Subjects -> BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS (Total: 3841 journals)
    - ACCOUNTING (145 journals)
    - BANKING AND FINANCE (329 journals)
    - BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS (1411 journals)
    - CONSUMER EDUCATION AND PROTECTION (20 journals)
    - COOPERATIVES (4 journals)
    - ECONOMIC SCIENCES: GENERAL (232 journals)
    - ECONOMIC SYSTEMS, THEORIES AND HISTORY (255 journals)
    - FASHION AND CONSUMER TRENDS (20 journals)
    - HUMAN RESOURCES (103 journals)
    - INSURANCE (26 journals)
    - INTERNATIONAL COMMERCE (146 journals)
    - INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND AID (103 journals)
    - INVESTMENTS (22 journals)
    - LABOR AND INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS (66 journals)
    - MACROECONOMICS (17 journals)
    - MANAGEMENT (634 journals)
    - MARKETING AND PURCHASING (116 journals)
    - MICROECONOMICS (23 journals)
    - PRODUCTION OF GOODS AND SERVICES (125 journals)
    - PUBLIC FINANCE, TAXATION (42 journals)
    - TRADE AND INDUSTRIAL DIRECTORIES (2 journals)

BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS (1411 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1566 Journals sorted alphabetically
360 : Revista de Ciencias de la Gestión     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
4OR: A Quarterly Journal of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Abacus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Acta Amazonica     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Commercii     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Marisiensis : Seria Oeconomica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Oeconomica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Acta Scientiarum. Human and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Acta Universitatis Danubius. Œconomica     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Universitatis Lodziensis : Folia Geographica Socio-Oeconomica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Universitatis Nicolai Copernici Zarządzanie     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
AD-minister     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Adam Academy : Journal of Social Sciences / Adam Akademi : Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
AdBispreneur : Jurnal Pemikiran dan Penelitian Administrasi Bisnis dan Kewirausahaan     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Admisi dan Bisnis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ADR Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advanced Sustainable Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Developing Human Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Advances in Economics and Business     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Africa Journal of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 78)
African Business     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
African Development Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
African Journal of Business Ethics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
African Review of Economics and Finance     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Afro Eurasian Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Afro-Asian Journal of Finance and Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Akademik Yaklaşımlar Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Akademika : Journal of Southeast Asia Social Sciences and Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
AL-Qadisiyah Journal For Administrative and Economic sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Alphanumeric Journal : The Journal of Operations Research, Statistics, Econometrics and Management Information Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Economic Journal : Applied Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 284)
American Enterprise Institute     Free   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Business     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
American Journal of Business and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 73)
American Journal of Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Economics and Business Administration     Open Access   (Followers: 40)
American Journal of Economics and Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
American Journal of Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
American Journal of Finance and Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
American Journal of Health Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 31)
American Journal of Medical Quality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
ANALES de la Universidad Central del Ecuador     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ankara University SBF Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annales de l'Institut Henri Poincare (C) Non Linear Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Annals in Social Responsibility     Full-text available via subscription  
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annual Review of Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 52)
Anuario Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y Empresariales     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Applied Developmental Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63)
Applied Economics Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Applied Financial Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Applied Mathematical Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Applied Stochastic Models in Business and Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Apuntes Universitarios     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arab Economic and Business Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Business Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Arena Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Argomenti. Rivista di economia, cultura e ricerca sociale     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ASEAN Economic Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Asia Pacific Business Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 332)
Asia Pacific Journal of Innovation and Entrepreneurship     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asia Pacific Viewpoint     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Operational Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Rural Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Asia-Pacific Management and Business Application     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Business Review     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Case Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Asian Development Review     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Asian Economic Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Asian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asian Economic Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian Journal of Accounting and Governance     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Asian Journal of Economics, Business and Accounting     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Social Sciences and Management Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Asian Journal of Sustainability and Social Responsibility     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian-pacific Economic Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
ATA Journal of Legal Tax Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Atlantic Economic Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Australasian Journal of Regional Studies, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Cottongrower, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Australian Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Australian Journal of Maritime and Ocean Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Baltic Journal of Real Estate Economics and Construction Management     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Banks in Insurance Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
BBR - Brazilian Business Review     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Benchmarking : An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Benefit : Jurnal Manajemen dan Bisnis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Berkeley Business Law Journal     Free   (Followers: 13)
Beta : Scandinavian Journal of Business Research     Full-text available via subscription  
Bio-based and Applied Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biodegradation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biology Direct     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
BizInfo (Blace) Journal of Economics, Management and Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Black Enterprise     Full-text available via subscription  
Board & Administrator for Administrators only     Hybrid Journal  
Boletim Técnico do Senac     Open Access  
Border Crossing : Transnational Working Papers     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Brazilian Business Review     Open Access  
Briefings in Real Estate Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
British Journal of Industrial Relations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Brookings Papers on Economic Activity     Open Access   (Followers: 72)
Brookings Trade Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
BRQ Business Research Quarterly     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
BU Academic Review     Open Access  
Bulletin of Economic Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Bulletin of Geography. Socio-economic Series     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Bulletin of the Dnipropetrovsk University. Series : Management of Innovations     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Business & Entrepreneurship Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
Business & Information Systems Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Business & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Business : Theory and Practice / Verslas : Teorija ir Praktika     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Business and Economic Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Business and Management Horizons     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Business and Management Research     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Business and Management Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Business and Professional Communication Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Business and Society Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Business Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Business Ethics Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Business Ethics: A European Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Business Horizons     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Business Information Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Business Management Analysis Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Business Management and Strategy     Open Access   (Followers: 51)
Business Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Business Review Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Business Strategy and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Business Strategy and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Business Strategy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Business Strategy Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Business Systems & Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Business, Economics and Management Research Journal : BEMAREJ     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Business, Management and Education     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Business: Theory and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos EBAPE.BR     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cambridge Journal of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 81)
Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences / Revue Canadienne des Sciences de l Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Economics/Revue Canadienne d`Economique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Canadian journal of nonprofit and social economy research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Capitalism Nature Socialism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Case Studies in Business and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
CBU International Conference Proceedings     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Central European Business Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Central European Journal of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Central European Journal of Public Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Chain Reaction     Full-text available via subscription  
Challenge     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Chandrakasem Rajabhat University Journal of Graduate School     Open Access  
China & World Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
China : An International Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
China Economic Journal : The Official Journal of the China Center for Economic Research (CCER) at Peking University     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
China Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
China Finance Review International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
China perspectives     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Chinese Economy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Chinese Journal of Population, Resources and Environment     Open Access  
Chinese Journal of Social Science and Management     Open Access  
Christian University of Thailand Journal     Open Access  
Chulalongkorn Business Review     Open Access  
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia, Economía y Negocios     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Circular Economy and Sustainability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Climate and Energy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
CLIO América     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cliometrica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Colombo Business Journal     Open Access  
Community Development Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Compendium : Cuadernos de Economía y Administración     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Compensation & Benefits Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Competition & Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Competitive Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Competitiveness Review : An International Business Journal incorporating Journal of Global Competitiveness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Computational Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Computational Mathematics and Modeling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Computer Law & Security Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Computers & Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Consilience : The Journal of Sustainable Development     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Construction Innovation: Information, Process, Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Consumer Behavior Studies Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Consumer Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Contemporary Wales     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Contextus - Revista Contemporânea de Economia e Gestão     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Continuity & Resilience Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Competitiveness Review : An International Business Journal incorporating Journal of Global Competitiveness
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.274
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 5  
 
Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal   * Containing 5 Open Access Open Access article(s) in this issue *
ISSN (Print) 1059-5422 - ISSN (Online) 2051-3143
Published by Emerald Homepage  [362 journals]
  • Factors affecting the international competitiveness of polish economy
           system in 2004-2019

