Subjects -> BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS (Total: 3570 journals)
    - ACCOUNTING (132 journals)
    - BANKING AND FINANCE (306 journals)
    - BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS (1248 journals)
    - CONSUMER EDUCATION AND PROTECTION (20 journals)
    - COOPERATIVES (4 journals)
    - ECONOMIC SCIENCES: GENERAL (212 journals)
    - ECONOMIC SYSTEMS, THEORIES AND HISTORY (235 journals)
    - FASHION AND CONSUMER TRENDS (20 journals)
    - HUMAN RESOURCES (103 journals)
    - INSURANCE (26 journals)
    - INTERNATIONAL COMMERCE (145 journals)
    - INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND AID (103 journals)
    - INVESTMENTS (22 journals)
    - LABOR AND INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS (61 journals)
    - MACROECONOMICS (17 journals)
    - MANAGEMENT (595 journals)
    - MARKETING AND PURCHASING (116 journals)
    - MICROECONOMICS (23 journals)
    - PRODUCTION OF GOODS AND SERVICES (143 journals)
    - PUBLIC FINANCE, TAXATION (37 journals)
    - TRADE AND INDUSTRIAL DIRECTORIES (2 journals)

BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS (1248 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Showing 601 - 800 of 1566 Journals sorted alphabetically
Investigación Administrativa     Open Access  
IPPR Progressive Review     Hybrid Journal  
Issues in Economics and Business     Open Access  
IZA Journal of Labor Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
J : Multidisciplinary Scientific Journal     Open Access  
Jahrbuch für Regionalwissenschaft     Hybrid Journal  
Jàmbá : Journal of Disaster Risk Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Japan and the World Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Japanese Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Jindal Journal of Business Research     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal cover Sustainability Management Forum / NachhaltigkeitsManagementForum     Hybrid Journal  
Journal for Art Market Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal for Global Business Advancement     Hybrid Journal  
Journal for International Business and Entrepreneurship Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Accounting & Organizational Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Accounting and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Journal of Adult Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of African Business     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of African Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Aggression Maltreatment & Trauma     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Aging & Social Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Aging Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Agricultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Journal of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Applied and Industrial Mathematics     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Applied Business Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Applied Corporate Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Applied Econometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Journal of Applied Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Journal of ASEAN Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Asia Business Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Asia-Pacific Business     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Asian Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Banking & Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 172)
Journal of Banking Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Finance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Behavioral Decision Making     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Behavioral Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Behavioural Economics and Social Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Bioeconomics     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Business     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Business     Open Access  
Journal of Business & Economic Statistics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38)
Journal of Business & Economics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Business & Financial Affairs     Open Access  
Journal of Business & Technology Law     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Business Administration : The Association of Private Higher Education Institutions of Thailand     Open Access  
Journal of Business Administration and Social Sciences Ramkhamhaeng University     Open Access  
Journal of Business Administration Research     Open Access  
Journal of Business Analytics     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Business and Behavioural Entrepreneurship     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Business and Finance     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Business and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Business and Management Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Business and Management Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Business and Management Studies     Open Access  
Journal of Business and Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Business and Social Review in Emerging Economies     Open Access  
Journal of Business and Social Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Business and Social Sciences Research     Open Access  
Journal of Business and Technical Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Business and Technology (Dhaka)     Open Access  
Journal of Business Case Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Business Continuity & Emergency Planning     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Business Cycle Research     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Business Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Business Economics and Finance     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Business Economics and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Journal of Business Ethics Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Business in The Digital Age     Open Access  
Journal of Business Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Business Strategy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Business Studies     Open Access  
Journal of Business Studies Quarterly     Open Access  
Journal of Business Thought     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Business Venturing Insights     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Centrum Cathedra     Open Access  
Journal of Chinese Economic and Business Studies     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Choice Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Cognition and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Commodity Markets     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Comparative Asian Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Comparative Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Competition Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Journal of Consumer Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Journal of Consumer Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Consumer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 49)
Journal of Contemporary European Research     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Corporate Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Journal of Creating Value     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Cultural Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Cultural Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Customer Behaviour     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Data and Information Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Derivatives & Hedge Funds     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Design, Business & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Developing Areas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Development Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 114)
Journal of Development Policy and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Development Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of East-West Business     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Eastern European and Central Asian Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Econometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 82)
Journal of Economic & Financial Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Economic & Social Policy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Journal of Economic Development, Environment and People     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Journal of Economic Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Journal of Economic Growth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Journal of Economic Inequality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Economic Integration     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Economic Interaction and Coordination     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Economic Methodology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Economic Policy Reform     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Economic Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Economic Structures     Open Access  
Journal of Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Economic Surveys     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Economics & Management Strategy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Economics and Business     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Economics and Financial Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Economics and Management Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Economics and Political Economy     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Economics and Public Finance     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Economics, Business, & Accountancy Ventura     Open Access  
Journal of Economics, Finance and Accounting Studies     Open Access  
Journal of Economics, Management and Trade     Open Access  
Journal of Education and Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Education for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Electronic Commerce in Organizations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Empirical Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Journal of Engineering and Technology Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Enterprising Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Entrepreneurship     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Entrepreneurship and Business Innovation     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation in Emerging Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Environment & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Ergonomics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of European Industrial Training     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of European Integration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
Journal of Evolutionary Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Evolutionary Studies in Business     Open Access  
Journal of Family and Economic Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Financial Crime     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 250)
Journal of Financial Econometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Journal of Financial Intermediation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Journal of Financial Regulation and Compliance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Financial Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Financial Risk Management     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Gambling Business and Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Global Business Review     Open Access  
Journal of Global Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Hazardous Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Health Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Health Organisation and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Journal of Housing Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Human Resource Costing & Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Indian Business Research     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Indonesian Economy and Business     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Industrial Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Industrial Relations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Innovation & Knowledge     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Innovation in Business and Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Institutional Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Intellectual Capital     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Intelligence Studies in Business     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Intergenerational Relationships     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of International Business Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Journal of International Education in Business     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of International Management, Educational and Economics Perspectives     Open Access  
Journal of International Scientific Researches     Open Access  
Journal of Law and Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 80)
Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49)
Journal of Legal Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 46)
Journal of Management Analytics     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Management and Development Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Manufacturing Processes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Mathematical Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Media Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Medical Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Money Laundering Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 249)
Journal of Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Multinational Financial Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Nepalese Business Studies     Open Access  
Journal of Neuroscience, Psychology, and Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of New Business Ventures     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Nonprofit Education and Leadership     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Open Innovation : Technology, Market, and Complexity     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Operations and Strategic Planning     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Organizational Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Journal of Organizational Behavior Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Organizational Computing and Electronic Commerce     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Participation and Employee Ownership     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Payments Strategy & Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Peasant Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Journal of Business Strategy
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.333
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 7  
 
Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal   * Containing 1 Open Access Open Access article(s) in this issue *
ISSN (Print) 0275-6668 - ISSN (Online) 2052-1197
Published by Emerald Homepage  [360 journals]
  • Winning the innovation game in emerging markets

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Manuel Hensmans
      Abstract: This paper aims to provide advanced market managers in Europe, the USA or Japan with a long-term framework to prepare for and seize emerging market innovation opportunities. This paper is based on eight years of studying emerging market innovation opportunities, how to prepare for them and how to seize them. This study mainly draws on experiential learning in the automotive sector, particularly in China. The framework details the strategic co-evolution of advanced market firms, emerging market governments, customers and competitors through four stages of innovation. Emerging markets such as China and India at different stages, depending on the national context of development as well as the particular market context. This research is primarily based on cases in the automotive sector. Challenging the ongoing assumption of superior advanced market innovation, this paper contributes to insights on the new innovation world order and how to invest in emerging market innovation opportunities. The framework helps advanced market managers identify the strategic stage they are in, depending on the emerging market context. It provides them with long-term strategic insights, helping them anticipate moves and countermoves by emerging market governments and competitors, as well as anticipate the rapidly shifting needs of emerging market customers. The four-stage framework brings together advanced market firms, emerging market governments, customers and competitors in a clear big picture. It conditions emerging market success in the even bigger picture of advanced market firms drawing on their learning in emerging markets in stages 3 and 4 to accelerate the renewal of their core business.
      Citation: Journal of Business Strategy
      PubDate: 2022-05-05
      DOI: 10.1108/JBS-03-2022-0042
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • The long game of innovation and value creation

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      Authors: Mark Klassen , Grant Alexander Wilson , C. Brooke Dobni
      Abstract: The purpose of the paper is to emphasize the performance benefits of a long-term innovation and value creation perspective. This paper responds to the recent concept of the imagination premium method for valuing companies. It offers four key takeaways to create a long-term innovation-focused orientation for future value creation. The research is based on both consulting experience and insight from several studies of executives that were supported by the U.S. Conference Board. The research differentiates how high versus low innovators create long-term perspectives and value. High innovators have explicit processes that support innovation, leadership that focuses on long-term performance, resources committed to long-term projects and innovation and knowledge management systems that transfer knowledge throughout the organization. The research offers strategic directives aimed at creating long-term value but acknowledges that there are other means to accomplish such objectives. This paper offers strategies for executives to create an innovation-focused organizational culture that drives lasting long-term value. Focusing on long-term innovation prioritizes larger social, environmental and business objectives over superficial short-term stock price changes, leading to greater value-creation. This paper advocates that leadership play the long game and adopt a longer-term view of innovation due to its long-term competitive, employee engagement, sustainability and performance benefits.
      Citation: Journal of Business Strategy
      PubDate: 2022-05-03
      DOI: 10.1108/JBS-02-2022-0035
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • The dog that didn’t bark: corporate profits and the future of labor
           relations

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      Authors: Peter Buell Hirsch
      Abstract: This paper aims to review trends in labor relations and reconsider the value of bringing the works council model to the United States. A review of current trends in labor relations and strike activity and an examination of the constraints of the National Labor Relations Act to the implementation of works councils. The works council model could provide a robust means for managing labor relations tensions as well as emerging concerns of the next generation of employees. While there have been discussions of the legal limitations on adopting work councils in the United States, there has been no recent discussion of them in the context of improving labor relations.
      Citation: Journal of Business Strategy
      PubDate: 2022-04-27
      DOI: 10.1108/JBS-04-2022-0062
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • A fraction of an executive: new ways to save and compete

