Subjects -> BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS (Total: 3570 journals)
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BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS (1248 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Showing 401 - 600 of 1566 Journals sorted alphabetically
Hak İş Uluslararası Emek ve Toplum Dergisi     Open Access  
Handbook of Environmental Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Harput Araştırmaları Dergisi     Open Access  
Harvard Business Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 823)
Harvard Deusto Business Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Hatyai Academic Journal     Open Access  
Health Economics, Policy and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
High Frequency     Hybrid Journal  
Historical Materialism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
History of Retailing and Consumption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
HMD Praxis der Wirtschaftsinformatik     Hybrid Journal  
HOLISTICA ? Journal of Business and Public Administration     Open Access  
Homo Oeconomicus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Horizontes Empresariales     Open Access  
Human Resource Development Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Humanistic Management Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Humanities and Social Sciences Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
IBT Journal of Business Studies     Open Access  
iBusiness     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ICSES Transactions on Image Processing and Pattern Recognition     Full-text available via subscription  
IdeAs. Idées d'Amérique     Open Access  
Identity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Ids Research Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Ids Working Papers     Hybrid Journal  
IEEE Industrial Electronics Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 123)
IIM Kozhikode Society & Management Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
IISE Transactions on Healthcare Systems Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
IJIBE (International Journal of Islamic Business Ethics)     Open Access  
IMA Journal of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Indian Journal of Human Development     Hybrid Journal  
Indikator : Jurnal Ilmiah Manajemen & Bisnis     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Sustainability Accounting and Management     Open Access  
Industrial and Commercial Training     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Industrial and Corporate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Industrial Law Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Industrial Relations Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Industry and Higher Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Industry and Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Information and Organization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Information Economics and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Information Systems Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Information Systems Management and Innovation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Information Technology for Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Informs Journal on Applied Analytics:     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
INMR - Innovation & Management Review     Open Access  
INNOTEC Gestión     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Innovar     Open Access  
Innovation Policy and the Economy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Inquietud Empresarial     Open Access  
Insights into Regional Development     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Integrated Journal of Business and Economics     Open Access  
Intereconomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Interfases     Open Access  
International Advances in Economic Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Area Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Business & Economics Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Business Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Entrepreneurship Review     Full-text available via subscription  
International Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
International Humanities and Applied Science Journal     Open Access  
International Journal for Academic Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Academic Research in Business, Arts & Science     Open Access  
International Journal of Accounting & Finance Review     Open Access  
International Journal of Accounting and Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Advanced Statistics and IT&C for Economics and Life Sciences     Open Access  
International Journal of Advertising     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
International Journal of Applied Business     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Applied Business and Information Systems     Open Access  
International Journal of Applied Decision Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Auditing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Bank Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Banking, Accounting and Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Behavioral Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Behavioural Accounting and Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Business Administration     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Business and Data Analytics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Business and Globalisation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Business and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Business and Social Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Business Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Business Competition and Growth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Business Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Business Excellence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Business Information Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Business Innovation and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Business Performance and Supply Chain Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Business Reflections     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Business Science and Applied Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Business, Humanities, Education and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Community Development and Management Studies (IJCDMS)     Open Access  
International Journal of Competitiveness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Computational Economics and Econometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Corporate Social Responsibility     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Corporate Strategy and Social Responsibility     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Critical Infrastructures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Cross Cultural Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Culture Tourism and Hospitality Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
International Journal of Data Analysis Techniques and Strategies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Decision Support System Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Diplomacy and Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of E-Entrepreneurship and Innovation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of East Asian Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Econometrics and Financial Management     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Economic Policy in Emerging Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Economic Practices and Theories     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Economics and Business Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Economics, Management and Accounting     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Electronic Business     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Electronic Commerce     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Electronic Democracy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Electronic Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Emerging Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Employment Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Enterprise Information Systems     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Entrepreneurial Knowledge     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Environment and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Environment, Workplace and Employment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Exergy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Finance & Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
International Journal of Financial Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Forecasting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
International Journal of Foresight and Innovation Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Global Business and Competitiveness     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Globalisation and Small Business     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Green Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Happiness and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Industrial Organization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
International Journal of Information and Decision Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Information Quality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Information Technologies and Systems Approach     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal of Innovation     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Innovation and Regional Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Innovation and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Innovation in the Digital Economy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Innovation Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Innovation Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Innovative Technologies in Economy     Open Access  
International Journal of Intelligent Enterprise     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Intelligent Information and Database Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Intercultural Relations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Islamic Business and Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Islamic Economics and Finance Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of IT/Business Alignment and Governance     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal of Logistics Research and Applications : A Leading Journal of Supply Chain Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Management and Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Management and Social Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Management Economics and Business     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Management Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Management Innovation Systems     Open Access  
International Journal of Management, Economics and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Managerial Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Manpower     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Markets and Business Systems     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Mass Customisation     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Monetary Economics and Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Multicriteria Decision Making     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Multinational Corporation Strategy     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Operational Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Organisational Behaviour     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Organisational Design and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Organizational Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Organizational and Collective Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Pluralism and Economics Education     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Process Systems Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Qualitative Research in Services     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Research in Business and Social Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Research, Innovation and Commercialisation     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Selection and Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Servant-Leadership     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Six Sigma and Competitive Advantage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Social and Organizational Dynamics in IT     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Social Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Statistics & Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Strategic Business Alliances     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Strategic Decision Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Strategic Information Technology and Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Strategic Property Management     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Stress Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Supply Chain and Operations Resilience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Sustainable Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Synergy and Research     Open Access  
International Journal of System Dynamics Applications     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal of Systems Science : Operations & Logistics     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Technoentrepreneurship     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Technology and Globalisation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Technology Diffusion     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of the Economics of Business     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Training and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Transitions and Innovation Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Work Organisation and Emotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Letters of Social and Humanistic Sciences     Open Access  
International Research Journal of Management Science     Open Access  
International Review of Economics & Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
International Review of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Scientific and Vocational Studies Journal     Open Access  
InternexT - Revista Eletrônica de Negócios Internacionais da ESPM     Open Access  

