Subjects -> BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS (Total: 3570 journals)
    - ACCOUNTING (132 journals)
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    - BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS (1248 journals)
    - CONSUMER EDUCATION AND PROTECTION (20 journals)
    - COOPERATIVES (4 journals)
    - ECONOMIC SCIENCES: GENERAL (212 journals)
    - ECONOMIC SYSTEMS, THEORIES AND HISTORY (235 journals)
    - FASHION AND CONSUMER TRENDS (20 journals)
    - HUMAN RESOURCES (103 journals)
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    - MICROECONOMICS (23 journals)
    - PRODUCTION OF GOODS AND SERVICES (143 journals)
    - PUBLIC FINANCE, TAXATION (37 journals)
    - TRADE AND INDUSTRIAL DIRECTORIES (2 journals)

BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS (1248 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Showing 601 - 800 of 1566 Journals sorted alphabetically
Investigación Administrativa     Open Access  
IPPR Progressive Review     Hybrid Journal  
Issues in Economics and Business     Open Access  
IZA Journal of Labor Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
J : Multidisciplinary Scientific Journal     Open Access  
Jahrbuch für Regionalwissenschaft     Hybrid Journal  
Jàmbá : Journal of Disaster Risk Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Japan and the World Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Japanese Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Jindal Journal of Business Research     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal cover Sustainability Management Forum / NachhaltigkeitsManagementForum     Hybrid Journal  
Journal for Art Market Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal for Global Business Advancement     Hybrid Journal  
Journal for International Business and Entrepreneurship Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Accounting & Organizational Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Accounting and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Journal of Adult Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of African Business     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Aggression Maltreatment & Trauma     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Aging & Social Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Aging Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Journal of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Applied and Industrial Mathematics     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Applied Business Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Applied Corporate Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Applied Econometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Journal of Applied Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Journal of ASEAN Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Asia Business Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Asia-Pacific Business     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Asian Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Banking & Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 172)
Journal of Banking Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Finance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Behavioral Decision Making     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Behavioral Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Behavioural Economics and Social Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Bioeconomics     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Business     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Business     Open Access  
Journal of Business & Economic Statistics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38)
Journal of Business & Economics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Business & Financial Affairs     Open Access  
Journal of Business & Technology Law     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Business Administration : The Association of Private Higher Education Institutions of Thailand     Open Access  
Journal of Business Administration and Social Sciences Ramkhamhaeng University     Open Access  
Journal of Business Administration Research     Open Access  
Journal of Business Analytics     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Business and Behavioural Entrepreneurship     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Business and Finance     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Business and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Business and Management Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Business and Management Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Business and Management Studies     Open Access  
Journal of Business and Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Business and Social Review in Emerging Economies     Open Access  
Journal of Business and Social Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Business and Social Sciences Research     Open Access  
Journal of Business and Technical Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Business and Technology (Dhaka)     Open Access  
Journal of Business Case Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Business Continuity & Emergency Planning     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Business Cycle Research     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Business Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Business Economics and Finance     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Business Economics and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Journal of Business Ethics Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Business in The Digital Age     Open Access  
Journal of Business Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Business Strategy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Business Studies     Open Access  
Journal of Business Studies Quarterly     Open Access  
Journal of Business Thought     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Business Venturing Insights     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Centrum Cathedra     Open Access  
Journal of Chinese Economic and Business Studies     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Choice Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Cognition and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Commodity Markets     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Comparative Asian Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Comparative Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Competition Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Journal of Consumer Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Journal of Consumer Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Consumer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 49)
Journal of Contemporary European Research     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Corporate Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Journal of Creating Value     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Cultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Cultural Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Customer Behaviour     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Data and Information Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Derivatives & Hedge Funds     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Design, Business & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Developing Areas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Development Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 114)
Journal of Development Policy and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Development Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of East-West Business     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Eastern European and Central Asian Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Econometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 82)
Journal of Economic & Financial Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Economic & Social Policy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Journal of Economic Development, Environment and People     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Journal of Economic Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Journal of Economic Growth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Journal of Economic Inequality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Economic Integration     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Economic Interaction and Coordination     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Economic Methodology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Economic Policy Reform     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Economic Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Economic Structures     Open Access  
Journal of Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Economic Surveys     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Economics & Management Strategy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Economics and Business     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Economics and Financial Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Economics and Management Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Economics and Political Economy     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Economics and Public Finance     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Economics, Business, & Accountancy Ventura     Open Access  
Journal of Economics, Finance and Accounting Studies     Open Access  
Journal of Economics, Management and Trade     Open Access  
Journal of Education and Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Education for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Electronic Commerce in Organizations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Empirical Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Journal of Engineering and Technology Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Enterprising Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Entrepreneurship     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Entrepreneurship and Business Innovation     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation in Emerging Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Environment & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Ergonomics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of European Industrial Training     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of European Integration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
Journal of Evolutionary Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Evolutionary Studies in Business     Open Access  
Journal of Family and Economic Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Financial Crime     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 250)
Journal of Financial Econometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Journal of Financial Intermediation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Journal of Financial Regulation and Compliance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Financial Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Financial Risk Management     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Gambling Business and Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Global Business Review     Open Access  
Journal of Global Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Hazardous Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Health Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Health Organisation and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Journal of Housing Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Human Resource Costing & Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Indian Business Research     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Indonesian Economy and Business     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Industrial Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Industrial Relations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Innovation & Knowledge     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Innovation in Business and Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Institutional Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Intellectual Capital     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Intelligence Studies in Business     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Intergenerational Relationships     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of International Business Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Journal of International Education in Business     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of International Management, Educational and Economics Perspectives     Open Access  
Journal of International Scientific Researches     Open Access  
Journal of Law and Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 80)
Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49)
Journal of Legal Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 46)
Journal of Management Analytics     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Management and Development Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Manufacturing Processes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Mathematical Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Media Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Medical Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Money Laundering Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 249)
Journal of Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Multinational Financial Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Nepalese Business Studies     Open Access  
Journal of Neuroscience, Psychology, and Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of New Business Ventures     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Nonprofit Education and Leadership     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Open Innovation : Technology, Market, and Complexity     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Operations and Strategic Planning     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Organizational Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Journal of Organizational Behavior Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Organizational Computing and Electronic Commerce     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Participation and Employee Ownership     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Payments Strategy & Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Peasant Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Journal of Intellectual Capital
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.701
Citation Impact (citeScore): 4
Number of Followers: 1  
 
Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal   * Containing 2 Open Access Open Access article(s) in this issue *
ISSN (Print) 1469-1930 - ISSN (Online) 1758-7468
Published by Emerald Homepage  [360 journals]
  • Intellectual capital between measurement and reporting: a structured
           literature review

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Paola Paoloni , Giuseppe Modaffari , Federica Ricci , Gaetano Della Corte
      Abstract: In the past decade, intellectual capital (IC) measurement and reporting have been feeding scientific debate; however, only few studies address these issues together. The present research aims to provide an integrated view of the topics covered by the existing literature and to highlight the emerging research trends and set the agenda for future research. This study develops a structured literature review (SLR) of the extant research concerned with IC measurement and reporting, using a comprehensive sample of 1,021 articles extracted from the Scopus database. The findings of the SLR show that the existing literature focuses on seven research areas: IC and public sector; IC university and education; IC evaluation method; internal and external IC disclosure; IC and CSR; management of IC in organizations; other. Overall, findings indicate that IC measurement and reporting are highly researched topics that continue to attract the interests of scholars. Finally, the SLR analysis has allowed outlining a future research agenda, with particular reference to the IC evaluation method and internal and external IC disclosure research areas. The main limitation of this research lies in the manual screening of relevant studies, which entails some degree of subjectivity. Furthermore, another limitation research could be considered the use of a single database (Scopus). The present study brings potential contributions for scholars and practitioners. From a scholarly perspective, the paper provides a systematization of scientific contributions that have dealt with IC measurement and reporting. In particular, it contributes to the scholarly debate bringing into focus various IC measurement and reporting issues in the landscape of private and public organizations. Referring to practical implications, our research supports the strategic use of IC measurement and reporting as a key lever for improving the management of firms. Using an analytical framework that combines insights from the agency, stakeholder and legitimacy theories, this study highlights that IC reporting activity should be used strategically as a means to engage with all firm's stakeholders, in particular with a view to reducing information asymmetry and improving firm reputation.
      Citation: Journal of Intellectual Capital
      PubDate: 2022-05-06
      DOI: 10.1108/JIC-07-2021-0195
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Intellectual capital and the acquisition of human capital by
           technology-based new ventures

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      Authors: Lee J. Zane
      Abstract: Intellectual Capital (IC) is essential to the success of new technology-based firms. A key component of IC is human capital. Human capital is shown to affect firm innovation, growth, and survival positively. This paper investigates the signaling effect of technology-based start-ups’ initial stock of IC on obtaining skilled human capital. The researcher employs signaling theory to analyze primary data concerning the firm’s initial stock of IC and subsequently hired human capital from founders of 236 technology-based new ventures in the USA Hypotheses are tested through a set of hierarchical linear regressions. This study demonstrates that the firms’ IC, in the form of quantity of founders with doctorates and intellectual property, correlates with the quality (average education level) of subsequently hired technical and business human capital. In addition, the quantity of founders with doctorates is correlated with the quantity of subsequently hired technical human capital. The paper collects retrospective data from founders of technology-based new ventures. While human capital is important for technology-based firms’ innovation and growth, little research has investigated potential connections between firms’ initial IC and subsequent hiring of top-level human capital. This paper investigates these connections explicitly.
      Citation: Journal of Intellectual Capital
      PubDate: 2022-04-26
      DOI: 10.1108/JIC-04-2021-0122
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Mapping the field of social capital with innovation and future research
           agenda: a bibliometric and visualization analysis

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      Authors: Zhouyang Gu , Fanchen Meng , Siyuan Wang
      Abstract: Recent years have seen a substantial increase in academic interest in social capital and innovation. Nonetheless, the bibliometric and visualization study on this subject is inadequate. This study aims to analyse the leading trends in literature that have connected social capital with innovation over the past few decades. This study attempts to provide an overview utilizing various bibliometric techniques combined with assorted themes and data extracted from the Scopus database. Results based on 716 documents reveal not only the principal modern trends but also the evolution of these scientific production developments. Results based on 716 Scopus indexed documents reveal the trends and trajectories as well as specific topics, journals and countries of social capital and innovation research Furthermore, this study offers an overview of trends and trajectories, as well as a visual and schematic framework for further research on this subject. Since there is lack of analyses the bibliographic data on social capital-related innovation, so this study is a unique contribution to the literature as complement. This may benefit researchers in identifying current trends and prospective study areas, as well as assisting future authors in conducting more efficient studies.
      Citation: Journal of Intellectual Capital
      PubDate: 2022-04-25
      DOI: 10.1108/JIC-09-2021-0248
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Relational capital in referrer networks of medical specialists in office
           settings