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      Authors: Maggie So , Atul Teckchandani
      Abstract: A new way for business leaders to access targeted professional help is via fractional service providers. Fractional service providers can provide tremendous advantages, as they are much more closely associated with the company than outsourcing or consulting service providers, while being more cost effective than full-time employees. A fractional service provider that can be of particular benefit to startups and small businesses is a fractional CFO or Controller – who can provide an organization with the skills to perform all of the activities that a finance and accounting department should perform and provide a consistent leadership voice on all finance-related matters. This paper first introduces fractional services and discusses how fractional service providers differ from outsourcing, consulting engagements and full-time employment. Then, it presents an explanation of why fractional service providers may be best suited to manage the finance and accounting functions in a small or medium-sized business. Finally, it discusses factors that business leaders should consider and best practices they should use when using fractional services. Using a fractional CFO or Controller will provide an increased focus on the company’s financial health and allow the organization to perform (or oversee) all of the activities that a finance and accounting department should be performing. The scope of work a fractional CFO or Controller performs can be easily modified to meet the needs of the firm, Moreover, they require little direct management. As a result, a fractional CFO or Controller can often be a more cost-effective option than hiring for the finance and accounting function on a full-time basis. In today’s world, organizations are increasingly seeking ways to maintain effectiveness while also being flexible in how human capital is used. This paper discusses one such flexibility: incorporating fractional service providers. The key premise of this paper is that fractional service providers, specifically fractional CFOs or Controllers, can be an extremely effective way for many organizations, especially small businesses and startups, to get more sophisticated help and guidance in finance and accounting-related matters – thereby acting as an excellent bridge between an ineffective finance and accounting function and creating such a function staffed by full-time employees.
      Citation: Journal of Business Strategy
      PubDate: 2022-03-29
      DOI: 10.1108/JBS-02-2022-0024
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Design thinking: strategy for digital transformation

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      Authors: Luca Vendraminelli , Laura Macchion , Anna Nosella , Andrea Vinelli
      Abstract: Digital advancements offer several opportunities to firms to gain competitive advantages, pushing them to transform their operating models. From the managerial standpoint, governing a digital transformation process is a complex task, as it means steering the process that goes from the exploration of the ample spectrum of opportunities that digital technologies provide, to the reduction of this complexity to a final set of actions to be designed and executed. As design theories are suited to solve complex problems, the purpose of this paper is to frame a design-driven approach to plan and execute a digital transformation. This study pivots on an in-depth case study of a large Italian firm in the fashion sector that adopted design thinking to craft its digital transformation strategy and turn it into a list of projects to be executed. Drawing from design theories, the authors framed a three-stage process (understanding reality, defining a digital transformation strategy and converting the digital transformation strategy into digital projects). The external validity of the study is limited due to the choice to rely on an in-depth single case study. The framework provided offers a structure for managing the digital transformation through strategy development and execution. Moreover, practitioners and companies can evaluate if their digital transformation process is under control and reflect whether they have been giving the right attention to each of the three identified stages. They could follow the footsteps of EYEWEAR and adopt the proposed framework to design their company’s digital transformation process. This paper is supposed to help firms in reflecting on how to organize their digital transformation process. A positive transition to digital technologies enabled by the human-centeredness of design is likely to improve the quality of life of the people that belong to the transformed organization. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is one of the first research attempts at the crossroad between the fields of design, strategy and technology management and a groundwork for further studies to be conducted in this field.
      Citation: Journal of Business Strategy
      PubDate: 2022-03-21
      DOI: 10.1108/JBS-01-2022-0009
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Metaverse – the new marketing universe

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      Authors: Svend Hollensen , Philip Kotler , Marc Oliver Opresnik
      Abstract: This study aims to present and explain the concept of Metaverse, which will revolutionize nearly every industry and can be regarded as the 3D version of the internet. Especially, the paper explores the “building blocks” of the Metaverse and how it is functioning in a case study. The Metaverse concept is explained by the Nike–Roblox case study, where the authors explore the customer benefits, that are provided by the Nikeland project. The Nike–Roblox case study is showing that virtual platforms, content services, consumer and business behavior are the most important and visible “building blocks” to the Nikeland visitors (customers) in the Nike–Roblox alliance. The Metaverse is gaining popularity among the big global brands. It is expected that the big breakthrough for Metaverse will happen when the next layer of brands, the regional and local brands, will start penetrating the Metaverse. Metaverse will be the new future marketing platform for presenting and giving life to all kinds of brands in the 3D interactive digital space. Metaverse is a digital copy of how we are working in the physical world. In this 3D digital space, the users can come together via avatars that resemble them. This will have an enormous effect on how companies will use the marketing function and how we will communicate with each other in future.
      Citation: Journal of Business Strategy
      PubDate: 2022-03-17
      DOI: 10.1108/JBS-01-2022-0014
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Giving over selling: advertising for the social enterprise

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      Authors: Joshua T. Coleman
      Abstract: A social enterprise is a hybrid business organization which pursues both profit maximization and social change. This study aims to explore effective ways to communicate authentic motives through social enterprise advertisements. Four sets of advertisements were created to explore the effects of different message cues on perceived authenticity. These ads were presented through internet surveys in varying combinations. Per cue congruency theory, when both giving and selling cues are presented together, they contradict one another, thereby neutralizing any positive feelings which would otherwise be gained through the use of a giving cue. Thus, the highest perceptions of authentic motives underlying an advertisement are gained when only giving cues are used. Social entrepreneurs should recognize the limitations of presenting both giving and selling cues in tandem with one another. Doing so may help increase profitability and sales, but it will decrease the authenticity of a perceived message. To communicate authenticity through advertising, the social entrepreneur should highlight the social enterprise’s mission and giving characteristics rather than the products or services being sold. To the best of the author’s knowledge, this research is among the first to explore authenticity in marketing messages for the social enterprise. Further, while extant research identifies methods of overcoming contradictory message appeals, the novel findings of this research demonstrate the effectiveness of avoiding the potential for negative reactions altogether.
      Citation: Journal of Business Strategy
      PubDate: 2022-03-17
      DOI: 10.1108/JBS-11-2021-0179
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Launching the Internet of Things: how to ensure a successful debut

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      Authors: Gregory Gimpel , Candice M. Vander Weerdt
      Abstract: Companies that leverage the Internet-of-things (IoT) will gain significant competitive advantages over the competition; however, few businesses have active IoT initiatives. This paper aims to provide principles to guide executives as they launch or scale-up IoT initiatives. This paper draws upon data from original expert interviews and an extensive study of existing scholarly literature, management publications and white papers from leading strategy and technology firms. Close cooperation among a company’s operations, business strategy and information technology units creates a trifecta of skills, vision and budgeting that can successfully bring major IoT initiatives to fruition. Unfortunately, many companies face a misalignment among these departments. The way to overcome this misalignment is to create a cross-functional team dedicated to IoT initiatives. Leaders should build these teams on the principles of autonomy, rational compensation, equality and diversity. This paper provides strategic advice for business leaders as well as four guiding principles with which to execute their IoT strategies. Much of the writing about IoT advocates initiatives by teaching about the many business benefits of IoT or provides a use case for a specific type of IoT technology. This paper focuses on removing a major obstacle faced by many business leaders who want to embrace the IoT but find themselves unable to do so.
      Citation: Journal of Business Strategy
      PubDate: 2022-03-17
      DOI: 10.1108/JBS-12-2021-0204
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • When do we eat' Food ordering platform strategies

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      Authors: Meenakshi N.
      Abstract: Food ordering apps have registered phenomenal growth during the pandemic and will continue to register high growth in the years to come. This paper has three objectives: first, to differentiate between the sales funnel of traditional vs platform businesses; second, to understand the sales funnel optimization strategies of a leading food ordering app in India; and third, to draw lessons from these strategies to enable food ordering apps in particular, and platform businesses in general to achieve the goals of customer acquisition and retention in a highly competitive market. The study is based on interviews conducted with company officials of two leading food delivery platforms in India, and a rich qualitative analysis of secondary data sources including news reports, government policies, reports and statistics from global consultancy firms. The interviews were analyzed to understand various stages of the sales funnel for the food ordering apps and the strategies implemented by the companies based on their understanding of the customer journey. The findings of the study reveal that the sales funnel of a food ordering platform can be divided into three stages – top of the funnel (ToFu), middle of the funnel (MoFu) and bottom of the funnel. In the ToFu stage, the goal of the food ordering app is to create awareness about their brand and induce app download, which results in customer acquisition. In the MoFu stage, the food ordering app initiates personalized promotion strategies to trigger maximum orders via the app. The customer is then targeted for retention and referrals. Customer app navigation and order data are the most crucial inputs for navigating the sales funnel effectively. First, app-based service firms, especially food ordering platforms, can understand how the digital sales funnel can be optimized to generate an appropriate customer mix. Second, they need to understand various interventions at different stages of the sales funnel to move the customer from the app download to loyalty. Third, the food ordering platforms and app-based service firms need to understand how to use customer data to design customer relationship management strategies that can convert retention into referral strategies to expand the funnel. Incumbents in the intensely competitive food ordering industry need to understand the process of customer acquisition and retention. An understanding of the digital sales funnel can enable them to achieve the right mix of customers in their fold. Other companies that offer app-based services can also understand various stages of the digital sales funnel, and how customers can be moved from one stage to the next one by planning appropriate interventions using app data. The research contributes by offering clear insights on how food delivery platforms in India acquire and retain customers through an understanding of the digital sales funnel. The paper also offers insights on the interventions that are adopted by such firms to move customers from one stage of the sales funnel to the next one. The paper clearly brings out the value of the 3Rs for a food ordering platform – revenue, retention and referral.
      Citation: Journal of Business Strategy
      PubDate: 2022-03-11
      DOI: 10.1108/JBS-11-2021-0187
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Artificial intelligence: a strategy to harness its power through
           organizational learning

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      Authors: Mohammad Hossein Jarrahi , Sarah Kenyon , Ashley Brown , Chelsea Donahue , Chris Wicher
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to present a framework that captures the strategic value of artificial intelligence (AI) systems. Although AI has become a crucial component of digital transformation efforts tied to organizational strategy, many firms struggle to derive strategic value from emerging AI systems. The analytical framework in this paper is based on a learning-centered approach. Specifically, by building on the knowledge-based perspective, this paper elaborates on how AI can contribute to organizational learning to create a competitive advantage in knowledge-intensive contexts. This paper argues that the power of AI as a strategic resource lies in its self-learning capacities. Such learning capacities are only realized in partnership with humans through mutual learning. This paper formulates the concept of artificial capital and the ways artificial and human capital can together drive routinization and strategic learning processes that connect internal and external environments of the organization. This is a timely contribution as many organizations are considering adopting AI technologies for strategic purposes. This paper translates the proposed framework into several practical implications for managing and developing AI to meet strategic business goals.
      Citation: Journal of Business Strategy
      PubDate: 2022-02-16
      DOI: 10.1108/JBS-11-2021-0182
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Bias versus error: why projects fall short