  First | 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
International Journal of Innovation
Number of Followers: 4  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2318-9975
Published by Universidade Nove de Julho Homepage  [6 journals]
  • The deployment of chatbot to improve customer service in higher education
           institutions during COVID-19

    • Authors: Gustavo Silva Gonçalves; Thiago de Luca Sant'ana Ribeiro, José Eduardo Valladares Teixeira, Benny Kramer Costa
      Abstract: Objective of the study: Present the customer service chatbot solutions implemented by MKT4EDU in three Brazilian HEIs.Methodology/Approach: We adopted the case study as a research method. In-depth interviews with four employees of MKT4EDU, the company responsible for the changes implemented in the student support processes at 3 HEIs, collected the data for this technical report interviews.Originality/Relevance: Describes in detail the chatbot implementation process adopted at these HEIs and the results obtained.Main Results: After implementing the changes, by introducing automated bots available 24/7, HEIs met the pent-up demands for student services at a lower cost.Theoretical/ Methodological Contribution: This study contributes to the chatbot literature by investigating how the education sector can implement this technology from five perspectives: interaction, information, accessibility, entertainment, and customization. We present the number of conversations between chatbot and users and the main topics addressed in these conversations.Social/Management Contribution: By reporting the improvements implemented with chatbot technology in three different HEIs at a time of crisis, we believe we are collaborating with organizations that face similar situations and need to adapt to a new context.
      PubDate: Thu, 17 Mar 2022 10:44:16 -030
       
  • Dimensions and components of information economy as a novel economy: a
           systematic review

    • Authors: Leila Abdolahi; Sirous Panahi, Leila Nemati-Anaraki, Vahid Alipour, Abbas Kouhsari
      Abstract: Objective of the Study: Despite the critical role and impact of the information economy in the modern world, the dimensions and components of this multi-faceted concept remain understudied and unknown. The complexity and vagueness of information economy and its dimensions has made it challenging, especially for developing countries, to create value and wealth from the appropriate usage of information. This study aims to identify the dimensions and components of the information economy at the micro and macro level.Methodology/Approach: A systematic review guided by PRISMA recommendations was carried out in which 20 papers that met the inclusion criteria were analyzed. ScienceDirect, Google Scholar, Embase, PubMed, Emerald, Scopus, Web of Science and Econlit databases were searched to find relevant English documents.Originality/Relevance: This study conceptualizes and determines the dimensions and components of information economy through a systematic review of the literature.Main Results: The analysis determined eight themes (i.e., dimensions) for the information economy, including human capital, economic factors, governing laws and regulations, political factors, information and communication technology, cultural factors, stakeholders, and information. These themes had a total of 15 sub-themes and 60 codes.Theoretical/Methodological Contribution: This study conceptualizes information economy by identifying and defining its various dimensions and components. The results can be used to develop information economy strategies at the managerial level, especially in developing countries.
      PubDate: Thu, 17 Mar 2022 10:44:15 -030
       