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      Authors: Konrad Rojek
      Abstract: This study aims to present the issue of the international systemic competitiveness of the Polish economy. The essence of this concept was shown, as well as the measures and methods of analysis used. The aim of the research was to identify the factors that had the greatest impact on the formation of the international systemic competitiveness of the Polish economy. An econometric model was constructed to explain the shaping of the value of the dependent variable (gross domestic product [GDP] per capita) in the years 2004–2019. For this purpose, explanatory variables were used selected from among the measures of the international systemic competitiveness of the Polish economy. The developed econometric model was verified to check its practical usefulness. This process was performed using the Gretl program. The research also used the Pentagon Model of Macroeconomic Stabilization, which was used to examine the general economic development of Poland because of which it is possible to conclude about the international systemic competitiveness of the economy. In the analyzed period (2004–2019), the international systemic competitiveness of the Polish economy was to the greatest extent conditioned by such factors as government integrity, tax burdens and investment freedom. It is significant that the integrity of the government had a negative impact on the value of GDP per capita. The results of the conducted research may be particularly useful for the institutional sphere. They indicate systemic factors that had the greatest impact on the prosperity of Polish society in the analyzed period. This enables the weakest elements of the policy to be identified and improved. Proper applications and appropriate corrective actions will have a positive economic effect. So far, it has not been possible to develop/indicate a uniform and generally accepted measure and method of analyzing international systemic competitiveness. Therefore, all attempts to assess and measure systemic competitiveness have a high research value. The vast majority of studies on the international competitiveness of the economy focus only on assessing its level (growth, decline and comparison with other countries). When building an econometric model (based on the 2004–2019 time series), the author also checks the impact of its individual components, not only its level. On this basis, it can be deduced, which factors influenced the competitiveness in a given period to a greater extent, positively or negatively.
      Citation: Competitiveness Review
      PubDate: 2021-10-14
      DOI: 10.1108/CR-05-2021-0079
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Regional development and the institutional environment for franchise
           chains: frontiers of small and medium-sized cities

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      Authors: Pedro Lucas de Resende Melo , Felipe Mendes Borini , Victor Ragazzi Isaac , Victor Silva Correa
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to understand and identify the various characteristics of the institutional environment and the factors that propitiate the attraction of franchise chains to cities in the interior, using Brazil as an analysis. Secondary data from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics were used. It comprised a sample of 1,683 Brazilian cities with commercial outlets featuring franchise brands. It was limited to cities with populations of up to 100,000 inhabitants that did not constitute metropolitan regions. The statistical technique performed was multiple regression. The results of the multiple regression confirm the explanatory power of R² = 36% for the analyzed model. Such presence of franchise chains is based on four institutional dimensions and their environmental characteristics: demographic (demographic density); economic and financial (average monthly salary of formal workers and number of banking agencies); business (number of active companies and presence of shopping centers); and human resources (presence of higher education units). The main contribution of the study encompasses the call that regional institutional characteristics are part of knowledge guidelines on regional development and institutional environments for entrepreneurship. In this sense, the paper contributes to studies on regional development in particular, by punctuating the characteristics of the institutional environment of cities that are related to the existence of franchise chain brands. Such contributions are addressed to managers and directors of expanding franchise chains, given the choice of locations that best enable the concept of their franchises. The fact that only 20% of franchises have a presence in these cities, even if it is admitted that for 70% of these chains, their businesses have the capacity to make these locations viable, shows the importance of this contribution. This study is addressed to public managers, represented by secretaries of municipal developments, in view of the construction of an institutional environment conducive to entrepreneurial activity, in this specific case, by franchises. It is an important mechanism for attracting new businesses and creating a virtuous cycle of regional development. Specifically, knowledge is generated about the insertion of ventures based on the franchise business model in small- and medium-sized regional markets. A second feature involves the understanding of the insertion of enterprises in a large and heterogeneous emerging market.
      Citation: Competitiveness Review
      PubDate: 2021-10-11
      DOI: 10.1108/CR-03-2021-0041
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Evaluating farm and export competitiveness of the Irish dairy industry:
           post-quota analysis

         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

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      Authors: Lungelo Prince Cele , Thia Hennessy , Fiona Thorne
      Abstract: This paper aims to examine the competitiveness trends and rankings of the Irish dairy sector at the farm and trade levels, relative to selected European Union (EU) Member States, in the context of the removal of the EU milk quota in 2015. Competitiveness indicators including partial productivity measures and accountancy-based indicators were used for farm competitiveness, and net export market share and normalised revealed comparative advantage (NRCA) were used for export competitiveness. Amongst the countries examined, Ireland had the highest growth in partial productivity indicators and was ranked first with the lowest total costs and cash costs per kg of milk solids post-quota. However, the total economic cost sub-components showed that Irish dairy farmers had high opportunity costs for owned land and labour. While Irish dairy products such as butter and powders have demonstrated growth potential in competitiveness post-quota with Irish butter and whey ranked in top three relative to other countries, other products, i.e. cheese and liquid milk have declined in competitiveness according to key export competitiveness indicators used. The challenge for Irish dairy farmers is how to mitigate relatively high land and labour costs, which can limit farm competitiveness in the long run. The key players in the Irish dairy industry can now better position themselves in the global dairy market, recognizing the competitiveness dynamics of the different dairy products and their competitors. Policy implications and further areas of research have been identified to help improve the overall competitiveness position. It is surprising that Irish butter is a leader in the EU, yet not much research has been done to understand the market dynamics of this sector. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is the first of its kind to use both farm and export competitiveness measures to analyse the Irish dairy industry relative to other countries in the context of quota abolition. Unlike previous studies on dairy export competitiveness, this study has disaggregated the processed dairy products, which allowed for the ranking of countries and comparability across countries using NRCA.
      Citation: Competitiveness Review
      PubDate: 2021-09-16
      DOI: 10.1108/CR-11-2020-0136
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • The impact of smart specialization strategies on sub-cluster efficiency:
           simulation exercise for the case of Mexico

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      Authors: Viviana Elizabeth Zárate-Mirón , Rosina Moreno Serrano
      Abstract: This paper aims to evaluate whether the integration of smart specialization strategies (S3) into clusters significantly impacts their efficiency for countries that still do not implement this policy. This study tests three effects: whether the kind of policies envisaged through an S3 strategy impacts cluster’s efficiency; whether this impact changes with the technological intensity of the clusters; to determine which S3 is more suitable for sub-clusters at different levels of technological intensity. The Mexican economy is taken as case of study because it has a proper classification of its industries intro Porter’s cluster’s definition but still does not adopt the S3 policy. Through data envelopment analysis (DEA), this study evaluates the cluster’s efficiency increment when variables representing the S3 elements are included. The results show that strategies following the S3 had a significant impact in all clusters, but when clusters were classified by technological intensity, the impact on efficiency is higher in clusters in the medium low-tech group. According to the results in the DEA, it can be concluded that these S3 strategies have the potential to increase the clusters’ productivity significantly. These results make convenient the adoption of the S3 policy by countries that already count with a properly cluster definition. These findings contribute to the lack of studies that analyze the join implementation of S3 on clusters.
      Citation: Competitiveness Review
      PubDate: 2021-09-13
      DOI: 10.1108/CR-01-2021-0010
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Innovation, ICT penetration, trade and economic growth in developing and
           developed countries: a VECM approach

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      Authors: Parul Singh , Areej Aftab Siddiqui
      Abstract: The development in information communication and technology (ICT) has led to many changes such as reorganization of economics, globalization and trade. With more innovation processes being organized and adopted across technologies, trade, etc., these are getting more closely related and needs fresh research perspective. This study aims to empirically investigate the interrelationship between ICT penetration, innovation, trade and economic growth in 20 developed and developing nations from 1995 to 2018. The present paper examines both long-run and short-run relationships between the four variables, namely, innovation, ICT penetration, trade and economic growth, by applying panel estimation techniques of regression and vector error correction model. ICT penetration and innovation indices are constructed using principle component analysis technique. The findings of the study highlight that for developed nations, growth, trade and innovation are significantly interlinked with no significant role of ICT penetration While for developing nations, significant relationship is present between growth and trade, ICT penetration and innovation. With respect to trade, in case of developed nations, significant relationship is present with ICT penetration. While for developing nations there is no significant result for trade promotion. On further employing the vector error correction model, the presence of short run causality between growth, trade and innovation in case of developed nations is established but no such causality between variables for developing nations is seen. The present paper adds to the existing strand of literature examining interlinkage between innovation and growth by introducing new variables of ICT penetration and innovation.
      Citation: Competitiveness Review
      PubDate: 2021-09-10
      DOI: 10.1108/CR-05-2021-0074
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Relative export competitiveness of the Nigerian cocoa industry