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      Authors: Lavagnon Ika , Jeffrey K. Pinto , Peter E.D. Love , Gilles Pache
      Abstract: Worldwide, major projects often make the headlines as they suffer from a fourfold whammy of delays, cost blowouts, benefit shortfalls and stakeholder disappointments. It seems that error and bias can explain their underperformance. Which overarching explanation outweighs the other' It is the question this paper aims to address. Insights are garnered from decades of research on thousands of major projects in developed and developing countries worldwide. In particular, two high-profile project cases, the Veteran Affairs Hospital in Aurora, Colorado (USA) and the Philharmonie de Paris (France), are explored. The case projects show that error and bias combine to best explain project (under) performance. Applying best practices or debiasing project cost and benefit estimates is insufficient to prevent cost blowouts and benefit shortfalls. The confrontation of the two overarching explanations is not merely platonic. It is real and may lead to a media and legal battle. This viewpoint calls practitioners to transcend the error versus bias debate and reconcile two key characters in the world of major projects: the “overoptimistic” who hold a bias for hope and firmly believe that, despite error down the road, many projects would, in the end, “stumble into success” as creativity may come to the rescue; and the “overpessimistic” who hold a bias for despair and think many projects should not have been started.
      Citation: Journal of Business Strategy
      PubDate: 2022-02-16
      DOI: 10.1108/JBS-11-2021-0190
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • The mysterious world of airline pricing: innovative practices and
           strategies for profit

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      Authors: Chiranjeev S. Kohli , Mohammad Reza Habibi
      Abstract: Business success and pricing are very closely intertwined. This study aims to explain how businesses can improve their profitability by relying on creative pricing strategies that managers across industries can adopt. This study uses research from related fields and a detailed analysis of the airline industry to deconstruct its success and identify innovative pricing practices that have helped salvage it. Based on our analysis, the authors propose several strategies that can help companies control their pricing and leverage it to increase profitability. These include decommoditizing, segmenting the market (up and down), scrutinizing customer behavior, offering versioning and ancillary services, actively promoting these add-ons and using dynamic pricing. This study takes an unusual approach and look at the airline industry – literally a textbook example of an oligopoly. The authors argue that if companies in an oligopoly – with undifferentiated services – can dig themselves out of the depths of nonexistent profits by using innovative pricing, it should be much simpler for companies in other industries that offer easier differentiation.
      Citation: Journal of Business Strategy
      PubDate: 2022-02-04
      DOI: 10.1108/JBS-12-2020-0270
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Marketing performance: aligning people, processes, and results

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      Authors: António Pimenta da Gama
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to integrate and extend existing knowledge about marketing performance assessment, making a case for a measurement system identifying five categories of metrics on which attention should be focused. The paper is organized in three parts. It starts with a summary of the current state of knowledge about marketing performance assessment, followed by the presentation of the model in terms of its rationale and architecture. Then, the metrics that make up the model are explained and operationalized. Lastly, a concluding note is presented. Both scholars and managers have been calling for methods and concepts addressing the how and why marketing succeeds or fails. The author believes that certain metrics, when integrated into a holistic and actionable framework, can have a positive and transformational impact on the way marketing is measured in organizations. Metrics are meaningless when viewed in isolation. Yet, most of the literature on the subject focus on individual indicators. Also, it tends to overemphasize marketing outcomes. This work offers a complementary view to what has already been written on the subject, suggesting a performance assessment model that highlights requirements/prerequisites, processes, outcomes and organizational context.
      Citation: Journal of Business Strategy
      PubDate: 2022-02-01
      DOI: 10.1108/JBS-10-2021-0170
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Corporate financial disclosures and the importance of readability

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      Authors: Nadia Smaili , Anne Marie Gosselin , Julien Le Maux
      Abstract: This paper draws on prior studies on the readability of corporate financial disclosures to discuss why readability should be a concern for firms. Guidance and recommendations are offered to help firms improve their financial disclosures. The authors base their analysis on the management and accounting literature on readability. This paper presents the main causes and consequences of complexity in corporate disclosures and identifies four disclosure writing styles: obfuscation, informativeness, deception and avoidance. This paper suggests that firms concerned about the readability of their communications use a balanced strategy and proposes some practical actions for its implementation. This paper makes several contributions by offering insights into questions that should be raised by top management and the board of directors, including: Why care about readability' What are the causes and consequences of low readability' What strategies can we adopt and how should we implement them'
      Citation: Journal of Business Strategy
      PubDate: 2022-01-27
      DOI: 10.1108/JBS-07-2021-0127
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • How CSL Biotech became a global player: getting ahead of the competition

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      Authors: Mark P. Ward , Oleksiy Osiyevskyy
      Abstract: This paper aims to examine the role strategic problem identification and resolution played in identifying and capturing new sources of competitive advantage as CSL Limited (CSL) transformed itself into the world’s fifth-largest biotechnology company. Historical accounts of superior business growth are usually explained by looking back to identify a firm’s sources of competitive advantage. However, what managers really want to know is how to identify opportunities to create and capture competitive advantage ahead of competitors. The authors examined CSL’s journey between 1994 and 2019 through a case study approach and the lens of the problem-identification and problem-solving perspective (PSP). The PSP assumes strategic problems act as antecedents to discovering and capturing new sources of competitive advantage. The problems a firm identifies and resolves influences whether or not, in what direction and for whom an organization creates value. The authors provide examples of the strategic problems CSL identified and how they acted as the catalyst to proactively identify new sources of competitive advantage. The formulated problems helped manager to see in advance what resources, capabilities and governance mechanisms would be required to create and capture value. Generalizing the lessons learned, the authors propose a business-problem classification framework and portfolio approach to encourage managers to identify, formulate and resolve different types of strategic problems. These problems could motivate firms to tackle problems beyond which they have successfully tackled before and discover new sources of competitive advantage ahead of competitors.
      Citation: Journal of Business Strategy
      PubDate: 2022-01-12
      DOI: 10.1108/JBS-08-2021-0151
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Service ecosystems: why the media industry prefers access, not ownership

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      Authors: Jennifer Chandler , Atul Teckchandani
      Abstract: Because of the increasing importance of access over ownership, the purpose of this paper is to propose a service ecosystem perspective to help managers navigate hypercompetition. With the rise of cloud-based services and the ongoing recovery from the COVID-19 pandemic, the global economy has shifted toward hypercompetition, a state characterized by organizational advantages that are rapidly created and then destroyed by intense competitive moves. Because advantages are quickly eroded, organizations must be aggressive in the number of actions they take and the speed with which they execute these actions. The service ecosystem perspective focuses on relationships that allow organizations to jointly adjust to one another and to their environment. This paper first reviews traditional strategies for navigating hypercompetition. Then, it presents an explanation of the service ecosystem perspective. Finally, the three north stars and media examples are provided. The service ecosystem perspective asserts “north stars” that can guide managerial decision-making in hypercompetitive environments. These north stars are: cultivate system norms, facilitate feedback loops and embrace servitization. In today’s world, organizations are increasingly seeking access to resources instead of ownership of them. The proposed approach suggests that, rather than an organization owning the resources it needs to achieve advantages, organizations are increasingly relying on accessing resources by coordinating with other organizations to draw upon the resource(s) as needed, without incurring the additional burdens of ownership. Examples from the media industry are used to illustrate the three north stars of the service ecosystems perspective.
      Citation: Journal of Business Strategy
      PubDate: 2022-01-10
      DOI: 10.1108/JBS-08-2021-0137
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Forging a new corporate engagement

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      Authors: Peter Buell Hirsch
      Abstract: This paper aims to highlight the need for corporations to engage politically to create a more functional capitalist system. Selective review of relevant economic and sociopolitical developments is presented in this paper. There is a growing movement among economists and commentators to hold corporations accountable for political engagement which they ignore at their peril. While individual strands of this story have been discussed before, the subject has never been handled from the perspective of corporate reputation in a comprehensive manner.
      Citation: Journal of Business Strategy
      PubDate: 2022-03-02
      DOI: 10.1108/JBS-02-2022-0026
      Issue No: Vol. 43 , No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Social media and new services: how a consulting firm leveraged LinkedIn

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      Authors: Michael Benedic
      Abstract: This paper aims to explore how social media can be used strategically for delivering new services in a small- and medium-sized enterprise (SME) context. Single case study: CONSULT+ (pseudonym), a consulting firm specialized in change management. Consultants use a social media network to develop their new services. To take on the challenges of heightened competition, CONSULT+ has created thematic business units to encourage new service development. This research explored strategies, practices and benefits associated of using social media network by intrapreneurs at all levels of new service idea trajectory (idea generation, elaboration, championing and implementation). The research is based on a single case study. Further research should be conducted to establish the generalization of the results. This paper highlights the key success factors in making such an approach successful: raising awareness of the benefits of using social media; analysing of complementarities of tools; accompanying the development of advanced practices; capturing the valuable potential for the organization and avoiding negative effects of individual practices. The research provides a unique approach that can be practically implemented within knowledge-intensive SMEs to leverage social media network to deliver new services (best practices and insights for managerial support schemes).
      Citation: Journal of Business Strategy
      PubDate: 2021-12-31
      DOI: 10.1108/JBS-04-2021-0074
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Why companies succeed or fail: corporate cycles and firm function in
           tandem

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      Authors: Panos Mourdoukoutas , Abraham Stefanidis
      Abstract: This paper aims to underscore the need for developing a model of corporate cycles, which can explain how corporations rise, decline and fall in the marketplace. This is a conceptual study that draws on prior theoretical and empirical insights of the entrepreneurial, managerial and social functions of the firm to develop a model of corporate cycles. Firms that pass the test of the market and live for a long time, undergo cycles, expansions and contractions, driven by successes and failures in the way they configure and execute their entrepreneurial, managerial and social, functions. A model of corporate cycles can explain how momentum rises and falls on Wall Street. It can also help predict revenue growth, a key variable in equity valuation models. The originality of this study stems from a constructive synthesis of different concepts and theories of the firm to explain firms’ growth, decline and fall in the marketplace.
      Citation: Journal of Business Strategy
      PubDate: 2021-12-27
      DOI: 10.1108/JBS-09-2021-0164
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Why being sustainable is not enough: embracing a net positive impact