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      Authors: Nina Sophie Pflugfelder , Frank Ng
      Abstract: The purpose of this article is to explore the association of the Relational Capital (RC) embedded in a medical specialist’s social–professional network with the specialist’s economic performance based on social network analysis (SNA). Using health insurance claims data regarding ∼108,000 physicians treating ∼72,000,000 patients, social–professional networks (patient-sharing-networks (PSNs)) of ∼26,000 medical specialists were simulated. To explore the correlation of the network's characteristics (degree centrality, density, relative betweenness centrality and referrer concentration) with economic performance, ordinary-least-squares (OLS)-regression models were estimated for ten common specialties (gynecology, internal medicine, orthopedics, ophthalmology, otolaryngology, dermatology, urology, neurology, radiology and rehabilitative medicine). The study confirms the applicability and strong explanatory power of SNA metrics for RC measurement in ambulatory healthcare. Degree centrality and relative betweenness centrality correlate positively with economic performance, whereas density and referrer concentration exhibit negative coefficients. These results confirm the argument that RC has a strong association with the economic performance of medical specialists. The study pioneers SNA for RC measurement in healthcare. It is among the first publications on specialists' PSNs. Questions for future research are proposed.
      Citation: Journal of Intellectual Capital
      PubDate: 2022-04-20
      DOI: 10.1108/JIC-01-2021-0015
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • The impact of electronic word-of-mouth management in hotel ecosystem:
           insights about managers' decision-making process

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      Authors: María del Carmen Berné Manero , Andrea Moretta Tartaglione , Giuseppe Russo , Ylenia Cavacece
      Abstract: There is a lack of research proving how electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) is a valuable source of information in the hospitality industry for developing hotels' intellectual capital. To fill this gap, this study aims to examine hotel managers' decision-making processes regarding the acceptance and management of eWOM and its impact on the Italian hotel ecosystem. This work takes advantage of the previous contributions to present a hotel's decision-making process model regarding structural capital. It includes eWOM as a context variable and changes implemented as a dependent variable in a comprehensive model. The structural equation modelling applies to a database obtained through a survey addressed to Italian hotel managers. The results show that eWOM plays an essential role in managers' motivations to explain hotel changes implementation. The hotel leverages eWOM information and interaction through structural, relational and human capital to enhance products, services and strategies. This work contributes to the extant literature by providing a comprehensive framework to explain the consequences of eWOM knowledge management from the intellectual capital view in the Italian hotel ecosystem. For practitioners, this research demonstrates how hotel managers should accept and manage eWOM knowledge through intellectual capital to make determinant decisions that improve hotel performance. There is a scarcity of research on modelling the acceptability and management of eWOM in the hotel ecosystem from practitioners' perspectives. This work is the first attempt to determine how eWOM knowledge management boosts hotel intellectual capital and improves service innovation and performance.
      Citation: Journal of Intellectual Capital
      PubDate: 2022-04-14
      DOI: 10.1108/JIC-07-2021-0201
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Strategic human resource practices and new product development
           performance: the mediating role of intellectual capital

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      Authors: Behrooz Ghlichlee , Amirhossein Goodarzi
      Abstract: The paper investigates the effects of strategic human resource practices on intellectual capital and new product development performance in knowledge-based firms. A quantitative approach was adopted to conduct the present study. The respondents were sampled from knowledge-based firms in Iran. Overall, 120 managers in 60 knowledge-based firms were selected using convenience sampling. A confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to ascertain the validity and reliability of the observed items, and a structural equation model was employed for testing the proposed hypotheses. In the studied firms, strategic human resource practices have a positive and significant effect on intellectual capital. Moreover, the findings of this study indicate that those firms that use their intellectual capital have a higher new product development performance. The study focuses on knowledge-based firms in Iran, which limits the generalizability of the research results. Therefore, future studies should be carried out with samples from other settings and countries. Moreover, as the study was cross-sectional, the causal relationships could not be inferred directly. With regard to key areas of improvement identified in this study, knowledge-based firms should focus on increasing new product development performance by improving employees' training, involving them in their job-related decision-making process, empowering employees to innovate, developing intellectual capital and monitoring the customer's satisfaction level of new products. The study extends the intellectual capital literature by linking strategic human resource practices to new product development performance in knowledge-based firms via intellectual capital as a mediator.
      Citation: Journal of Intellectual Capital
      PubDate: 2022-04-12
      DOI: 10.1108/JIC-11-2020-0360
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • FinTech ecosystem as influencer of young entrepreneurial intentions:
           empirical findings from Tunisia

         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

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      Authors: Giuseppe Festa , Sihem Elbahri , Maria Teresa Cuomo , Mario Ossorio , Matteo Rossi
      Abstract: The study aims to investigate the influence of FinTech (Financial Technology) determinants such as crowdfunding, mobile payment and blockchain as potential facilitators in an entrepreneurial ecosystem for undertaking decisions in Tunisia, as an example of emerging economy. Quantitative research was carried out with data collection based on a questionnaire that has been sent via email to young Tunisian entrepreneurs (potential or actual). A following regression was calculated on 93 respondents. Analysis of the data showed that most of the relationships under investigation were confirmed. Statistical tests highlighted that knowledge, availability and access about crowdfunding and blockchain had a positive and significant impact on entrepreneurial intention. Regarding mobile payment, there was a negative and insignificant effect on entrepreneurial intention. From the evidence of the research, Fintech ecosystems may positively influence the decision to undertake, with relevant implications at institutional, industrial and individual level. More specifically, demonstrating a positive and significant relationship between some main dimensions of FinTech and entrepreneurial intention and emphasizing the contribution of related knowledge to intellectual capital accumulation through entrepreneurial education, this study seems to be unique in examining and verifying this potential effect.
      Citation: Journal of Intellectual Capital
      PubDate: 2022-04-08
      DOI: 10.1108/JIC-08-2021-0220
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • The international orientation of academic entrepreneurship: the role of
           relational, human and psychological capital

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      Authors: Mercedes Villanueva-Flores , Dara Hernández-Roque , Mariluz Fernández-Alles , Mirta Diaz-Fernandez
      Abstract: Scholars have emphasized intellectual capital’s importance for universities in obtaining competitive advantages and creating value. The purpose of this paper is to identify the influences of two components of intellectual capital, relational and human capital at the international level, and psychological capital on international orientation of academic entrepreneurs, and the mediating effects of international relational and human capital. On the basis of a literature review, a theoretical model is proposed to explain the relationship between the studied variables. Our hypotheses are tested on a sample of 173 academic spin-offs of Spanish universities using bootstrapping methodology. The results show that the international market relational capital and international human capital of academic entrepreneurs influence their international orientation, and that their psychological capital is directly, and indirectly, related to international orientation through international human capital and international market relational capital. This study provides a better understanding of the antecedents of the international orientation of academic entrepreneurs, which would provide an important contribution to the literature on intellectual capital, academic entrepreneurship and internationalization. The achieved results highlight important implications for training of academic entrepreneurs and for managers and management teams of companies willing to enter, or even those already operating in, international markets. In this study, the international orientation of academic entrepreneurs is explained through the psychological capital that is studied jointly with two components of intellectual capital, relational and human capital at the international level. Although some recent work has focused on the study of the internationalization of academic spin-off, this line of research is still incipient.
      Citation: Journal of Intellectual Capital
      PubDate: 2022-04-05
      DOI: 10.1108/JIC-06-2021-0157
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Unmasking intellectual capital from gender and nationality diversity on
           university spin-offs’ boards: a study on non-linear effects upon firm
           innovation

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      Authors: Antonio Prencipe , Danilo Boffa , Armando Papa , Christian Corsi , Jens Mueller
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to analyze the impact of human capital related to gender and nationality diversity in boards of directors on the innovation of university spin-offs (USOs) in their entrepreneurial ecosystem. Following the intellectual capital (IC) framework and the resource dependence theory, upper echelons theory and critical mass theory, it hypothesizes that the relationship between board diversity and USOs’ firm innovation is non-linear. To test the research hypotheses empirically, a sample of 827 Italian USOs over the period 2009–2018 was analyzed using zero-inflated Poisson regression modeling. A robustness test was also performed. Gender obstacles remain in USOs’ entrepreneurial ecosystem, with little involvement of women in boards, and the benefits of human capital for firm innovation emerge with increased female representation. Nevertheless, a few foreign-born directors embody valued IC in terms of human capital from an internationally linked entrepreneurial ecosystem, which decreases with more foreign-born directors due to communication costs and coordination problems. The emerging non-linear relationships imply that gender- and nationality-diverse boards in USOs constitute critical human capital factors boosting the devolvement of entrepreneurial processes, in terms of firm innovation, in university entrepreneurial ecosystems. This study contributes significantly to the move from traditional corporate governance analysis through an IC framework, fostering an understanding of the role of human capital and its diversity determinants in spurring firm innovation among USOs considering the university entrepreneurial ecosystem.
      Citation: Journal of Intellectual Capital
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
      DOI: 10.1108/JIC-08-2021-0207
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Intellectual capital efficiency and firms' financial performance based on
           business life cycle

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      Authors: Jian Xu , Muhammad Haris , Feng Liu
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of intellectual capital (IC) and its components (human, structural, relational and innovation capitals) on financial performance (FP) at different life cycle stages. The study uses the data from Chinese manufacturing listed companies during 2014–2018. The modified value added intellectual coefficient (MVAIC) model is employed as the measurement of IC efficiency. Finally, multiple regression analysis is used to test the research hypotheses. This study shows that the impact of IC on FP is different across life cycle stages. Specifically, at the birth stage, human capital (HC), structural capital (SC) and innovation capital (INC) have a positive impact on FP. At the growth and mature stages, all IC components contribute to FP improvement. HC and SC play an important role at the revival stage, while only HC positively affects FP at the decline stage. The findings may help corporate managers to make optimal strategies to improve FP by effective utilization of IC resources in the complex and competitive business environment. Meanwhile, companies can invest in the core elements of IC at different stages of development, so as to maximize the contribution of IC to company value. This is among the few studies to explore the impact of IC on FP of manufacturing listed companies in the Chinese context from the perspective of life cycle. It also makes novel contributions in measuring IC by the MVAIC model with the inclusion of relational capital and INC that are largely neglected in previous research.
      Citation: Journal of Intellectual Capital
      PubDate: 2022-03-15
      DOI: 10.1108/JIC-12-2020-0383
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Toward the emergence of “humane” entrepreneurial ecosystems. Evidence
           from different cultural contexts