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      Authors: Nazir Muhammad Abdullahi , Qiangqiang Zhang , Saleh Shahriar , Sokvibol Kea , Xuexi Huo
      Abstract: This paper aims to derive the time-varying relative export competitiveness (REC) of the Nigerian cocoa sector against Nigeria’s share of world agricultural exports (REC_WA) and world merchandise exports (REC_WM) from 1995 to 2018. By concentrating on different factors such as demand and supply capacity, price factors and exchange rate, the authors examine the determinants of REC. The authors calculated three different REC indexes. The authors also developed the relative symmetric export competitiveness index for comparative advantage calculation and avoiding the possible bias. The determinants of REC for Nigerian cocoa were captured using the short-run regression (SRR) model. The study showed that Nigeria’s cocoa exports are still competitive despite experiencing some declining stages. Based on the SRR model, higher per capita income had a positive effect on the REC, while higher domestic prices significantly reduced the REC of cocoa. Further, the African Growth Opportunity Act agreement adversely affected the REC of cocoa. This study provides a foundation for future research and enhances the literature on agricultural trade. This research makes a few contributions both from a scientific and a policy perspective. First, it is the first study on the REC analysis for the Nigerian cocoa industry. Second, a wide range of comparisons of REC among the world’s largest cocoa exporters was provided following implications of the various economic policies and local policy strategies. Third, the latest 24-year data sets were covered.
      Citation: Competitiveness Review
      PubDate: 2021-09-09
      DOI: 10.1108/CR-03-2021-0036
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Opening up to startup collaborations: open business models and value
           co-creation in SMEs

         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

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      Authors: Antonio Ghezzi , Angelo Cavallo , Silvia Sanasi , Andrea Rangone
      Abstract: This study aims at exploring how small and medium enterprises (SMEs) can implement a more open and co-creational business model by actively collaborating with startups. Because of the novelty of the SME–startup collaboration phenomenon and to the depth of the investigation required to grasp the mechanisms and logic of an open and co-creational business model, a single-case study has been performed related to investigating a collaboration between an SME and a startup. The authors provide detailed empirical evidence on how SMEs may structure a “systematic” approach to design and execute an open business model enabled by startup collaboration. Moreover, this study suggests that the business model innovation process represents a necessary forerunner of an open business model. Finally, the authors contend that research on open business models should entail a broader perspective beyond the innovation process, to include business model validation through testing approaches like the lean startup. This study takes as the locus of investigation the original perspective of the external partner of a focal firm willing to innovate. This study offers a unique contribution because, to date, few studies adopted such view within a relevant and under-remarked empirical setting linking SMEs and innovative startups.
      Citation: Competitiveness Review
      PubDate: 2021-08-28
      DOI: 10.1108/CR-04-2020-0057
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Smart economic development patterns in Europe: interaction with
           competitiveness

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      Authors: Jurgita Bruneckienė , Jonas Rapsikevičius , Mantas Lukauskas , Ineta Zykienė , Robertas Jucevičius
      Abstract: This paper aims to investigate the smart economic development (SED) patterns in Europe in relation to competitiveness. Motivational focus corresponds to global events: the fourth industrial revolution, transition to a low-carbon economy, economic shocks (such as the 2008 financial crisis, Brexit or the coronavirus pandemic), which requires rethinking development policies, targeting competitiveness increase and reducing imbalances in economic development. The analysis includes self-organising neural networks cluster analysis and correlations, comparative analysis of SED indicators structure and cumulative index estimation with World Economic Forum (WEF) global competitiveness index. The panel data set of 19 years from 2000 to 2018 for 30 European countries. Overall, cross-country examination suggests that European countries of higher competitiveness illustrate higher estimates in SED. The key determinants are juridical fairness, social responsibility, competence building, intelligence and welfare employment to develop smart patterns for reaching higher competitiveness. The limitations relate to the particular sample of European countries and gathering statistical data and a methodology of the SED index calculation. In addition, the paper contains a macroeconomic environment focus on competitiveness estimation. Further research may be improved with micro and mezzo environment incorporation at a cross-country analysis level. By linking well-known terms of competitiveness and economic development with a concept of smartness, new approaches to policymaking emerged. The methodology presented in this paper has implications for territorial cohesion policies, competitiveness and branching strategies. The combination of SED sub-indexes and WEF GCI might aid a more accurate ex ante measurement. The findings are essential for fostering a smart approach in economic development for long-term competitiveness. This paper provides original empirical evidence about the relationship between SED and competitiveness and adds new knowledge that smartness becomes a way for building countries’ competitiveness by identified two profiles of SED patterns by development stages, namely, integrated to economic development and institutional-based which is divided to focus and balanced.
      Citation: Competitiveness Review
      PubDate: 2021-08-23
      DOI: 10.1108/CR-02-2021-0026
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • How closeness matters: the role of geographical proximity in social
           capital development and knowledge sharing in SMEs

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      Authors: Pollawat Chumnangoon , Anukal Chiralaksanakul , Asda Chintakananda
      Abstract: This study aims to investigate the impacts of geographical proximity on social capital development through the inter-relationship between three social capital dimensions (structural, relational and cognitive dimension) and the knowledge sharing between small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The authors empirically test a main hypothesis that the mechanism of social capital development that subsequently results in tacit knowledge sharing is different for SME buyer-supplier partners across their different geographical distances. Multiple-group analysis in structural equation modeling (SEM) was conducted to test the research hypotheses using data collected from approximately 200 SMEs in Thailand’s food industry. At a great geographical distance, the structural dimension impacts the cognitive dimension only in an indirect way through a relational dimension, which subsequently leads to knowledge sharing between SME buyer-supplier partners. At close geographical proximity, while the indirect impact of structural dimension on cognitive dimension through a relational dimension is still presented as it is in a great geographical distance, structural dimension has a positive and direct impact on the cognitive dimension as a complementary way to jointly reinforce knowledge sharing between SME partners. Among distant SME partners, the relational dimension shows a stronger impact on the cognitive dimension. In contrast, the direct influence of structural, relational and cognitive dimensions on knowledge sharing is identical, regardless of geographical distance. The managers of SMEs can design their network-building approach in such a way that different location partners can enhance knowledge sharing. Policymakers could consider these results as a guideline when imposing SME development policies and geographical cluster policies in emerging economies. This study provides empirical evidence that demonstrates how geographical proximity between SME partners in an emerging economy influences their social proximity through the lens of social capital development mechanism and thus leads to knowledge sharing between them.
      Citation: Competitiveness Review
      PubDate: 2021-08-20
      DOI: 10.1108/CR-03-2021-0038
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Corporate social responsibility, green innovation and competitiveness –
           causality in manufacturing