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      Authors: Ulrich Lichtenthaler
      Abstract: This paper develops the concept of positive sustainability or positainability to go beyond many leaders’ traditional understanding of sustainability as primarily avoiding harm. Rather, executives need to embrace a positive perspective in terms of doing good and creating value in a firm’s core business as the next level of sustainability management. Positive sustainability is defined as the combination of doing good and avoiding bad to arrive at innovative solutions for achieving a “net positive impact” in the core business rather than merely targeting “no net loss” by reducing harm for the environment and society. This is a conceptual paper with an example, and it relies on prior insights from related research fields, including the sustainable development goals, corporate social responsibility, creating shared value, positive psychology, social entrepreneurship and social innovation. Many organizations have recently launched sustainability initiatives, which often focus on achieving efficiency gains, for example, by reducing power consumption to lower carbon emissions in the face of climate change and to simultaneously save costs. In future competition, however, avoiding unsustainability in the core business and potentially doing good in separate social responsibility programs will not be enough. Furthermore, a focus on “quick win” efficiency gains may limit a more fundamental transformation, which is needed in many firms. There is a massive shift in consumer expectations, especially among younger generations, concerning firms’ active contribution to solving environmental and social challenges. Consistent with positive psychology, these market shifts require a positive perspective in terms of doing good in the core business. The concept of positive sustainability has major implications for innovation, transformation and communications management. Even those firms that view themselves as leaders hardly realize the opportunities from positive sustainability. By developing innovative solutions, products and services, companies may positively contribute to the environment and society. In the medium to long term, this positive impact will often exceed the short-term benefits of efficiency-centered programs. Most firms and leaders will simply have no choice but to embrace a “net positive impact” because customers strongly expect companies to take action in terms of positive sustainability.
      Citation: Journal of Business Strategy
      PubDate: 2021-12-21
      DOI: 10.1108/JBS-09-2021-0153
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Building an ethical culture by improving conditions for whistleblowing

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      Authors: Nadia Smaili
      Abstract: This paper aims to discuss the importance of an effective internal whistleblowing system in building a more ethical organizational climate. This study draws on the literature to make recommendations for organizations, managers and boards of directors regarding implementing an effective whistleblowing process. This paper offers practical information on what constitutes an appropriate level of preparedness and responsiveness. Organizations can reinforce their internal ethics by encouraging whistleblowers to report complaints internally. An effective whistleblowing process depends on the organization’s desire to build an ethical climate and its awareness of the power of whistleblowing as an ethical tool. This study will help managers and other professionals to create and maintain an ethical climate by implementing an effective whistleblowing process. The discussion in this paper is important for any type of organization concerned with empowering whistleblowers and the whistleblowing process.
      Citation: Journal of Business Strategy
      PubDate: 2021-12-14
      DOI: 10.1108/JBS-07-2021-0123
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Coopetition in a failed merger project: why two French companies called it
           quits

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      Authors: Anne-Sophie Thelisson
      Abstract: Coopetition includes cooperation and competition, sometimes simultaneously, among firms from a specific industry involved in a merger and acquisition (M&A) operation. However, despite their high number, most mergers end in failure. Therefore, looking at how firms cooperate and compete when planning a merger operation can be a key to better understand post-merger integration, set achievable synergies for both parties and better understand the organizational culture of both companies. Also, external events in a rapidly changing environment can affect the global strategy of organizations and impact the desire for firms to engage in mergers and acquisitions. The author investigates how merger negotiations were conducted and influence coopetition among two firms engaged in such an operation. The author describes the project merger of two French companies using longitudinal data. This in-depth case study provides new insights into coopetition dynamics during merger negotiations and the influence of a global crisis on the overall strategy of two firms. The authors specifically detail how cooperation and competition were present in M&A negotiations and how the rapidly changing environment influenced the planned operation. First, cooperation was privileged as companies enhanced information sharing and communication for their joint strategy. Then, with the evolution of the environment, new opportunities were given to the target company, which decided to quit the merger project. Therefore, both firms engaged in a competitive context as the crisis helped the target company (in difficulty at the beginning of negotiations) to develop new projects and to become a real rival of the acquiring company in its local ecosystem. The limitations are those concerning a single case study. The study highlights the complexity of merger negotiations and the unexpected events faced by integration stakeholders. The analysis, thus, contributes to an inclusive and integrative view of the challenges in the merger process. The study questions coopetition issues in regional clusters as both firms operate in the same industry in the same region. For practitioners, the study questions how to balance the risks and rewards of coopetition activities over time. The case addresses information sharing in coopetition projects and the fear that the data and information revealed during negotiations will affect the company’s competitive advantage once the merger plan is abandoned. In the context of the rapidly changing environmental crisis, managers will reflect on continuing to cooperate with their competitors or pursuing their activities on their own. Despite their high number, M&A failures remain surprisingly high. This study explores how stakeholders deal with merger negotiations and how external events impact such negotiations and merger projects by raising coopetitive tensions among firms. The case provides a vivid illustration of firms’ adaptation to a rapidly evolving context due to a global crisis. The research questions coopetition in business ecosystems and the unexpected in merger processes. The study addresses critical risks in knowledge exchange during merger negotiations and coopetitive dynamics among stakeholders over time. Theoretical concepts and empirical findings from the literature are combined to present a single consistent picture.
      Citation: Journal of Business Strategy
      PubDate: 2021-11-24
      DOI: 10.1108/JBS-06-2021-0102
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Customer experience can play a strategic role for wineries

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      Authors: Antonella Angelini , Annalisa Gilli
      Abstract: This paper aims to consider how customer experience can be used by wineries to enrich their value proposition and improve their competitive advantage. Qualitative research, using a semi-structured interview approach, was conducted on four small sized wineries located in the Bolgheri area (Tuscany, Italy). This study was based on the theoretical model of Pine and Gilmore. All the wineries in the sample are committed to enriching wine – the tangible product. They focus on customer experience to make the process unique and meaningful. They seek to provide a rich experience, but have chosen one experience dimension to create a specific identity for themselves. It is evident, based on interviews and online reviews, that the customers appreciate the efforts of the wineries. This study can be further developed, using dimensions such as brand awareness and by building a larger sample, to understand how wineries can further improve their value proposition. The adoption of marketing experience requires flawless execution of the experiences, starting from first employee-customer interaction. For this reason, it is essential for companies to invest in the training and development of their employees, who represent the experiential offer, and act as the link between the internal and external world. It is also important to identify new trends and be proactive. Very few studies in the literature focus on customer experience in wine sector.
      Citation: Journal of Business Strategy
      PubDate: 2021-11-23
      DOI: 10.1108/JBS-06-2021-0103
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Thriving on adversity: entrepreneurial thinking in times of crisis

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      Authors: Oleksiy Osiyevskyy , Kanhaiya Kumar Sinha , Soumodip Sarkar , Jim Dewald
      Abstract: The paper provides evidence-based managerial advice for preparing the organizations to find successful pathways through crises by priming the managerial decision-making towards either entrepreneurial thinking or resource conservation, and hence cascading the inventive or rigid state of mind through all management levels. The general review is based on summarizing the peer-reviewed academic studies of organizational decision-making and acting in crisis situations, illustrated using the turnaround cases of Corticeira Amorim (reinventing itself when faced with emerging technological threats) and Kiddiegarten School (adjusting to the pandemic shock of social/human nature) This study reveals that a set of dimensions in the crisis situation’s cognitive framing determines the firm’s response to adversity, freezing it in a rigid state or unfreezing it to stimulate an organization-wide entrepreneurial search for turnaround strategies. If managers sense having a lack of time to deal with adversity, or a lack of predictability, they become paralyzed with threat-rigidity mechanisms, stubbornly pursuing the established methods of doing business, which often were the cause of crisis in the first place. Hence, in situations requiring an immediate response, the dual threats of urgency and unpredictability become cognitive blinders, preventing organizations from pursuing new opportunities, exposing firms to the risk of being too slow, eroding their competitive advantage and, ultimately, going out of business. Integrating the insights of three decades prior research of the topic of managerial decision making in crisis situations, this study proposes the novel leadership framework allowing to stimulate entrepreneurial behavior in adverse contexts.
      Citation: Journal of Business Strategy
      PubDate: 2021-11-23
      DOI: 10.1108/JBS-06-2021-0110
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Boards and innovation in volatile environments: insights from Brazil

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      Authors: Antonio Gelis-Filho , Sergio Almeida Xavier De Brito
      Abstract: Boards and innovation in volatile environments: insights from Brazil
      Citation: Journal of Business Strategy
      PubDate: 2021-11-17
      DOI: 10.1108/JBS-06-2021-0111
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Cybersecurity and the new firm: surviving online threats

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      Authors: Vallari Chandna , Praneet Tiwari
      Abstract: Nascent firms and startups are often subject to challenges that their more mature counterparts can avoid. While cybersecurity is an issue that all firms contend with, it is especially challenging for new entrepreneurial ventures who lack the resources and capabilities of established firms. The purpose of this paper is to seek to delve deeper into the cybersecurity and risk management needs of small firms and startups. Extant literature and available tools are explored to develop a usable framework applicable to small firms and new entrepreneurial ventures. The liabilities of newness and smallness make entrepreneurial ventures a unique context in which to study the significance of cybersecurity and data privacy risk management. The authors offer an overview of issues and potential solutions relevant to entrepreneurial ventures. While offering practical insights, the work is a theoretical framework. The framework will enable researchers to develop more nuanced theory when it comes to cybersecurity and data privacy risk management. The framework illustrates four distinct contexts for cybersecurity and risk management when it comes to the needs of small firms and startups. Adoption levels are explained, and small business operators and entrepreneurs can thus use the framework to determine the most appropriate approach for their enterprise. The authors develop a framework illustrating adoption of different security and risk management practices by entrepreneurial ventures based on their specific needs and context. The authors thus offer practical solutions for startups and nascent firms regarding cybersecurity and privacy management.
      Citation: Journal of Business Strategy
      PubDate: 2021-10-25
      DOI: 10.1108/JBS-08-2021-0146
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Serving the low-income consumer in a rich economy: Dollar General racks up
           sales