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      Authors: Rossella Canestrino , Pierpaolo Magliocca , Marek Ćwiklicki , Barbara Pawełek
      Abstract: Adopting more sustainable and social-oriented perspectives is crucial for the emergence of the so-called humane entrepreneurial ecosystems (HEEs), the last ones supporting the improvement of both economic, environmental and social wealth. Entrepreneurs act as keystone players in each entrepreneurial ecosystem, thus the emergence of Humane Entrepreneurship (HumEnt) is crucial in shaping HEEs. Given the role of culture in affecting HumEnt, the relationships between Humane Orientation (HO) – as defined in the GLOBE project – and the basic components of Humane Entrepreneurship (HumEnt) were, particularly, explored in a selected sample of countries. Both Intellectual Capital (IC) and knowledge management (KM) perspectives were adopted in pursuing the research goal. The study approaches this by the mean of the Ward method with Euclidean squared distance and the k-means method. The GLOBE project, the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM), the Environmental Performance Index (EPI) and the International Social Survey Program (ISSP) were used as data sources. Correlations between HO “as is” scores and each components of HumEnt were checked for the world sample (N = 36), as well as for the groups of innovation-driven countries (N = 17) and European countries (N = 14). Research results show a conditional confirmation of the developed hypotheses, depending on countries cultural levels of HO, with a moderating role exercised by the economic development on the relationship between culture and HumEnt. Given the increasing pressure of fundamental societal challenges, such as climate change, poverty and increasing inequality within and between countries intensified by pandemic (UN report, 2021), integrating the more traditional approaches to profit seeking with the more sustainable and human-centric perspective is a priority for both scholars and society at large. Previous researches do not provide explanation about the contextual factors responsible for the emergence of more humane-oriented entrepreneurial ecosystems, especially when referring to culture. This article broadens our understanding about the reason why both HumEntr and HEEs differently arise and develop in different cultural contexts.
      Citation: Journal of Intellectual Capital
      PubDate: 2022-03-08
      DOI: 10.1108/JIC-07-2021-0200
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Can the components of green intellectual capital influence employee green
           behavior' An empirical analysis on Indian energy sector using the
           partial least squares method

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      Authors: Arpita Ghosh , Shamima Haque
      Abstract: The study aims to explore the relationship between the dimensions of green intellectual capital (GIC) and employee green behavior (EGB). A survey has been conducted among a random representative population of employees working for the energy-sector organizations in India to collect data for this study. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) for GIC supports the inclusion of the new dimension in its construct. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) validates the measurement model. Hypothesized relationships have been examined by applying structural equation modeling using partial least squares method. Results corroborate that all the four dimensions of GIC have varying degrees of significant positive impact on EGB. The study contributes to the existing literature by extending the understanding of the concept of GIC and its connection with EGB using natural-resource based theory and social cognitive theory (SCT). The study has empirically examined the relationship between GIC and EGB in the context of a developing country like India. Moreover, unlike the existing literature that have classified GIC into green human capital (GHC), green structural capital (GSC) and green relational capital (GRC), the study identifies green spiritual capital (GSpC) as another important dimension of GIC which is an intangible asset and highly relevant in influencing altruistic activities like green behavior. The study presents significant implications for managers and policy-makers for ensuring EGB by investing in GIC resources.
      Citation: Journal of Intellectual Capital
      PubDate: 2022-03-08
      DOI: 10.1108/JIC-10-2021-0284
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • The role of CEOs' human capital in sustaining superior
           performance–empirical evidence from China

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      Authors: Jian Guan , Fang Deng , Dao Zhou
      Abstract: Focusing on the important representative of firm intellectual capital (IC), this research explores the effects of chief executive officer’s (CEOs') managerial human capitals on sustaining superior performance in Chinese transition economy to prove the dynamic and strategic value of IC and fulfill the gap of lacking emerging market studies in this research field. Based on dynamic managerial capability theoretical framework, the authors propose a dynamic management path to analyze the influencing mechanism of CEOs' managerial human capitals to firm performance persistence and the moderating effect of environment uncertainty. Using a panel data of Chinese publicly listed firms from 2008 to 2017, it adopts dynamic first-order autoregressive models to examine these hypotheses. Several tests are conducted to further analyze and ensure that the results are robust and reliable. These managerial human capitals reveal heterogenous impacts on sustaining superior performance, and environment uncertainty is a valid moderating variable to further distinguish their dynamic values. The supplementary analyses show the integrating effect of an MBA degree and output functional experience is positive and significant, and the results in Chinese state-owned and private firm subsamples are distinct. It is beneficial for corporate stakeholders to judge and select CEOs and for policymakers to improve the efficiency advantage of IC in Chinese emerging market. This study first explores the relationship between CEOs' managerial human capitals and superior performance persistence. Through introducing a dynamic perspective, it has extended existing performance persistence research into individual level and provided a new intellectual source of sustainable competitive advantages.
      Citation: Journal of Intellectual Capital
      PubDate: 2022-02-01
      DOI: 10.1108/JIC-11-2020-0351
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • From ivory tower to a storyteller of value creation: integrated reporting
           at Japanese and South African universities

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      Authors: Yanqi Sun , Pui San Ip , Murugesh Arunachalam , Howard Davey
      Abstract: The paper examines integrated reporting (IR) practices of two Japanese universities and three South African universities by evaluating and comparing their 2019 integrated reports. A multiple case study research method is used in this study. The paper reveals that IR is in its infancy at the sample universities. Some universities have initiated disclosing information to their stakeholders on how they create value. However, the universities lack a comprehensive approach to integrating financial and non-financial information, thereby affecting the IR disclosure quality. The findings indicate that informal coercive pressure of South African universities is a primary driving factor that enables the universities to achieve a higher IR disclosure quality than their Japanese counterparts. This paper argues that institutional theory is relevant for explaining the differences in IR practices of the universities in the two different jurisdictional settings. The research will be of interest to university administrators, policymakers, regulators and other stakeholder groups of universities. The assessment of integrated reports serves as a first step to help the universities improve IR practices as well as to facilitate the diffusion of IR in higher education institutions (HEIs) globally. There is also a need for universities to pay more attention to the storytelling of their value creation in future IR disclosures. It is the first to assess the IR quality of the Japanese sample universities as well as the first to conduct a comparative analysis for IR practices of universities in two different jurisdictional settings that have adopted IR. The findings of this study add to the current scholarly debate on universities' ability to tell their stories on their value creation to stakeholders via integrated reports.
      Citation: Journal of Intellectual Capital
      PubDate: 2022-01-04
      DOI: 10.1108/JIC-01-2021-0008
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Supply chain capital and firm performance: the role of complementary
           capabilities

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      Authors: Chunhsien Wang , Tachia Chin , Chung-Te Ting
      Abstract: Drawing on social capital theory, we extend the concept of supply chain capital to examine whether structural and relational capital can strengthen the complementary capabilities of suppliers and enhance their performance. The empirical study was conducted on 161 precision mold equipment suppliers. To evaluate the mediated moderation model of supply chain capital, we applied multiple linear regression to test our hypotheses. We found that both structural and relational capital positively affect the complementary capabilities of suppliers and that these capabilities mediate the relationship between supply chain capital and supplier performance. Furthermore, structural capital positively and significantly moderates the mediating effect on the relationship between complementary capabilities and supplier performance. This study provides suggestions for suppliers that are equipped with sufficient structural and relational capital to effectively enhance their complementary capabilities. By considering the interaction between structural capital and complementary capabilities, suppliers can effectively improve their performance. This novel research develops a theoretical model to examine the antecedents and consequences of supplier complementary capabilities. We contribute to a new line of research on supply chain capital, which aims to explore how it affects the complementary capabilities of suppliers by examining a practical supply chain activity setting.
      Citation: Journal of Intellectual Capital
      PubDate: 2022-01-04
      DOI: 10.1108/JIC-06-2021-0148
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Framing intellectual capital for elite athletes
         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

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      Authors: Roberto Aprile , Mario Nicoliello , Susanne Durst
      Abstract: This conceptual paper proposes an intellectual capital (IC) framework dedicated to elite athletes (EA) to demonstrate the usefulness of IC on individual persons. Thus, it connects EA with the concept of IC. The paper is inspired by the classical IC dimensions (human capital, structural capital and relational capital), which are used to develop the IC framework for EA. An exemplary case study is used to validate the framework. It is argued that there is a need to adapt the traditional IC framework for EA. Therefore, this paper proposes a specific IC framework consisting of natural capital, sports capital and media capital. This paper deals with EA and the sports industry, but should be extended to other sectors where aspects such as image and celebrity represent significant intangible resources. The proposed IC framework can help EA and their managers to better understand how IC value is created. This paper extends the IC concept to other fields of application, i.e. EA, and thus individual persons.
      Citation: Journal of Intellectual Capital
      PubDate: 2022-02-21
      DOI: 10.1108/JIC-05-2021-0126
      Issue No: Vol. 23 , No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Intellectual capital and sustainability reporting practices in Uganda

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      Authors: Juma Bananuka , Venancio Tauringana , Zainabu Tumwebaze
      Abstract: The objective of the study is to investigate the association between intellectual capital (IC) and sustainability reporting practices in Uganda. The study further examines how individual IC elements (human, structural and relational capital) affect sustainability reporting practices. This study employs a questionnaire to collect data. Data are analyzed using multiple regression analysis. Results indicate that IC is significantly associated with sustainability reporting practices. The study also found that human capital and relational capital elements have a positive effect on sustainability reporting practices while structural capital element does not have a significant effect. This study is one of the few studies that examine sustainability reporting by financial services firms in a country where the capital markets are still in their infancy and the major source of external financing are the banks. Its major contribution lies in its focus on how the key IC components explain variations in sustainability reporting practices among financial service firms in Uganda.
      Citation: Journal of Intellectual Capital
      PubDate: 2021-12-29
      DOI: 10.1108/JIC-01-2021-0019
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Nexus among intellectual capital, interorganizational learning, industrial
           Internet of things technology and innovation performance: a resource-based
           perspective

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      Authors: Shafique Ur Rehman , Khurram Ashfaq , Stefano Bresciani , Elisa Giacosa , Jens Mueller
      Abstract: The authors observe the influence of intellectual capital (IC) on innovation performance with the mediating role of interorganizational learning (IOL) in the Pakistani automotive industry. Besides, industrial Internet of things (IoT) technology is used as moderating variables between IOL and innovation performance. Structural equation modeling (SEM) presents scholars with extra flexibility and enhanced research conclusions. SEM is described as a statistical methodology and the best tool used for hypothesis testing. The authors used partial least squares SEM for testing hypotheses. The simple random sampling technique followed to collect data from respondents, and 492 questionnaires were used for analysis. The outcomes reveal that IC enhances innovation performance and IOL. Moreover, IOL increases innovation performance. IOL significantly mediates between IC and innovation performance. Industrial IoT technology improves innovation performance. Finally, industrial IoT technology strengthens the positive association between IOL and innovation performance. This study concentrates on the issue of how managers use IOL and industrial IoT technology to take higher advantage of IC that increases innovation performance. This is the initial study that builds a theoretical framework to integrate IC, IOL, industrial IoT technology and innovation performance. Although prior researchers observe the association between IC and innovation performance, less concentration was paid to understand the role of interorganizational leadership and industrial IoT technology in leveraging organizational IC.
      Citation: Journal of Intellectual Capital
      PubDate: 2021-12-29
      DOI: 10.1108/JIC-03-2021-0095
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Human capital and organisational resilience in the context
           of manufacturing: a systematic literature review

