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BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS (1248 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1566 Journals sorted alphabetically
360 : Revista de Ciencias de la Gestión     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
4OR: A Quarterly Journal of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Abacus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Acta Commercii     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Marisiensis : Seria Oeconomica     Open Access  
Acta Oeconomica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta Scientiarum. Human and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Acta Universitatis Danubius. Œconomica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Universitatis Lodziensis : Folia Geographica Socio-Oeconomica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Universitatis Nicolai Copernici Zarządzanie     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
AD-minister     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Adam Academy : Journal of Social Sciences / Adam Akademi : Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
AdBispreneur : Jurnal Pemikiran dan Penelitian Administrasi Bisnis dan Kewirausahaan     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Admisi dan Bisnis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Sustainable Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Developing Human Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Economics and Business     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Africa Journal of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
AfricaGrowth Agenda     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68)
African Business     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
African Development Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
African Journal of Business and Economic Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of Business Ethics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
African Review of Economics and Finance     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Afro Eurasian Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Afro-Asian Journal of Finance and Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Afyon Kocatepe Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Akademik Yaklaşımlar Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AL-Qadisiyah Journal For Administrative and Economic sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Alphanumeric Journal : The Journal of Operations Research, Statistics, Econometrics and Management Information Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Economic Journal : Applied Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 215)
American Enterprise Institute     Free   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Business     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
American Journal of Business and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 51)
American Journal of Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
American Journal of Economics and Business Administration     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
American Journal of Economics and Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
American Journal of Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Finance and Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
American Journal of Health Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
American Journal of Medical Quality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
ANALES de la Universidad Central del Ecuador     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ankara University SBF Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals in Social Responsibility     Full-text available via subscription  
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Annual Review of Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44)
Anuario Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y Empresariales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Developmental Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
Applied Economics Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Applied Economics Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Applied Financial Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Applied Mathematical Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applied Stochastic Models in Business and Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Apuntes Universitarios     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arab Economic and Business Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Business Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Arena Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Argomenti. Rivista di economia, cultura e ricerca sociale     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ASEAN Economic Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Asia Pacific Business Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 207)
Asia Pacific Journal of Innovation and Entrepreneurship     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asia Pacific Viewpoint     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Operational Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Rural Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Asia-Pacific Management and Business Application     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Case Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Asian Development Review     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Asian Economic Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Asian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asian Economic Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Asian Journal of Economics, Business and Accounting     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Social Sciences and Management Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Asian Journal of Sustainability and Social Responsibility     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Asian-pacific Economic Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Atlantic Economic Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Australasian Journal of Regional Studies, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Cottongrower, The     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Australian Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Australian Journal of Maritime and Ocean Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Baltic Journal of Real Estate Economics and Construction Management     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Banks in Insurance Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
BBR - Brazilian Business Review     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Benchmarking : An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Benefit : Jurnal Manajemen dan Bisnis     Open Access  
Berkeley Business Law Journal     Free   (Followers: 11)
Beta : Scandinavian Journal of Business Research     Full-text available via subscription  
Bio-based and Applied Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biodegradation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biology Direct     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
BizInfo (Blace) Journal of Economics, Management and Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Black Enterprise     Full-text available via subscription  
Board & Administrator for Administrators only     Hybrid Journal  
Boletim Técnico do Senac     Open Access  
Border Crossing : Transnational Working Papers     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Brazilian Business Review     Open Access  
Briefings in Real Estate Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
British Journal of Industrial Relations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Brookings Papers on Economic Activity     Open Access   (Followers: 68)
Brookings Trade Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
BRQ Business Research Quarterly     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
BU Academic Review     Open Access  
Bulletin of Economic Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Bulletin of Geography. Socio-economic Series     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Bulletin of the Dnipropetrovsk University. Series : Management of Innovations     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Business & Entrepreneurship Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Business & Information Systems Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Business & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Business : Theory and Practice / Verslas : Teorija ir Praktika     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Business and Economic Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Business and Management Horizons     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Business and Management Research     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Business and Management Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Business and Professional Communication Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Business and Society Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Business Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Business Ethics Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Business Ethics: A European Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Business Horizons     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Business Information Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Business Management Analysis Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Business Management and Strategy     Open Access   (Followers: 38)
Business Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Business Review Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Business Strategy and Development     Hybrid Journal  
Business Strategy and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Business Strategy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Business Strategy Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Business, Economics and Management Research Journal : BEMAREJ     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Business: Theory and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cambridge Journal of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 77)
Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences / Revue Canadienne des Sciences de l Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Economics/Revue Canadienne d`Economique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Canadian journal of nonprofit and social economy research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Capitalism Nature Socialism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Case Studies in Business and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Central European Business Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Central European Journal of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Central European Journal of Public Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Chain Reaction     Full-text available via subscription  
Challenge     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Chandrakasem Rajabhat University Journal of Graduate School     Open Access  
China & World Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
China : An International Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
China Economic Journal : The Official Journal of the China Center for Economic Research (CCER) at Peking University     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
China Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
China Finance Review International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
China perspectives     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Chinese Economy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Population, Resources and Environment     Open Access  
Chinese Journal of Social Science and Management     Open Access  
Christian University of Thailand Journal     Open Access  
Chulalongkorn Business Review     Open Access  
Ciencia, Economía y Negocios     Open Access  
Circular Economy and Sustainability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cleaner and Responsible Consumption     Open Access  
Cleaner Logistics and Supply Chain     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Climate and Energy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
CLIO América     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cliometrica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Colombo Business Journal     Open Access  
Community Development Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Compendium : Cuadernos de Economía y Administración     Open Access  
Compensation & Benefits Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Competition & Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Competitive Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Competitiveness Review : An International Business Journal incorporating Journal of Global Competitiveness     Hybrid Journal  
Computational Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Computational Mathematics and Modeling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Computer Law & Security Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Computers & Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Consilience : The Journal of Sustainable Development     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Construction Innovation: Information, Process, Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Consumer Behavior Studies Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Consumer Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Contemporary Wales     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Contextus - Revista Contemporânea de Economia e Gestão     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Continuity & Resilience Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Corporate Communications An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Corporate Philanthropy Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Corporate Reputation Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Creative and Knowledge Society     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Creative Industries Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Cuadernos de Administración (Universidad del Valle)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Agronomy
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.695
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 12  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2073-4395
Published by MDPI Homepage  [84 journals]
  • Agronomy, Vol. 12, Pages 1130: Evaluation of Grain Yield Stability in Some
           Selected Wheat Genotypes Using AMMI and GGE Biplot Methods

    • Authors: Ali Omrani, Saeed Omrani, Manoochehr Khodarahmi, Seyed Habib Shojaei, Árpád Illés, Csaba Bojtor, Seyed Mohammad Nasir Mousavi, János Nagy
      First page: 1130
      Abstract: Wheat Triticum aestivum L. is one of the most important agricultural products, and meets the highest nutritional needs of humans in various countries. This study aims to evaluate the compatibility and stability of 25 wheat genotypes for two crop years in five regions (Karaj, Qazvin, Isfahan, Varamin and Damavand) in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The results of variance analysis in the additive main effects and multiplication interaction (AMMI) method showed that the effect of genotype and the genotype × environment interaction in the first, second, and mean two crop years had a significant difference at the level of one percent probability. Based on the results obtained from the first and second principal components, G8, G4 and G22 genotypes were identified as superior genotypes. Isfahan was an ideal environment for this study. The results obtained from the comparison of the Duncan method showed that G14, G12, and G1 genotypes had suitable ranks. Graphical analysis was used to study the genotypes of wheat and the environment, and the genotype × environment interaction. Based on the ranking genotypes in the first and second principal components and an average of two years, G2 and G21 genotypes were identified as high yielding, and G21 genotypes as stable. G18 and G23 genotypes were selected as the best genotypes in all three experimental periods, based on the multidimensional diagram. The results of the ideal genotype diagram were G12 and G21 genotypes; and based on the results of the ideal environment diagram, Damavand and Varamin environments were identified as ideal environments. AMM1 covered 69.6% and AMMI2 75.6% of the data variance in the first year of the experiment. In the second crop year, 78.1% of the total variance of the data was explained based on the AMMI1, and 71.1% based on the AMM2.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2022-05-07
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy12051130
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 12, Pages 1131: Humidification–Cooling System in
           Semi-Insulated Box-Type Cowsheds Prevent the Loss of Milk Productivity Due
           to Thermal Stress

    • Authors: Rolandas Bleizgys, Vilma Naujokienė, Jonas Čėsna
      First page: 1131
      Abstract: Heat stress is becoming an increasingly important problem in Lithuanian cowsheds. Microclimate formation systems were evaluated in the seven most popular cowsheds in Lithuania, with different wall and roof constructions, insulation, ventilation intensity controls, and one cowshed was additionally equipped with an air-cooling system—the air is cooled by spraying water droplets with a high pressure. In cowsheds equipped with fans to intensify the movement of air, the temperature does not fall below the outdoor temperature and the temperature humidity index (THI) is higher than outdoors. During the heat period, the THI rises to 82 and the cows get moderate thermal stress, which adversely affects feed intake and milk yield of dairy cows. In the cowshed, where the air humidification–cooling system is installed, the air temperature during heat is lower than the average in the field of 2.61 ± 0.74 °C. Although the relative humidity in the cowshed is on average 16.29 ± 4.12% wetter during heat than outside, the THI in the barn is lower than outside. The air temperature in this cowshed decreases by 3.17 ± 0.86 °C compared to cowsheds without an air humidification–cooling system. The air humidification–cooling system creates good conditions to reduce the conditions for cows to experience thermal stress. Further research is needed to optimize the amount of water spray and droplet size and increase the efficiency of the cooling system.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2022-05-07
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy12051131
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 12, Pages 1132: Nitrogen Critical Level in Leaves in
           ‘Chardonnay’ and ‘Pinot Noir’ Grapevines to
           Adequate Yield and Quality Must

    • Authors: Adriele Tassinari, Lincon Oliveira Stefanello, Rai Augusto Schwalbert, Beatriz Baticini Vitto, Matheus Severo de Souza Kulmann, João Pedro Jung Santos, Wagner Squizani Arruda, Raissa Schwalbert, Tadeu Luis Tiecher, Carlos Alberto Ceretta, Lessandro De Conti, Rafael Lizandro Schumacher, Gustavo Brunetto
      First page: 1132
      Abstract: The nitrogen (N) critical level in leaves and maximum technical efficiency (MTE) doses contribute to the grape yield, must quality, and fertilizers rationalization. This study aimed to define sufficient ranges and critical levels in leaves and maximum technical efficiency doses to obtain high yields and quality must in grapevines grown in sandy soil in a subtropical climate. ‘Chardonnay’ and ‘Pinot Noir’ grapevines were subjected to the annual application of 0, 10, 20, 40, 60, and 80 kg N ha−1 in a vineyard. The nitrogen concentration in leaves at flowering and veraison, grape yield and grape must chemical parameters (total soluble solids—TSS, total titratable acidity—TTA and total anthocyanins—TA) were evaluated. The N critical level in leaves at flowering was different between grapevines cultivars, but this was not observed in leaves at veraison. It was possible to estimate MTE for ‘Chardonnay’ grapevines, in the evaluated growing seasons. In the range of higher probability of the N critical level in leaves, the TSS and TTA variables showed opposite responses, for both cultivars. This study proposes different N critical levels for red and white grapevines, in a subtropical climate.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2022-05-07
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy12051132
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 12, Pages 1133: Application of Artificial Neural Networks
           Sensitivity Analysis for the Pre-Identification of Highly Significant
           Factors Influencing the Yield and Digestibility of Grassland Sward in the
           Climatic Conditions of Central Poland