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      Authors: Glyn Atwal , Douglas Bryson
      Abstract: The conceptualization of the Base of Pyramid (BOP) proposes that low-income markets can lead to profitable opportunities for businesses. The purpose of this study is to identify key success factors of a BOP business strategy based on a case study of the discount retailer, Dollar General, in the USA. The research design used in this research is an in-depth case study of Dollar General in the USA. Qualitative methods are applied in both the primary and secondary data collection and during the follow-on data analysis of Dollar General. Dollar General’s strategic profile is achieved through the combination of the following four actions which are tailored to compete effectively at the BOP in the USA: creating the neighborhood discounter, raising aspirational appeal, reducing service and eliminating internationalization. The case is specific to Dollar General in a US cultural context. The case of Dollar General demonstrates how a discounter retailer should not only follow a low-cost strategy to compete at the BOP. Its ability to craft a distinctive strategy is coherent with meeting the logistical, rational and emotional needs of the low-income consumer in the USA. Many businesses have neglected rural areas of the USA as being unprofitable. The ability for businesses such as Dollar General to serve the BOP segment can foster the socio-economic well-being of communities. The overwhelming body of the BOP literature is based on emerging markets. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is one of the few studies to investigate BOP business strategy in the USA.
      Citation: Journal of Business Strategy
      PubDate: 2021-10-22
      DOI: 10.1108/JBS-06-2021-0104
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Competitive empathy: sharing values and strategies with rivals

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      Authors: Antonio Ghezzi
      Abstract: This study aims to introduce the original idea of competitive empathy, to go beyond competitive advantage and help managers and entrepreneurs strategize with a shared purpose. This study builds on and originally combines seminal works on empathy in the fields of psychology and management, which are extended to embrace the notion of empathy toward competitors. Empirical research leveraged different methods, including “class as a lab” research; field studies; and collaborative research. To support managers’ and entrepreneurs’ effort to be more empathic and emotionally intelligent when dealing with competitors, the study introduces the “Competitive Empathy Catalyst” tool, which identifies three layers – namely, orientation, execution and foundation – where to look for common ground between your company’s and your competitors’ strategy. A set of principles that should inspire managers’ strategic behavior and action to enable competitive empathy are also proposed: search for a non-conflicting identification with competitors and avoid “egotism”; adopt “perspective-taking”; practice “mirroring”; aim at the “greater good”; leverage “vicarious learning” and apply “cautionary trust.” Looking at competitors from a different angle and applying competitive empathy as a strategic device can uncover a plethora of opportunities benefiting the company’s strategy and ability to create, deliver and capture value. Empathy in management theory and practice has been traditionally associated with interaction with customers, employees and stakeholders. Competitive empathy counterintuitively applies empathy to a category of players that were largely left out from the discussion, that is, competitors.
      Citation: Journal of Business Strategy
      PubDate: 2021-10-21
      DOI: 10.1108/JBS-05-2021-0088
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Memoryscape: how managers can create lasting customer experiences

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      Authors: Rod McColl , Jan Mattsson , Kathleen Charters
      Abstract: A detailed conceptualization of how service experiences are transformed into a memory and the circumstances surrounding a memorable experience is not available in the customer experience literature. This paper aims to address this gap using a multi-dimensional framework (memoryscape) to explain memory processes for service experiences. The paper integrates psychology research, and particularly autobiographical memory, within customer experience management. The paper proposes a comprehensive, multi-dimensional framework (memoryscape) of memory and highlights managerial implications. Marketers have yet to fully understand the role of memory in service experience consumption. In today’s service-dominant economy, understanding more about the memoryscape should be a managerial and research priority. The authors present four managerial priorities for managing customer experience memories. The authors assimilate theories and empirical research in psychology, particularly autobiographical memory, to propose an integrated conceptual framework of the service memory process (memoryscape), to provide insights for managers looking to create memorable customer experiences.
      Citation: Journal of Business Strategy
      PubDate: 2021-10-14
      DOI: 10.1108/JBS-02-2021-0031
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • World’s biggest retailer launches Walmart Plus and customers have
           their say

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      Authors: Art T. Weinstein , Kristen Anti , Esteban Ochoa
      Abstract: The Covid crisis led to a huge worldwide shift in consumer behavior. In response, Walmart’s revised business strategy promoted their online delivery service known as Walmart Plus. This study aims to critique the potential of this new venture via a customer value analysis. Using the customer value funnel, Walmart’s market environment, organizational factors, customer perceptions and business performance are examined. An exploratory survey collected data from South Florida residents on awareness and interest in Walmart Plus. The changing marketplace forced Walmart to quickly adapt to online buyers and emphasize the value of their retail and grocery products. Walmart Plus is an alternative to Amazon Prime and can assist the company gain market share in regional grocery markets. This work is largely conceptual and presents a case study featuring a limited sample in one metropolitan statistical area. While the findings are insightful, it may not be representative of the US market. Corporate executives and entrepreneurs must respond to changing market conditions and rethink their business models to deliver superior customer value. This requires introducing innovative services and digital initiatives to compete successfully. The paper concludes with recommendations for management and questions for consideration. Walmart is the dominant American retailer and a global leader. While there has been considerable research on this retail giant, there has been limited analysis of their digital initiatives such as Walmart Plus.
      Citation: Journal of Business Strategy
      PubDate: 2021-10-06
      DOI: 10.1108/JBS-07-2021-0133
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • The new retail model: global reach demands omni-channels

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      Authors: Guillaume Do Vale , Isabelle Collin-Lachaud , Xavier Lecocq
      Abstract: To cope with online competitors and new consumer behaviors, retailers need to hybrid digital and physical offerings to implement an omni-channel business model. This constitutes a digital transformation of the traditional business model. However, business cases on how traditional retailers are shifting from multi-channel to omni-channel retailing are lacking. This paper aims to explore the different issues and organizational paths during the transformation of a business model. This study is based on a qualitative multiple case study of five retailers with a global reach currently implementing an omni-channel business model. This research sheds light on three main issues encountered by retailers and the different underlying decisions when moving toward an omni-channel business model. The first relates to revenue attribution across channels, which involves rethinking traditional key performance indicators to give incentives to stores when promoting digital offers. The second issue concerns the supply chain decisions associated with cross-channel operations. The third issue relates to the delicate balance between global reach (digital channel) and local reach (specific store) for communication on social media and marketing decisions on pricing. This study provides empirical evidence about the variety of choices that retailers make to cope with the issues during the implementation of an omni-channel business model. This work explores the issues faced by established firms when moving toward a new business model that is the hybridization of two existing business model managed separately. It provides comprehensive and clear illustration of how to manage such a business model transformation process that can be used by both business strategy practice and academic research.
      Citation: Journal of Business Strategy
      PubDate: 2021-10-03
      DOI: 10.1108/JBS-02-2021-0026
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Who’s making the decisions' How managers can harness artificial
           intelligence and remain in charge

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      Authors: Pooya Tabesh
      Abstract: While it is evident that the introduction of machine learning and the availability of big data have revolutionized various organizational operations and processes, existing academic and practitioner research within decision process literature has mostly ignored the nuances of these influences on human decision-making. Building on existing research in this area, this paper aims to define these concepts from a decision-making perspective and elaborates on the influences of these emerging technologies on human analytical and intuitive decision-making processes. The authors first provide a holistic understanding of important drivers of digital transformation. The authors then conceptualize the impact that analytics tools built on artificial intelligence (AI) and big data have on intuitive and analytical human decision processes in organizations. The authors discuss similarities and differences between machine learning and two human decision processes, namely, analysis and intuition. While it is difficult to jump to any conclusions about the future of machine learning, human decision-makers seem to continue to monopolize the majority of intuitive decision tasks, which will help them keep the upper hand (vis-à-vis machines), at least in the near future. The work contributes to research on rational (analytical) and intuitive processes of decision-making at the individual, group and organization levels by theorizing about the way these processes are influenced by advanced AI algorithms such as machine learning. Decisions are building blocks of organizational success. Therefore, a better understanding of the way human decision processes can be impacted by advanced technologies will prepare managers to better use these technologies and make better decisions. By clarifying the boundaries/overlaps among concepts such as AI, machine learning and big data, the authors contribute to their successful adoption by business practitioners. The work suggests that human decision-makers will not be replaced by machines if they continue to invest in what they do best: critical thinking, intuitive analysis and creative problem-solving. The work elaborates on important drivers of digital transformation from a decision-making perspective and discusses their practical implications for managers.
      Citation: Journal of Business Strategy
      PubDate: 2021-09-27
      DOI: 10.1108/JBS-05-2021-0090
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Turning disruption into growth opportunity: the red team strategy

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      Authors: Sunny Li Sun , Yanli Zhang , Zhu Zhu
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to propose a broadened and integrated red team strategy with concrete steps to help companies better deal with the disruptive forces prevalent in the world today and turn disruptions into growth. This paper synthesizes and builds on previous research and relevant business cases accumulated through our research and executive teaching experience. The authors offer a broadened and integrated red team strategy with practical guidance for business executives The authors provide four key steps to help companies implement the red team strategy: create a red team culture and encourage diverse perspectives; establish an independent red team to overcome organizational inertia; use the red team to embrace disruption and growth opportunities; and take a milestone approach to red team execution and resource allocation. More research on red team strategy is needed to delve into the underlying factors and delineate the boundary conditions for specific details in this strategy and implementation. The red team strategy provides concrete steps to help companies in their efforts to adapt to and capitalize on disruptive forces. The red team strategy extends the concept and application of red teams and integrates previously fragmented ideas and practices into a systematic model with simple steps, which make it easier for companies to cope with disruption.
      Citation: Journal of Business Strategy
      PubDate: 2021-08-30
      DOI: 10.1108/JBS-05-2021-0087
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Pricing and CEOs: why top executives need to get involved

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      Authors: Stephan M. Liozu , Andreas Hinterhuber
      Abstract: Despite its increased adoption by small, medium and large firms, pricing continues to be ignored in the C-suite. C-suite executives have minimal understanding of what pricing can do and how it impacts a firm’s performance. After two years in the COVID-19 pandemic and the resulting economic crisis, consultants agree that the next wave of strategies and business models will require the development of strategic pricing capabilities, including analytics and software. The authors conducted 49 interviews with CXOs, VPs of pricing and CEOs of pricing software vendors to understand how the best-performing companies use pricing to drive profits and select pricing technologies. Then, supported by the Professional Pricing Society, the world’s largest organization dedicated to pricing, the authors conducted a 2020 survey of 540 pricing professionals to understand the perceptions of pricing in the C-suite and how top executives prioritize pricing investments. The authors complemented their own research with analysis of publicly available data, analyst presentations and public comments by CEOs on pricing. The authors propose a portfolio of 15 activities to include in the CEO’s strategic agenda and 10 actions to get started with in the short term. The next normal will not be based on business-as-usual. For the next three to five years, developing strategic pricing capabilities will give firms a competitive advantage over those who continue to neglect this hidden gem. In the context of the accelerating economic recovery, the authors address one of the most pressing priority for the C-suite. The authors focus on a series of actions and activities that the C-suite can take to accelerate recovery and focus on profitable growth.
      Citation: Journal of Business Strategy
      PubDate: 2021-08-19
      DOI: 10.1108/JBS-02-2021-0024
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • China-plus-one: expanding global value chains