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      Authors: V. Shela , T. Ramayah , Ahmad Noor Hazlina
      Abstract: The manufacturing sector is well known for its significance in upholding the economic prosperity of many nations. However, in today's unprecedented environment, the resilience of this sector has become vulnerable to relentless catastrophic events, thus gaining a serious concern among the economies driven by this sector. Albeit the various determinants, human capital emerges as the widely accepted core factor that holds the key to proliferate organisational resilience. Therefore, the present systematic literature review seeks to intensify the understanding of the link between human capital and organisational resilience in the manufacturing context. This paper systematically reviews the studies converging human capital and organisational resilience in the context of manufacturing from the year 2011 to 2021 based on the PRISMA protocol. A bibliographic coupling analysis was carried out using VOSviewer software to expose the main research themes and trends concerning the relationship. The bibliographic coupling analysis discovered links between publications to produce a framework outlining a holistic state-of-art of the literature intersecting human capital and organisational resilience. The analysis identified main research themes by clustering the prior studies into seven groups, which describe the direction of the literature. This study offers a novel framework and in-depth understanding to the research community to delve into the interrelationship between human capital and organisational resilience research. Guided by the gaps in the literature, a set of outstanding avenues for the forthcoming studies are also proposed.
      Citation: Journal of Intellectual Capital
      PubDate: 2021-12-21
      DOI: 10.1108/JIC-09-2021-0234
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • The moderating effect of leadership empowerment on relational capital and
           firms' innovation performance in the entrepreneurial ecosystem: Evidence
           from China

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      Authors: Yunlong Duan , Yilin Chen , Shuling Liu , Chi-Sum Wong , Meng Yang , Chang Mu
      Abstract: This study aims to fill the research gap on the moderating effect of leadership empowerment on the relationship between relational capital and firms' innovation performance in the entrepreneurial ecosystem by addressing the following research questions: (1) How do different types of relational capital positively or negatively affect firms' innovation performance in China' (2) Does leadership empowerment play a moderating role in the above relationship' Using data derived from the firms distributed in eastern, central and western China, the authors study the impact of relational capital, one of the dimensions of intellectual capital, on firms' innovation performance in the entrepreneurial ecosystem. Based on firms' operation process regarding the relationships with their external stakeholders, the authors divided relational capital into three aspects: trust, reciprocity and transparency. Furthermore, leadership empowerment is taken as the moderating variable in the above theoretical relationship. There is significant evidence that trust, reciprocity and transparency have positive impact on firms' innovation performance. Leadership empowerment positively moderates the impact of trust and reciprocity on innovation performance. However, there is no significant moderating effect of leadership empowerment on the relationship between transparency and innovation performance. In the era of the knowledge economy, the entrepreneurial ecosystem is a critical foundation for firms to improve their innovation capacity and performance, and intellectual capital is one of the most imperative drivers in terms of firms' innovation performance. Nevertheless, few studies have investigated thoroughly concerning the relationships among the entrepreneurial ecosystem, intellectual capital and innovation performance. As this study explores the relationships among the above three factors, it may have profound theoretical and practical significance for firms to extent external relationship networks, improve their innovation performance and strengthen their core competencies, which is of great significance to facilitate the construction of entrepreneurial ecosystem.
      Citation: Journal of Intellectual Capital
      PubDate: 2021-12-17
      DOI: 10.1108/JIC-07-2021-0183
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Dimensions of cybersecurity performance and crisis response in critical
           infrastructure organisations: an intellectual capital perspective

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      Authors: Alexeis Garcia-Perez , Mark Paul Sallos , Pattanapong Tiwasing
      Abstract: This research addresses the relationships between the current, dynamic organisational cyber risk climate, organisational cybersecurity performance and changes in cybersecurity investments, with an aim to address the hostile epistemic climate for intellectual capital management presented by the dynamics of cybersecurity as a phenomenon. Expanding on the views of digital security and resilience as a knowledge problem, the research looks at cybersecurity as a critical capability within organisations, particularly relevant in critical infrastructure sectors. The problem is studied from the perspective of 400 C-level executives from critical infrastructure sectors across the UK. Data collected at the peak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, a time when critical infrastructure organisations have been under a significant strain due to an increase in cybersecurity incidents, were analysed using partial least square structural equation modelling. The research found a significant correlation between the board's perception of a change in their cybersecurity risk climate and patterns of both the development of cybersecurity management capabilities and cybersecurity investments. The authors also found that a positive correlation exists between the efforts placed by critical infrastructure organisations in cybersecurity training and the changes in investment in their cybersecurity, particularly in relation to their intellectual capital development efforts. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first paper that explores the board's perception of cybersecurity in critical infrastructure organisations both from the intellectual capital perspective and in the dynamic cyber risk climate derived from the COVID-19 crisis. The authors’ findings expand on the growing perception of cybersecurity as a knowledge problem, and thus inform future research and practice in the domain of intellectual capital management and its role in supporting the cybersecurity and digital resilience of business and society.
      Citation: Journal of Intellectual Capital
      PubDate: 2021-12-13
      DOI: 10.1108/JIC-06-2021-0166
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Intellectual capital and institutional governance as capital structure
           determinants in the tourism sector

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      Authors: Tamanna Dalwai , Navitha Singh Sewpersadh
      Abstract: This study investigates the capital structure determinants of the Middle East tourism sector by examining intellectual capital (IC) efficiency and institutional governance along with firm-specific and macroeconomic variables. This research also identifies the determinants of capital structure for tourism companies in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) and non-GCC countries. Data were collected from 45 listed tourism companies of nine Middle Eastern countries over five years from 2014 to 2018. The data were analysed using ordinary least squares (OLS) regression and checked for robustness using the generalised methods of moment (GMM) estimation. Overall, the results indicate that tourism companies rely more on short-term debt (STD) than long-term debt (LTD), thus decreasing liquidity and increasing financial risk. Furthermore, tourism companies in non-GCC countries have higher IC efficiency compared to those in GCC countries. The aggregate institutional index is much higher for GCC countries compared to non-GCC countries. The OLS estimations suggest IC efficiency and institutional governance index provide inconclusive evidence as a determinant of capital structure proxy. High capital employed efficiency (CEE) is associated with more leverage for tourism firms. Theoretically, the results support pecking order and trade-off theories due to the relationships between firm-specific indicators and debt. This study closes the gap in the capital structure debate by providing valuable insights into IC efficiency and institutional governance. These two factors serve as capital structure determinants in the Middle East and the GCC and non-GCC regions.
      Citation: Journal of Intellectual Capital
      PubDate: 2021-12-01
      DOI: 10.1108/JIC-03-2021-0085
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Testing interaction effects of intellectual capital and burnout on
           innovative work behaviour of professional nurses

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      Authors: Genuine Narzary , Sasmita Palo
      Abstract: The present study aims to examine the moderating effect of burnout between intellectual capital and innovative work behaviour of professional nurses. Mixed-method approach was followed that involves conducting both quantitative surveys and qualitative semi-structured interviews. Quantitative data was collected from 844 staff nurses. Interviews were conducted with a total of 20 participants including director of nursing, chief nursing officer, general manager operation, professor cum principal, doctors, nurse educators, ward in charges and staff nurses working with multi, super speciality private and charitable trust hospitals in Mumbai (India). Intellectual capital and burnout (intellectual capital*burnout) interaction increased the proportion of innovative work behaviour from 0.09 to 0.15, an increase of 66.67%. The results also reveal a significant and negative (−0.09) moderating effect of burnout between intellectual capital and innovative work behaviour of nurses. Qualitative findings also could confirm and support that human, structural and relational capital help nurses to be innovative. However, whenever nurses feel a loss of energy, enthusiasm, motivation and exhaustion, they tend to become less innovative and continue only with the routine works. This study provides a new implication for multi, super speciality private and charitable trust hospitals management to relook at and reduce the level of burnout to mitigate its adverse effect. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study and findings related to professional nurses working in multi, super speciality private and charitable trust hospitals in India.
      Citation: Journal of Intellectual Capital
      PubDate: 2021-11-04
      DOI: 10.1108/JIC-01-2019-0017
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • The roots of “volunteer” employees’ engagement: The silent role of
           intellectual capital in knowledge-sharing intentions

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      Authors: Monica Fait , Valentina Cillo , Armando Papa , Dirk Meissner , Paola Scorrano
      Abstract: The main aim of this paper is to demonstrate that “volunteer” employees’ perception of dimensions of intellectual capital (IC) – human, structural and relation capital – creates a motivational environment to enhance knowledge-sharing intention (KSI) and stimulates “volunteer” employee engagement (VEE). The model is applied on the non-profit organizations (NPOs) sector that base their path on sharing values with volunteers and employees in relation to which they have to implement engagement strategies that are beneficial to both developing and deploying individual and organizational human capital. To verify the existence of relationships between the constructs of IC, KSI and VEE a partial least squares structural equation model on a sample of 300 “volunteer” employees of NPOs was tested to verify the research hypotheses, as this could explain the causal relationships. The results confirm that KSI is positively and directly influenced by the favourable environment resulting from the motivations below the dimensions of IC. The improvement of KSI, determined by IC, has a positive effect on VEE. Despite the limitation created by the peculiarities of NPOs and the role of volunteers, this paper suggests a strategic approach that the management could implement to create an environment based on the exchange of knowledge and to increase engagement in the value co-creation process. The ability of a company to adopt sharing strategies depends on the existence of an environment in which individuals are willing to exchange knowledge realizing mutual benefits. The work broadens this perspective by providing governance with a behavioural model that creates a direct relationship between IC, KSI and VEE.
      Citation: Journal of Intellectual Capital
      PubDate: 2021-10-18
      DOI: 10.1108/JIC-04-2020-0133
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Intellectual capital's link with financing opportunities

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      Authors: Mara Del Baldo , Daniele Giampaoli , Maddalena Macrellino , Nick Bontis
      Abstract: This study aims to provide empirical evidence on the link between intellectual capital and a firm's ability to attract funding and financing in Italian companies. Data from 125 Italian companies was collected through an online survey and analysed using structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM). Results show that structural capital has a positive, direct impact on both human and relational capital. At the same time, relational capital is the only intellectual capital component that has a positive, direct impact on a firm's ability to attract funding and financing. Finally, we found that a firm's ability to attract funding and financing impacts both innovation and financial performance. This novel study is among the first to provide empirical evidence of how human, relational and structural capital interact with each other and enhance a firm's ability to attract funding and financing.
      Citation: Journal of Intellectual Capital
      PubDate: 2021-09-24
      DOI: 10.1108/JIC-04-2021-0105
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Intellectual capital, organizational culture and ambidexterity in
           Colombian firms