    • Authors: Gniewko Niedbała, Barbara Wróbel, Magdalena Piekutowska, Waldemar Zielewicz, Anna Paszkiewicz-Jasińska, Tomasz Wojciechowski, Mohsen Niazian
      First page: 1133
      Abstract: Progressive climate changes are the most important challenges for modern agriculture. Permanent grassland represents around 70% of all agricultural land. In comparison with other agroecosystems, grasslands are more sensitive to climate change. The aim of this study was to create deterministic models based on artificial neural networks to identify highly significant factors influencing the yield and digestibility of grassland sward in the climatic conditions of central Poland. The models were based on data from a grassland experiment conducted between 2014 and 2016. Phytophenological data (harvest date and botanical composition of sward) and meteorological data (average temperatures, total rainfall, and total effective temperatures) were used as independent variables, whereas qualitative and quantitative parameters of the feed made from the grassland sward (dry matter digestibility, dry matter yield, and protein yield) were used as dependent variables. Nine deterministic models were proposed Y_G, DIG_G, P_G, Y_GB, DIG_GB, P_GB, Y_GC, DIG_GC, and P_GC, which differed in the input variable and the main factor from the grassland experiment. The analysis of the sensitivity of the neural networks in the models enabled the identification of the independent variables with the greatest influence on the yield of dry matter and protein as well as the digestibility of the dry matter of the first regrowth of grassland sward, taking its diverse botanical composition into account. The results showed that the following factors were the most significant (rank 1): the average daily air temperature, total rainfall, and the percentage of legume plants. This research will be continued on a larger group of factors influencing the output variables and it will involve an attempt to optimise these factors.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2022-05-08
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy12051133
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 12, Pages 1134: Monitoring Coffee Leaf Rust (Hemileia
           vastatrix) on Commercial Coffee Farms in Hawaii: Early Insights from the
           First Year of Disease Incursion

    • Authors: Luis F. Aristizábal, Melissa A. Johnson
      First page: 1134
      Abstract: Coffee leaf rust (CLR, Hemileia vastatrix) is considered the most damaging coffee disease worldwide, causing reduced yields and even plant death. CLR was detected in Hawaii for the first time in 2020, and quickly spread across the state. We initiated a CLR monitoring program in Kona, West Hawaii Island, to track the spread of this new invasive disease across a broad elevational gradient. The goals of the program were to assist growers in the early detection of CLR, to characterize patterns of disease incidence across the region, and to collect information on farm agronomics, management practices, and costs to apply fungicides, all of which can be used to develop Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategies for this pathogen. We monitored 30 coffee lots in Kona, located between 204 and 875 m elevation. Average CLR incidence remained below 4% early in the season and increased to 36% during harvest. We observed no significant difference in CLR incidence between low-, mid- and high-elevation farms. A significant reduction in the number of leaves per branch was observed at the end of the harvest season, and a significant negative correlation was found between the number of leaves per branch and maximum CLR severity. Mean disease incidence and mean severity were observed to have a significant positive correlation. Incidence increased above threshold levels (5%), despite most growers applying preventative fungicides 3–10 times throughout the season, suggesting that improved coverage and timing of applications is needed along with the addition of systemic fungicides. Our study provides the first insights into CLR disease patterns under the unique and variable conditions under which Hawaiian coffee is grown, and will aid in the development of IPM programs that can be used to sustain Hawaii’s coffee industry under this new threat.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2022-05-08
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy12051134
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 12, Pages 1135: Global Changes in Cultivated Area and
           

    • Authors: Fernando Martínez-Moreno, Karim Ammar, Ignacio Solís
      First page: 1135
      Abstract: Durum wheat is grown globally on 13.5 million ha in 2020/2021, which amounts to 6.2% of the wheat area. It is assumed that in the past it was more important, but the extent of that importance is unknown. In this work, a historical estimation of the durum wheat area globally was carried out, based on data of the main cultivating countries. Many of the data from the earliest period were based on percentage to all wheat. During the nineteenth century, the percentage of durum wheat to all wheat globally was around 14–16%. However, throughout the 19th and beginning of the 20th century, in America (USA, Canada, Argentina), Asia (Russia, China, India), and Australia, new land was sown with bread wheat, and therefore the percentage of durum wheat fell steadily to 7–9% from 1950 to 2005, and to 6–7% since then. For many years, Russia was the country with more durum wheat cultivation, with around six million ha in the period 1910–1940. Turkey, Italy, Algeria, and India were also big historical players regarding cultivation of this crop. Currently, Canada, Algeria, Italy, and Turkey have the largest durum wheat acreage. The main breeding activities and the future of durum wheat are discussed.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2022-05-08
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy12051135
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 12, Pages 1136: Soil Microbial Community and Enzymatic
           Activity of Grasslands under Different Use Practices: A Review

    • Authors: Justyna Mencel, Agnieszka Mocek-Płóciniak, Anna Kryszak
      First page: 1136
      Abstract: The usage of grassland significantly affects the microbial and biochemical parameters of soil epipedons. The use of grasslands (by mowing, grazing, and mowing and grazing) affects the dominance of bacteria in abundance relative to fungal populations. This was particularly noticeable when manual mowing was applied. In general, the highest number of microorganisms occurred during spring and summer, which should be associated with the intensity of growth of root systems of grass vegetation. It was noted that the grazing system caused an increase in the enzymatic activity of urease and slightly less dehydrogenases and acid and alkaline phosphatase. Therefore, microbial abundance and enzymatic activity are considered as indicator parameters to evaluate the biological soil environment. They are highly probable estimates of soil fertility and ecosystem biodiversity.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2022-05-08
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy12051136
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 12, Pages 1137: Climate Change Projections for Bioclimatic
           Distribution of Castanea sativa in Portugal

    • Authors: Teresa R. Freitas, João A. Santos, Ana P. Silva, Joana Martins, Hélder Fraga
      First page: 1137
      Abstract: The chestnut tree is an important forestry species worldwide, as well as a valuable food resource. Over recent years, Portugal has shown an increasing trend in chestnut tree area, as well as increases in production, hinting at the socioeconomic relevance of this agro-forestry species. In this study, bioclimatic indices are applied to analyse the spatial distribution of chestnut trees in mainland Portugal, namely growing degree days (GDD; 1900–2400 °C), annual mean temperature (AMT; 8–15 °C), summer days with maximum temperature below 32 °C (NTX), and annual precipitation (PRE; 600–1600 mm). These indices are assessed for the baseline (IBERIA01, 1989–2005) and future climates (EURO-CORDEX: 2021–2040, 2041–2060, and 2061–2080) under two forcing pathways (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5), also taking into account the chestnut tree land cover. For the baseline, the GDD showed only 10% suitability for chestnut tree cultivation in southern Portugal, whereas much higher values are found in the north of the country, and at higher altitudes (50–90%). For the AMT, higher elevation areas in northern Portugal show almost 100% suitability. Concerning NTX, the suitability reduces from the west (100–90%) to the east (40%). Regarding PRE, the suitability is heterogeneous throughout the territory, with areas under 50%. A new Chestnut Suitability Index (CSI) was then computed, which incorporates information from the four previous indices. The CSI reveals a suitability ranging from 100 to 75% in the north, while central and southern Portugal show values from 25 to 50%. For future climates, a progressive reduction in CSI was found, particularly for RCP8.5 and in the long-term period. Changes in bioclimatic conditions may restrict the 100% suitability to a narrow area in the north of the country. These reductions in chestnut bioclimatic suitability may have socio-economic and ecological implications for the management of the important agro-forestry species.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2022-05-08
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy12051137
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 12, Pages 1138: Optimizing Crop Systems: Integrating Forage
           Triticale into the Fallow of Peanut Monoculture in the North China Plain

    • Authors: Yongliang You, Jianqiang Deng, Guibo Liu, Xianlong Yang, Zhixin Zhang, Yuying Shen
      First page: 1138
      Abstract: Integrating a forage crop into the fallow (F) of the peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) (P) mono-cropping system is a practical approach to provide forage yield and increase the resource use efficiency. However, little information about the comprehensive assessment of water utilization and economic benefits in the crop–livestock system exists for the North China Plain (NCP). This study aims to identify the crop rotation for optimizing water management and enhance economic benefit. The field experiment was performed over three years (2011–2014) to assess production, water utilization, and economic benefits when inserting forage triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack) (T) into the peanut mono-cropping system. Results showed that replacing the fallow F-P cropping system with forage triticale provided a substantial amount of forage (the average of 9.8 t ha−1 per year) and enhanced the average system productivity by 85.1%. Cultivation of forage triticale during the fallow period decreased the subsequent peanut pod yield by 8.3% due to a 19.3% decline in soil water storage capacity during the sowing stage of peanut. Replacing fallow with forage triticale increased the system net income by 1016.2 US$ ha−1 and the water use efficiency (WUE) by 30.0%, while not affecting the economic efficiency of water use (EEWU), and thus can be recommended as a better option for maintaining relatively high system production, economic benefit, and WUE in NCP.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2022-05-09
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy12051138
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 12, Pages 1139: Evaluation of the Activity of Estragole and
           2-Isopropylphenol, Phenolic Compounds Present in Cistus ladanifer

    • Authors: Elena Requesón, Dolores Osuna, Ana del Rosario Santiago, Teresa Sosa
      First page: 1139
      Abstract: A large number of studies of Cistus ladanifer highlight this Mediterranean shrub as a source of the phenolic compounds responsible for the allelopathic potential of this species. There are few phenolic compounds present in C. ladanifer that have not yet been studied. The objective of this work was to evaluate the activity of estragole and 2-isopropylphenol on filter paper and soil on monocotyledons (Allium cepa) and dicotyledons (Lactuca sativa). The results showed that when the test was carried out on paper, the germination and the growth of the L. sativa was strongly inhibited by 2 isopropylphenol and estragole. 2 isopropylphenol showed an IC50 on the germination of 0.7 mM and 0.1 mM on the germination rate, 0.4 mM on the size of radicle and 0.3 mM on the size of hypocotyl. Estragole showed an IC50 on the germination rate of 1.5 mM and 1.1 mM on the size of hypocotyl. The effects of these pure compounds on A. cepa were lower, and when the assays were performed on the soil, they were dissipated. The mixture of these compounds on A. cepa had 0.6 mM IC50 for the length hypocotyl on paper and 1.1 mM for the length of the radicle on soil. The mixture on L. sativa also inhibited the length of the radicle with an IC50 of 0.6 mM. On the other hand, it was also observed that estragole stimulated the growth of the A. cepa radicle length on soil, showing a hormetic effect with an EC50 of 0.1 mM. In conclusion, it can be said that for a species to be allelopathic in nature, it is essential to verify the effect of its possible allelochemicals on the target species, on the soil in which they will exert their action and at the concentrations found in their usual environment, in addition to taking into account the interaction with other compounds present in the medium.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2022-05-09
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy12051139
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 12, Pages 1140: Inducing Drought Tolerance in Wheat through
           Exopolysaccharide-Producing Rhizobacteria