         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

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      Authors: Carmen Paola Padilla-Lozano , Pablo Collazzo
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to explore the interplay of corporate social responsibility (CSR) and green innovation in boosting competitiveness in manufacturing in an emerging market context. This study adds green innovation as mediator in the relationship between CSR and competitiveness. A model with three second-order constructs is developed and tested, in a sample of 325 managers from manufacturing companies in Ecuador, using quantitative and cross-section methods. After obtaining adjusted and validated measurement models, a structural equation model was conducted, where the main hypotheses were confirmed, providing empirical evidence that CSR and green innovation significantly influence manufacturing competitiveness in a developing economy. This study considers only manufacturing companies in Ecuador, focusing on CSR practices in a single territorial case study. It arguably contributes to reinforce the business case for CSR, with new evidence on the causal relationships between CSR, green innovation and competitiveness, in the context of emerging market manufacturing industries. Although the literature often points at a positive relationship between CSR and firm-level competitiveness, supporting empirical evidence remains scarce. This model, introducing green innovation as mediator in the relationship between CSR and competitiveness in developing markets, accounts for a novel theoretical approach. The findings are consistent with previous research, reporting the positive influence of CSR activities on organizational competitiveness, reducing risks and cost structures, as well as improving the relationship with employees, enhancing talent attraction, retention and productivity. Incorporating formal CSR tools to the model allowed us to highlight the relevance of ‘green’ certifications as a means to provide a competitive edge, along with increased bargaining power in the supply chain, resulting in competitiveness gains. The findings on the role of green innovation suggest a transition from cost-savings to a more strategic leverage on responsible innovation as a source of competitive advantage. Additionally, this research contributes to shed light on the impact of green processes and product innovations on social and environmental performance, providing evidence of a more efficient use of energy and natural resources, increasing productivity and by extension, profitability. CSR shapes an innovation culture that, through the use of social, environmental and sustainability controllers, can create new business models, products, services or processes that boost both firm-level and supply chain productivity, benefits that eventually spill over to the host community. This study aims at bridging the research gap on the interplay of CSR, green innovation and competitiveness in manufacturing in an emerging market context.
      Citation: Competitiveness Review
      PubDate: 2021-08-16
      DOI: 10.1108/CR-12-2020-0160
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • AI: new source of competitiveness in higher education

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      Authors: Erin Hannan , Shuguang Liu
      Abstract: This paper aims to survey the current landscape of artificial intelligence (AI) applications in higher education institutions (HEIs) and recommend future directions. This paper reviews the recent trends, showcases the applications and provides future directions through a review of current uses of AI in HEIs. The results of this study highlight successful applications of AI technologies in three main areas of college operation: student learning experience; student support; and enrollment management. This review has important implications for early adopters of AI by HEIs in providing a competitive advantage. The limitation lies in the scope of the review. It is not comprehensive and does not cover other areas of college operations. This is the first review about AI in higher education. It is of value in building future research and serving as a framework for AI applications in HEI.
      Citation: Competitiveness Review
      PubDate: 2021-08-09
      DOI: 10.1108/CR-03-2021-0045
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • The impact of strategic competitive innovation on the financial
           performance of SMEs during COVID-19 pandemic period

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      Authors: Hani El Chaarani , Prof. Demetris Vrontis , Sam El Nemar , Zouhour El Abiad
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to reveal the impact of strategic competitive innovation types on the financial performance of SMEs during a very critical period: the COVID-19 pandemic. Four strategic competitive innovation types are considered in this study: marketing innovation, organizational innovation, product innovation and processes innovation. To examine empirically the relationship between strategic competitiveness and financial performance, data were collected from a sample of 426 Lebanese SMEs belonging to seven different sectors. The empirical findings of principle component analysis model (PCA) and multiple regression model (MR) reveal that the ability to innovate is essential to an SME’s survival during a crisis. The results of this study confirm the existence of a positive impact of marketing innovation and processes innovation on the financial performance of SMEs during the COVID-19 pandemic. Moreover, results suggest that, in Lebanese SMEs, product innovation and organizational innovation do not have any impact on the financial performance during the pandemic period. This research focused on strategic competitive innovation as a broadly considered essential condition for the survival of SMEs during the COVID-19 crises.
      Citation: Competitiveness Review
      PubDate: 2021-08-06
      DOI: 10.1108/CR-02-2021-0024
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Perceptions of barriers to innovate in Colombian manufacturing firms: an
           analysis by technological intensity

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      Authors: Vanessa Pertuz , Luis Francisco Miranda
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to investigate the factors that impede innovation in Colombian manufacturing firms, as measured by the level of technological intensity. The authors used data from 1,850 firms to determine the barriers associated with information and internal capabilities, risks and environment. The main results of this study confirm that potentially innovative firms of low technological intensity are more likely to ascribe high importance to obstacles associated with information and internal capabilities, when compared with innovative firms. The abandonment of innovative projects, family-operated enterprises and investment in R&D are all related to an increased perception of obstacles to innovation, while investments in information and communication technologies have an opposite effect. Variables as partnerships and export behaviour, have different effects depending on the level of technological intensity. This study investigates the obstacles to innovation of a firm as determined by its characteristics and as measured against its level of technological intensity. Previous studies have investigated barriers to innovation in technologically advanced sectors (Lachman and López, 2019) and technology-based SMEs (De Moraes Silva et al. 2020) or how the technological intensity of the firm determines access to university knowledge for overcoming barriers (Kanama and Nishikawa, 2017). The only study to analyse barriers to innovation by measuring a firm’s technological intensity was conducted into Mexican manufacturing and services sector companies by Santiago et al. (2017).
      Citation: Competitiveness Review
      PubDate: 2021-07-22
      DOI: 10.1108/CR-08-2020-0102
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Regional economic growth in India: convergence or divergence'

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      Authors: Suryakanta Nayak , Dukhabandhu Sahoo
      Abstract: This paper aims to examine the convergence in per-capita income (measured as per-capita net state domestic product) of regions in India during the period 1990–1991 to 2017–2018. Two separate analyses have also been done for the sub-periods, i.e., 1990–1991 to 2003–2004 and 2004–2005 to 2017–2018, to find out the effect of the second phase of economic liberalization in India. In a panel data study, the estimation of absolute and conditional beta (β)-convergence and sigma (σ)-convergence across 17 Indian regions have been done. To measure the dispersion of per-capita income across the regions in India, the standard deviation of logs, Gini coefficient, Mehran measure, Piesch measure, Kakwani measure and Theil index have been estimated. In addition to this, these indices have been regressed over time. This study finds the presence of absolute and conditional β-convergence; the regions with low initial per-capita income have grown faster than the regions with high initial per-capita income. Further, this study finds that foreign direct investment (FDI) inflow and the availability of power enhance growth across regions. However, this study finds the presence of σ-divergence, which indicates that the economic inequality among the regions in India has widened over the periods, calling for policy interventions to promote growth in the backward regions through the promotion of FDI inflow and the availability of power. This study highlights the rising economic inequality among the regions in India by analyzing the latest available data through appropriate econometric techniques.
      Citation: Competitiveness Review
      PubDate: 2021-07-19
      DOI: 10.1108/CR-10-2020-0131
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Women on boards of directors: the moderation role of female labour force
           participation

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      Authors: Reem Hamdan , Allam Hamdan , Bahaaeddin Alareeni , Osama F. Atayah , Layla Faisal Alhalwachi
      Abstract: This study aims to investigate the moderation role of the percentage of women in the country labour force in the relationship between firm-level governance factors (board size, institutional ownership, ownership concentration, board independence, performance, firm size, firm’s risk and sector) and women on boards (WOBs) in publicly listed firms in Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries. The study relied on a sample of 436 publicly listed firms in 2018 in six GCC countries (Bahrain, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Oman, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates). The study concluded that the percentage of women in the country’s labour force has a moderation role in the relationship between board size and WOB, as well as firm market performance and WOBs. However, ownership concentration, firm size, firm risk and firm sector do not affect the percentage of WOB; consequently, the percentage of women in the country’s labour force did not have a moderation role in the relationship between these variables and the percentage of WOBs. The study incorporates an institutional level variable which is the percentage of women in the country’s labour force in a firm-level relationship mostly understood by agency theory.
      Citation: Competitiveness Review
      PubDate: 2021-07-16
      DOI: 10.1108/CR-01-2021-0001
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Intellectual capital, bank stability and risk-taking: evidence from Asian
           emerging markets