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      Authors: Esteban López-Zapata , Armando De Jesús Ramírez-Gómez
      Abstract: This study analyzes the impact of intellectual capital on organizational ambidexterity by evaluating the mediating effect of the different types of organizational cultures (adhocracy, clan, market and hierarchy) on the said relationship. From a sample of 124 directors of Colombian firms, the information is analyzed using Structural Equation Models through the Partial Least Squares method (SEM-PLS). The results show that intellectual capital has a positive relationship with organizational ambidexterity and that market culture presents a positive mediating effect in the said relationship, while the mediating effects of adhocracy culture, clan culture and hierarchy culture are not significant. Directors can favor the development of organizational ambidexterity by investing in the intellectual capital of their firms and by promoting the development of market culture attributes. This work contributes empirical evidence on the mediating role of organizational culture in the relationship between intellectual capital and ambidexterity, highlighting the importance of market culture over other types of culture for the simultaneous development of exploration and exploitation capabilities, in the context of an emerging Latin American economy such as Colombia.
      Citation: Journal of Intellectual Capital
      PubDate: 2021-09-22
      DOI: 10.1108/JIC-08-2020-0286
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Intellectual capital and firm efficiency of US multinational software
           firms

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      Authors: Ncamsile Ashley Nkambule , Wei-Kang Wang , Irene Wei Kiong Ting , Wen-Min Lu
      Abstract: The main purpose of this study is to empirically investigate the impact of intellectual capital efficiency on US multinational software companies' performance from 2012 to 2016 by applying data envelopment analysis (DEA). It adopts a new slacks-based measure (SBM) to obtain a more accurate performance estimation and rank between companies. Regression analysis is used to test the overall IC and each of its elements (Human Capital, Innovation Capital, Process Capital and Customer Capital). The univariate result shows that multinational companies are more efficient than non-multinational companies. However, the regression result shows that multinationality can hardly explain the firm efficiency of software firms. Another interesting finding is that intellectual capital has a positive and significant impact on software firm performance in the US human capital influences firm efficiency directly. However, when human capital is combined with the other elements of IC, the contribution of human capital becomes less significant. This is because people may think that innovation capital, process capital and customer capital can replace human capital, but it is not. In short, human capital may affect firm efficiency through other elements of IC (innovation capital, process capital and customer capital) as it is the base of other elements. The results show that multinational companies have higher efficiency scores than non-multinational companies. In addition, Intellectual capital has a positive and significant impact on software firm performance in the US human capital influences firm efficiency directly. However, when human capital is combined with the other elements of IC, the contribution of human capital becomes less significant. This is because people may think that innovation capital, process capital and customer capital can replace human capital, but it is not. In short, human capital may affect firm efficiency through other elements of IC (innovation capital, process capital and customer capital) as it is the base of other elements. Overall, the study highlights the needs of having intellectual capital and its elements (Human Capital, Innovation Capital, Process Capital and Customer Capital) to increase firm efficiency. First, the authors use a more comprehensive elements of IC, which are human capital, innovation capital, process capital and customer capital for a better IC measurement. Second, this study makes the first attempt using the DSBM model via DEA to examine the operating efficiency of US multinational software firms.
      Citation: Journal of Intellectual Capital
      PubDate: 2021-09-14
      DOI: 10.1108/JIC-02-2021-0041
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • A new theoretical approach to intellectual capital: Meta-synthesis
           definitions of innovative literacy

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      Authors: Asiye Yüksel , Mehmet Şahin GÖK , Gökhan ÖZER , Erşan CİĞERİM
      Abstract: The importance of innovation has drastically increased across diverse academic and industrial fields. Innovation has been considered an outcome of intellectual capital management. The role of innovative literacy in intellectual capital management needs to be understood. Employees at all levels of the organisation carry out managerial and/or technical innovation activities by integrating their knowledge (with other members, including researchers and developers) and innovative attitude in line with the organisational goals. This study focuses on the methodological approaches to intellectual capital components at a conceptual level, based on the framework of innovative literacy, which is not prominent in the literature. A meta-synthesis analysis was conducted, examining published articles from 1990 to 2016 based on selected keywords. The meta-synthesis analysis explored the concept of innovation literacy by revealing some of the relationships involved in intellectual capital performance. The findings point to gaps and methodological weaknesses in innovative literacy research and provide insights for future research. While the findings of this study are useful, there are some limitations and recommendations for future research: One limitation of this study arises from the selection of the articles used in meta-synthesis analyses; these were published during the period 1990–2016. An expansion of the article selection to include articles published before 1990 can be useful to better understand the vision on innovation and intellectual capital. This research fills a conceptual gap in the literature. However, since this concept is evaluated using the human, customer and structural components of intellectual capital, researchers in the future can evaluate this concept with other components of intellectual capital. Finally, this research does not present a hypothesis on the relationship between innovative literacy and intellectual capital. This study provides a novel conceptual view of integrating theories for ensuring sustainability of intellectual management and innovative literacy by synthesising findings from academic studies.
      Citation: Journal of Intellectual Capital
      PubDate: 2021-09-09
      DOI: 10.1108/JIC-12-2020-0379
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Life cycle analysis of Brazilian startups: characteristics, intellectual
           capital, agents and associated risks

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      Authors: Marcelo Henrique Gomes Couto , Fábio Lotti Oliva , Manlio Del Giudice , Masaaki Kotabe , Tachia Chin , Peter Kelle
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper was to present the stages of the Brazilian startups' organizational life cycle (OLC), identifying and describing the main factors related to the entrepreneurial and organizational perspectives, as well as the factors related to external relationship agents and the associated risks at each OLC stage. In addition, the variables that comprised the three perspectives above were used for a descriptive reading of the evolutionary process from the perspective of intellectual capital during the stages. The type of research used was quantitative with a descriptive character. For data collection, the authors have used the survey method and two complementary questionnaires were used as research tools. The measurement scale used in these instruments was the 11-point Likert scale. In total, 100 Brazilian startups registered in the STARTUPBASE and residents in São Paulo comprised the sample of this research. For the data processing, it was used the exploratory factor analysis techniques, to identify the analysis factors, and the cluster analysis, to identify the OLC stages. Based on the results obtained, four stages were identified and described to build the OLC model of this research: Stage I – conception and development; Stage II – organization and traction; Stage III – growth and scale; and Stage IV – consolidation and transition. In addition, the authors described the main lines of evidence found at each stage. This research contributes to academic studies of the OLC in startups and the evolution of risks that originate from the relationship between external agents in the business environment and startups. Thus, a management map is built, which helps entrepreneurs and managers construct these businesses since such a management map allows identifying the risks and challenges that a startup needs to overcome to grow and develop. The originality of this research lies in the adaptation of the OLC approach, which is widely used in studies analyzing the growth and development of mature organizations. The authors used this adaptation to analyze the growth and development of startups in Brazil. In addition, the identification and analysis of external agents that make up the business environment, as well as the analysis of the risks, originated from the relationships between the startup and these agents, brought original and essential results and discussions, both for OLC studies and for risk analysis studies in startups.
      Citation: Journal of Intellectual Capital
      PubDate: 2021-09-02
      DOI: 10.1108/JIC-01-2021-0005
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Toward an intellectual capital cyber security theory: insights from
           Lebanon

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      Authors: Puzant Balozian , Dorothy Leidner , Botong Xue
      Abstract: Intellectual capital (IC) cyber security is a priority in all organizations. Because of the dearth in IC cyber security (ICCS) research theories and the constant call to theory building, this study proposes a theory of ICCS drawing upon tested empirical data of information systems security (ISS) theory in Lebanon. After a pilot test, the authors tested the newly developed ISS theory using a field study consisting of 187 respondents, representing many industries, thus contributing to generalizability. ISS theory is used as a proxy for the development of ICCS theory. Based on a review of the literature from the past three decades in the information systems (IS) discipline and a discovery of the partial yet significant relevance of ISS literature to ICCS, this study succinctly summarized the antecedents and independent variables impacting security compliance behavior, putting the variables into one comprehensive yet parsimonious theoretical model. This study shows the theoretical and practical relevancy of ISS theory to ICCS theory building. This paper highlights the importance of ISS compliance in the context of ICCS, especially in the area of spoken knowledge in environments containing Internet-based security devices. This research article is original, as it presents the theory of ICCS, which was developed by drawing upon a comprehensive literature review of the IS discipline and finding the bridges between the security of both IS and IC.
      Citation: Journal of Intellectual Capital
      PubDate: 2021-08-30
      DOI: 10.1108/JIC-05-2021-0123
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Intellectual capital on performance: a meta-analysis study enhancing a new
           perspective of the components

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      Authors: Angélica Pigola , Pedro Victor De Santi , Priscila Rezende da Costa , Jose Storopoli
      Abstract: The authors examined intellectual capital (IC) components, namely human, structural and relational capital, on firm performance (FP) and innovation performance (IP), while also examining the role of knowledge management (KM) in this context. The authors employed a meta-analysis using 81 studies from 2006 to 2020 using bivariate analysis, meta-analytic structure equation modeling (MASEM) and fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) to study IC components on FP and IP. The MASEM results show that IC affects positively on FP, but not in a significant level and affects positively and significantly on IP. The findings also reveal that the moderation effect of KM affects positively on FP but not on IP. Additionally, the fsQCA analysis shows that KM and its multidimensional role has a positive impact on FP and IP and has a potential to be consistent as a dynamic component for IC. The results may be limited by different statistical biases and inverse causality issues or associated with contextualities related to the studies of the sample selected by our criteria. Managers can identify the appropriate IC elements and act accordingly. The study suggests that mobilizing human, structural, relational and knowledge capital must begin from the firms' birth and continue further during firms' stages of the business. IC is the bridge of evolution for future societies. Knowing how its components impact all levels of corporate environment indirectly influences how societies build up their social bases and policies to fulfill new professional generations. By using the MASEM and fsQCA, the authors have more detailed insights into the multidimensional context of KM in IC components on firm and innovation performance identifying configurations of intangible resources.
      Citation: Journal of Intellectual Capital
      PubDate: 2021-08-26
      DOI: 10.1108/JIC-01-2021-0025
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Team reflexivity, individual intellectual capital and employee innovative
           behavior: a multilevel moderated mediation