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      Authors: Preetam Basu , Partha Ray
      Abstract: China has emerged as an undisputed leader of global business and as a preferred hub for global value chains. However, recent threats of the trade war, the allegation of violation of intellectual property rights and more recently the COVID-19 pandemic seemed to have dampened China’s attractiveness. Multinational corporations may be contemplating diversifying their dependence on China – a strategy known as “China-Plus-One”. What could be possible destinations in Asia for such a diversification strategy' Towards understanding the “China-Plus-One” phenomenon, the authors use a methodology of arriving at an aggregate ranking of the major economies of emerging Asia. This is built on a few standard indices such as World Bank's Logistic Performance Index; World Bank’s Ease of Doing Business Indicator; World Economic Forum’s Global Competitiveness Index; Economic Complexity Index of the Harvard University; Economist Magazine’s Country Rating of Financial Strength; and Corruption Perception Index compiled by the Transparency International. Accordingly, the authors rank seven countries (namely, Thailand, Malaysia, India, Vietnam, Indonesia, the Philippines and Bangladesh) next to China as possible destinations for selecting the “Plus one” country. In the aggregate ranking, China ranks first followed by Thailand, Malaysia, Philippines, India, Indonesia, Vietnam and then Bangladesh. This sequence gives some pointers on the possible shifts from China as potential hubs of global value chains. The authors observe the following: first, it is challenging to move away from China in the short run; second, corporations could pursue a “China-plus-One” strategy, whereby they may move marginally from China and relocate part of their supply chain elsewhere; third, in looking for alternative locations, corporations may look for the following countries in emerging Asia, namely, Thailand, Malaysia, India, Vietnam, Indonesia, Philippines and Bangladesh. The aggregate ranking method applied in this paper is one of the first applications in the context of ranking developing Asian economies based on economic, logistics, supply chain, financial and corruption metrics. It is one of the first conceptual works in the domain of identifying possible diversification options for the “China-Plus-One” strategy that can be extended to include many context-specific rankings.
      Citation: Journal of Business Strategy
      PubDate: 2021-07-22
      DOI: 10.1108/JBS-04-2021-0066
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Managing design for innovative new products and services

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      Authors: Cheryl Nakata , S. Cem Bahadir
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to determine how design should be managed to develop truly innovative products and services. Three management levers were examined: design leadership, design inclusion and design thinking. The study was carried out as a survey of innovation managers in the USA. The survey measures were developed from the design and innovation literature. Over 300 managers participated in the survey, and their responses were analyzed by using multiple regressions and other statistical tools. All three aspects of design that were studied – leadership, team inclusion and thinking – were found to significantly and positively impact new product and service innovativeness. Of these factors, the most important contributor to innovativeness was design thinking, with having more than three times the impact of the other two. Also, firms that are large, publicly held and technology-intensive are on average more innovative. To increase the innovativeness – or novelty, interest in and influential – of new products and services, managers should appoint designers as leaders on innovation project, include designers in development teams and above all integrate the design thinking process in organizations. This study determines that design leadership, inclusion and thinking increases the innovativeness of new products and services.
      Citation: Journal of Business Strategy
      PubDate: 2021-07-16
      DOI: 10.1108/JBS-11-2020-0253
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Digital project management: rapid changes define new working environments

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      Authors: Te Wu
      Abstract: Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, project management was undergoing gradual shift and moving from traditional ways of working toward embracing digitization. The COVID-19 pandemic accelerated this transformation. This paper highlights the importance of digital project management (DPM), its adoption of digital technologies, the changing role of digital project manager, significant and abrupt swing in the rise of virtual teams and the benefits and challenges of remote project teams. This paper aims to discuss the latest development in project management and to lay out the rationale why DPM is here to stay even after the pandemic. The author has based this research on reviewing publications from the project management journals and publications, interviews of project management professionals and analyzing data from a project management consultancy. The pandemic accelerated the digitalization of project management including the adoption of digital tools and technologies, embracing an agile approach to implementing projects; working collaborative in remote teams; and breaking traditional barriers of geography, time zones and fundamentally how project teams collaborate. Project management is being digitized, changing how teams work. Fueled by the pandemic, DPM accelerated its momentum. The rate of adoption is likely to be strong after the pandemic. Organizations and individuals should consider embracing DPM but with the full knowledge of both benefits and challenges. DPM is still in its early days even though the COVID-19 pandemic accelerated its use. Today and likely after the pandemic, organizations and people are increasingly embracing digital technologies, remote teams and agile project management approaches to project management. It is likely that in the foreseeable future, nearly all project managers will be digital project managers, giving rise to the importance of understanding the challenges and benefits and building the digital skills for both individuals and organizations.
      Citation: Journal of Business Strategy
      PubDate: 2021-07-06
      DOI: 10.1108/JBS-03-2021-0047
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • What really motivates top salespeople: love or money'

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      Authors: Betsy D. Gelb , Joanna Pishko , Carl Herman
      Abstract: This study aims to explore a previously unidentified antecedent of remaining in selling rather than leaving the field. That antecedent is “love of selling”: prioritizing intrinsic rewards over those that are extrinsic. The differences between those with each of those priorities are explored here in a survey of 348 salespeople, both inside and outside, and also qualitative interviews with a 20-person subset. Comparing salespeople who select on a questionnaire the option that they “love selling” vs respondents who primarily enjoy its payoffs, the authors find the former group significantly less likely to say they would leave the selling field if they could get another job that pays as well. They are significantly more likely to rate their own selling skills highly, but sales results between the two groups do not differ. Telephone interviews asking what their company does to reinforce love of selling, and what it could do, elicit comments on support – but also on administrative dissatisfiers. Organizations benefit from encouraging a love of selling and can do so by training, by management efforts to build confidence, by emphasizing challenge and by reducing administrative barriers to enjoying the selling experience. This is the first study to identify “love of selling” as a characteristic of salespeople that managers will want to understand and foster.
      Citation: Journal of Business Strategy
      PubDate: 2021-06-24
      DOI: 10.1108/JBS-03-2021-0051
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • The power of impossible

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      Authors: Alexandre Asselineau , Gilles Grolleau
      Abstract: Labeling something as “impossible” can be performative and deprive businesses from promising ideas, by activating limiting mental models and self-fulfilling prophecies. Adopting an “everything may be(come) possible” thinking as the default option can lead businesses to discover unexpected and valuable directions and make the world a better place. This paper aims to propose practical insights to harness the power of “impossible” thinking such as considering impossibility as a current and temporary state, adopting an unconventional mindset and redirecting the reflection on what is needed to make the idea possible. Falling in love with any impossible target is obviously not without downsides. This paper discusses conceptually how adopting an impossible thinking approach can help business to discover unexpected and valuable directions. The authors caution managers on the inappropriate use of the “impossible” label that can be performative, activate a limiting mental model, lead to a self-fulfilling prophecy and deprive businesses from promising ideas. This paper proposes ways by which the power of impossible thinking can be harnessed to make a difference. Discarding impossible ideas seems perfectly justified from a logical or cultural viewpoint while constituting simultaneously a bad decision from a business viewpoint. The generalization of authors’ insight must be undertaken with caution, given that harnessing the power of impossible does not mean to fall in love with any impossible idea. Learning to not neglect seemingly impossible options and sometimes to reveal them can lead to sustainable competitive advantages. While generating a competitive advantage for the concerned companies, implementing impossible ideas can also contribute to make the world a better place. The authors identify some mechanisms that can make impossible thinking beneficial and profitable for companies. These insights can help managers to nurture an environment that facilitates the emergence of pathbreaking advances.
      Citation: Journal of Business Strategy
      PubDate: 2021-06-18
      DOI: 10.1108/JBS-03-2021-0035
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Digital transformation: why companies resist what they need for sustained
           performance

         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

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      Authors: Johan Magnusson , Viktor Elliot , Johan Hagberg
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to contribute to firms’ capabilities of digital transformation through the identification of strategies for digital decoupling and recoupling. This paper reports from multiple studies using a combination of methods such as case studies and clinical studies. The method of analysis involves the revisiting of vignettes from interactions with practitioners with the purpose of analyzing patterns in responses to digital transformation. The findings consist of four strategies used by organizations and individuals in the decoupling of digital from their existing operations. Digital decoupling affords the organization the possibility of remaining largely unaffected by digital transformation. The authors also present four digital recoupling strategies that are used to succeed with digital transformation. This study is limited by the analytical approach of drawing from multiple previous studies. The research implications consist primarily of a contribution to a better understanding of why and how digital transformation is constrained. The four strategies of digital decoupling can be used to identify behavior in organizations that limit digital transformation. The four strategies of digital recoupling can be used to instigate a more successful digital transformation. According to the authors’ knowledge, this study is the first to identify digital decoupling strategies as a micro-foundation for organizational resistance to digital transformation.
      Citation: Journal of Business Strategy
      PubDate: 2021-06-14
      DOI: 10.1108/JBS-02-2021-0018
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • The stakeholder value map: a new tool to measure success with diverse
           groups

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      Authors: Nitin Pangarkar , Natasha Pangarkar
      Abstract: This study aims to propose a framework to help firms craft value-creating strategies for multiple stakeholders. The study uses an inductive methodology based on analysing strategies for two exemplar companies, namely, Starbucks and Wagestream. Key insights about how value creation by these companies for multiple stakeholders led to their superior performance, as well as generalizable lessons from the exemplar companies, were identified. The study finds that the performance of the two exemplar companies can be explained effectively through the framework. The framework proposed in the study requires a large amount of data about the value created for different stakeholders. Because the framework is comprehensive, managers need to aggregate different dimensions and varied data which can lead to manipulation or misuse by self-serving managers who wish to make their own strategies or performance look good. The study identified specific actionable ideas that organizations can undertake to enhance the value they create for their various stakeholders. The study is the first to develop an actionable framework that can be used by companies to craft strategies based on creating or enhancing stakeholder value. The framework is flexible with regard to application in different country, industry or organizational contexts.
      Citation: Journal of Business Strategy
      PubDate: 2021-06-07
      DOI: 10.1108/JBS-02-2021-0021
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Failed synergy from brand alliance: what Volvo learned in China'