    • Authors: Muhammad Latif, Syed Asad Hussain Bukhari, Abdullah A. Alrajhi, Fahad S. Alotaibi, Maqshoof Ahmad, Ahmad Naeem Shahzad, Ahmed Z. Dewidar, Mohamed A. Mattar
      First page: 1140
      Abstract: Wheat is the main staple food in the world, so it is the backbone of food security. Drought not only affects growth and development but also ultimately has a severe impact on the overall productivity of crop plants. Some bacteria are capable of producing exopolysaccharides (EPS) as a survival mechanism, along with other metabolites, which help them survive in stressful conditions. The present study was conducted with the aim of inducing drought stress tolerance in wheat through EPS-producing plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). In this regard, a series of laboratory bioassays were conducted with the aim to isolating, characterizing, and screening the EPS-producing PGPR capable of improving wheat growth under limited water conditions. Thirty rhizobacterial strains (LEW1–LEW30) were isolated from the rhizosphere of wheat. Ten isolates with EPS-producing ability were quantitatively tested for EPS production and IAA production ability. Four of the most efficient EPS-producing strains (LEW3, LEW9, LEW16, and LEW28) were evaluated for their drought tolerance ability along with quantitative production of EPS and IAA under polyethylene glycol (PEG-6000)-induced drought stress. The jar experiment was conducted under gnotobiotic conditions to examine the drought-tolerant wheat genotypes, and two wheat varieties (Johar-16, and Gold-16) were selected for further experiments. The selected varieties were inoculated with EPS-producing rhizobacterial strains and grown under control conditions at different stress levels (0, 2, 4, and 6% PEG-6000). The strain LEW16 showed better results for improving root morphology and seedling growth in both varieties. The maximum increase in germination, growth parameters, percentage, root diameter, root surface area, and root colonization was recorded in Johar-16 by inoculating LEW16 at 6% PEG-6000. Plant growth-promoting traits were tested on the top-performing strains (LEW3, LEW9, and LEW16). Through 16S rRNA sequencing, these strains were identified as Chryseobacterium sp. (LEW3), Acinetobacter sp. (LEW9), and Klebsiella sp. (LEW16), and they showed positive results for phosphorous and zinc solubilization as well as hydrogen cyanide (HCN) production. The partial sequencing results were submitted to the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) under the accession numbers MW829776, MW829777, and MW829778. These strains are recommended for their evaluation as potential bioinoculants for inducing drought stress tolerance in wheat.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2022-05-09
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy12051140
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 12, Pages 1141: Food Autonomy within Food Sovereignty:
           Evidence from a Structural Model

    • Authors: Arnaldo Vergara-Romero, Juan-Antonio Jimber-del-Río, Fidel Márquez-Sánchez
      First page: 1141
      Abstract: Food sovereignty as a model to solve food problems is being used in political, economic, and agricultural thought, but academic literature does not offer insight into its impact and the dimension of food autonomy. We have chosen to study Ecuador, given that, in 2008, the country reformed its constitution and adopted the concept of food sovereignty as a right of the Ecuadorian people, being the first country to do so. In this article, we apply the multiple indicators and multiple causes model to uncover scientific findings with the observable data available, and estimate the phenomenon of food sovereignty, which will be called the latent variable. The article aims to determine the main indicators associated with a synthetic index of food sovereignty and one that integrates a measurement model. In order to meet the goal of this research, eight hypotheses are raised, of which four are confirmatory and four are exploratory. The exploratory hypotheses are given because the theoretical foundations contradict themselves in favor of and against the latent variable. The findings of the statistical model relate to inflation, cereal yield, agricultural-value added, prevalence of malnutrition, food export, and food import as causes and indicators that are part of food sovereignty.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2022-05-09
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy12051141
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 12, Pages 1142: Evaluation of Genetic Resources in a Potato
           Breeding Program for Chip Quality

    • Authors: Roberto Ruiz de Arcaute, Ana Carrasco, Felisa Ortega, Marta Rodriguez-Quijano, José M. Carrillo
      First page: 1142
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to assess the ability of experimental advanced breeding clones as parental genotypes to transmit agronomic and quality traits to their progenies in breeding programs. A half diallel set of crosses (excluding reciprocals) with six parents was assayed in field trials for three years; four of the parents were Solanumtuberosum subsp. tuberosum cultivars, and two of them were advanced breeding clones that included genes from S. tuberosum subsp. andigenum with immunity to PVY virus and good agronomic performance. However, no information was available about the behavior of these clones as parental materials for quality traits, such as potato chip quality. The diallel mating design allowed us to discover their ability to transmit agronomic and quality traits to their offspring. Significant effects on general combining ability and specific combining ability were found for plant maturity, only general combining ability effects for specific gravity were found, and interactions of both general combining ability and specific combining ability with the environment for the chip color trait were found. However, no genetic effects were detected for yield. Where general combining ability significant effects were found, additive genetic effects are predominant; thus, so for those traits, it would be possible to use these genotypes as parents to obtain improved progenies. Such abilities were not found in the advanced breeding clones.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2022-05-09
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy12051142
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 12, Pages 1143: Land-Use Conversion Altered Topsoil
           Properties and Stoichiometry in a Reclaimed Coastal Agroforestry System

    • Authors: Shuang Wang, Zhangyan Zhu, Ruiping Yang, Li Yang, Baoming Ge
      First page: 1143
      Abstract: Reclaimed coastal areas were mostly used for agricultural purposes in the past, while land-use conversion was initiated in recent decades in eastern China. Elucidation of the effects of land-use conversion on soil properties and stoichiometry is essential for addressing climate change and ecological conservation. In this study, five land-use types in a reclaimed area were chosen to compare the differences of soil properties and stoichiometry, which comprised paddy, upland, upland-forest, forest, and vegetable garden, with a soil age of about 100 years. The results indicated that these land-use types significantly differed in soil water concentration, pH, bulk density, soil salt concentration, soil organic carbon content, total nitrogen content, and total phosphorus, as well as C:N, C:P, and N:P ratios. Positive correlations were found among soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus; and among pH, bulk density, and soil salt concentration. Total phosphorus and soil organic carbon contents were the main factors shaping the topsoil among the land-use types. Contents of soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus in paddy and vegetable garden soils were higher than that in upland and upland-forest soils, while bulk density, pH, and soil salt concentration showed the opposite trends. Forest soil demonstrated intermediate values for most properties. And the highest C:N occurred in the upland and vegetable garden, the highest C:P in paddy and vegetable garden, while the lowest C:N and C:P occurred in upland-forest. The highest and lowest N:P occurred in paddy and upland, respectively. The stoichiometric characteristics presented a narrow range of the ratio, and the C:N:P averaged 48:3:1 similar to the stoichiometry of average Chinese cropland soils. Rotations including legume, the use of organic fertilizers, and appropriate fertilization strategies were suggested for improving cropland management.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2022-05-09
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy12051143
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 12, Pages 1144: Progeny Selection to Develop a Sustainable
           Arabica Coffee Cultivar

    • Authors: Priscila Carvalho Moreira, Juliana Costa de Rezende Abrahão, Antonio Carlos da Mota Porto, Denis Henrique Silva Nadaleti, Flávia Maria Avelar Gonçalves, Gladyston Rodrigues Carvalho, Cesar Elias Botelho
      First page: 1144
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the most efficient way to select F4:5 progenies derived from the Icatu and Catimor groups of Coffea arabica and to study the genotypic correlations between the traits related to coffee grain physical quality, diseases, and productivity. A combination of the predicted additive values for production capacity when considering seven harvests and a simultaneous selection for a high sieve percentage and resistance to specific diseases during the last harvest was used. Analyses that selected progenies without considering the genotype × harvest interaction provided inaccurate results, distorting the progeny ranking. Coffee leaf rust and brown eye spot were correlated, showing the possibility of simultaneously selecting for resistance to both diseases. Of the 68 progenies studied here, five showed satisfactory agronomic traits. Our findings will contribute substantially to the development of new coffee cultivars that will allow us to reduce pesticide use.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2022-05-09
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy12051144
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 12, Pages 1145: Design and Test of Cleaning Loss Kernel
           Recognition System for Corn Combine Harvester

    • Authors: Min Zhang, Lan Jiang, Chongyou Wu, Gang Wang
      First page: 1145
      Abstract: Cleaning loss is an important parameter to judge the performance of a corn combine harvester. At present, there exists the phenomenon that corn cleaning loss rate detection devices have a long signal processing time and low recognition accuracy. To solve this problem, based on the principle of the impacting piezoelectric effect, the impacting signals of corn kernels and impurities are analyzed by means of the frequency spectrum method to obtain the characteristic frequency for effectively distinguishing corn kernels and impurities, which is determined as 8.7 kHz. Based on this characteristic frequency, a corn cleaning loss kernel recognition system is designed, which can realize the function of corn kernel recognition and cleaning loss rate recording. In this system, signal processing circuits which mainly include two-order high-pass filtration, envelope wave detection and voltage comparison are designed. On the basis of the signal processing circuit, adding the judgment program for the holding time of the output square wave signal improves the system’s recognition accuracy for kernels impacting the sensitive plate simultaneously. The system was tested in indoor conditions. The results show that 20–30 corn kernels could be accurately recognized per minute on a single sensitive plate, and the recognition accuracy rate of this system could reach 85% when three corn kernels impacted simultaneously. The results serve as a theoretical basis and represent a new method for the design of a cleaning loss kernel recognition system.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2022-05-09
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy12051145
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 12, Pages 1146: Agropyron mongolicum Keng’s Growth in
           Response to Nitrogen Addition Is Linked to Root Morphological Traits and
           Nitrogen-Use Efficiency

    • Authors: Aiyun Xu, Xing Wang, Xiaojia Wang, Dongmei Xu, Bing Cao
      First page: 1146
      Abstract: Nitrogen (N) is an essential macronutrient for plant development and growth, and increased N deposition is affecting the diversity and productivity of plants. The objective of this study was to explore the growth response of Agropyron mongolicum Keng to N addition and to determine whether N-induced changes in soil-available nutrients have indirect impacts on the biomass of A. mongolicum via the regulation of root morphological traits and NUE. We conducted a pot experiment subjecting A. mongolicum to five N addition levels (0, 0.8, 1.6, 2.4, and 4.0 g N m−2 yr−1) under greenhouse conditions. N was provided through urea [CO(NH2)2] delivered with two equal applications and added at the seeding and tillering stages. The results showed that the total biomass response of A. mongolicum to increasing N addition appeared unimodal-shaped with an N saturation threshold at 3.20 g N m−2 yr−1. The total biomass was significantly and positively correlated with the root surface area (RSA), volume (RV), length (RL), forks number (RF), N-uptake efficiency (NUpE), and N-utilization efficiency (NUtE) (p < 0.05). N-induced changes in soil-available nutrients had an indirect impact on the total biomass of A. mongolicum via the regulation of root morphological traits and NUE.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2022-05-09
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy12051146
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 12, Pages 1147: Grain Yield Potential and Stability of
           Soybean Genotypes of Different Ages across Diverse Environments in
           Southern Africa