  • The study of innovation and absorptive capacity of BRICS countries by
           using multiple regression analysis

    • Authors: Khalid Usman; Liu Zhiying, Shen Huayan, Jie Xin, Jin Yujia
      Abstract: Objective of the study: This research aims to explore the diverse impacts of national innovation systems of BRICS countries by indicating the key elements and systems aspect, how these aspects have committed to the running of the whole systems and interpreted inside the economic development of these nations.Methodology/approach: Data were collected from the World Bank (WDI), United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), United State Patent and Trade office (USPTO), and World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) for Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (BRICS) countries. Data used for following research are time series, annual data from 1999-2014. The multi-regression analysis was completed with utilizing the Statistical package for the Social Science (SPSS).Originality/Relevance: We intend at devoting to the research literature and policy by producing quantitative based proof of the framework that connects the comprehensive element of innovation system to economic system for a longtime.Main results: The findings showed the degree to which components of the National innovation system (NIS), depend on one another for Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (BRICS) , in this regard, any changes in one indicator can effect on other indicators in the system.Theoretical/methodological contributions: Our research is based on the conceptual analyses which draw from the existing literature. It is based on a model to evaluate the dynamics of innovation capacity, absorptive capacity impact and robustness of the economic development.Social /management contributions: Our results have significant implication for policy makers.
      PubDate: Thu, 17 Mar 2022 10:44:14 -030
       
  • A study of smartphone companies: do innovation culture and radical
           innovation affect institutionalization and sustainable competition
           positively'

    • Authors: Zafer Adiguzel; Fatma Sonmez Cakir, Masood Nawaz Kalyar
      Abstract: Objective of the study: The present study examines how innovation culture and radical innovation elicit sustainable competition. The study proposes institutionalization as an important underlying mechanism that originates from innovation culture and radical innovation and provides the basis for sustainable competition.Design/methodology/approach: The data were collected from 763 employees working in smartphone companies located in Istanbul, Turkey. The analysis was performed employing PROCESS macro in order to test the hypothesized relationships.Findings: Results show that both innovation culture and radical innovation have a positive impact on institutionalization and sustainable competition. Moreover, the data also support the mediation effect of institutionalization in predicting sustainable competition.Practical implications: The findings imply that the structure of the firms must be ready for change in order to reap the benefits of sustainable competition. In fact, the creation of an innovation culture is very important in technology-intensive firms because there is a need to create common values that encourage employees to adopt innovative behaviors for sustainable competition. Furthermore, radical innovation can be more advantageous for firm-outcomes when large structural differences are identified and bridged successfully.Originality/value: The study develops a novel framework of innovation-competition using a structural perspective, empirically testing the proposed relationships using data from the technology-intensive industry of Turkey.
      PubDate: Thu, 17 Mar 2022 10:44:13 -030
       
  • Cumulative learning as an innovation source: the case of a large company
           in the cosmetics, toiletry and fragrance industry in Brazil

    • Authors: Marcio Garcia; João Batista Pamplona, Marco Antonio Pinheiro da Silveira
      Abstract: Objective of the study: To identify and analyze the evidence of the learning processes such as “learn by doing”, “learn by usage” and “learn by interacting” as a source of innovation in a large company in the Cosmetics, Toiletry and Fragrance Industry (CTF) within Brazil.Methodology/approach: A qualitative study was carried out, using a data collection procedure based on interviews with employees of a large company in the CTF industry within Brazil.Originality/Relevance: A company that seeks innovation is not restricted solely by Research and Development (R&D), but must also consider, as a source of innovation, the continuous learning by its internal and external environment which provides it with a tacit knowledge that differentiates it from its competitors. Despite the CTF sector being one of the most important in the world, with Brazil being one of its biggest players, there is a lack of published articles for this sector, which address the issues of the learning process as a source of innovation.Main results: The results show the existence of the learning process as a source of innovation in formal and informal routines, especially for “learning by interacting”, in generating pioneering innovations in the selected company.Theoretical/methodological contributions: Discuss and demonstrate the role of cumulative learning as a source of innovation for companies.Social contributions / for management: It is hoped that this study will motivate future studies in the pursuit to highlight the role of cumulative learning in generating innovation in companies.
      PubDate: Thu, 17 Mar 2022 10:44:08 -030
       
