ZEN pAb). The titers and sensitivity of the ZEN pAb were determined by indirect noncompetitive ELISA (inELISA) and indirect competitive ELISA (icELISA), respectively, and its specificity was assessed by the cross-reaction test (CR). Results. ZEN-BSA was successfully synthesized, and the molecular binding ratios of ZEN to BSA were 17.2 : 1 (OAE), 14.6 : 1 (CMA), 9.7 : 1 (FA), and 8.3 : 1 (BDE), respectively. The highest inELISA titers of ZEN pAb of each group were 1 : (6.4 × 103) (OAE), 1 : (3.2 × 103) (CMA), 1 : (1.6 × 103) (FA), and 1 : (1.6 × 103) (BDE), respectively. The 50% inhibition concentrations (IC50) for ZEN by icELISA of each group were 11.67 μg/L (OAE), 16.29 μg/L (CMA), 20.92 μg/L (FA) and 24.36 μg/L (BDE), respectively. ZEN pAb from the mice immunized with ZEN-BSA (OAE) and ZEN-BSA (CMA) had class broad specificity to ZEN and its analogs. The CRs of ZEN pAb with α-ZAL, β-ZAL, α-ZOL, β-ZOL, and ZON were 36.53%, 16.98%, 64.33%, 20.16%, and 10.66%, respectively. ZEN pAb from the mice immunized with ZEN-BSA (FA) and ZEN-BSA (BDE) had high specificity for ZEN. The CRs of ZEN pAb with its analogs were all less than 1.0%. Conclusion. This study demonstrated that the preparation of the class broad-specificity antibodies of ZEN and its analogs can be achieved by immunizing animals with the immunogen ZEN-BSA prepared by the OAE method, while the preparation of highly specific antibodies can be achieved by immunizing animals with the immunogen ZEN-BSA prepared by the FA method. These findings lay the material and technical foundation for immunoassay of ZEN single residue and ZEN and its analogs total residue.
      PubDate: Mon, 26 Jul 2021 11:20:01 +000
  • Comparison of Essential Oils of Houttuynia cordata Thunb. from Different
           Processing Methods and Harvest Seasons Based on GC-MS and Chemometric

    • Abstract: Houttuyniae Herba (HH) refers to the dried aerial part of Houttuynia cordata Thunb. (DHC) or the fresh whole grass of Houttuynia cordata Thunb. (FHC), where DHC are harvested in summer and FHC around the year. However, harvest seasons and processing methods (i.e., medicinal parts and drying process) might affect the quality of HH. To compare the essential oils (EOs) of DHC and FHC and their two harvest seasons, GC-MS analysis combined with chemometric analysis was applied. The results showed that the oil yield of FHC (0.076 ± 0.030%) was higher than that of DHC (0.038 ± 0.029%), and oil yield was higher in summer than in autumn (0.044 ± 0.029% for DHC1, 0.036 ± 0.028% for DHC2, 0.084 ± 0.026% for FHC1, and 0.067 ± 0.033% for FHC2, respectively). Moreover, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) successfully distinguished the chemical constituents of DHC and FHC oils. Additionally, according to orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA), eleven components were selected as chemical markers for discriminating DHC and FHC, and two and four chemical markers for discriminating two harvest seasons of DHC and FHC, respectively. Among these markers, the average contents of α-pinene, limonene, β-phellandrene, α-terpineol, 4-tridecanone, and ethyl decanoate were higher in FHC oils. In contrast, the average contents of nonanal, 1-nonanol, β-cyclocitral, n-hexadecanoic acid, and octadecanol were higher in DHC oils. Additionally, the contents of 4-tridecanone and ethyl decanoate were both higher in DHC1 oils than in DHC2 oils. Moreover, the contents of β-myrcene and β-phellandrene were higher in FHC1 oils, while the contents of 2,6-octadien-1-ol, 3,7-dimethyl-, acetate, and (z)-phytol were higher in FHC2 oils. For these reasons, this study provides a scientific basis for quality control and clinical medication.
      PubDate: Sat, 17 Jul 2021 04:35:01 +000
  • Phytochemical Composition, Antioxidant, Antiacetylcholinesterase, and
           Cytotoxic Activities of Rumex crispus L.