    • Authors: Hapson Mushoriwa, Isack Mathew, Eastonce T. Gwata, Pangirayi Tongoona, John Derera
      First page: 1147
      Abstract: Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] is an important crop in southern Africa where it is cultivated in a wide range of agro-ecologies. Both spatial and seasonal variability is high in the region. As a result, breeders aim to release varieties with a fine balance of high productivity potential and stability. Genotype × environment interaction (GEI) limits the selection of superior genotypes in heterogeneous environments consequently slowing down breeding progress. This study determined the magnitude of GEI effects and genotype superiority index of soybean genotypes of different ages across three countries in southern Africa. Forty-two soybean genotypes that were released between 1966 and 2013 were evaluated for two seasons at thirteen diverse locations across the three countries. Additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI) and genotype superiority index tools were used to analyse both productivity and stability performance of these genotypes. The AMMI analysis showed that grain yield variation due to genotypes, environments main effects and GEI were highly significant (p < 0.001). Environments explained the greatest proportion (77%) of the total treatment sum of squares followed by GEI (17.4%) and genotypes (5.6%), justifying the need for multi-environmental trials over many seasons in this region. The two methods were useful in discriminating and identifying common productive and stable genotypes of different ages. The top four high-yielding (>5.0 tha−1) genotypes displayed both stability and genotype superiority index. These findings have important implications for soybean genotype recommendations, breeding progress, and strategy.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2022-05-10
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy12051147
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 12, Pages 1148: Influence of Water Management Farming
           Practices on Soil Organic Carbon and Nutrients: A Case Study of Rice
           Farming in Kilombero Valley, Tanzania

    • Authors: Edmond Alavaisha, Madaka Tumbo, Jacqueline Senyangwa, Sixbert Mourice
      First page: 1148
      Abstract: Water scarcity and nutrient availability for rice farming have become great matters of concern in the contexts of climate change and land use change globally. Both interact and contribute to crop productivity at the expense of nutrients and future water sustainability. The objective of this study was to understand the on-farm potential response of soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorous (TP) to water management practices in rice farming within the Kilombero Valley, Tanzania. Soil samples were collected from three villages in the study area at four depths: 0–20, 20–30, 30–40, and 40–50 cm. Four water management regimes, namely: A = traditional flooding (rainfed) without intensification of rice farming; B = traditional flooding (rainfed) involving a system of rice intensification (SRI); C = alternative wetting and drying (AWD) involving SRI for one cropping season; D = abandoned fields (fallow); and E = AWD involving SRI for two cropping seasons, were investigated as regards their impact on SOC, TN, and TP. There were significant (p < 0.05) effects of water management regimes on SOC, TN, and TP. AWD involving SRI for one cropping season indicated a positive effect on SOC and TN across all depths as compared to other practices. We conclude that water management practice that involves AWD with SRI for one cropping season is a plausible approach to maintaining high SOC and TN, with the potential for increasing crop production while minimizing water consumption.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2022-05-10
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy12051148
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 12, Pages 1149: Overexpression of CgbHLH001, a Positive
           Regulator to Adversity, Enhances the Photosynthetic Capacity of Maize
           Seedlings under Drought Stress

    • Authors: Haiju Zhao, Ailiman Abulaizi, Changhai Wang, Haiyan Lan
      First page: 1149
      Abstract: Drought is a major environmental factor limiting crop productivity. Photosynthesis is very sensitive to drought. Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors (TFs) are important in response to abiotic stress. However, their functions remain unclear. Herein, we generated CgbHLH001 (a TF gene from halophyte Chenopodium glaucum)-overexpressed (OE) and ZmbHLH-RNA interference (Ri) maize lines to investigate their photosynthesis-associated indexes under drought conditions. The photosynthetic capacity was increased in OE lines under drought stress compared with that in non-transgenic (NT) and Ri plants. A greater root biomass, higher root/shoot ratio, and a relatively lower leaf area reduction ratio was also observed in OE plants. Compared to NT and Ri plants, OE lines showed a higher chlorophyll content and net photosynthetic rate and better chlorophyll fluorescence parameters under drought conditions. Fructose and glucose contents were also significantly elevated in OE lines. Moreover, under stressful conditions, CgbHLH001 overexpression increased the expression of genes related to photosynthesis. Transcriptomic data showed that many differentially expressed genes were enriched in the photosynthetic system in OE and Ri plants under drought conditions and were prone to being upregulated under drought stress in OE plants. Therefore, our results suggest that CgbHLH001 improves photosynthetic efficiency under drought stress and confers drought tolerance in maize seedlings.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2022-05-10
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy12051149
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 12, Pages 1150: Evaluation of Raw Cheese as a Novel Source
           of Biofertilizer with a High Level of Biosecurity for Blueberry

    • Authors: Ana R. Nunes, Fernando Sánchez-Juanes, Ana C. Gonçalves, Gilberto Alves, Luís R. Silva, José David Flores-Félix
      First page: 1150
      Abstract: Today’s agriculture requires the search for new and modern tools in order to improve and expand the use of its crops and to increase their sustainability. The use of plant growth-promoting PGP bacteria (PGPB) is the target of much research and seems to be an ideal strategy as long as the strains are properly selected for this purpose. Among the bacteria, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are considered a suitable alternative due to their high biosafety and mechanisms for promoting plant growth. In view of this, in this work we decided to isolate LAB with PGP capacity from raw milk cheese of the PDO “Serra da Estrela”. A total of 88 strains with a high diversity and remarkable capacity to control food-borne and pathogenic microorganisms were isolated. In addition, most of them showed excellent capacities for phosphate solubilization and the production of indole-3-acetic acid and siderophores. Subsequently, we also studied their inoculation in blueberry seedlings. Among the isolates, strains QSE20, QSE62 and QSE79 showed the most remarkable ability to efficiently colonize the rhizosphere of this plant, improving root development and increasing the number of secondary roots.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2022-05-10
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy12051150
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 12, Pages 1151: In-Field Route Planning Optimisation and
           Performance Indicators of Grain Harvest Operations

    • Authors: Michael Nørremark, René Søndergaard Nilsson, Claus Aage Grøn Sørensen
      First page: 1151
      Abstract: Operational planning, automation, and optimisation of field operations are ways to sustain the production of food and feed. A coverage path planning method mitigating the optimisation and automation of harvest operations, characterised by capacity limitations and features derived from real world scenarios, is presented. Although prior research has developed similar methods, no such methodologies have been developed for (i) multiple field entrances as line segments, (ii) the feasibility of stationary and on-the-go unloading in the headland and main field, (iii) unloading timing independent of the full bin level of the harvester, and (iv) the transport unit operational time outside the field. To find the permutation that best minimises the costs in time and distance, an artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm was used as a meta-heuristic optimisation method. The effectiveness of the method was analysed by generating simulated operational data and by comparing it to recorded data from seven fields ranging in size (5–26 ha) and shape. The implementation of controlled traffic farming (CTF) in the coverage path planning method, but not with the recorded data, resulted in a reduced risk of soil compaction of up to 25%, and a reduction in the in-field total travel distance of up to 15% when logistics was optimised simultaneously for two transport units. A 68% increase in the full load frequency of transporting vehicles and a 14% reduction in the total number of field to storage transports was observed. For fields located at outermost edges of the storage facility (>5 km), the increase in full load frequency, average load level, and decrease in in-field travel distance resulted in a reduction in fuel consumption by 7%. Embedding the developed coverage path planning software as a service will improve the sustainability of harvest operations including a fleet of one to many harvesting and transporting units, as the system in front of the vehicle operator calculates and displays all required actions from the operator.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2022-05-10
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy12051151
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 12, Pages 1152: Quantitative Proteomics-Based Analysis
           Reveals Molecular Mechanisms of Chilling Tolerance in Grafted Cotton
           Seedlings

    • Authors: Xin Zhang, Yan Feng, Aziz Khan, Najeeb Ullah, Zengqiang Li, Saira Zaheer, Ruiyang Zhou, Zhiyong Zhang
      First page: 1152
      Abstract: Proteome analysis of grafted cotton exposed to low-temperature stress can provide insights into the molecular mechanistic of chilling tolerance in plants. In this study, grafted and non-grafted cotton plants were exposed to chilling stress (10 °C/5 °C) for 7 d. After the stress, rootstock and scion samples were labeled by 8-plex iTRAQ (isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantification), followed by two-dimensional liquid chromatography separation and tandem mass spectrometry identification. In total, 68 differential proteins were identified that were induced by low-temperature stress and grafting, and these proteins regulate physiological functioning. Under low-temperature stress, in the cotton seedlings, the proteins responded to the MAPK signaling pathway and calcium signaling pathway enhanced, the metabolisms of carbohydrate, lipid, nucleotide, and amino acid had a tendency to intensify, the proteins related to protein folding and degradation were activated, along with the system of antioxidant enzymes to offset cellular oxidative damage. In contrast, chilling stress reduced oxidative phosphorylation, photosynthesis, and carbon fixation. These data indicated that the physiological changes in cotton seedlings comprise a complex biological process, and the ability of plants to resist this stress can be improved after grafting onto a vigorous rootstock, although this was not obvious in the young plants. Further studies of low-temperature stress and/or graft-related differences in proteins could lead to the identification of new genes associated with chilling tolerance in plants. These data provide the basis for further studies on the molecular mechanism of chilling tolerance and the relationship of grafting and chilling tolerance in cotton.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2022-05-10
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy12051152
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 12, Pages 1153: Sensitivities of Physical and Chemical
           Attributes of Soil Quality to Different Tillage Management

    • Authors: Hongxiang Zhao, Li Wu, Shuwei Zhu, Hongchang Sun, Cailong Xu, Jindong Fu, Tangyuan Ning
      First page: 1153
      Abstract: Tillage management is a direct factor in affecting soil quality, which is a key factor in sustainable agriculture. However soil quality evaluation needs significant manpower, material resources and time. To explore the sensitive indicators of soil quality affected by tillage management, eight soil physical and chemical properties under three tillage managements, including plow tillage, subsoiling tillage and rotary tillage, were determined under a long-term experiment in North China Plain. The results showed that subsoiling tillage management had the highest soil organic carbon and total nitrogen in the 0–20 cm layer and the lowest soil bulk density in the 30–40 cm layer. Rotary tillage management had the highest soil water content in the 0–40 cm layer. Meanwhile, compared to 2002, the soil organic carbon, total nitrogen and soil bulk density had varied greatly in 2012, but there was no significant difference between 2012 and 2018. However, other property concentrations tended to increase in 2002, 2012 and 2018. In addition, there was a significant linear relationship between soil quality index and grain yield. Subsoiling tillage management had the highest soil quality index and gain yield both in 2012 and 2018. The soil quality can be evaluated through the sensitive indicator of soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, soil bulk density, total phosphorus and soil water content, which provides a scientific basis for selecting reasonable tillage management and evaluating soil quality in this agricultural production area or other similar areas.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2022-05-10
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy12051153
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 12, Pages 1154: Dopamine, Chlorogenic Acid, and Quinones as
           Possible Cofactors of Increasing Adventitious Rooting Potential of In
           Vitro Krymsk 5 Cherry Rootstock Explants