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      Authors: Zhining Wang , Tao Cui , Shaohan Cai , Shuang Ren
      Abstract: Based on experiential learning theory (ELT), this study explores the cross-level effect of team reflexivity on employee innovative behavior. The authors especially focus on the mediating effect of individual intellectual capital (IIC) and the moderating effect of empowering leadership on the relationship between the two constructs. This study collects data from 76 work units, which include 362 employees and their direct supervisors. A cross-level moderated mediation model was tested by using multilevel path analysis. The results show that team reflexivity significantly contributes to employee innovative behavior. IIC mediates the above relationship. Empowering leadership not only positively moderates the relationship between team reflexivity and IIC but also reinforces the linkage of team reflexivity → IIC → employee innovative behavior. The study suggests that organizations should invest more in promoting team reflexivity and empowering leadership in the workplace. Furthermore, managers should make members aware of the importance of IIC for employee innovative behavior. They need to make efforts to enhance IIC via internal communication channels or open discussions, which facilitate IIC and employee innovative behavior. This research tests the relationship between team reflexivity and employee innovative behavior and identifies IIC as a key mediator that links team reflexivity to employee innovative behavior. It also highlights the moderating role of empowering leadership in the process.
      Citation: Journal of Intellectual Capital
      PubDate: 2021-08-19
      DOI: 10.1108/JIC-11-2020-0362
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • A comparative analysis of human capital information opaqueness in South
           Korea and the UK

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      Authors: Hyoung Joo Lim , Dafydd Mali
      Abstract: Human capital is considered by many to be a firm's most important asset. However, because no international human capital reporting framework exists, firms can decide to include/exclude human capital details on annual reports. Based on legitimacy theory, firms that disclose high levels of human capital information can be considered congruent with the expectations of society. However, firms can also choose to include human capital information on annual reports for symbolic purposes as an image management strategy. Using 2018 as a sample period, content analysis is used to evaluate the annual reports of the 25 largest British and 25 largest Korean firms to demonstrate the propensity of British/Korean firms to disclose human capital information as numerical and textual data. The authors report that South Korean firms provide high levels of human capital information using narrative and numerical data, including value added human capital elements included on integrated reports. British firms on the other hand tend to use primarily positive narrative and limited numerical human capital data to present human capital information. The results imply South Korean firms provide robust human capital information on annual reports as a legitimacy strategy. On the other hand, the UK's human capital reporting requirement can be considered as a form of image management. The results therefore have important policy implications for legislators, labour unions and firm stakeholders with incentives to enhance human capital information transparency.
      Citation: Journal of Intellectual Capital
      PubDate: 2021-08-18
      DOI: 10.1108/JIC-01-2021-0002
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Nonlinearity in the relationship between intellectual capital and
           corporate performance: evidence from Vietnamese listed companies

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      Authors: Qian Long Kweh , Irene Wei Kiong Ting , Wen-Min Lu , Hanh Thi My Le
      Abstract: Consensus on how intellectual capital (IC) affects corporate performance is limited because of various measurement models of IC and corporate performance. This study thus aims to further the debate on the relationship between IC and corporate performance from the perspectives of nonlinearity, the capital values of IC and the use of a holistic measure of corporate performance. Using 1,395 firm-year observations derived from Vietnamese listed companies from 2010 to 2018, this study focuses on (1) presenting an IC model benchmarked on value-creating expenses; (2) using a directional distance function (DDF)-based stochastic nonparametric envelopment of data (StoNED) framework to scrutinize multiple performance indicators and the capital values of people, structures and relationships simultaneously; and (3) adopting firm-year cluster-robust regressions to analyze the nonlinear association between IC and corporate performance empirically with an appropriate U test. Results suggest that human capital (HC), structural capital (SC) and relational capital (RC) are the main contributors of high corporate efficiency, whereas only HC and RC contribute to high corporate profitability. These results are absent when this study employs the conventional data envelopment analysis (DEA), which is also a multidimensional framework, as the dependent variable. More importantly, IC and its components can improve corporate performance, namely, both corporate efficiency and corporate profitability up to a critical point, after which the effects would drop. Overall, this study highlights not only the need to invest in IC but also its associated costs. That is, policymakers also need to note the marginal cost of investing in IC, which may in the end outweigh the benefits from IC. This study extends IC-related studies by investigating the nonlinear relationship between IC and corporate performance. Moreover, the value of this study also lies in the multidimensional DDF-based StoNED framework.
      Citation: Journal of Intellectual Capital
      PubDate: 2021-08-16
      DOI: 10.1108/JIC-03-2020-0105
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • The financial consequences of human capital disclosure as part of
           integrated reporting

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      Authors: Antonio Salvi , Nicola Raimo , Felice Petruzzella , Filippo Vitolla
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to analyse the financial consequences of the level of human capital (HC) information disclosed by firms through integrated reports. Specifically, this work examines the effect of HC information on the cost of capital and firm value. A manual content analysis is used to measure the level of HC information contained in integrated reports. A fixed-effects regression model is used to analyse 375 observations (a balanced panel of 125 firms for the period 2017–2019) and test the financial consequences of HC disclosure. The empirical outcomes indicate that HC disclosure has a significant and negative effect on the cost of capital and a positive impact on firm value. Our results show that companies can reduce investors' perceived firm risk by improving HC disclosure, leading to a lower cost of capital. Moreover, our findings support the notion that increased levels of HC disclosure are linked to firms' improved access to external financial resources, consequently enhancing firm value. This study is the first contribution to examine the financial consequences of HC disclosure and is one of the first to examine the level of HC information within integrated reports.
      Citation: Journal of Intellectual Capital
      PubDate: 2021-07-27
      DOI: 10.1108/JIC-03-2021-0079
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Effect of intellectual capital and entrepreneurial orientation on
           innovation performance of manufacturing SMEs: mediating role of knowledge
           sharing

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      Authors: Haniruzila Hanifah , Nursyamimi Abd Halim , Ali Vafaei-Zadeh , Khaled Nawaser
      Abstract: Manufacturing sectors are identified to be of the foremost importance expected to increase Malaysia's GDP contribution to the Eleventh Malaysia Plan (11th MP). The present study aims to examine the effects of intellectual capital and entrepreneurial orientation (EO) on knowledge sharing in manufacturing SMEs. The impact of intellectual capital and EO on firms' innovation performance in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) is accordingly investigated by considering knowledge sharing as the mediator. The data were collected via a questionnaire consisting of the owners or top managers of 121 manufacturing SMEs in Malaysia. Partial least square (PLS) was used to analyze the obtained data. Results indicated that human capital, as well as external relational capital, has a positive correlation with both knowledge sharing and innovation performance mediated by knowledge sharing. It was also shown that knowledge sharing has a significant impact on firm innovation performance. Interestingly, structural capital, internal relational capital and (EO) did not significantly impact knowledge sharing and innovation performance. However, all of these elements are important to influence the firm's innovation performance. The study contributes to the literature on intellectual capital, entrepreneurial orientation, knowledge sharing and innovation through developing and testing the possible connections among them. The finding of this study will provide owners and top managers in manufacturing SMEs insight into the variables improving firm innovation performance. This study provides a basis for researchers to reach more mounting evidence about the practice of knowledge sharing and innovation performance among manufacturing SMEs in Malaysia.
      Citation: Journal of Intellectual Capital
      PubDate: 2021-06-22
      DOI: 10.1108/JIC-06-2020-0186
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Green intellectual capital and social innovation: the nexus

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      Authors: Aarif Mohd Sheikh
      Abstract: The term “social innovation” refers to interorganizational activity ostensibly designed to address environmental issues. Green intellectual capital (IC) has been considered to be a vitally important mechanism for companies to move towards green production. By adopting the Intellectual capital-based view (ICV) as the underpinning theory, this study aims to investigate the green intellectual capital and social innovation tie-up. A quantitative research approach was adopted in this study. The mail survey was used to collect data from managers of 509 manufacturing units operating in J&K, India. The study model was tested using structural equation modeling (SEM). Based on the SEM results, the key factors that significantly influence social innovation were green human capital and green structural capital. The results also posited that green relational capital was not significantly related to social innovation. As revealed by the existing literature, no similar work has been done yet. Therefore, this study's originality lies in its exploration of green intellectual capital (IC) and social innovation interplay in an environmentally sensitive sector, manufacturing. Besides, this study offers insights to academics and practitioners in the manufacturing sector, especially in emerging economies.
      Citation: Journal of Intellectual Capital
      PubDate: 2021-06-21
      DOI: 10.1108/JIC-11-2020-0361
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Does intellectual capital have any influence on stock price crash
           risk'

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      Authors: Agung Nur Probohudono , Adelia Dyaning Pratiwi , Mahameru Rosy Rochmatullah
      Abstract: This paper explores the influence between intellectual capital (IC) and the risk of stock price crashes by using company performance as an intervening variable. This study empirically analyzes the impact of the efficiency of IC on stock price crash risk using a sample size of 152 companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX) during 2018. To test the research hypotheses, regression analysis and path analysis were applied. In addition, the researchers added exploration to several studies to strengthen the results of this study. This study’s findings indicate that investors' optimistic (pessimistic) sentiment regarding stock price volatility has obscured aspects of the financial performance of listed companies. This finding implies that investor sentiment has dominated influence on stock price crash risk so that the aspects of IC are obscured. This research provides new information that IC disclosure in the stock market needs to include knowledge of the volatility of stock prices in order to reveal stock price crash risk.
      Citation: Journal of Intellectual Capital
      PubDate: 2021-06-14
      DOI: 10.1108/JIC-09-2020-0306
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Measuring football clubs' human capital: analytical and dynamic models
           based on footballers' life cycles

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      Authors: Gracia Rubio Martín , Conrado Miguel Manuel García , Ángel Rodríguez-López , Francisco José Gonzalez Sanchez
      Abstract: This research proposes analytical valuation models throughout football players' life cycles based on crowd valuations from social media to produce dynamic sporting human capital disclosures, and therefore, supplying further useful information to capture the intellectual capital (IC) of football clubs. This work is carried out using an econometric model that includes 658 observations of crowd judgments versus their transfer fees, for the best footballers of the three major European Leagues between 2006 and 2018. To make the model more parsimonious, the set of independent variables that really add value has been found across the stepwise methodology. The significant differences between both models are analyzed, integrating previous academic literature based on the existence of negotiation elements in prices, and in the capacity of crowdsourcing to explain assessments of football players, from a dynamic perspective, alongside a new variable: injuries, which has not been explained before. The broader assessments from crowdsourcing should be integrated in intellectual capital disclosures (ICD), from a critical, novel and dynamic perspective, creating a virtuous cycle between managers and fans, to increase transparency of financial information for stakeholders and society.
      Citation: Journal of Intellectual Capital
      PubDate: 2021-06-01
      DOI: 10.1108/JIC-06-2020-0211
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • The traditional Italian Universities' reaction to the pandemic emergency:
           The role of the intellectual capital