    • Abstract: Rumex crispus L. (R. crispus) is regarded as an aromatic plant. It was used for its excellent biological properties in traditional medicine. The aerial part was extracted successively by maceration with three solvents increasing polarity (cyclohexane (CYH), dichloromethane (DCM), and methanol (MeOH)) to evaluate their chemical compositions and biological activities. The extracts were rich in phenolic compounds (13.0 to 249.8 mg GAE/g of dry weight (dw)). The MeOH extract has presented remarkable IC50 = 6.2 μg/mL for anti-DPPH and 31.6 μg/mL for anti-AChE. However, the DCM extract has the highest cytotoxic activity against the two cancer cells (HCT-116 and MCF-7) (69.2 and 77.2% inhibition at 50 μg/mL, respectively). Interestingly, GC-MS analysis enabled to identify three new compounds in R. crispus extracts, such as L-(−)-arabitol (5), D-(−) fructopyranose (7) detected only in MeOH extract, and 2, 5-dihydroxyacetophenone (3) detected in all extracts. For HPLC chromatograms, cardamonin (8), 5-hydroxy-3′-methoxyflavone (17), and 3′-hydroxy-b-naphthoflavone (18) showed the highest concentrations of 74.0, 55.5, and 50.4 mg/g of dw, respectively, among others who are identified. Some phenolic compounds were identified and quantified by HPLC in more than one organic extract, such as 4′, 5-dihydroxy-7-methoxyflavone (13), 4′, 5-dihydroxy-7-methoxyflavone (14), 5-hydroxy-3′-methoxyflavone (17), and 3′-hydroxy-b-naphthoflavone (18), were found for the first time in the R. crispus extracts. Our results showed that the biological activities of this plant might be linked to their phenolic compounds and that the polar extracts could be considered as new natural supplements to be used in food and pharmaceuticals.
      PubDate: Sat, 03 Jul 2021 06:05:00 +000
  • Determination of Pendimethalin Dynamic Residual Distribution in Crucian
           Carp Tissues and Associated Risk Assessment

    • Abstract: Pendimethalin has been considered a moderately to extremely toxic compound for fish and aquatic organism. This study developed the determination of dynamic residual distribution for pendimethalin in crucian carp tissues (muscle, liver, kidney, gill, and blood) under semistatic exposure system by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method. The pendimethalin residues in various fish tissues increased initially and then decreased, and the residue amount of pendimethalin varied from tissue to tissue of crucian carp. Particularly, the pendimethalin accumulation in most fish tissues made significant decreases at two-time points. Pendimethalin was initially absorbed and enriched by fish body, and then partial pendimethalin was discharged into the outside environment through the metabolism function of crucian carp. The residue levels of pendimethalin distributed in crucian carp were ranked in the following decreasing order: liver > kidney > gill or muscle > blood, attributed to the fact that pendimethalin tends to accumulate in lipid-rich tissues of fish. Risk assessment results indicated that the chronic risk from dietary exposure to pendimethalin through crucian carp consumption for Chinese residents was acceptable, along with a lower estimated exposure dose (EED) than acceptable daily intake (ADI) and risk quotient (RQ) < 1. This study performed the first analysis for pendimethalin residual distribution in crucian carp tissues under semistatic exposure condition and provided a reference for pollution control and risk assessment of pendimethalin aimed at aquatic products.
      PubDate: Fri, 02 Jul 2021 07:05:01 +000
  • Simultaneous Determination of 25 Ginsenosides by UPLC-HRMS via
           Quantitative Analysis of Multicomponents by Single Marker

    • Abstract: A method using UPLC-HRMS has been developed for a rapid, simultaneous qualitative and quantitative analysis of twenty-five ginsenosides. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a C18 analytical column with an elution gradient comprising 0.1% aqueous formate/acetonitrile as the mobile phase. HRMS detection acquired full mass data for quantification and fullms-ddms2 (i.e., data-dependent scan mode) yielded product ion spectra for identification. Furthermore, quantitative analysis of multiginsenosides by single marker (QAMS) was developed and validated using a relative correction factor. Under optimal conditions, we could simultaneously separate eight groups of isomers of the 25 ginsenosides. Good linearity was observed over the validated concentration range for each analyte (r2 > 0.9924), showing excellent sensitivity (LODs, 0.003–0.349 ng/mL) and lower limit quantification (LOQs, 0.015–1.163 ng/mL). The LC-MS external standard method (ESM) and QAMS were compared and successfully applied to analyze the ginsenoside content from Panax ginseng roots. Overall, our UPLC-HRMS/QAMS approach provides high precision, stability, and reproducibility and can be used for high-throughput analysis of complex ginsenosides and quantitative analysis of multiple components and quality control of traditional Chinese medicines (TCM).
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jul 2021 09:35:01 +000
  • The Use of Sugarcane Bagasse to Remove the Organic Dyes from Wastewater