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      Authors: Xinyu Guo , Yan Meng , Jie Xiong
      Abstract: Brand alliance strategy is a popular strategy for multinational enterprises entering foreign markets, especially when domestic firms in the host market have a relatively weaker brand image. However, Volvo Construction Equipment's failure to acquire a domestic firm in China (Shandong Lingong Construction Machinery Company Limited [SDLG]) challenges existing management theory. Thus, the purpose of this study is to understand the reasons behind the failure of a leading international brand’s acquisition of a local brand in a fast-growing developing country. This paper conducted a case study to illustrate how Volvo failed to benefit from the dual-brand strategy by analyzing its brand architecture strategy, the industry specificity of its heavy equipment, issues around its complex dealership and the implementation of optimal distinctiveness for the Volvo brand after acquiring SDLG. Although Volvo’s dual-brand strategy with SDLG was theoretically valid, in practice, the strategy made the two brands very distinct in their business-to-business (B2B) consumers’ perception and dealers’ operation. Given a wrong estimation of Chinese demand in its premium market, Volvo, which targeted only the Chinese premium market, failed to benefit from its brand alliance with SDLG in the Chinese market. The analysis of Volvo’s acquisition of SDLG enriches the current theory of international business and brand management. In particular, the results provide new insights into how leading international brands can avoid potential failure in a fast-growing market. Moreover, this paper highlights the difference of branding strategy in the B2B and business-to-consumer markets, which carries value to business executives.
      Citation: Journal of Business Strategy
      PubDate: 2021-06-07
      DOI: 10.1108/JBS-02-2021-0034
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Blockchain in your grocery basket: trust and traceability as a strategy

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      Authors: Ghassan Yacoub , Maria Castillo
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to gain insights and explicate how blockchain technology enables trust and traceability building from a real business use case. The authors conducted a qualitative case study of a leading global French grocery retail firm that has started to integrate blockchain into their supply chain and products. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews and secondary data sources. This paper developed a conceptual framework in unboxing the mechanism by which blockchain enables trust and explicating how information flows in a blockchain-based system compared to a traditional one in a real business application scenario through three main elements, namely, system architecture, data recovery and communication. Given the upside potential of emerging technologies such as blockchain coupled with the current increasing demand for business use cases, the paper is timely in integrating the business and technological aspects of trust in formulating a firm-level blockchain strategy.
      Citation: Journal of Business Strategy
      PubDate: 2021-06-03
      DOI: 10.1108/JBS-02-2021-0032
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • The sharing economy: a hedge against recession setbacks

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      Authors: Mohammad Reza Habibi , Chiranjeev S. Kohli
      Abstract: This paper aims to provide lessons from the emergence of the sharing economy after the 2008 recession and helps managers prepare more effectively for recessions in the future. In this conceptual paper, the authors build on research on the sharing economy and study the best practices contributing to the sharing economy’s emergence and growth after the 2008 recession. The authors identify the key characteristics of this new economic sector and share lessons that can be used by other companies. The authors recommend five major takeaways: seeking a more flexible supply; actively watching the trends; leveraging customers like employees; using advanced data science and technology like the sharing economy companies; and proactively avoiding panicked responses. This will help companies succeed during recessionary times – and the boom times that follow. This is the first paper that, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, investigates the interplay between the sharing economy and recession and highlights practical lessons.
      Citation: Journal of Business Strategy
      PubDate: 2021-06-01
      DOI: 10.1108/JBS-09-2020-0210
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • The innovation pyramid: five approaches to strategic decision-making

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      Authors: Manuel Hensmans
      Abstract: The innovation pyramid presented in this paper ranks innovation types in terms of their capacity to provide organizations with a long-term commercialization advantage. It is based on ten years of studying different types of innovation and helping hundreds of groups of MBA and Master students apply these insights to hundreds of organizations in different industries. The innovation pyramid provides organizational leaders with a powerful heuristic to organize their strategic innovation priorities, in terms of aligning and committing organizational innovation efforts. To help organizational leaders, this paper illustrates each innovation type with clarifying examples of a variety of well-known firms. The pyramid provides an antidote to the technological determinism and confusing use of innovation jargon, both of which over-promise disruptive and radical performance effects. Instead, it offers clarity and succinctness of purpose both in terms of aligning and committing to innovation efforts and priorities.
      Citation: Journal of Business Strategy
      PubDate: 2021-05-17
      DOI: 10.1108/JBS-12-2020-0292
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Disappearing natural resources: what flowers tell us about new value
           chains

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      Authors: Guillaume Carton , Julia Parigot
      Abstract: This paper aims to question the capacity of firms embedded in global value chains to manage their natural resources in a sustainable way. Thus, it offers guidelines for more sustainable value chains. While business strategies have focused on optimizing natural resource exploitation and on constructing global value chains to face sustainability issues, this study first explains why these strategies are not effective in preventing natural resource depletion. Second, it offers a model for anticipating resource depletion. The cut flower industry constitutes a central case to explain the model. Two other industry cases complement the demonstration. To anticipate natural resource depletion and thus improve industry sustainability, firms must shift from the exploitation of endangered natural resources to the use of alternative local ones. This shift, however, encourages firms to reconstruct value chains and rethink how they create value within these new value chains. It also has an impact on firms’ growth strategy: they must replicate value chains on a local scale instead of taking part in global value chains. The findings rely on illustrations from the cut flower, fishing and textile fiber industries. Generalization to other industries may strengthen the argument. This study offers a model of sustainable growth for firms willing to anticipate natural resource depletion by offering a shift in value chains. It consists of exploiting alternative natural resources and of rethinking the value offered to consumers. Thus, it goes against current models that merely focus on optimizing natural resource exploitation within global value chains.
      Citation: Journal of Business Strategy
      PubDate: 2021-05-12
      DOI: 10.1108/JBS-07-2020-0168
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • A global race to dominate the internet of things: how China caught up

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      Authors: Zhou Zhang , Xiaoping Li , Jie Xiong , Jie Yan , Lu Xu , Ruoxi Wang
      Abstract: In the ongoing Industry 4.0 era, the internet of things (IoT) has become a global race in the current information technology climate. However, little is understood about the pattern of the global competitive arena or its players’ set up strategy. This paper aims to attempt to compare the cross-country development of the IoT industry. In particular, from the lens of industrial policies, this paper highlights how China, as a latecomer, gains momentum to emerge victorious as a leader in this global race. Based on five dimensions, namely, foundation, trajectory, characteristic, application and social impacts, this paper presents the evolution of the IoT industry in the USA, European Union, Japan, South Korea and China. From the lens of windows of opportunities, this paper analyzes how China seized the opportunity with the emerging technology, thereby, enabling it to create a competitive advantage. This paper finds that China’s IoT industry takes a distinct trajectory, where scientific institutions, enterprises and governmental policies collaborate in unison, during which the first phase was when scientific research institutions introduced the conceptual new technology from developed countries. This technological foresight allowed for the identification and realization of critical technologies, strategic fields and technological trends. The second phase was the continuous dissatisfaction of capabilities of critical technologies, which creates disruptions that significantly altered the environment of technological competition. This paper provides a comprehensive and comparative review of IoT industries in a global context, with the critical and influential role of the windows of opportunities on those enterprises lagging behind the technological wave.
      Citation: Journal of Business Strategy
      PubDate: 2021-05-06
      DOI: 10.1108/JBS-11-2020-0269
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Auto makers and radical innovation: culture, capital and talent form road
           blocks

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      Authors: Fabian Hoeft
      Abstract: This paper aims to investigate car manufacturers’ constraints to innovate radically. Automotive case study. First, cultural constraints hold them back, for example, reflected in legacy power structures and failure aversion. Second, car manufacturers face cash constraints as they have to exploit their core business while exploring potential future profit pools. Third, talent gaps in digital and some non-digital areas are a challenge for incumbents while competing with digital-native firms such as Tesla. This paper elevates a fragmented literature strand on constraints to innovate.
      Citation: Journal of Business Strategy
      PubDate: 2021-03-25
      DOI: 10.1108/JBS-11-2020-0261
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Firms that prosper in all weathers: surviving recessions and plagues

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      Authors: Carol M. Connell , Christine Lemyze , William L. McGill
      Abstract: Whether they support long-term growth companies, entrepreneurial firms or turnarounds, top teams need to make bold strategic investment choices in times of boom, bust or pandemic. This paper aims to discuss firm strategies, as evidenced by their investment choices, over a 21-year period during which they led firms committed to growth through times of crisis and disruption. The starting point for this research is Fortune magazine’s 100 Fastest Growing Companies, published in 2018 and updated in 2019. The list is based on the magazine’s ranking of the world’s top three-year performers in revenues, profits and stock returns for the four quarters preceding publication. Inclusion on the list is all about growth, not starting size (the smallest and not renown). The classification of firms by industry sector follows Fortune’s nomenclature. Comparing these firms with industry peers in the same period, the authors look at Fortune’s 100 Fastest-Growing Companies of 2018 from the vantage point of their financials from 1999 to 2017, years that included the tech boom and bust, the mortgage meltdown and the Great Recession. This period also saw a relatively long expansion which was, paradoxically, punctuated by a trade war with China and recession fears that have impacted spending for growth. Only 32 of Fortune’s 2018 list made it to Fortune’s 100 Fastest Growing Companies of 2019. The authors call them the Persistent 32 and examine their investment and performance metrics from 2018 through 2020. The Persistent 32 – companies that have survived multiple recessions, including the COVID-19 recession, and continue to grow – have lessons to teach, although there is no silver bullet or secret formula, even within the same industry. It was found that in the group of 32, the average company lifespan is 28.75 years and astute, decisive leadership matters. Companies that persist make unique, strategic resource choices. They postpone expenditures on marketing and sales, fixed assets or R&D or all three depending on their needs, rather than fit with industry. They continue to invest in future growth. Their people are not expendable: employee retention during a recession has been a familiar strategy for the top growers covered in this investigation throughout the period (1999–2020). They cut cost of goods and services produced (COGS). The Persistent 32, loathing the idea of cutting COGS in the face of earlier recessions or recessionary threats, are cutting expenses other than personnel expenditures now. Amazon, Nvidia, Stamps.com, Lam Research, Supernus Pharmaceuticals all continue to rein in costs while simultaneously reinvesting in growth. They communicate their concerns and plans to their constituents. These companies retained and grew headcount while communicating their safety program as well as work-from-home and social-distancing strategies to employees, customers, shareholders and elected officials during the COVID-19 recession of 2020. They plan for supply disruptions. All have already articulated their plans for supply disruptions or alternative sources. Both the Federal Government and semiconductor companies are looking to jump-start the development of new chip factories in the USA as concern grows about reliance on Asia as a source of critical technology. They sense, seize, transform. David Teece’s dynamic capabilities framework is still the best way to turn every black swan event into an opportunity for business based on newly immediate needs. They work remotely. Businesses that are growing despite the recession are already committed to remote work. Join them and take the high anxiety out of work for both employees and customers. The starting point for our research was Fortune magazine’s 100 Fastest Growing Companies, published in 2018 and updated in 2019. The list is based on the magazine’s ranking of the world’s top three-year performers in revenues, profits and stock returns for the four quarters preceding publication. Only 32 of Fortune’s 2018 list made it to Fortune’s 100 Fastest Growing Companies of 2019. The authors call them the Persistent 32 and examine their investment and performance metrics from 2018 through 2020. They sought answers to three questions: First, do the fastest growing firms invest heavily in their businesses during recessions' The authors looked at the 100 fastest growing companies from 1999 to 2017 and then the Persistent 32 from 2018 to 2020. Second, what happened to the investments and performance of the Persistent 32 during the pandemic and recession that began in the first quarter of 2020' Where did they invest or curtail investment, what plans did they make around COVID-19 and what headcount decisions did they make' Third, do growth-committed firms follow different investment strategies that can be categorized based on spending patterns' Companies that can survive and grow through the hardest of times have lessons to teach, although there is no silver bullet or secret formula, even within the same industry. Employee retention during a recession has been a familiar strategy for the top growers covered in this investigation throughout the period (1999–2020). This strategy is not generally common among US firms. Indeed, it says something about the growth prospects of these firms and their dependence on talent and need to leverage their prior investment in recruiting and training employees. What is important about this topic' Whatever the industry, trying times call for top teams to try harder, identify priorities, spend to achieve them, manage stakeholder expectations and protect and build their access to top talent. The authors can help with the last four: they set up a structure for analyzing firm spending and performance metrics, based on Gulati and others writing for business practitioners; they comb the evidence for spending and performance ...
      Citation: Journal of Business Strategy
      PubDate: 2021-02-18
      DOI: 10.1108/JBS-10-2020-0247
      Issue No: Vol. 43 , No. 3 (2021)
       