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      Authors: Paola Paoloni , Giuseppe Modaffari , Giorgia Mattei
      Abstract: The lockdown imposed to avoid the increase in the number of infections caused by the pandemic emergency declared in January 2020 has unavoidably compromised the normal functioning of the Universities. They have been forced to stop the operation of their traditional student-oriented activities. In this light, the present work aims to analyse how traditional Italian Universities continue to deliver services to their students during the emergency. Qualitative explorative research was done. The paper used a multiple case study focused on two main public universities located in Rome (Italy). The data was collected using action research with participant observation. The activities observed before and during the health emergency are those related to the second mission and their services. Until the pandemic emergency arose, in the organizations analysed, the work was done traditionally. When the lockdown started the main instruments adopted to teach and provide the related services to students were the digital tools. Therefore, these devices represent how these organizations could immediately react to face the challenge arising from the impossibility to physically meet the students while continuing to support them in their educational path. Based on the findings obtained these universities fall into the “corporate entrepreneurship” definition. The present work has managerial and academic implications. The academic implications can be summarized in two main points: the work (1) promptly analysed the changes necessary to overcome the problematics caused by the pandemic emergency; (2) contributes to the debate concerning the transfer of knowledge using digital tools and their relevance on the intellectual capital. One of the limits of the work is that only two Italian traditional universities are analysed and that the study focuses on universities located in a same city. On the other hand, in referent to managerial implications, this paper highlights how the corporate entrepreneurial view could be useful to support an inspected challenge that could happened in a certain historical period. Therefore, a real implementation of the entrepreneurial concepts is preferred. The paper discussed an original and contemporary topic not yet investigated since it refers to the Universities' reaction to the pandemic emergency in 2020, with the focus on their ability to maintain the intellectual capital value and give more points that could be investigate in the future, as, e.g. a selection of more than three traditional universities or with a comparative case study, useful in highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of the decisions taken in different contexts, considering: (1) telematic universities and traditional universities; or (2) universities located in other countries. Another future line of enquiry could be to focus the analysis on the effective quality of the MOOCs applied at the universities' activities, using the students' opinions obtainable through OPIS (Rilevazione Opinione degli Studenti) or through direct interviews.
      Citation: Journal of Intellectual Capital
      PubDate: 2021-05-21
      DOI: 10.1108/JIC-07-2020-0241
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Construction of structural dimensions of organizational human capital
           competitive advantage

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      Authors: Wenchen Guo , Mengxin Chen
      Abstract: This paper aims to clarify the factors that affect the formation of organizational human capital competitive advantage (OHCCA) and construct its structural dimensions. This research method adopted grounded theory using 20 interviews of managers from 10 companies. Relevant literature was reviewed to conduct open coding, Axial coding and selective coding to ensure OHCCA concept and dimensions. Studies have shown that OHCCA formation of results from investment and collaboration of three levels: organization, teams and departments and employees. OHCCA formation is composed of three dimensions of organizational human capital investment: planning, practice and stock. This research enriches the organizational human capital and competitive advantage theories. The practical significance is to provide theoretical and practical guidance for organizations in creating OHCCAs. This research is the first to propose and define the OHCCA concept and construct a three-dimensional structure model. Furthermore, this research has revealed the leading factors that affect OHCCA's formation process.
      Citation: Journal of Intellectual Capital
      PubDate: 2021-05-20
      DOI: 10.1108/JIC-07-2020-0223
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • The cubic S-curve relationship between board independence and intellectual
           capital efficiency: does firm size matter'

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      Authors: Qian Long Kweh , Wen-Min Lu , Irene Wei Kiong Ting , Hanh Thi My Le
      Abstract: First, this study assesses firms’ efficiency of transforming intellectual capital (IC) components into firm performance. Second, this study examines (1) cubic S-curve relationship between board independence and IC efficiency and (2) how firm size moderates the cubic S-curve relationship. This study employs a stochastic nonparametric envelopment of data (StoNED) framework to estimate IC efficiency, which is derived from the estimation process of transforming structural, relational and human capitals into accounting- and market-based performance indicators. This study conducts regression analyses on 1,104 firm-year observations of Taiwanese semiconductor firms over the period of 2011–2018. StoNED results suggest that sample firms' IC efficiency can be relatively improved by approximately 80%. Regression results indicate that a cubic S-curve relationship between board independence and IC efficiency exists, and firm size moderates the nonlinear effects. Overall, this study highlights the importance of examining the nonlinear effect of board independence on IC efficiency from the perspective of agency theory, and the moderating effect from firm size, which may suggest availability of resources from the resource-based view of the firm. This study contributes to the literature through the innovative application of an efficiency-based tool for evaluating IC efficiency. The cubic S-curve relationship between board independence and IC efficiency also points to the policy concerning the appropriate number of independent directors on board.
      Citation: Journal of Intellectual Capital
      PubDate: 2021-05-12
      DOI: 10.1108/JIC-08-2020-0276
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Intellectual capital and innovative performance: a mediation-moderation
           perspective

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      Authors: Shafique Ur Rehman , Hamzah Elrehail , Abdallah Alsaad , Anam Bhatti
      Abstract: This study explores central questions related to the connection between intellectual capital (IC) and the innovative performance of organizations through the mediating role of management control systems (MCS) and business strategies, as well as the moderating role of innovation capabilities. The data was collected from the managers of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) through a structured questionnaire. Out of 1,152 questionnaires distributed, only 415 were used for analysis purposes. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was used to test the study hypotheses. Intellectual capital significantly influences MCS, business strategies and innovative performance. Moreover, MCS, business strategies and innovative capabilities significantly improve innovative performance. MCS and business strategies significantly mediate the relationship between intellectual capital and innovative performance. Finally, innovative capabilities significantly moderate that between intellectual capital and innovative performance. The current research examines how management should use MCS, business strategies, and innovative capabilities to take maximum benefit from intellectual capital in order to improve innovative performance. This is pioneering research that develops a theoretical model to incorporate intellectual capital, MCS, business strategies, innovative capabilities and innovative performance. Even though the influence of various kinds of intangible assets/resources on innovative performance has been widely examined in the literature, scant attention has been paid to the role of MCS, business strategies, and innovative capabilities in leveraging the firm's intellectual capital.
      Citation: Journal of Intellectual Capital
      PubDate: 2021-04-30
      DOI: 10.1108/JIC-04-2020-0109
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Assessment of the history and trends of “The Journal of Intellectual
           Capital”: a bibliometrics, altmetrics and text mining analysis

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      Authors: Mohammadreza Esmaeili Givi , Mohammad Karim Saberi , Mojtaba Talafidaryani , Mahdi Abdolhamid , Rahim Nikandish , Abbas Fattahi
      Abstract: The Journal of Intellectual Capital (JIC) celebrated its 20th anniversary in 2020. Therefore, the present study aims to provide a general overview of the history and key trends in this journal during 2000–2019. Two types of citation and textual data during a 20-year journal period were retrieved from the Scopus database. The citation structures and contents were explored based on a combination of bibliometric analysis, altmetric analysis and text mining. The journal themes and trends of their changes were analyzed through citation bursts, mapping and topic modeling. To make a better comparison, the text mining process for the topic modeling of the IC field was performed in addition to the topic modeling of JIC. Bibliometric analysis indicated that JIC has experienced a remarkable growth in terms of the number of publications and citations over the last 20 years. The results indicated that JIC plays a significant role among IC researchers. Additionally, a large number of researchers, institutes and countries have made contributions to this journal and cited its research papers. Altmetric analysis showed that JIC has been shared in different social media such as Twitter, Facebook, Wikipedia, Mendeley, Citeulike, news and blogs. Text mining abstract of JIC articles indicated that “measurement,” “financial performance” and “IC reporting” have the relative prevalence with increasing trends over the past 20 years. In addition, “research trends” and “national and international studies” had a stable trend with low thematic share. The findings have important implications for the JIC editorial team in order to make informed decisions about the further development of JIC as well as for IC researchers and practitioners to make more valuable contributions to the journal. Using bibliometric analysis, altmetric analysis and text mining, this study provided a systematic and comprehensive analysis of JIC. The simultaneous use of these methods provides an interesting, unique and suitable capacity to analyze the journals by considering their various aspects.
      Citation: Journal of Intellectual Capital
      PubDate: 2021-04-29
      DOI: 10.1108/JIC-02-2020-0057
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Trends and relationship among intellectual capital disclosures, patent
           statistics and firm performance in Indian manufacturing sector

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      Authors: Khushdeep Dharni , Saddam Jameel
      Abstract: This study highlights the trends of qualitative intellectual capital disclosures and patent statistics in the Indian manufacturing context by considering the numerous patent applications, patent grants, forward citations and backward citations. Furthermore, the study investigates the relation among qualitative disclosures, patent statistics and firm performance. All manufacturing companies of CNX 500 Index of National Stock Exchange of India Limited are considered. Based on data availability, 243 manufacturing firms spanning across seven major manufacturing sectors are included. Secondary data were obtained from the annual report of companies and patent databases from 2004 to 2005 to 2013–2014, generating a sample of 2,430 firm years. Content analysis and citation analysis are used for collecting the relevant data. Overall, the study results indicated increasing trends for all types of intellectual capital disclosures. Similar trends are observed for patent applications and patent grants, indicating a surge in patenting activities across the manufacturing sector. However, increasing trends in patenting activities are not reflected for forward and backward citations. In addition, significant differences in means and trend coefficients for qualitative disclosures and patent statistics indicated industry specificity within the Indian manufacturing sector. Furthermore, industry specificity is observed when translating intellectual capital to firm performance. The measure of firm performance, that is, Tobin's Q, is having a significant positive association with qualitative disclosures and patent statistics. As the study is based on secondary data, its accuracy is limited by the accuracy of the data sources such as the annual reports of companies and patent databases. The study findings imply that policymakers should devise and execute sector-specific policy interventions. Moreover, managers and policymakers should emphasize the qualitative aspect of patenting activities. The study is an original work that highlights the trends in qualitative disclosures in the Indian manufacturing context. The value relevance of intellectual capital and patent statistics has been established.
      Citation: Journal of Intellectual Capital
      PubDate: 2021-04-29
      DOI: 10.1108/JIC-05-2020-0148
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Competitive advantage via intellectual capital: a moderated mediation
           analysis

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      Authors: Majid Mohammad Shafiee
      Abstract: Looking for ways to gain competitive advantage (CA) is one of the most challenging issues for today's businesses. Although previous research considered several aspects in this regard, the literature has largely overlooked the process of gaining CA via strategic intangibles, regarding business type and context. This paper aims to examine how to gain CA through strategic intangibles such as intellectual capital (IC). Building on the concept of IC, and using data gathered from both the manufacturing/service and public/private firms, the authors tested a moderated mediation model to determine if the effect of IC on CA was conditioned on business type, competitive intensity and managerial support. Among the factors in the relationship between IC and CA, the results discovered the role of business intelligence (BIN) and brand image (IM), as two key mediators. Furthermore, it was revealed that managerial support and competitive intensity moderate the relationship between IC, the mediators and CA. Finally, the authors provide academics and practitioners with some implications. Previous research did not fully address the aforementioned antecedents (i.e., IC, BIN and IM) toward CA in a comprehensive model. Developing the path toward CA by focusing on the role of intangibles, the authors proposed a moderated mediation model, which has hitherto received scant attention in the field of competition.
      Citation: Journal of Intellectual Capital
      PubDate: 2021-04-29
      DOI: 10.1108/JIC-05-2020-0152
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Do female directors drive intellectual capital performance' Evidence
           from Indian listed firms