    • Abstract: In the present study, the potential of sugarcane bagasse (SCB) was evaluated by methylene blue (MB) retention. The selected low-cost adsorbent was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), BET method, and determination of the point of zero charge (pHzpc). Batch kinetic and isothermal studies were performed to examine the effects of contact time, initial dye concentration, adsorbent dose, pH, and temperature. The results show that the kinetic study of MB adsorption on sugarcane bagasse is very fast; the equilibrium is reached after only 20 minutes. The kinetic model of pseudo-second-order and the Langmuir isotherm model perfectly explain the adsorption process of MB with a monolayer adsorption capacity equal to 49.261 mg·g−1 activation parameters’ values such as free energy (ΔG°), enthalpy (ΔH°), and entropy (ΔS°) also determined as −4.35 kJ·mol−1, −31.062 kJ·mol−1, and −0.084 J·mol−1·K−1, respectively. Besides, the thermodynamic parameters of the methylene blue sugarcane bagasse system indicate that the exothermic adsorption process is spontaneous.
      PubDate: Tue, 29 Jun 2021 06:20:01 +000
  • A Fast and Validated HPLC Method for the Simultaneous Analysis of Five
           5-HT3 Receptor Antagonists via the Quantitative Analysis of
           Multicomponents by a Single Marker

    • Abstract: In this study, a new strategy for the simultaneous quantization of five serotonin 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor antagonists—ondansetron, azasetron, ramosetron, granisetron, and tropisetron—either in infusion samples or in injection dosage form was first established based on high-performance liquid chromatography combined with a quantitative analysis of multiple components by a single marker. The quantitative analysis of multicomponents by a single marker method was conducted with ondansetron as an internal reference substance and performed using relative retention time and ultraviolet spectral similarity as the double indicator. The quantitative analysis of the 5-HT3 receptor antagonists was calculated and investigated based on the relative correction factors. Chromatographic separation was achieved using a C18 column (150 mm × 4.6 mm, 5.0 μm), and the mobile phase was composed of acetonitrile-0.05 mol·L−1 potassium dihydrogen phosphate (pH 4.0) (25 : 75) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL·min−1 and detection wavelengths of 307 nm (ondansetron, azasetron, ramosetron), 302 nm (granisetron), and 285 nm (tropisetron). In addition, the accuracy of the quantitative analysis of multicomponents by a single marker method was compared with an external standard method, and no significant difference was observed between the two methods. The established method is rapid, is easy, and does not require many reference substances, and it can been successfully applied as part of the quality control of the five 5-HT3 receptor antagonists in their injection dosage form and infusion sample drugs in hospitals.
      PubDate: Mon, 28 Jun 2021 07:50:02 +000
  • Ultraviolet-Visible Spectroscopy and Chemometric Strategy Enable the
           Classification and Detection of Expired Antimalarial Herbal Medicinal
           Product in Ghana

    • Abstract: To meet the growing demand for complementary and alternative treatment for malaria, manufacturers produce several antimalarial herbal medicinal products. Herbal medicinal products regulation is difficult due to their complex chemical nature, requiring cumbersome, expensive, and time-consuming methods of analysis. The aim of this study was to develop a simple spectroscopic method together with a chemometric model for the classification and the identification of expired liquid antimalarial herbal medicinal products. Principal component analysis model was successfully used to distinguish between different herbal medicinal products and identify expired products. Principal component analysis showed a clear class separation between all five herbal medicinal products (HMP) studied, with explained variance for first and second principal components as 37.51% and 26.38%, respectively, while the third principal component had 18.74%. Support vector machine classification gave specificity and accuracy of 1.00 (100%) for training set data for all the products. The validation set HMP1, HMP2, and HMP3 had sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 1.00. HMP4 and HMP5 had sensitivity and specificity of 0.90 and 1.00, respectively, and an accuracy of 0.98. The support vector machine classification and principal component analysis models were successfully used to identify expired herbal medicinal products. This strategy can be used for rapid field detection of expired liquid antimalarial herbal medicinal products.
      PubDate: Fri, 25 Jun 2021 07:05:01 +000
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