  • Keeping it personal while growing the business: the German Mittelstand
           approach

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      Authors: Mark Lehrer , Stefan Schmid
      Abstract: For firms that depend on personalized management as a key element of their competitive advantage, maintaining personalized management in the face of sustained growth presents a particular challenge. The purpose of this paper is to examine how firms in the Germanic Mittelstand have endeavored to “scale up” personalization. Different ways of scaling up personalization are explained with examples. The concept of personalization need not just concern customers, in contrast to conventional treatments of personalization. Mittelstand firms illustrate the scaling up of personalization to target stakeholder groups other than just customers. In recent years, personalization has come to refer to the customization of products to the preferences of individual customers. In contrast, a neglected but important topic is personalization of and within firms. Personalization refers to imbuing a firm with the personal qualities of individual personalities indissociable from management of the company. Methods for scaling up personalization need to be truly scalable to be effective. Methods that only enable a one-time enlargement in the scope of the personalized business are liable to fail in the longer run. By examining personalization as an important characteristic of small to medium-sized firms that they wish to maintain as they grow larger, this study highlights a little noticed dimension of Mittelstand growth strategies – and endeavors to bring personality back into research on “personalization.”
      Citation: Journal of Business Strategy
      PubDate: 2021-02-08
      DOI: 10.1108/JBS-11-2020-0260
      Issue No: Vol. 43 , No. 3 (2021)
       
  • Six ways to build circular business models

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      Authors: Nancy Bocken , Paavo Ritala
      Abstract: Circular business models can improve resource use in a financially and environmentally feasible way. However, companies struggle to choose among the vast variety of ways to achieve circularity within a business model. The purpose of this paper is to offer a pragmatic guide for making strategic decisions on circular business models. This paper develops a conceptual model of six different strategic approaches to circular business models and provides examples to business cases and practice to illustrate these. This study identifies two critical strategy choices companies should make. First, an innovation strategy addresses the extent to which circularity is achieved with internal or external stakeholders. Second, a resource strategy addresses how companies achieve circularity by narrowing, slowing or closing resource loops. Using examples from business practice, this study illustrates how the combinations of these two strategies can be used to design competitive circular business models. Key managerial questions are also identified to help decide upon a feasible strategy for circular business model innovation. While different types of circular business models have been described, it is less clear what the strategic choices are that companies need to make to find feasible business cases for circularity in terms of value proposition, value creation and delivery and value capture. This study outlines these through a “circular business model strategy framework”.
      Citation: Journal of Business Strategy
      PubDate: 2021-02-08
      DOI: 10.1108/JBS-11-2020-0258
      Issue No: Vol. 43 , No. 3 (2021)
       
  • Interpreting the industry 4.0 future: technology, business, society and
           people

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      Authors: Holger Schiele , Anna Bos-Nehles , Vincent Delke , Peter Stegmaier , Robbert-Jan Torn
      Abstract: Industrial revolutions have been induced by technological advances, but fundamentally changed business and society. To gain a comprehensive understanding of the fourth industrial revolution (I4.0) and derive guidelines for business strategy, it is, therefore, necessary to explore it as a multi-facet phenomenon. Most literature on I4.0, however, takes up a predominantly technical view. This paper aims to report on a project discussing a holistic view on I4.0 and its implications, covering technology, business, society and people. Two consecutive group discussions in form of academic world cafés have been conducted. The first workshop gathered multi-disciplinary experts from academia, whose results were further validated in a subsequent workshop including industry representatives. A voting procedure was used to capture participants perspectives. The paper develops a holistic I4.0 vision, focusing on five core technologies, their business potential, societal requests and people implications. Based on the model a checklist has been developed, which firms can use a tool to analyze their firm’s situation and draft their industry 4.0 business strategy. Rather than focusing on technology alone – which by itself is unlikely to make up for a revolution – this research integrates the entire system. In this way, a tool-set for strategy design results.
      Citation: Journal of Business Strategy
      PubDate: 2021-01-26
      DOI: 10.1108/JBS-08-2020-0181
      Issue No: Vol. 43 , No. 3 (2021)
       
  • Multi-sided platform strategies for organizations: transforming the
           business model

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      Authors: Rubén Mancha , Steven Gordon
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to explore and summarize the strategies organizations can follow when adopting a multi-sided platform (MSP) business model. MSPs benefit from direct and indirect network effects, quick scaling, fast innovation and new revenue streams. This study draws from the literature on business model innovation to identify five strategies in which organizations can transform by creating or acquiring an MSP. This taxonomy is confirmed with a classification of 20 MSPs adopted by 18 organizations, 5 short case studies and an interview with an executive involved in the launch of an organization’s MSP. To implement an MSP, companies can expand their offerings, intermediate their industry with a marketplace, expand to new geographies or market segment, co-innovate their core product or service and co-innovate complementary offerings. Organizations are presented with five distinct approaches to transform their business model and benefit from MSP interactions. The cases, quotes from executives and analyzes will serve organizations in designing a platform strategy. This study provides executives and researchers with insights about how organizations can transform their business models with MSPs.
      Citation: Journal of Business Strategy
      PubDate: 2021-01-20
      DOI: 10.1108/JBS-09-2020-0203
      Issue No: Vol. 43 , No. 3 (2021)
       
  • Dedicated business model innovation units: do they work' A case study
           from Germany

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      Authors: Gina Rennings , Michael Wustmans , Martin Kupp
      Abstract: Business model innovation (BMI) provides enormous opportunities to multinational corporations (MNCs). Consequently, some MNCs have created dedicated BMI units. Yet, research only provides limited guidance and lacks empirical evidence on the implementation of BMI processes in a corporate environment through dedicated units. Accordingly, the main goal of the research is to shed light on understanding the role (s) of a dedicated BMI unit and how it interacts with the existing businesses to help them identify, evaluate or implement new business models. This work adopts a case study approach as a research design (Yin, 2015). In particular, the study is set up as a single in-depth case study in a holistic design (Yin, 2013). The data consists of a total of nine extensive interviews with employees of Bosch’s BMI unit, as well as project team members the unit has worked with. Of the nine interviewees, six are working within the BMI unit (internal perspective) and three are members of two project teams, i.e. customers of the BMI unit (external perspective). Archival records serve as an additional source of evidence aimed at enhancing internal validity. This research is the first work to determine the explicit roles of an MNC’s dedicated BMI unit throughout the BMI process. Through derivation of roles from the tasks and responsibilities of Bosch’s BMI unit in each process phase, six overarching roles have been identified, namely, process owner, executor, enabler, challenger, networker and connector. Simultaneously, this work has suggested the existence of process-independent roles, namely, knowledge intermediary and trainer. The case study approach underlying this work allowed an in-depth investigation of the BMI process and the BMI unit of Bosch but the results are still based on a single case study. In this regard, limitations that occur for qualitative case study approaches are also relevant for this study, i.e. although careful analysis to reveal the stage-gate such as the design of BMI processes or the roles of a dedicated BMI unit was performed, a certain degree of subjectivity remains. The results underline that a dedicated BMI unit within an MNC constitutes a way to allow for managing the cross-functional and complex tasks of BMI by giving projects the necessary flexibility to develop while remaining aligned and benefitting from the organizational setting. This paper further observes that a dedicated BMI unit expresses an opportunity to define responsibilities for corporate BMI processes that are described in the literature (Geissdoerfer et al., 2017; Tesch, 2019; Wirtz and Daiser, 2018). Thus, the results may be used by practitioners working in MNCs to understand some of the issues related to the implementation of BMI processes in a corporate context, i.e. how to organize and structure BMI (Geissdoerfer et al., 2017; Winterhalter et al., 2017) or where to locate and how to interlink BMI with existing corporate functions (Chesbrough and Rosenbloom, 2002; Cortimiglia et al., 2016). The outcomes of this work are twofold. First, building on existing literature, a process model for BMI through dedicated BMI units is proposed. Second, based on findings from the in-depth case study, eight overarching roles a BMI unit can hold have been identified. Thereby, this work constitutes a starting point for intensified research on the value and the implications of dedicated BMI units in the context of BMI and BMI processes.
      Citation: Journal of Business Strategy
      PubDate: 2021-01-11
      DOI: 10.1108/JBS-10-2020-0249
      Issue No: Vol. 43 , No. 3 (2021)
       
  • Journal of Business Strategy

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