  • Technology parks in brazil: an analysis of the determinants of performance
           evaluation

    • Authors: Adriana Ferreira de Faria; Jeruza Alves Haber, Andressa Caroline De Battisti, Justyna Dabrowska, Jaqueline Akemi Suzuki Sediyama
      Abstract: Objective of the study: The aim of this study was to develop a systemic framework to understand the nature and dynamics of technology parks in Brazil and to analyze the mais determinants for evaluating their performance in the settlement process.Relevance/originality: This work is unprecedented for the analysis of the dissemination of technology parks in Brazil, throughout its history, and for the application of multivariate data analysis for performance analysis in the settlement (number of tenant companies).Methodology/approach: This study is characterized as a qualitative and quantitative combination of research methods, defined as combined exploratory, carried out in two phases. The qualitative approach is carried out first, with the aim of exploring the research topic in order to provide subsidies for the quantitative phase.Main results: The Simple Correspondence Analysis demonstrated that the two determinants that impact the settlement of technology parks in Brazil are financing and park´s age, confirming the thesis that they are long-term enterprises.Theoretical/methodological contributions: This study is characterized as a qualitative and quantitative combination of research methods, defined as combined exploratory, carried out in two phases. The qualitative approach is carried out first, with the aim of exploring the research topic in order to provide subsidies for the quantitative phase.Social/management contributions: The results demonstrate the importance of technology parks in Brazil and the need to maintain public policies in the long term, in order to increase the size of parks, in terms of concentration of new technology-based companies, and attraction of anchor companies, generating jobs and income qualified.
      PubDate: Thu, 17 Mar 2022 10:44:04 -030
       
  • The role of corporate risk management in the relationship between open
           innovation and organizational strategy

    • Authors: Francisco Musiello-Neto; Orlando Lima Rua, Mario Arias-Oliva, Mar Souto-Romero
      Abstract: Objective of the study: This study aims to analyze the relationship between open innovation and organizational strategy. Additionally, the mediating effect of corporate risk management on it was assessed.Methodology/approach: A quantitative study was conducted in Portugal based on a survey with 251 executive directors of SME hotels. Structural equations modeling was used in this study.Originality/relevance: While other studies have analyzed the relationship between open innovation and organizational strategy, this study deepens the knowledge of the mediating effect of corporate risk management on it.Main results: The results show that (1) open innovation improves corporate risk management and organizational strategy, (2) corporate risk influences organizational strategy, and (3) corporate risk management has a mediating effect on the relationship between open innovation and organizational strategy.Theoretical/methodological contributions: This study provides a theoretical framework for understanding the relationships between three constructs (open innovation, corporate risk management and organizational strategy) in SMEs in the hospitality sector, not yet explored by academics.Social/management contributions: This study will guide managers of SMEs in the hospitality sector in defining strategies to develop the relevant resources and contribute to the definition of effective government policies, programs and incentives to support the adherence or expansion of the open innovation model for companies in this sector.
      PubDate: Thu, 17 Mar 2022 10:44:03 -030
       
  • Tokenization, blockchain and web 3.0 technologies as research objects in
           innovation management