    • Authors: Athanasios Tsafouros, Peter A. Roussos
      First page: 1154
      Abstract: In the present study, the effect of some not commonly used phenolic compounds was evaluated during the in vitro rooting stage of the cherry rootstock ‘Krymsk 5′ (P. fruticosa × P. lannesiana), in the absence or presence of auxin. Two sets of experiments were conducted. In the first set, the following substances were tested: the o-diphenol chlorogenic acid, in five concentrations (0 μΜ, 0.5 μΜ, 1 μΜ, 5 μΜ, and 50 μΜ) in the presence of a suboptimal indolebutyric acid (IBA) concentration (5 μΜ), the catecholamine dopamine in five concentrations (0 μΜ, 0.5 μΜ, 1 μΜ, 5 μΜ, and 50 μΜ), and the quinone 5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone in four concentrations (0 μΜ, 0.25 μΜ, 1 μΜ, and 5 μΜ) in the absence or presence of 5 μΜ IBA. In the second experiment, the quinones p-benzoquinone; 1,4-napthoquinone; and 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone were tested in four concentrations (0 μΜ, 5 μΜ, 50 μΜ, and 100 μΜ) in the presence of 5 μΜ IBA. An application of 5 μΜ of 5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone in the auxin-free medium increased rooting potential almost 1.7 times. Rooting percentage was also enhanced up to 4.2 times by dopamine; chlorogenic acid; 5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone; p-benzoquinone; and 1,4 napthoquinone in the presence of IBA. The present results indicate a possible promotive role of quinones and dopamine during in vitro rooting, at least for Prunus species, and their potential use as rooting cofactors. Moreover, a possible mode of action of the compounds studied related to IAA-oxidase is discussed.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2022-05-10
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy12051154
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 12, Pages 1155: Wetting Front Velocity Determination in
           Soil Infiltration Processes: An Experimental Sensitivity Analysis

    • Authors: Eduardo Rubio, María del Socorro Rubio-Alfaro, Martín Hernández-Marín
      First page: 1155
      Abstract: An experimental approach for measuring the wetting front velocity in soils during water infiltration processes is presented. This experimental research is developed to test the sensitivity of the measurement technique in the detection of differences in the dynamics of the wetting front advancement in different soil testing scenarios. Experimental scenarios include undisturbed and artificially compacted soils, square and circular cross-sections of soil samples, water flowing in both directions downward and horizontal, and water infiltration in a block soil sample. The measurement technique is based on wetting front detection employing moisture sensors that measure the soil’s electrical conductivity. The technique was able to detect differences in wetting front in contrasting scenarios. Two-dimensional wetting front advancement experiments carried out on a block sample confirmed the results obtained for the one-dimensional case.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2022-05-10
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy12051155
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 12, Pages 1156: No Effect of Biostimulants on the Growth,
           Yield and Nutritional Value of Shallots Grown for Bunch Harvest

    • Authors: Anna Francke, Joanna Majkowska-Gadomska, Zdzisław Kaliniewicz, Krzysztof Jadwisieńczak
      First page: 1156
      Abstract: Shallots (Allium cepa L. Aggregatum group) are cultivated on small areas, mostly to harvest mature bulbs with dry scales. Due to their exceptional taste and nutritional value, and a short growing season, they can also be grown for early bunch harvest. New shallot cultivation strategies are being sought to meet consumers’ growing expectations regarding the quality of vegetables, and their increasing awareness of global food safety. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of selected biostimulants on the biometric parameters, yield and nutritional value of shallot bulbs and leaves. The experimental factors were as follows: two biostimulant types—Effective Microorganisms (EM) and Goëmar Goteo (GG), two shallot cultivars—Bonilla F1 and Matador F1, grown for bunch harvest, and year of the study. Shallot leaves had a higher content of L-ascorbic acid, reducing sugars and nitrates than bulbs. Young bulbs had a higher content of DM and total sugars than leaves. The leaves and bulbs of shallot plants treated with EM accumulated the highest amounts of minerals. Macronutrient ratios were closer to optimal in shallot leaves than bulbs. The nitrate content of bulbs was inversely proportional to the nitrate content of leaves. Therefore, an increase in the nitrate content of leaves by around 330% led to an approximately 40% decrease in the nitrate content of bulbs. The correlations between the parameters of the chemical composition of shallots and shallot leaves show that the increase in the dry matter content of the bulbs (by approx. 60%) was accompanied by an increase in the L-ascorbic acid content in the leaves (by approx. 240%). The use of biostimulants in the cultivation of A. cepa L. Aggregatum group contributed to the reduction of L-ascorbic acid content in bulbs and had no positive effect on the leaves. Moreover, no positive effect of biostimulants on the reduction of nitrate content in shallot leaves and bulbs was observed, which is undesirable from the consumer’s point of view. After the use of biopreparations, the yield of shallots was lower than that of the control—by approx. 14% (EM) and approx. 4% (GG). Therefore, the measurable benefits of biostimulants in the cultivation of shallots grown for early bunch harvest do not balance the costs of their purchase and use.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2022-05-10
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy12051156
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 12, Pages 1157: Estimation of Genetic Variances and
           Stability Components of Yield-Related Traits of Green Super Rice at
           Multi-Environmental Conditions in Pakistan

    • Authors: Imdad Ullah Zaid, Nageen Zahra, Madiha Habib, Muhammad Kashif Naeem, Umair Asghar, Muhammad Uzair, Anila Latif, Anum Rehman, Ghulam Muhammad Ali, Muhammad Ramzan Khan
      First page: 1157
      Abstract: Identifying adopted Green Super Rice (GSR) under different agro-ecological locations in Pakistan is crucial to sustaining the high productivity of rice. For this purpose, the multi-location trials of GSR were conducted to evaluate the magnitude of genetic variability, heritability, and stability in eight different locations in Pakistan. The experimental trial was laid out in a randomized complete block (RCB) design with three replications at each location. The combined analysis of variance (ANOVA) manifested significant variations for tested genotypes (g), locations (L), years (Y), genotype × year (GY), and genotype × location (GL) interactions revealing the influence of environmental factors (L and Y) on yield traits. High broad-sense heritability estimates were observed for all the studied traits representing low environmental influence over the expression of traits. Noticeably, GSR 48 showed maximum stability than all other lines in the univariate model across the two years for grain yield and related traits data. Multivariate stability analysis characterized GSR 305 and GSR 252 as the highest yielding with optimum stability across the eight tested locations. Overall, Narowal, Muzaffargarh, and Swat were the most stable locations for GSR cultivation in Pakistan. In conclusion, this study revealed that G×E interactions were an important source of rice yield variation, and its AMMI and biplots analysis are efficient tools for visualizing the response of genotypes to different locations.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2022-05-11
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy12051157
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 12, Pages 1158: Greenhouse Thermal Effectiveness to Produce
           Tomatoes Assessed by a Temperature-Based Index

    • Authors: Jorge Flores-Velázquez, Fernando Rojano, Cruz Ernesto Aguilar-Rodríguez, Edwin Villagran, Federico Villarreal-Guerrero
      First page: 1158
      Abstract: This study proposed an indicator to calculate the regional thermal potential from the local temperature. A probabilistic function curve generalized as a complementary error function (erfc) was used to assume that the temperature curve follows the normal distribution and considered only the portion of the curve where the appropriate temperatures for the crop are located (wi). The Greenhouse Thermal Effectiveness (GTE) index was calculated using (a) the data of measured temperature (outside) and simulated values from inside of the greenhouse, and (b) the normal temperature data from five meteorological stations. Estimations of GTE using average daily temperature (°C) throughout the year indicate that, with an annual mean temperature of around 14 °C, the GTE is 2798 degree units and inside the greenhouse its value goes up to 5800. May is when the highest temperatures occur and when the highest amount of GTE units can be accumulated. The range of temperatures in the analyzed stations were from 13 to 21 °C and the GTE calculated per year was from 2000 to 7000. The perspective will be to calculate if this energy will be enough to grow tomatoes (or other crops) without extra energy for heating or cooling. If more energy may be needed, estimating how much would be the next step.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2022-05-11
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy12051158
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 12, Pages 1159: Can Olive Pruning Forms Influence the Olive
           Rhizosphere' The Root Microbiota and the Rhizosphere Properties in the
           Alto Ricaurte (Colombia)

    • Authors: José Francisco García-Molano, William Javier Cuervo-Bejarano, Margherita Rodolfi, Luz Stella Jaramillo-García, Tommaso Ganino
      First page: 1159
      Abstract: (1) Background: Olive in Colombia is not a traditional crop, but in the Andean Region, ancient olive trees are widespread. The area is characterized by a climate condition with a high intensity of UV rays and meteoric events that negatively affect the olive grown. In this work, changes in the soil of olive trees subjected to different pruning will be established. (2) Methods: Olive trees of 2-years-old were cultivated in Boyacá (Colombia). Trees were pruned into a vase shape, globe shape, and natural shape. Physical, chemical, and biological soil analyses were carried out. (3) Results: In the olive tree, V and G pruning significantly increase the P content in the soil compared to NS, and these pruning forms reduce the OOC significantly in the rhizosphere soil by 87.5% and 78.3%, respectively. In all conditions, the roots established an association with Arbuscular Mycorhizal Fungi and stimulated the presence of other microorganisms, despite the trees being more vegetative than productive in this latitude. (4) Conclusions: The results of the study indicate that, in Colombian conditions, the pruning does not affect the rhizospheric soil conditions.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2022-05-11
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy12051159
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 12, Pages 1160: Fungal-Based Biopesticide Formulations to
           Control Nymphs and Adults of the Desert Locust, Schistocerca gregaria
           Forskål (Orthoptera: Acrididae): A Laboratory and Field Cage Study

    • Authors: Waqas Wakil, Muhammad Usman Ghazanfar, Muhammad Usman, David Hunter, Wangpeng Shi
      First page: 1160
      Abstract: This is the first field study in which we have tested the efficacy of four different entomopathogenic fungal (EPF) formulations together in single study—i.e., Green Muscle, Green Guard, Metarhizium anisopliae, and an isolate of Beauveria bassiana (isolate WG-11)—against nymphs and adults of the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria Forskål (Orthoptera: Acrididae). We conducted several different studies: (a) lethal bioassay against the 3rd, 5th, and adult stages under laboratory conditions; (b) sublethal effects on the reproduction, diet consumption, fecal production, and weight gain; (c) a greenhouse trial; and (d) a field cage trial. Under laboratory conditions, all EPF formulations caused significant mortality, and the highest efficacy was observed with Green Muscle, followed by Green Guard, B. bassiana, and M. anisopliae. Susceptibility was found to be greatest in 3rd-instar nymphs, followed by 5th instars, and then adults. Along with lethal effects, sublethal doses of EPF reduced the number of egg pods per female, total eggs per pod, and egg hatching, while extending nymphal developmental time and reducing adult longevity; again, Green Muscle performed better. Sublethal doses not only retarded reproduction, but also caused behavioral changes, including reductions in food consumption, fecal production, and weight gain. All EPF formulations not only produced significant mortality in laboratory conditions, but also performed very well under the greenhouse and field conditions. The maximum mortality against 3rd-instar (81.7% and 74.0%), 5th-instar (73.3% and 65.1%), and adult locusts (67.5% and 58.9%) was observed when using Green Muscle under greenhouse and field trials, respectively. The current study showed that all of the EPF formulations have the potential to reduce pest populations, and could be used in the integrated pest management program.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2022-05-11
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy12051160
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 12, Pages 1161: Effects of Greenhouse vs. Growth Chamber
           and Different Blue-Light Percentages on the Growth Performance and Quality
           of Broccoli Microgreens