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      Authors: Tamanna Dalwai , Dharmendra Singh , Ananda S.
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of intellectual capital (IC) efficiency on the banks’ risk-taking and stability of Asian emerging markets. This study uses a sample of 204 listed banks from 12 Asian emerging countries for the period 2010 to 2019. Data were analyzed using Ordinary Least Squares regression and checked for robustness using system generalized methods moment (GMM) estimation. The dependent variable of bank stability is measured using Z-score-based return on assets (ROA) and return on equity (ROE). The second dependent variable of bank risk is proxied by the standard deviation of ROA, ROE, non-performing loans and loan loss provision. The results suggest the IC efficiency has no association with bank risk-taking and stability. The findings lend no support to the resource-based theory. The robustness of this result is confirmed by the system GMM estimation. However, support is found for the competition fragility view as high market power is associated with low risk-taking. The IC subcomponents, human capital efficiency (HCE) report a negative coefficient for bank risk-taking thereby having no support for the hypothesized relationships. Diversified banks with a higher deposit to total asset ratio resort to high risk-taking. IC efficiency does not have an impact on the bank’s risk-taking behavior and stability for Asian banks. Managers can use these findings to improve their IC and boost investor confidence. Regulatory authorities should increase its monitoring function of banks when the GDP decreases as risk-taking behavior are galvanized during this period. This research is one of the first to provide empirical evidence of IC efficiency’s relationship with bank stability and bank risk-taking. The implications are useful for policymakers, managers and governing bodies to enhance the banks’ IC efficiency.
      Citation: Competitiveness Review
      PubDate: 2021-07-13
      DOI: 10.1108/CR-03-2021-0031
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • The Covid-19 pandemic and technical efficiency of Russian firms: a
           stochastic frontier production function approach

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      Authors: Parul Singh , Kashika Arora , Areej Aftab Siddiqui
      Abstract: This paper aims to undertake the efficiency analysis in the form of stochastic frontier to estimate a Cobb–Douglas production function by controlling for the heterogeneity across Russian firms by including firm size, ownership, age, innovation activity and market competition. During the peak period of Covid-19, certain firms witnessed either a decrease or increase in sales. Using this segregation of firms from World Bank’s Covid-19 impact surveys follow-up to the Enterprise Survey for Russia, this study empirically investigates the determinants of technical efficiency of these firms focusing on the role of government assistance. The findings suggest that by segregating firms in terms of sales, different internal factors can enable in steering through pandemic situation besides just depending on external assistance. One of the few papers to analyse the impact of the pandemic on Russian firms by considering World Bank Covid Survey.
      Citation: Competitiveness Review
      PubDate: 2021-07-05
      DOI: 10.1108/CR-03-2021-0037
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • The impact of high-tech companies’ performance and growth on capital
           structure

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      Authors: Vladislav Spitsin , Darko B. Vukovic , Lubov Spitsina , Mustafa Özer
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the joint influence of two factors (companies’ performance and growth) on the company’s capital structure and to determine the conditions for financially sustainable competitive strategies in the coordinates profitability and growth. The study sample includes 1,996 companies from 6 high-tech industries in Russia (panel data: 7,984 observations). The authors use regression models with random effects and carry out a three-dimensional visualization of the resulting dependencies. The study found that profitability improves the capital structure (reduces the share of borrowed capital) and, on the contrary, the growth of companies (assets growth or sales growth) increases the leverage ratio. In the case of assets growth, the combined influence of two factors reduces the negative effect of assets growth. The results have shown that the outstripping growth of most high-tech companies requires an increase in debt capital and deterioration in the capital structure and financial stability. In general, based on the results of this study, the authors have identified groups of fast-growing companies that need financial support, and have defined the main areas of impact (reducing the loan burden and increasing profitability) that will allow these companies to maintain high growth rates and demonstrate advanced development. The relationships (which the authors identified between the control variables, the studied variables and leverage) were obtained for the first time for a sample of companies in high-tech industries and services in bigger transition country (Russia).
      Citation: Competitiveness Review
      PubDate: 2021-07-05
      DOI: 10.1108/CR-03-2021-0042
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Networks as a moderating factor of the effect of institutional distance on
           export performance

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      Authors: Manuel Chabier Escolá , Raul Serrano , Juan Ramón Ferrer
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the moderating effect of business networks on the export performance of firms. Following recent studies conducted from a network perspective, this moderating effect is studied for different types of business networks. To do this, a two-step Heckman-probit model is implemented for a sample of more than 2,000 manufacturing companies with information from the years 2006 to 2012. This study analyses the effect of nine variables of institutional distance between Spain and four geographical areas for collaborating and non-collaborating firms. The main contribution of this paper is suggesting that vertical networks reduce the negative effects of institutional distance faced by the company in the early stages of its export process. According to the results of this paper, managers should make a greater effort to expand their networks when they want to start exporting to further markets, as some networks reduces the negative effect of distance on export propensity. Moreover, the results also suggest that participating within a network may not be sufficient to increase the propensity to export of a firm, being important the kind of network in which companies participate. The originality of this paper lies in providing empirical evidence that distinct kind of networks have different effect on the internationalisation process of companies, and that they affect not only directly as previous studies showed but also indirectly moderating the negative effect of the differences between markets.
      Citation: Competitiveness Review
      PubDate: 2021-06-19
      DOI: 10.1108/CR-12-2020-0155
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Location competitiveness in specific pioneering theories: a condensed
           overview

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      Authors: Damiano Lepori
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to provide with a condensed overview of location competitiveness from the perspectives of specific pioneering theories to highlight the main factors, which lay the foundations for latter theories specifically dedicated to location-bound advantages, to specialization processes and, in fine, to location competitiveness. The study is divided into five major sections. First, location competitiveness is tackled from Smith’s frame of reference in the theory of absolute advantages. Second, Ricardo’s comparative advantages are scrutinized and specific complementary findings to Smith are highlighted. Third, Marshall’s industrial districts are investigated, as they constitute the linchpin of numerous latter approaches on location competitiveness. Fourth, the Keynesian perspective is considered as far as the role of government on location competitiveness is concerned. Fifth, endogenous growth theories are considered as they relate to capital, innovation and knowledge, which are factors intrinsically associated with agglomeration patterns and to location competitiveness. The main finding of this literature review suggests that pioneering theories also identify location competitiveness as having a fundamental influence on firms’ ability to prosper in terms of wealth creation and of competitive advantages and vice versa. The originality of this study is to investigate seminal authors from the perspective of location competitiveness and to highlight how numerous later researches dedicated to the subject are indeed based on pioneering theories. On this basis, it is subsequently possible to capture location competitiveness and to implement relevant policy measures to improve economic prosperity.
      Citation: Competitiveness Review
      PubDate: 2021-05-31
      DOI: 10.1108/CR-11-2020-0138
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Can efficient transport moderate real sector productivity'

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      Authors: Noman Arshed , Muhammad Shahzad Sardar , Mubasher Iqbal
      Abstract: This study aims to test the role of infrastructure for economic growth. For this purpose, panel data of the world is selected from 1998 to 2018 and the study has used slope moderator to test the productivity of real economic activity with economic growth. In this context, the feasible generalized least square method is adopted to estimate the results. Four types of infrastructure indicators i.e. quality of air, port, rail and road are used along with disaggregated GDP. According to the results of this study, the role of industrial and agricultural value addition without infrastructure is negative. For industrial value addition, the cross product with all infrastructure types positively impacts economic growth. All the infrastructures, along with services value addition, except seaport, are contributing to economic growth positively. Along with agriculture value addition, only road infrastructure is contributing to economic growth positively. This study has also used two control variables i.e. quality of education and institutions. These variables are also found to be positive and significant with economic growth. This study explores the moderating role of quality of infrastructure sector on real sector productivity, which is leading to economic growth.
      Citation: Competitiveness Review
      PubDate: 2021-05-28
      DOI: 10.1108/CR-01-2021-0002
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • FDI inflows and bank deposits: evidence from 18 MENA economies