    • Authors: Marcos Rogério Mazieri; Isabel Cristina Scafuto, Priscila Rezende da Costa
      Abstract: The e-mail allegedly attributed to Satoshi Nakamoto (supposedly a pseudonym) was transmitted 14 years ago, describing the development of an electronic currency (Nakamoto, 2008). The design of this electronic currency represented the solution of the general Byzantine problem, a well-known problem in computing, which, in general terms, defines that one of the parts of a system can intentionally fail, and with that, make the entire network unavailable. Therefore, the premise is that part of the system is corrupt (Dolev et al., 1982). In the few lines of the email, Satoshi Nakamoto described such a solution and published an article with the details made available on the same date. The article describes how to transmit information within a chain of blocks that are: synchronized with date and time (time stamp); combined with code that depends on a previous block (hash code); can be validated with public and private key cryptography framework anonymously and decentrally; but highly resilient to any tampering attempt and with public record. The concept of digital currency, in this case Bitcoin, consisted at that time of a code or token resulting from encryption and that could be included in these blocks. Blocks registered definitively in the ledgers distributed along the blockchain network that could be traced. The digital framework developed by Satoshi Nakamoto, although it emerged to make Bitcoin viable as a digital currency, has been separated over the last 14 years. Blockchain can be understood as a decentralized communication technology that gave rise to a family of other technological structures of encrypted communication such as ecosystems, public blockchain, private blockchain and blockchain networks, mainly (Mazumdar & Ruj, 2022). Digital currencies, on the other hand, have also developed in variety and quantity, so much so that as we write this editorial there are over 10,000 digital currencies in operation. The total capitalization value of digital currencies rose from USD 18 billion at the beginning of 2017, surpassing USD 1.4 trillion by mid-2021 (Su et al., 2022). Currently, there is no technological impediment for companies to create their own digital currencies using a Bitcoin network or an Etherium network, for example, as well as many other networks available.Obviously, even today, there are technical challenges related, mainly, to the scalability of these networks and currencies. Bitcoin, when created, had a capacity of 7 transactions per second, currently, as we write this editorial, the transaction capacity of the Bitcoin network (BTS) is 14 transactions per second. The Etherium (ETH) network was born with a capacity of 20 transactions per second and currently has a capacity of 35 transactions per second. For comparison purposes, the VISA network has a capacity of 1700 transactions per second, which shows that there is still some way to make blockchain networks the new communication backbone, scalable for more mass uses (Chauhan & Patel, 2022). There are implementations of the Solana network, for example, which promises to reach 50,000 transactions per second, still in the confirmation phase from a practical point of view, which could allow running Internet of Things (IoT) applications on this blockchain network (Duffy et al., 2021).At the same time, since 2013, the reorganization of the TCP IP structure from IPv4 (4.2 billion IP addresses) to IPv6 (79 octillion IP addresses or 7.9 x ) more than the total number of IPv4 addresses) has been implemented. Such implementation made it possible to expand connectivity to a level sufficient for the world demand, which is 56 octillion (56 x ) addresses per human being on earth. In terms of addressing, the possibilities of connecting new and future elements on the internet/blockchain communication network are guaranteed, making the IoT (Internet of Things) a real possibility.In addition to the traditional applications dedicated to making digital currency viable, especially in the last 5 years, certain works resulting from the combination of information technology and human creativity (also known as creative economy) brought NFT (Non-Fungible Token) to the management field. NFT are tokens (produced through encrypted code, subscribed in some blockchain network) that express the ownership of their author. Whoever acquires an NFT, has his/her record recorded in a ledger and, therefore, can exercise the rights or benefits related to the possession of that NFT. There are two main origins of an NFT, digital games and works of art or graphic expressions (Vasan et al., 2022). In the case of digital games, NFT can be used to record permanently and nominally the “achievements achieved” within a given game. Its owner now takes possession of a certain item that, previously, would only exist within the game itself, a virtual (digital) environment. In the case of graphic, artistic expressions, and other works of art, it is possible to make your possession digital. Works from the natural environment (physical), the result of expressions of human creativity, are now registered in an NFT-type token, coming to exist in the virtual world (digital). In this way, the works, and the data of their authorship and ownership, are permanently registered in the ledger of a blockchain network specialized in transacting NFT. As in the game, the possession of an NFT of a work of art allows the author to trade or use the benefits related to the possession of this NFT.From the convergence of connectivity technologies such as cloud computing, the advent of IPV6 and technologies based on tokens (blockchain, crypto assets and NFT not exhaustively) the concept of Web 3.0 becomes viable. Web 3.0 can be understood as a network of people and physical objects, making the integration between the natural world and the virtual world more intense (augmented, virtual and mixed reality). The idea of a Metaverse (Web 3.0 Application) depends on the technologi...
      PubDate: Thu, 17 Mar 2022 10:44:01 -030
       
 
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