    • Authors: Onofrio Davide Palmitessa, Alessio Gadaleta, Beniamino Leoni, Massimiliano Renna, Angelo Signore, Vito Michele Paradiso, Pietro Santamaria
      First page: 1161
      Abstract: Microgreens are a product category with a biochemical content that is currently earning them the status of a functional food. The genotype of the microgreens, and environmental factors, such as the photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) and light spectra, can influence the yield and biochemical profile. A landrace of broccoli called ‘Mugnoli’ was compared with a commercial variety (‘Broccolo Natalino’) in two microgreen growing systems (greenhouse vs. growth chamber) and under three growth chamber light spectra (blue, control, control + blue). The results showed that both Mugnoli and Broccolo Natalino can be used to produce microgreens, achieving similar yields, but that Mugnoli showed notably higher polyphenols and antioxidant contents. Due the higher PFFD of the greenhouse environment, microgreens yields were 18% higher than the yields from cultivation in the growth chamber. Regarding the results under different growth chamber spectra, monochromatic blue caused reductions in the microgreens yield and polyphenols content of 13.5% and 14.2%, respectively. In conclusion, Mugnoli can be considered a valuable genetic source for the production of microgreens given its fast crop cycle, good fresh weight production, and, compared to Broccolo Natalino, its superior biochemical content and lower susceptibility to PPFD variations.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2022-05-11
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy12051161
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 12, Pages 1162: Effect of Long-Term Organic Amendment
           Application on the Vertical Distribution of Nutrients in a Vertisol

    • Authors: Yu Zhang, Liuge Wu, Xin Zhang, Aixing Deng, Raheem Abdulkareem, Daozhong Wang, Chengyan Zheng, Weijian Zhang
      First page: 1162
      Abstract: Soil nutrients in deep soils are important for nutrient cycling and plant growth. Organic amendments have been widely used for enhancing soil health and crop yield. However, little is known about the effects of organic amendments on the vertical distributions of soil nutrients. Based on a 32-year long-term organic amendment experiment, the objective of this study was to evaluate changes in the vertical distribution of nutrients in a soybean–wheat system Vertisol. The results showed that NPK with manure or straw application significantly increased soil organic carbon (SOC), total N, total P, alkali-hydrolyzable N, available P and available K above the 40 cm soil layer. Variations in soil micronutrients primarily occurred above the 20 cm soil layer, and the highest contents were observed for NPKWS and NPKPM, respectively. Nevertheless, large amounts of NO3−−N contents accumulated in the 120–200 cm depth with manure but not straw application, indicating a high potential risk of nitrate leaching in manure treatments. These findings suggested that the application of organic amendment (manure or straw) could be recommendable for improving soil nutrients along the soil profile. Straw incorporation could be used as an alternative option for sustainable agriculture in regions with inadequate manure resources or severe nitrate leaching.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2022-05-11
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy12051162
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 12, Pages 1163: Comparative Transcriptional Analysis of Two
           Contrasting Rice Genotypes in Response to Salt Stress

    • Authors: Xiaoxue Ye, Weiwei Tie, Jianlong Xu, Zehong Ding, Wei Hu
      First page: 1163
      Abstract: Improving rice salt-tolerance is an effective way to deal with the increasing food demand caused by soil salinization and population growth. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms of rice salt-tolerance remain elusive. In this study, comparative transcriptomic analyses were performed to identify salt-tolerance genes that were either specifically regulated or more changed in salt-tolerant cultivar FL478 relative to salt-sensitive cultivar 93-11. In total, 1423, 175, and 224 salt-tolerance genes were identified under 200 mM NaCl treatment for 6 h, 24 h, and 72 h, respectively. These genes were commonly enriched in transport and peroxidase/oxidoreductase activity across all timepoints, but specially enriched in transcription regulator activity at 6 h under salt stress. Further analysis revealed that 53 transporters, 38 transcription factors (TFs), and 23 reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging enzymes were involved in salt adaptation of FL478, and that overall, these salt-tolerance genes showed a faster transcriptional expression response in FL478 than in 93-11. Finally, a gene co-expression network was constructed to highlight the regulatory relationships of transporters, TFs, and ROS scavenging genes under salt-stress conditions. This work provides an overview of genome-wide transcriptional analysis of two contrasting rice genotypes in response to salt stress. These findings imply a crucial contribution of quickly transcriptional changes to salt tolerance and provide useful genes for genetic improvement of salt tolerance in rice.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2022-05-11
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy12051163
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 12, Pages 1164: Shredlage Processing Affects the
           Digestibility of Maize Silage

    • Authors: Filip Jančík, Petra Kubelková, Radko Loučka, Václav Jambor, Dana Kumprechtová, Petr Homolka, Veronika Koukolová, Yvona Tyrolová, Alena Výborná
      First page: 1164
      Abstract: Maize silage is one of the most important feeds for ruminant nutrition and various production methods can have a significant impact on their quality, especially the utilization of nutrients. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of conventional and shredlage processing of harvested maize on kernel processing, fermentation profile, physically effective fibre and digestibility of maize silage. A stay-green maize hybrid was harvested with a conventional forage harvester (CON; theoretical length of cut 10 mm; conventional rollers with a 30% difference in roller speed; the rollers have a horizontally teeth; 1-mm roll clearance) or a shredlage processor (SHR; theoretical length of cut 25 mm; Shredlage crop processor with 50% difference in roller speed; the rollers have sawtooth teeth with a counter-rotating spiral groove; 1-mm clearance) and stored in experimental silos. The experimental silages were analysed for chemical composition (dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, crude fibre, neutral detergent fibre, starch), fermentation parameters (pH, lactate, acetate, ammonia), processing quality (kernel processing score, particle size), physically effective neutral detergent fibre (peNDF) and in vivo nutrient digestibility. The shredlage processing (SHR) of maize plants did not have an effect on the silage fermentation profile. On the other hand, the SHR treatment significantly increased kernel processing score (p < 0.01) and peNDF content (p < 0.01). SHR also increased in vivo digestibility significantly, namely that of dry matter (DM), organic matter, starch, crude fibre and neutral detergent fibre (NDF). An increase in nutrient digestibility leads to higher values of NEL. The presented results show positive effects of shredlage processing on quality and digestibility of maize silage.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2022-05-11
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy12051164
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 12, Pages 1165: Matter Production Characteristics and
           Nitrogen Use Efficiency under Different Nitrogen Application Patterns in
           Chinese Double-Cropping Rice Systems

    • Authors: Wentao Zhou, Wenfei Long, Hongrui Wang, Pan Long, Ying Xu, Zhiqiang Fu
      First page: 1165
      Abstract: Panicle-stage nitrogen fertilizer is popular in parts of China due to its higher nitrogen recovery efficiency compared to basal and tiller nitrogen. However, the effect of conversion from basal to panicle-stage nitrogen on matter production, grain yield, and nitrogen use efficiencies (NUE) in Chinese double-cropping rice systems remains largely unknown. Here, we elucidate the effect by using two types of one-time basal nitrogen patterns (A and B), three panicle-N allocation patterns (C, D, and E), and the local conventional patterns (CK). The two-year experiment demonstrates that E (basal/tiller/spikelet-promoting /spikelet-developing nitrogen = 0:4:3:3) produced the greatest annual grain yield, nitrogen agronomic efficiency, and nitrogen partial productivity. The annual dry matter weight and nitrogen increment of panicle, nitrogen transportation of stems contributes the most to annual yield and NUE. Furthermore, the yield increase could be attributed to the higher effective panicles, plant dry matter weight at tillering, and net photosynthesis rate at heading. Moreover, years and varieties affect the yield in different N treatments. The improvement in the net photosynthesis rate at the milk stage also significantly increases nitrogen recovery efficiency. These findings suggest that it is worth paying attention to the rational ratio of tillering to panicle fertilizer without applying a base fertilizer, to synchronously increase the grain yield, NUE in Chinese double-cropping rice systems.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2022-05-11
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy12051165
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 12, Pages 1166: Topping Inhibited Potassium Uptake via
           Regulating Potassium Flux and Channel Gene Expression in Tobacco

    • Authors: Taibo Liang, Huaxin Dai, Waleed Amjad Khan, Yadi Guo, Xiangyu Meng, Guiyao Wang, Yanling Zhang
      First page: 1166
      Abstract: Potassium (K+) is mainly absorbed by plants from the soil and is primarily transported within the plant through the xylem. Topping has been reported to cause efflux and loss of K+ in plants; however, its effect on the real-time flow rate and genotypes with varying K+ accumulation ability is still unknown. Therefore, we carried out a pot experiment containing sand culture using two tobacco cultivars EY1 (high K+ accumulating) and Y87 (low K+ accumulating). The results demonstrated the change of K+ flow direction from influx to efflux in the roots of both cultivars due to topping. The percentage ratio of K+ efflux to influx was estimated to be 18.8% in EY-1 and 157.0% in Y87, respectively. We noticed a decline in indole acetic acid (IAA) content due to topping, which activated the expression of K+ efflux channel gene NTORK1 and inhibited the expression of K+ influx channel genes NKT1 and NtKC1. Furthermore, K+ loss from the roots increased due to topping, which led to decreased K+ concentration in entire tobacco plant. Topping had a more serious impact on the K+ efflux rate and K+ loss in Y87. IAA application after topping, in turn, decreased the K+ loss in both the cultivars. We conclude that topping caused a decrease in IAA concentration and K+ losses in tobacco leaves, and these losses can be mitigated by the exogenous application of IAA.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2022-05-11
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy12051166
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 12, Pages 1167: Novel Assessment of Region-Based CNNs for
           Detecting Monocot/Dicot Weeds in Dense Field Environments

    • Authors: Nima Teimouri, Rasmus Nyholm Jørgensen, Ole Green
      First page: 1167
      Abstract: Weeding operations represent an effective approach to increase crop yields. Reliable and precise weed detection is a prerequisite for achieving high-precision weed monitoring and control in precision agriculture. To develop an effective approach for detecting weeds within the red, green, and blue (RGB) images, two state-of-the-art object detection models, EfficientDet (coefficient 3) and YOLOv5m, were trained on more than 26,000 in situ labeled images with monocot/dicot classes recorded from more than 200 different fields in Denmark. The dataset was collected using a high velocity camera (HVCAM) equipped with a xenon ring flash that overrules the sunlight and minimize shadows, which enables the camera to record images with a horizontal velocity of over 50 km h-1. Software-wise, a novel image processing algorithm was developed and utilized to generate synthetic images for testing the model performance on some difficult occluded images with weeds that were properly generated using the proposed algorithm. Both deep-learning networks were trained on in-situ images and then evaluated on both synthetic and new unseen in-situ images to assess their performances. The obtained average precision (AP) of both EfficientDet and YOLOv5 models on 6625 synthetic images were 64.27% and 63.23%, respectively, for the monocot class and 45.96% and 37.11% for the dicot class. These results confirmed that both deep-learning networks could detect weeds with high performance. However, it is essential to verify both the model’s robustness on in-situ images in which there is heavy occlusion with a complicated background. Therefore, 1149 in-field images were recorded in 5 different fields in Denmark and then utilized to evaluate both proposed model’s robustness. In the next step, by running both models on 1149 in-situ images, the AP of monocot/dicot for EfficientDet and YOLOv5 models obtained 27.43%/42.91% and 30.70%/51.50%, respectively. Furthermore, this paper provides information regarding challenges of monocot/dicot weed detection by releasing 1149 in situ test images with their corresponding labels (RoboWeedMap) publicly to facilitate the research in the weed detection domain within the precision agriculture field.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2022-05-12
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy12051167
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 12, Pages 1168: Biological Activities of Zingiber
           officinale Roscoe Essential Oil against Fusarium spp.: A Minireview of a
           Promising Tool for Biocontrol