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      Authors: Abdulazeez Y.H. Saif-Alyousfi
      Abstract: This paper aims to examine and compare the impact of foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows on bank deposits in aggregate as well as at the level of conventional and Islamic banks in Middle East and North Africa (MENA) countries. The study also tests hypotheses of direct and indirect impacts of FDI flow and FDI stock on bank deposits. Static and dynamic panel generalized methods of moments (GMM) estimation techniques are applied to analyze a large data set of 491 commercial banks (422 conventional banks and 69 Islamic banks) across 18 MENA countries between 1993 and 2017 (12,275 year observations). Empirical results indicate that inflowing FDI flow and FDI stock have a significant negative direct impact on deposits of MENA banks. The results lend support for the direct channel hypothesis for the effect of FDI on bank deposits and find no evidence in support of the indirect channel hypothesis. FDI inflows affect bank deposits directly via increased FDI-related excessive competition in the banking market. Deposits from conventional banks appear to be more affected than those from Islamic banks. The variation may due to the fact that Islamic banks have fewer multinational corporations (MNC) customers than conventional banks and therefore are less sensitive to fluctuations in FDI. From this analysis, this study concludes that foreign investments have a higher productivity than local investments in MENA region. Attracting more FDI is aimed at increasing overall national productivity through competition. However, governments would be wise to enact such a policy to maximize benefits and minimize potential harm to local industry. Furthermore, FDI policy should encourage small to medium-size banks and firms (SMEs)’ participation and linkage with multinational banks and MNCs, while upgrading research and development institutions and innovation activities to help SMEs to benefit from potential spillovers from foreign presence in the industry. In addition, the linkage and connection between SMEs and foreign firms should be strengthened and promoted by government policy. This study is the first of its kind to examine the effect of FDI inflows on bank deposits. It also provides an in-depth quantitative analysis of the impact of FDI flow and FDI stock, separately, on bank deposits for both conventional and Islamic banks. It distinguishes between direct and indirect channels through which FDI inflows may affect bank deposits. The study analyzes 25 years of panel data for 491 banks (12,275 year observations) and uses both static and dynamic panel GMM estimation techniques to analyze the data.
      Citation: Competitiveness Review
      PubDate: 2021-05-13
      DOI: 10.1108/CR-05-2020-0078
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Assessing the mediating effect of sustainable competitive advantage on the
           relationship between organisational innovativeness and firm performance

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      Authors: Vural Çağlıyan , Melis Attar , Aleem Abdul-Kareem
      Abstract: This study aims to assess the mediating effect of sustainable competitive advantage (SCA) on the relationship between organisational innovativeness (OI) and performance of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) operating in Konya, Turkey. A survey method is used to collect the necessary data for this research. A total of 264 respondents from 83 SMEs partook in the study. In choosing the sample size, both purposive sampling and simple random techniques are used. The data gathered are analysed using SPSS program and Hayes PROCESS macro v.3.4.1. The results of the analyses reveal that OI has a statistically significant positive effect on SCA and firm performance (FP). Moreover, SCA is found to have a mediating effect on the relationship between OI and FP. Policymakers and management of SMEs need to show great commitment to innovativeness and relate it to SCA to create superior customer value, thereby leading to a holistic and long-term FP. This study brings to the fore empirical evidence on how SCA serves as a mediator between OI and FP. It also contributes to the literature by focusing on three distinct but related variables. The study makes theoretical contribution by highlighting the role of the resource-based theory in enhancing business performance and SCA through strategic internal resources and innovative activities.
      Citation: Competitiveness Review
      PubDate: 2021-04-08
      DOI: 10.1108/CR-10-2020-0129
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Through the liquid sunshine: international whisky market structure and
           competitiveness

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      Authors: Karim Marini Thomé , Vitoria Angie Leal Paiva , Tafarel Carvalho Gois
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to analyse the whisky market in relation to international competitiveness and international market structure. The study uses Herfindahl–Hirschman index and net export index to describe the international market structure, and revealed symmetric comparative advantage (RSCA) index to measure export competitiveness. In addition, it was developed this stability and duration through regression analysis, and used Kaplan–Meier estimator to characterize the competitiveness survival in international whisky market. The results reveal that imports market structure remained unconcentrated and, on the other hand, exports market structure is highly concentrated. Concerning the trade characteristics, UK and Ireland have a strong tendency to export; Australia, France, Japan and Spain have a strong position on import and consumption; and Latvia, The Netherlands and Singapore to re-export. About the RSCA, UK, Ireland and Latvia have highest values. UK and Ireland are totally stable during the period analysed, and other countries such as USA, Singapore and Latvia also have a greater survival rate of RSCA. This study provides a comprehensive and current analysis of the international whisky market structure and competitiveness, contributing to the analysis of the international market for products that have differentiation and focus appeal, such as whisky.
      Citation: Competitiveness Review
      PubDate: 2021-04-05
      DOI: 10.1108/CR-11-2020-0140
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Managing complexity in maritime business: understanding the smart changes
           of globalization

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      Authors: Hatice Akpinar , Didem Ozer-Caylan
      Abstract: This study aims to review and try to understand the importance of complexity management for maritime business to gain competitiveness in global business environment. The purpose of the study is to discuss and evaluate managing change and requirements of understanding the complexity management. To find peer-reviewed journal publications, a large scientific database used by searching Web of Science and Scopus as the most relevant abstract and citation databases that provide peer-reviewed literature data for many different academic disciplines and selected papers evaluated from the maritime business context. As a conceptual paper, the contribution of the study is to offer practical/required management applications with the help of six proposes for making better management decisions to confront future challenges to catch organizational competitiveness and success. With adaptation of complexity management, maritime stakeholders able to create an important core competency. The research has some limitations and further research into this area should be extended. This study is designed as a first step to provide an insight to the field and to understand the main views of the subject. Subsequently, complexity management in maritime business is a slightly deficient area of research, which offers remarkable research opportunities. First, it would be fruitful to collect qualitative data to examine the current issues and changing business environment of the maritime business. Second, it would be helpful develop quantitative models to offer practical solutions from the maritime stakeholders’ point of view according to loading/discharging/transportation requirements. Future studies should deepen the subject with the help of simulation models of operations or agent based applications of stakeholder problems or vessel/ship-owner management implementations to understand changing circumstances of new business environment for the sake of managing complexity. As the core point of view in strategic management; “achieving and sustaining” competitive advantage in organizations always takes an important place in organizational survival. With the help mentioned proposes stakeholders of the system could understand the ways of dealing with the complexities of new business world which enhances organizational competitiveness. Maritime business could be defined as a social ecosystem which has it is own dynamics and customs. Socio-eco systems, like all complex systems, show unique non-linear dynamics in space and time which could be tough to define via classical quantitative methods. Organizations co-exist and co-evolve with their environment. It is possible that organizations effect their environment and gain some control over it while at the same time affected from environment and should steer the new trends. The originality of the study lies in highlighting the importance of change management as a handler of complexity management for maritime business. The contribution of the paper is to indicate expected opportunities and challenges of smart changes for relevant readiness of maritime business for better management decisions, benefiting maritime business stakeholders by simultaneously enhancing effectiveness to confront future demands to achieve organizational competitiveness. With the help of proper complexity management lenses organizations could able to create their source of competitive advantage that represents capacity to align and enable required functions under tough contextual environment.
      Citation: Competitiveness Review
      PubDate: 2021-02-26
      DOI: 10.1108/CR-10-2020-0128
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Innovation and exports: different markets, different outcomes

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      Authors: Gabriela Barrère , Andrés Jung , Diego Karsaclian
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to identify different outcomes in the relation innovation–exports for a firm located in a developing country, depending upon the destination market of its exports (i.e. a developed or a developing economy). The specification strategy is a bivariate probit regression model applied to 640 Uruguayan manufacturing firms. Two simultaneous equations are used to estimate the probability of being an exporting or innovating firm. For both equations, the firm’s innovative activity and export status in the past are introduced as explanatory variables to solve endogeneity issues. When firms located in a developing economy export to another developing country, the authors find that innovation precedes exports, in line with what they would expect according to theory. When the export market is a developed economy, firms are not able to cope with both innovation and export strategies simultaneously, whether innovating to access export markets or transforming knowledge from exports into innovation. Causality could not be found and endogeneity problems were not solved. The data are limited to a sample of Uruguayan manufacturing firms during six years between 2010 and 2015, and authors do not know when did the firms began to export either to a developed or a developing economy. Furthermore, the database indicates if a developed economy is between the three main export markets of the firm or not, but authors do not know what kind of products (i.e. their technological level) are exported by the firm to that destination. Although the link between innovation and exports is an important topic for firms and policymakers, the main bulk of empirical studies has ignored the role of destination markets. This study attempts to fill this gap contributing to a better understanding of the differences in the relation between innovation and exports (i.e. its sequence), when the destination market is a developed or a developing economy.
      Citation: Competitiveness Review
      PubDate: 2021-02-11
      DOI: 10.1108/CR-09-2020-0111
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Leveraging competitiveness to develop optimal strategies: evidence from
           the restaurant industry