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      Authors: Neha Smriti , Niladri Das
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the significance of board gender diversity (BGD) on the firm's intellectual capital (IC) performance of 272 Indian firms listed on the National Stock Exchange during 2007–2019. Considering the recent regulatory amendment by the Indian regulatory system (Security Exchange Board of India, 2018) which mandates at least one female independent directors on boards of all listed companies. Based on theories and literature reviews, hypotheses were developed. This paper uses the proportion of female director on board and proportion of female independent directors to measure BGD and modified value-added intellectual coefficient (MVAIC) methodology to measure firms' IC performance. Two-step system-generalised method of moment panel data regression analysis has been employed to identify the variables that significantly affect IC performance. This paper finds female representation on boards has a significant impact on MVAIC; capital employed efficiency shows the strongest association with female directors on board, followed by structural capital efficiency and human capital efficiency, while relational capital efficiency shows no significant effect. The results further demonstrate that female independent director has a significant but negative impact on IC. As the study is limited to the listed firms of an emerging economy with a mandatory female quota for boards. Thus to increase the generalizability of findings, future research can be extended to include all listed and non-listed firms from another emerging economy with a mandatory female quota. From the practical perspective, this study bridges the gap between theory and practice in terms of providing a deeper understanding to the policymakers and Indian regulatory bodies like the Ministry of Corporate Affairs and Securities Exchange Board on the importance of including female members on board as a vital contributing factor for leveraging firm's intangible performance. Using resource dependency theory and agency, this study extends the literature on IC efficiency and female representation on boards by presenting the research outcome for Indian listed firms. This paper, addressing the recent changes introduced by Indian regulators and using the female independent directors on board, is amongst the first attempts to assess the relevance of BGD and IC performance. This issue has still not been discussed and analysed by researchers in India.
      Citation: Journal of Intellectual Capital
      PubDate: 2021-04-29
      DOI: 10.1108/JIC-06-2020-0198
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • The influence of board social capital on corporate social responsibility
           reporting

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      Authors: Nuria Reguera-Alvarado , Francisco Bravo-Urquiza
      Abstract: The main objective of this paper is to analyze the influence of multiple directorships, as a critical component of board social capital, on CSR reporting. This study also explores the moderating effect of certain board attributes on multiple directorships. The authors’ sample is composed of Spanish listed firms in the Madrid Stock Exchange for the period 2011–2017. A dynamic panel data model based on the Generalized Method of Moments (GMMs) is employed. Relying on a resource dependence view, the authors’ results highlight an ambiguously positive association between multiple directorships and the level of CSR reporting. In particular, this relationship is positively moderated by both board size and gender diversity. These findings contribute to academic debates concerning the value of board members intellectual capital. In particular, the authors emphasize the importance of board social capital, as well as the need to consider the context in which directors make decisions. This evidence may prove helpful to firms when configuring the board of directors, and for regulators and professionals when refining their legislations and recommendations. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first study that empirically analyzes the impact of an important element of board social capital, such as multiple directorships, on CSR reporting, which has become crucial in financial markets.
      Citation: Journal of Intellectual Capital
      PubDate: 2021-04-29
      DOI: 10.1108/JIC-11-2020-0359
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Intellectual capital and bank branches' efficiency: an integrated study

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      Authors: Irene Wei Kiong Ting , Fu-Chiang Chen , Qian Long Kweh , Hai Juan Sui , Hanh Thi My Le
      Abstract: This study aims to investigate the association between intellectual capital (IC) and bank efficiency of Taiwanese bank branches. This study manually collects sample data from 107 non-public financial reports of the bank branches of Taiwan Business Bank Company Limited. As this study concerns bank branches, this study uses questionnaires related to IC to measure the implementation of IC at branch level. This study employs data envelopment analysis (DEA) models (BCC, EBM and BootBCC) to identify bank branches' efficiency. This study uses partial least square-based structural equation modeling analysis to assess the impact of IC and bank efficiency. Result reveals that relational capital (RC) significantly and negatively impacts bank efficiency. Findings also imply that human capital (HC) and structural capital (SC) do not contribute to bank efficiency in Taiwan. Spending effort in building relationships with customers diverts banks' resources. More inputs that are used may not be converted to outputs immediately. Bank branches should focus on enhancing their service quality to attract customers to use the facilities provided by branches. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this empirical study is the first to examine the association between IC and bank branches' efficiency in Taiwan by integrating primary and secondary data. For IC components, this study conducts a survey by designing the questionnaires related to IC to assess the implementation of IC at bank branches in Taiwan. In terms of efficiency, this study uses bank financial data and DEA models to identify bank branches' efficiency.
      Citation: Journal of Intellectual Capital
      PubDate: 2021-03-08
      DOI: 10.1108/JIC-07-2020-0245
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • The role of intellectual capital on entrepreneurial opportunity
           recognition among SMEs in the Sultanate of Oman

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      Authors: Syed Abidur Rahman , Golam Mostafa Khan , Salem AlAbri , Seyedeh Khadijeh Taghizadeh
      Abstract: This study aims to investigate the role of the components of intellectual capital (IC) on entrepreneurial opportunity recognition among small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in the Sultanate of Oman. The interrelationships of these components are also examined. The study used quantitative research methods. Data were collected using structured questionnaires from a sample of 347 respondents from SMEs operating in Oman. Structural equation modeling was employed to examine the hypotheses using partial least square technique. The analysis results demonstrate that structural capital, relational capital and spiritual capital have significant relationships with entrepreneurial opportunity recognition. Meanwhile, human capital has no relationship with either entrepreneurial opportunity recognition or spiritual capital. Intriguingly, significant interrelationships are observed among IC's components. This study offers useful managerial implications for the related parties: firms, public institutions and other stakeholders. The findings could be a guideline for SME managers/owners to recognize the right entrepreneurial opportunity. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to reveal the relationships between the tripartite model of IC and entrepreneurial opportunity recognition. This study is also the first to test the interrelationship of spiritual capital on other intellectual components.
      Citation: Journal of Intellectual Capital
      PubDate: 2021-02-25
      DOI: 10.1108/JIC-05-2020-0177
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Measuring national intellectual capital: a novel approach

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      Authors: Duc Hong Vo , Ngoc Phu Tran
      Abstract: A very few studies have been conducted to measure a degree of national intellectual capital for selected groups of countries. This paper is conducted to construct a new index of national intellectual capital (INIC) which is simple, quantifiable, relevant and comparable for countries around the globe. The styudy’s new INIC uses various indicators which are proxies for fundamental aspects of intellectual capital, including (1) human capital, (2) structural capital and (3) relational capital. These indicators are publicly available for many countries. The principal component analysis is utilized to derive the INIC. Various tests have also been conducted to ensure that the new index is appropriate and fit for purpose. Findings from this paper confirm that the new INIC has a strong correlation of 0.80 with an index developed by Lin et al. (2014) (the LECB index), an advanced INIC to date. The LECB index has been infrequently updated and covered selected countries due to data and information unavailability. In addition, the study’s tests indicate that a high correlation of 0.75 is observed between the study’s index and GDP per capita. The new INIC represents an advancement in relation to its simplicity, quantification, relevance and international comparison across nations. The estimates of national intellectual capital using the approach in this study will open a new strand of theoretical and empirical studies in relation to national intellectual capital and other economic and social issues of interests. This novel and innovative approach will provide policymakers with a valuable framework to formulate and implement relevant policies to enhance and improve national intellectual capital. To the best knowledge of the authors, this is the first study of its type, which is conducted to measure national intellectual capital based on publicly available data. Required data cover an extended period of years and a majority of countries. As such, an INIC will enhance transparency and feasibility for international comparison across countries.
      Citation: Journal of Intellectual Capital
      PubDate: 2021-02-16
      DOI: 10.1108/JIC-06-2020-0183
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • The impact of knowledge management strategies on the relationship between
           intellectual capital and innovation: evidence from SMEs

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      Authors: Sahar Hayaeian , Reza Hesarzadeh , Mohammad Reza Abbaszadeh
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to investigate the moderating role of knowledge management (KM) strategies in developing the effect of intellectual capital (IC) on innovation for small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Specifically, the current study explores how different interactions between IC and KM strategies lead to more powerful innovation in SMEs. This study analyzes survey responses from 170 owners/managers of SMEs in Iran. The study uses partial least square structural equation modeling methods within Smart PLS software. This study reveals that first IC has an excellent level of engagement with both incremental and radical types of innovation, but its engagement level with radical innovation is higher than that for incremental innovation. Second, the human capital component of IC has a direct positive impact on radical innovation although it has no significant impact on incremental innovation. Third, the personalization strategy of KM positively moderates the impact of human capital on both incremental and radical innovation. This paper is an empirical attempt in SMEs to combine IC and KM strategies to strengthen innovation. It presents research community for SMEs of a developing country that has been investigated in a limited way compared to large firms of developed nations and provides valuable insights into further research.
      Citation: Journal of Intellectual Capital
      PubDate: 2021-02-15
      DOI: 10.1108/JIC-07-2020-0240
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • The role of intellectual capital on process and products innovation.
           Empirical study in SMEs in an emerging country

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      Authors: Nicolas Salvador Beltramino , Domingo Garcia-Perez-de-Lema , Luis Enrique Valdez-Juarez
      Abstract: The objective of this study is to analyze the influence of the intellectual capital of SMEs on innovation and organizational performance in the context of an emerging country. The sample consisted of 259 industrial SMEs from the Cordoba, Argentina. The data were analyzed by partial least squares–structural equation modeling (PLS–SEM). The study provides empirical evidence that the three components of intellectual capital generate positive and significant effects on innovation in processes and products. Structural capital is the component that has the greatest effect on innovation. It also showed a positive and significant relationship between innovation in processes and performance, contributing to the scarce empirical literature in the context of SMEs. The research exposes limitations that uncover a path for future. First, the work uses as the only source of information, the consultation at the highest level of the company. Second, the study covered only industrial companies. Future studies should focus on other sectors and countries. The results may have important practical implications for SME owners and managers and offer a vision of the influence of intellectual capital on the innovative capacity of the organization. The value of work lies in establishing the importance of intellectual capital in the environment of an emerging country such as Argentina, given the low level of knowledge that exists in this area.
      Citation: Journal of Intellectual Capital
      PubDate: 2021-02-10
      DOI: 10.1108/JIC-07-2020-0234
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Journal of Intellectual Capital

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