    • Authors: Matteo Radice, Naga Raju Maddela, Laura Scalvenzi
      First page: 1168
      Abstract: Zingiber officinale Roscoe is an herbal plant native to Asia that can be found in all tropical countries. It is used in folk medicine, food, and cosmetics. A chemical characterization and some agronomic experiments have been carried out on Z. officinale essential oil, showing promising findings for the biological control of fungal pathogens belonging to the genus Fusarium. The aim of this review is to collect and update the literature covering its phytochemistry and biological activities as a Fusarium spp. plant-based biocide. The present research was conducted using the following bibliographic databases: Scifinder, Pubmed, and Science Direct. Thirteen papers were selected based on the adopted criteria. Data were independently extracted by the three authors of this work, and the final article selections were completed in a manner that avoided the duplication of data. The main chemical compounds were α-zingiberene, geranial, and aryl-curcumene, but a remarkable difference was found concerning the chemical compositions. Z. officinale essential oil was shown to possess promising biological functions against Fusarium spp. These findings offer new research approaches and potential applications as a biocontrol ingredient for Z. officinale essential oil.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2022-05-12
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy12051168
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 12, Pages 1169: Farmers’ Knowledge, Attitudes, and
           Control Practices of Rodents in an Agricultural Area of Taiwan

    • Authors: Ian Nicholas Best, Pei-Jen Lee Shaner, Kurtis Jai-Chyi Pei, Chi-Chien Kuo
      First page: 1169
      Abstract: Rodents threaten agricultural industries and food security on a global scale. Rodent management practices routinely involve the use of chemical products, mainly anticoagulant rodenticides (ARs). An understanding of farmer rodent control behaviors is crucial in order to implement management changes to more environmentally friendly practices. In this study, we surveyed farmers in an agricultural area of northwestern Taiwan on their knowledge, attitudes, and control practices for rodent pests. From our survey sample of 126 farmers, rodents were perceived to be the most problematic for vegetable crops, followed by rice, and then fruit. Farmers in the oldest age group and those that perceived rodents to cause extensive damage to their crops were found to have the most negative attitudes toward the pests. One-third of the farmers in our survey stated they currently use rodenticides, with crop type, perceived problems caused by rodents, and attitudes toward rodents found to be important explanatory variables. Our results indicate that the use of rodenticides is reactive; farmers are more likely to apply the chemical products if they perceive rodents to cause damage. Additionally, cost–benefit assessments are likely important in governing rodent control behaviors; farmers may be more inclined to use control products that are subsidized by the government, which include ARs, when they observe damage to their crops inflicted by rodents. We also describe how ecologically based rodent management (EBRM) practices could be feasible and sustainable alternatives to rodenticide use.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2022-05-12
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy12051169
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 12, Pages 1170: (1→3)-α-D-glucooligosaccharides
           as Elicitors Influencing the Activity of Plant Resistance Pathways in
           Wheat Tissues

    • Authors: Artur Nowak, Renata Tyśkiewicz, Adrian Wiater, Jolanta Jaroszuk-Ściseł
      First page: 1170
      Abstract: Laetiporus sulphureus (Bull.: Fr.) Murrill is an arboreal species of the large-fruited Basidiomycota fungus from the Polyporales, family Laetiporaceae. The cell wall of this fungus is the source of many bioactive polymer compounds, including (1→3)-α-D-glucans. (1→3)-α-D-glucans can be hydrolyzed to shorter compounds, (1→3)-α-D-glucooligosaccharides (GOS), with different degrees of polymerization (DP). The use of GOS obtained from L. sulphureus (1→3)-α-D-glucans, as an elicitor of plant resistance, may be important for biological protection used in sustainable agriculture. In the presented study, GOS influenced the activity of antioxidant enzymes (Catalase−CAT, Ascorbate Peroxidase−APX, Guaiacol Peroxidase−GPX, and Superoxide Dismutase−SOD), lignin and flavonoids producing phenylpropanoids pathways (Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase−PAL and Tyrosine Ammonia-Lyase−TAL), and pathogen-related proteins (with Glucanase−GLUC and Chitinase−CHIT activity) in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedling tissues. Other than that, the application of GOS increased the fresh weight of wheat stems and roots by 1.5–2-times, compared to the water control. The GOS at a concentration of 0.05% most strongly increased the activity of APX and GPX, where a 2-fold (up to 6000 U) and a 3-fold (up to 180 U) increase in enzymatic activity in wheat stems was observed, compared to the control. Simultaneously, 0.1% GOS significantly increased the activity of PAL (80 U in stems and 50 U in roots) and TAL (60 U in stems and 50 U in roots), where a 4–5-fold increase in enzymatic activity was observed, both in comparison to the water control and commercial elicitors (chitosan−CHI and laminarin−LAM). No effect of GOS on GLUC activity was observed, but a 1.5–2-fold increase in CHIT activity in plant tissues was noted. The complexity of the influence of GOS on the level of marker enzymes indicates the potential of their application in agriculture. This work is the first report of the successful use of (1→3)-α-D-glucooligosaccharides as an elicitor inducing resistance in the cereal plant (wheat).
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2022-05-12
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy12051170
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 12, Pages 1171: Effects of Low Temperature on the Amino
           Acid Composition of Wheat Grains

    • Authors: Xinyi Hu, Jifeng Ma, Weihao Qian, Yuan Cao, Yu Zhang, Bing Liu, Liang Tang, Weixing Cao, Yan Zhu, Leilei Liu
      First page: 1171
      Abstract: Global warming can have detrimental effects on crop production formation, but the effect of low-temperature stress on crop quality should not be ignored. Wheat is one of the main grain crops in the world, and the quality of wheat is directly related to human health. The nutritional importance of wheat in the human diet necessitates pursuing a study to collect detailed and accurate knowledge of the amino acid composition of wheat proteins under low-temperature conditions. To better understand the effect of low temperature on the composition of amino acids in mature wheat, we conducted a two-year low-temperature-controlled wheat pot experiment in artificial climate chambers with two different wheat cultivars at four low-temperature intensities during the jointing, booting, and both jointing and booting stages. Our results suggest that the contents of total amino acids, essential amino acids, and nonessential amino acids for the cold-sensitive wheat cultivar (Yangmai16) increased under the low-temperature treatments, while the contents of the cold-tolerant cultivar (Xumai30) decreased when low-temperature was applied during the jointing and double (both jointing and booting) stages. Through the amino acid score (AAS), we found that the first limiting amino acid was Lys, while the second limiting amino acid varied among Ile, Met + Cys, and Val after the low-temperature treatments. Comparing the amino acid ratio coefficients (RCs), we found that Leu and Thr in wheat grains were close to the standard protein after the low-temperature treatments, while Phe and Tyr were in a surplus, and the other essential amino acids did not meet the standard. Thus, to improve the protein quality of wheat, protective measures should be taken when low temperatures occur.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2022-05-12
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy12051171
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 12, Pages 1172: Fine Mapping and Functional Analysis of
           Major QTL, CRq for Clubroot Resistance in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa
           ssp. pekinensis)

    • Authors: Xiaochun Wei, Jundang Li, Xiaowei Zhang, Yanyan Zhao, Ujjal Kumar Nath, Lixia Mao, Zhengqing Xie, Shuangjuan Yang, Gongyao Shi, Zhiyong Wang, Baoming Tian, Henan Su, Zhiyuan Yang, Fang Wei, Yuxiang Yuan
      First page: 1172
      Abstract: Clubroot disease caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae is one of the major threats to Brassica crops. New clubroot resistant varieties of Chinese cabbage (B. rapa ssp. pekinensis) have been developed through breeding, but the underlying genetic mechanism of clubroot resistance is still unclear. In this study, two Chinese cabbage DH lines, clubroot-resistant Y635-10 and susceptible Y177-47 were crossed to develop F2 population for fine mapping and cloning resistance gene CRq. After sequence analysis, the expression vector was constructed by gateway technology and transferred into Arabidopsis thaliana for functional characterization. Bulked segregant analysis sequencing (BSA-seq) confirmed that CRq is located in the 80 kb genomic region on chromosome A03 between markers GC30-FW/RV and BGA. In silico tools confirmed that the gene length was 3959 bp with 3675 bp coding sequences (CDs), and it has three exons and two introns. In addition, we found 72bp insertion in the third exon of CRq in the susceptible line. We developed and verified functional marker Br-insert1, by which genotyping results showed that 72bp insertion might lead to the destruction of the LRR region of Y177-47, resulting in a loss of resistance relative to clubroot. The results of genetic transformation showed that the roots for wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana were significantly enlarged compared with T2 generation transgenic Arabidopsis after treatment by P. brassicae spores, and transgenic Arabidopsis had certain resistance. Therefore, CRq is a candidate gene of clubroot disease resistance in Chinese cabbage, which could be used as a reference for elucidating disease resistance mechanisms and the marker-assisted breeding of clubroot resistant varieties.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2022-05-12
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy12051172
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 12, Pages 1173: Genetic Association between Blast
           

    • Authors: Lydia Kanyange, Ye-Yang Fan, Zhen-Hua Zhang, De-Run Huang, Ting-Xu Huang, Jie-Yun Zhuang, Yu-Jun Zhu
      First page: 1173
      Abstract: Avoiding linkage drag of the resistance genes will facilitate the use of gene resources for rice breeding. This study was conducted to confirm the avoidance of linkage drag due to Pi26 and Pi25 blast resistance genes, and to analyze the association of Pi26, Pi25, Pib and Pita with quantitative trait loci (QTL) for yield traits. A recombinant inbred line population was derived from an indica rice cross Dan 71/Zhonghui 161. A linkage map consisting of 1219 bin markers, 22 simple sequence repeats and five gene markers was constructed. A total of 75 QTL were identified, including 2 for leaf blast resistance and 73 for eight yield traits. The two QTL for blast resistance were closely linked and located in the Pi26 and Pi25 regions, explaining 69.06 and 12.73% of the phenotypic variance, respectively. In a region covering Pi26 and Pi25, QTL were detected for grain yield and its key components. The alleles for enhancing blast resistance and grain yield were all from Dan 71. Not only was the linkage drag due to Pi26 and Pi25 avoided, but the results also indicate that these resistance genes may be used for simultaneously enhancing blast resistance and grain yield in rice. In the Pib and Pita regions, QTL was not detected for blast resistance, but was for yield traits. In each region, the allele for improving trait performance was derived from the parent carrying the resistance allele. In addition, four QTL clusters for grain weight and size, qGL4/qGW4.1, qGL11.2/qRLW11, qTGW11/qGW11 and qGL12/qGW12/qRLW12, were shown to be promising candidates for map-based cloning.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2022-05-12
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy12051173
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 12, Pages 1174: Multi-Channel Spectral Sensors as Plant
           Reflectance Measuring Devices—Toward the Usability of Spectral
           Sensors for Phenotyping of Sweet Basil (Ocimum basilicum)

    • Authors: Trung Nam Tran, Rieke Keller, Vinh Quang Trinh, Khanh Quoc Tran, Ralf Kaldenhoff
      First page: 1174
      Abstract: Modern agriculture demands for comprehensive information about the plants themselves. Conventional chemistry-based analytical methods—due to their low throughput and high associated costs—are no longer capable of providing these data. In recent years, remote reflectance-based characterisation has become one of the most promising solutions for rapid assessments of plant attributes. However, in many cases, expensive equipment is required because accurate quantifications need assessments of the full reflectance spectrum. In this experimental study, we examined the versatility of visible spectral sensors as alternative reflectance measuring devices for biological/biochemical quantifications of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum). Our results confirm the applicability and scope of visible spectral sensors for analysis and quantification of important plant properties, in particular the contents of valuable substances, such as phenolic compounds and flavonoids.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2022-05-12
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy12051174
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 12, Pages 1175: Morphological and Biochemical Factors
           Associated with Constitutive Defense to Thrips in Alfalfa