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      Authors: Chia-Ning Chiu
      Abstract: Performance evaluation is a good way to improve competitiveness, and leveraging competitiveness is vital to developing optimal strategies and sustainable development for the growing restaurant industry in the USA and across the globe. This study can benefit from the methods to inform business strategies and decisions. Through the combination of two methods, this paper aims to provide novel perspectives to realize each restaurant company’s resource allocation and performance, to know their market position compared to with other competitors, and then to develop their own business strategies. This study proposes an application of slack-based measure (SBM) to determine input excesses and output shortfalls of the restaurant industry. Subsequently, context-dependent data envelopment analysis (DEA) is used to identify the level of each restaurant company and compute the relative attractiveness and progress scores for each restaurant at each level, positioning each restaurant company’s stance in their markets. The empirical results reveal that management teams need to pay more attention to human resources, asset management and food cost control because the analysis of SBM model shows an opportunity for restaurant companies to adjust their hiring numbers to reach the optimal amount of employees. In addition, restaurant companies are categorized by their efficient frontiers into four levels using context-dependent DEA. Furthermore, the findings provide the four quadrants that each restaurant company falls into. Each of those four quadrants can guide the types of strategies a restaurant should adopt. This study can help the publicly traded restaurant companies to identify their market position with target benchmarks, and then to develop optimal strategies and future plans for growth.
      Citation: Competitiveness Review
      PubDate: 2021-02-08
      DOI: 10.1108/CR-04-2020-0058
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Entrepreneurial environment attractiveness: a cross-country longitudinal
           cluster analysis

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      Authors: Clarice Secches Kogut , Luíza Neves Marques da Fonseca , Jorge Ferreira da Silva
      Abstract: The purpose of this work is to explore what determines a country’s entrepreneurial environment attractiveness, by understanding how countries compare regarding their business environment and entrepreneurial opportunities and whether such aspects have changed over time. Through a longitudinal country-level cluster analysis of business environments (years 2001 and 2016), this study captures changes in classification of both emerging and developed market economies throughout an attractiveness spectrum, from least to most attractive environments. Interesting findings involve the difference in trajectories of emerging economies, such as India compared to the stagnation of Brazil, Argentina and South Korea in the 15-year period. The paper seeks to contribute to the debate on the attractiveness of the entrepreneurial environment beyond the simple notion of most and least economically developed countries by providing a framework for dynamic cross-country analysis of entrepreneurial environmental attractiveness that can be further explored, tested and expanded. Main limitations relate to the non-exhaustive sample of countries and variables. Contributions are both academic and managerial: helping to fill important research gaps in international entrepreneurship, namely, environmental conditions, cross-country comparisons (Coombs et al., 2009) and the understanding of elements of the investment climate (Stern, 2002); and assisting managers, entrepreneurs and policymakers understand what defines a country’s entrepreneurial environment attractiveness to better evaluate potential locations for investment. The originality of the paper lies in using cluster analysis in a longitudinal study of country attractiveness, as well as in advancing the debate of country attractiveness, by adding a temporal dimension (from factors that are less structural to more conjunctural) and a comparative dimension in a new cross-country comparison framework of analysis.
      Citation: Competitiveness Review
      PubDate: 2021-02-08
      DOI: 10.1108/CR-06-2020-0081
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Geographic market size and low bid competitiveness in construction
           companies

         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

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      Authors: Koki Arai
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between the geographic market size of businesses and the competitiveness of being able to bid at low prices. The design of this study is based on a natural experiment approach. Firstly, after controlling for the firm size and other factors, the author sees that firms participating in bidding in a large region are more competitive to bid at lower prices than firms doing business in a smaller region. The author then tests for causality in a natural experiment of the exogenous event. The results show that firms participating in the bidding process in a large area are more competitive to bid at lower prices than firms doing business in a small area. This is tested in a natural experiment, and the result is that they are more competitive because they do business in a larger area. The practical implication is that, when aiming for competitiveness, it is most important to consider the nature of the business and to see the essence of the business, for example, that networks are important in the construction industry, and that doing business over a wide area is the way to become competitive. The social implications are that to make firms more competitive, we must look at the characteristics of the industry and come up with policies that fit the reality, such as encouraging them to do business in a wide area. The originality of this study is that this study viewed competitiveness as being able to bid low prices for public procurement and found that doing business in a wide area is competitive. Furthermore, the causal effect of the study was to test the fact that doing business in a wide area does not mean doing business in a wide area because it is competitive, but that doing business in a wide area creates a competitive advantage.
      Citation: Competitiveness Review
      PubDate: 2021-02-08
      DOI: 10.1108/CR-10-2020-0124
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Measuring regional competitiveness on the basis of entrepreneurship,
           technological readiness and quality of institutions

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      Authors: Nirmalkumar Singh Moirangthem , Barnali Nag
      Abstract: Developing composite index-regional entrepreneurship, technological readiness and institution quality index (RETRIQ) of regional entrepreneurship, technology readiness and quality of institution to measure regional competitiveness. This study, also, aims to test econometrically the effectiveness of the index in capturing the economic performance of the sub-national regions. The data of eight indicators used in the index are from sources available freely in the public domain. The causal relationship analysis is done using panel data of 10 years from 2008 to 2017 for 32 Indian states/union territories. The generalized method of moments (GMM) is used for this dynamic regression estimation. Based on RETRIQ, 32 states and union territories of India have ranked. The estimation using GMM shows a significant association between the composite index and economic growth. The limitations of the study include the broad assumption that these sub-national regions belong to a uniform macro-economic and technology environment and data constraints as it is a longitudinal study. Then, the implication of the study is that the composite index-RETRIQ could capture differences in regional competitiveness explaining regional economic disparity. The index will be useful for policy implications in the assessment of competitiveness disparity. It is a composite index of regional entrepreneurship, technological readiness and quality of the institution. The panel data across states along 10 years series is novel.
      Citation: Competitiveness Review
      PubDate: 2021-02-08
      DOI: 10.1108/CR-11-2020-0139
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • The relational embeddedness as the differentiator of the cluster supply
           chain collaboration – a multidimensional comparative analysis

         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

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      Authors: Marzena Frankowska , Katarzyna Cheba
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to fill the research and cognitive gap by comparative analyzing of the cluster supply chain (CSC) and supply chains not belonging to the clusters to examine the relational embeddedness as the differentiator of supply chains operating in the clusters. The conceptual model was tested with data collected from 475 industrial companies cooperating with their partners within supply chains, including 135 CSC. To identify the livraisons between different indicators, the correspondence analysis was applied. The division of enterprises participating in this study into groups allows for the determination of relatively clear boundaries between enterprises belonging to the cluster and those that do not declare such affiliation. The obtained results confirmed that the relational embeddedness is the differentiator of the CSC collaboration. The main limitations are referred to as the static character of the data. The paper contains implications for cluster facilitators, as well as for cluster policy decision makers, to better design support for cluster organizations. This research is a contribution to the literature on inter-organizational structures, such as clusters and supply chains, and in particular, contributes to the creation of the scientific ground of SCS theory. The research allowed to better understand the nature of collaboration taking into consideration the fact of the relational embeddedness of the companies operating within supply chains located in clusters. It proves the existence of a new type of inter-organizational form that is CSC.
      Citation: Competitiveness Review
      PubDate: 2021-01-29
      DOI: 10.1108/CR-11-2019-0114
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • The mediating role of cloud computing in the relationship between talent
           management and competitive advantages

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      Authors: Nisrein Jamal Abu-Darwish , Mohammed Mufaddy Al-Kasasbeh , Mohammad Mansour Al-Khasawneh
      Abstract: This study aims to identify the relationship between talent management and competitive advantages through cloud computing as a mediating factor in the private health sector in Jordan. To achieve the study, a questionnaire was developed as the main tool for data collection, which consisted of (39) paragraphs. Sequentially, the population of the study consisted of (200) outpatient clinics for private hospitals, therapeutic and diagnostic centers in the private health sector in Jordan. While (150) questionnaires were distributed to a random sample from the study population, (136) questionnaires were retrieved, (134) of them were valid for statistical analysis. Therefore, the percentage of return and valid questionnaires is (89.3%) out of the total distributed questionnaires. Consequently, the results showed there is a statistically significant impact of talent management on the competitive advantages through cloud computing in the private health sector in Jordan. Based on the results reached, the study included some implications such as, enhancing the awareness of the importance of talent management in the private health sector and direct them toward the application of its practices because its role in achieving competitive advantages, increase its ability to survive and continue in the competitive environment. Decision-makers of the private health sector are advised to prepare comprehensive plans that allow private health organizations to benefit more from cloud computing and the services it provides. The importance of this study derives from linking important factors such as talent management, competitive advantages and cloud computing in one of the most vital sectors in Jordan, which is considered one of the critical tributaries of the Jordanian economy.
      Citation: Competitiveness Review
      PubDate: 2021-01-18
      DOI: 10.1108/CR-10-2020-0133
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Determinants of M&A acquisition premium: a social capital perspective

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      Authors: Huy Will Nguyen , Zhu Zhu , Young Hoon Jung , Dong Shin Kim
      Abstract: What determines the level of acquisition premium' This paper aims to investigate the effect of acquirers’ social capital as reflected through their network position (structural holes and network density) on the level of acquisition premiums. This study predicts acquisition premiums using a panel data set of 324 mergers and acquisition (M&A) transactions including 161 unique acquirers over a 21-year timeframe. M&A and alliance information are obtained from the securities data company platinum database; firm financial data are obtained from the COMPUSTAT database. The results show that alliance network social capital provides acquiring firms with information benefits, thus, reducing the acquisition premium. However, such information benefits are also contingent on target valuation uncertainty and acquirers’ structure exploitation tendency. Different types of network structures provide different social capital influences: managers should be aware of their advantages and pitfalls when engaging in M&As. The findings suggest that firms should pay close attention to social capital when making decisions regarding acquisition premiums. Past research has indicated that acquiring firms tend to overestimate the value of target firms. Still, little attention has been paid to organizational-level social capital in analyzing the determinants of acquisition premiums. This study offers insight into the effect of network structure on M&A acquisition premiums.
      Citation: Competitiveness Review
      PubDate: 2021-01-05
      DOI: 10.1108/CR-05-2020-0074
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Natural resource funds for innovation in emerging countries: an assessment
           of the Chilean experience

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      Authors: José Luis Medina-Bueno , José Guimón , Christian A. Cancino
      Abstract: This study aims to explore the institutional complexities associated with the design and implementation of a natural resource fund for innovation. This study examines the case of Chile's Innovation Fund for Competitiveness by means of a historical approach building on interviews with key informants. The proper functioning of a natural resource fund for innovation requires efficient institutional and operational structures, as well as strong coordination with innovation system actors. In particular, the case of Chile highlights the challenges inherent in adopting a regional approach when implementing this type of strategy, due to the institutional voids that hamper the role of regional governments in emerging countries. Natural resource funds for innovation constitute a strategic mechanism for developing the innovative capabilities necessary to enhance the competitiveness of resource-rich emerging countries. This is one of the first studies addressing the institutional challenges involved in setting up this kind of fund in practice, focusing on one of the most relevant and longstanding examples from Latin America.
      Citation: Competitiveness Review
      PubDate: 2021-06-08
      DOI: 10.1108/CR-01-2021-0018
      Issue No: Vol. 31 , No. 5 (2021)
       
  • Network diversity, distance and economic impact in a cluster: visualising
           linkages and assessing network capital

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      Authors: Eoin Byrne , Eleanor Doyle , John Hobbs
      Abstract: Effective policy to support business ecosystems should build on evidence-based analyses of firm-level activities and outcomes. This paper aims to contribute to this requirement and makes three contributions. The first contribution is to extend the application of the network capital concept to a variety of eight distinct linkage categories (e.g. suppliers, customers and business support agencies) that support networking and clustering, in both activity and impact terms. The second contribution is outlining a novel method of network visualisation (V-LINC) based on the collection of primary and qualitative data. The third contribution is in applying the method to one cluster, information and communications technologies. Qualitative research on the nature and extent of organisational network linkages was undertaken. Structured interviews with a set of focal firms followed a tailored design approach. The concept of network capital was extended and applied to the cluster context by measuring network inputs and output (i.e. investments and impact). The approach was operationalised via a novel impact measurement approach, denoted as V-LINC, an acronym for visualising linkages in networks and clusters. The authors develop a business impact framework exploiting novel linkage visualisations and qualitative data from firms in a cluster in one city region across eight linkage types to capture distinct network capital elements. Organisational inputs into network development, measured as investment and involvement indicators and organisational outcomes from those networks, measured as importance and intensity indicators, are used to assess network performance. A comprehensive, systematic and robust analysis of network elements and performance is possible. Distance is found to interact differently across linkage types. Targeted recommendations may be made from the analysis of local or regional business ecosystems in light of measured business impacts of linkages. Due to the resource-intensive nature of data collection, the current study engages a limited sample of firms and interviewees. Applications of this approach in other contexts will permit further research into its usefulness in evaluating business impacts generated through networking activities. The method introduced here (V-LINC) offers a novel means to include both geography network theory into an understanding of knowledge relationships and networks within clusters. Accounting for both distance and linkage type reveals which categories of intra-regional and extra-regional linkages generate the greatest impact, given their frequency. The approach adds to available cluster visualisation and analysis approaches through identifying patterns of disaggregated knowledge flows and their impacts, with application to evaluation demands of policy.
      Citation: Competitiveness Review
      PubDate: 2021-05-31
      DOI: 10.1108/CR-10-2020-0135
      Issue No: Vol. 31 , No. 5 (2021)
       
  • European competitiveness and sustainable development – A policy-oriented
           response to “Rethinking the role of the EU in enhancing European
           competitiveness”

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      Authors: Karl Aiginger
      Abstract: The world order is changing, with the lead of the US waning, along with its reduced commitment to rule-based multilateralism during the past administration. China is on the way to becoming number one again, investing abroad with primarily egoistic motives and steered by an authoritarian domestic regime. Meanwhile, the EU is striving for a new geopolitical role, while becoming more heterogenous. The paper measures performance and competitiveness not only according to conventional criteria but also based on broader welfare indicators. The ultimate aim of competitiveness is to deliver well-being. Decentralized local strategies are presented, but also the need for guidance by societal goals. What we measure matters. The EU is underperforming in per capita GDP and failing to close the gap in labour productivity towards the frontier defined by the USA. But it is leading in environmental and social indicators, has an accessible health system and provides increasing longevity. This performance nevertheless has to be improved, if climate goals should be fulfilled and upcoming new inequalities addressed. Localization and place-based strategies have advantages, but also harper the danger that negative spillovers may not be minimized and positive not used. Innovation is a search process but has to be directed by goals in Europe and globally. Otherwise, change incurs high costs and many losers, fostering nationalism and populistic calls to return to a past glory that never existed.
      Citation: Competitiveness Review
      PubDate: 2021-05-21
      DOI: 10.1108/CR-03-2021-0039
      Issue No: Vol. 31 , No. 5 (2021)
       
  • Competitiveness Review

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