    • Authors: Zhiqiang Zhang, Qi Chen, Rula Sa, Rui Dai, Shuang Shuang, Xiaohong Jiang, Huijie Liu, Yao Tan, Fang Tang, Buhe Temuer
      First page: 1175
      Abstract: Plants have evolved a series of inducible or constitutive defense mechanisms in response to herbivore attack. Constitutive plant defenses are morphological and biochemical traits of the plants themselves, regardless of the presence of herbivores. We bred an alfalfa variety (Caoyuan No.4) with high thrips resistance, but the mechanisms underlying Caoyuan No.4 resistance to thrips are not well understood. To explore the constitutive defense of Caoyuan No.4, the morphological and biochemical traits associated with constitutive defense to thrips in alfalfa were analyzed using a thrips-susceptible alfalfa accession (Caoyuan No.2) as a control. The results showed that Caoyuan No.4 had thicker palisade tissue and parenchyma tissue, wider collenchyma, phloem, cambium and lignin layer, and smaller epidermal cells and stomatal aperture compared to Caoyuan No.2. Moreover, Caoyuan No.4 showed more non-glandular trichomes in both leaves and stems, but less glandular trichomes and more wax in stems. In addition, the results of the widely targeted metabolomics analysis showed that metabolites related to flavonoid, isoflavonoid, flavone and flavonol biosynthesis, as well as cysteine and methionine metabolism, differed between CaoyuanNo.2 and Caoyuan No.4. These findings shed new light on the constitutive insect defense of plants associated with physical or biochemical traits and may provide convenient markers for breeding thrips-resistant alfalfa cultivars.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2022-05-13
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy12051175
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 12, Pages 1176: Ectopic Expression of Kenaf (Hibiscus
           cannabinus L.) HcWRKY50 Improves Plants’ Tolerance to Drought Stress
           and Regulates ABA Signaling in Arabidopsis

    • Authors: Xiaoping Niu, Meixia Chen, Zeyuan She, Mohammad Aslam, Jianmin Qi, Yuan Qin
      First page: 1176
      Abstract: Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) is an environmentally friendly, multipurpose fiber crop suitable for osmotic stress tolerance studies. However, the mechanisms of tolerance remain largely unknown. Here, we identified a stress-responsive HcWRKY50 gene from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) and studied its function and tolerance under drought stress. HcWRKY50 is a nuclear-localized protein. The overexpression of HcWRKY50 in Arabidopsis showed higher drought tolerance, exhibiting increased root length and lateral root number, and reduced stomatal density compared with the control lines. The seed germination and seedling growth of HcWRKY50 transgenic plants showed less sensitivity to ABA but they became more sensitive to ABA in their stomatal aperture. Furthermore, qRT-PCR analysis revealed that HcWRKY50 regulated ABA signaling by promoting the expression of several key ABA-responsive and stress-responsive genes such as RD29B and COR47 in transgenic lines. Taken together, this study demonstrated that the kenaf transcription factor HcWRKY50 regulates seed germination and seedling growth and improves drought stress tolerance via an ABA signaling pathway.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2022-05-13
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy12051176
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 12, Pages 1177: Hydrochemical Assessment of Water Used for
           Agricultural Soil Irrigation in the Water Area of the Three Morava Rivers
           in the Republic of Serbia

    • Authors: Radmila Pivić, Jelena Maksimović, Zoran Dinić, Darko Jaramaz, Helena Majstorović, Dragana Vidojević, Aleksandra Stanojković-Sebić
      First page: 1177
      Abstract: The assessment of the suitability and status of irrigation water quality from the aspect of its potential negative impact on soil salinization and mapping of spatial distribution within the area of the three Morava rivers, which includes the South, West, and Great Morava basins, was the purpose of this research. A total of 215 samples of irrigation water were tested, and their quality was evaluated based on the analysis of the following parameters: pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved salt (TDS), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), and content of SO42−, Cl−, HCO3−, CO3 2−, Mg2+, Ca2+, Na+, and K+. The results showed that the average content of ions was as follows: Ca2+ > Mg2+ > Na+ > K+ and HCO3− > SO42− > Cl− > CO32−. The assessment of irrigation water suitability was determined by calculating the following indices: percentage sodium (Na %), residual sodium carbonate (RSC), permeability index (PI), magnesium hazard (MH), potential salinity (PS), Kelley’s index (KI), total hardness (TH), irrigation water quality index (IWQI). Based on Wilcox’s diagram, the USSL diagram, and the Doneen chart, it was concluded that most of the samples were suitable for irrigation. Using multivariate statistical techniques and correlation matrices in combination with other hydrogeochemical tools such as Piper’s, Chadha’s, and Gibbs diagrams, the main factors associated with hydrogeochemical variability were identified.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2022-05-13
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy12051177
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 12, Pages 1178: Adventitious Root Culture—An
           Alternative Strategy for Secondary Metabolite Production: A Review

    • Authors: Mehrun Nisha Khanam, Mohammad Anis, Saad Bin Javed, Javad Mottaghipisheh, Dezső Csupor
      First page: 1178
      Abstract: Medicinal plants are valuable sources of botanical drugs, extracts and pure compounds. Although several species can be propagated or collected, the access to herbal material is limited in certain cases. The protection of natural habitats and biodiversity demands new sources to provide plant secondary metabolites of medical importance. Adventitious root culture is used to harvest the secondary metabolites from the medicinally important plants, thereby offering an alternative to collection and propagation of medicinal plants. In this review, we comprehensively summarize the previously published data on the use of adventitious root cultures for numerous therapeutic plants. Adventitious roots showed elevated growth rates and production of pharmaceutically important metabolites under sterilized condition with optimized plant-growth regulators in culture media. In the present study, major influencing factors, such as the stages involved in the process of adventitious root formation, medium composition and type of growth regulators, specifically the effect of different auxins on the initiation and formation of roots, are discussed. Elicitation strategies using biotic (yeast extracts, chitosan and pectin) and abiotic factors (MJ, SA, CuSO4, AgNO3, NaCl) that affect the in vitro growth of adventitious roots and the role of bioreactors, which are new advancements in the scale-up process, are also highlighted. The development of adventitious root cultures for the production of secondary metabolites of medicinal importance is a perspective that is advantageous from ecological and economical aspects as well.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2022-05-13
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy12051178
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 12, Pages 1179: The Effects of Catch Crops on Properties of
           Continuous Cropping Soil and Growth of Vegetables in Greenhouse

    • Authors: Yingbin Qi, Rong Zhou, Lanchun Nie, Mintao Sun, Xiaoting Wu, Fangling Jiang
      First page: 1179
      Abstract: Continuous cropping has become a key factor limiting the sustainable development of greenhouse vegetables. It is a matter of great importance to maintain and improve the effective fertility of greenhouse soil. Catch crops planted as green manure is an effective method to improve soil quality. In order to determine the effects of catch crops on soil characteristics and the growth of afterculture vegetables, onion, corn, wheat, soybean and cabbage were planted as catch crops for two years during the summer fallow season, with no catch crop as CK. The results showed that the total porosity and organic matter content of the soil, with corn and wheat as catch crops, was significantly increased by 2.93%, 5.25% and 21.32%, 51.61%, respectively, while pH was decreased, compared with CK. The urease, sucrase, invertase, catalase and FDA enzyme activity of the soil with corn and wheat as catch crops was significantly increased by 30.14% and 30.21%, 14.81% and 25.31%, 15.43% and 15.21%, 29.37% and 28.69%, 46.32% and 44.23%. Meanwhile, the enzyme activity of the soil was increased with each catch crop planted. The amount of culturable bacteria and actinomycetes in the soil with corn and wheat as catch crops was increased by 33.42% and 38.12% at the period of 150dayII, while fungi was decreased by 59.95%. The yield of vegetables with corn and wheat as catch crops significantly increased by 5.59~13.33% and 4.35~11.18% compared with CK. Overall, catch crops could improve the soil quality as well as the growth of afterculture vegetables.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2022-05-13
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy12051179
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 12, Pages 1180: Exogenous Applications of Spermidine
           Improve Drought Tolerance in Seedlings of the Ornamental Grass Hordeum
           jubatum in Northeast China

    • Authors: Jingyao Tian, Yi Zhao, Yuqiao Pan, Xiaoxuan Chen, Yingnan Wang, Jixiang Lin, Jinghong Wang, Qingjie Yang
      First page: 1180
      Abstract: Hordeum jubatum L. is a potential ornamental grass species. Spermidine (Spd) plays a regulatory role in plant stress. This study measured seedling growth, photosynthesis, chlorophyll fluorescence, osmotic regulatory substance contents, and antioxidant enzyme activities in H. jubatum seedlings pretreated with Spd (0–1.5 mM at 0.5 mM intervals) in drought treatments simulating natural water loss. The results indicated that the water content, photosynthetic parameters maximal quantum yield of PSII photochemistry (Fv/Fm), actual quantum yield of photochemical energy conversion in PSII (ϕPSII), and photochemical quenching coefficient (qp) values of H. jubatum shoots decreased significantly with increasing drought intensity. Simultaneously, the contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) and the nonphotochemical quenching coefficient (NPQ) value increased. Spd improved growth and photosynthesis under drought stress. Spd also increased osmotic regulatory substance contents and antioxidant enzyme activities. These results suggest that the drought stress inhibited the growth of H. jubatum and damaged the photosynthetic systems, triggering a range of protective responses. Exogenous Spd mitigated the damage by promoting a variety of responses and adaptive mechanisms, such as adjusting stomatal conductance, promoting photosynthetic capacity, accelerating the synthesis of osmoregulatory molecules, and activating antioxidant enzyme systems. Additionally, 1.5 mM Spd-treated H. jubatum had the best drought tolerance. This study will help to develop an understanding of the effects of exogenous Spd on improving drought resistance and provide a strategy for the H. jubatum landscape effect to be achieved under water-limited conditions.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2022-05-14
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy12051180
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 12, Pages 1181: Glucose Increases the Abundance of
           Phosphate Solubilizing Bacterial Community for Better Apple Seedling
           Growth and Phosphate Uptake

    • Authors: Zhihang Jia, Lin Zhao, Jia Zhang, Wei Jiang, Meng Wei, Xinxiang Xu, Yuanmao Jiang, Shunfeng Ge
      First page: 1181
      Abstract: Phosphorus-solubilizing microorganisms play an important role in soil nutrient phosphorus cycling. In order to clarify the effect of glucose (C6H12O6) on soil phosphorus transformation, the effects of glucose additions on the bacterial community, soil phosphorus status, and plant phosphorus uptake in apple rhizosphere soil were investigated. A 90-day pot experiment was carried out, and the experiment was repeated three times. Glucose additions were 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, and 12.5 g glucose per kg of soil. We measured soil bacteria and phosphorus related indexes using Illumina MiSeq sequencing technology and chemical methods. The results showed that when the glucose application rate was 2.5–7.5 g·kg−1, the soil total phosphorus content decreased by 4.4–7.3%; however, the soil acid phosphatase activity increased by 0.5–1.3 times, and the microbial biomass phosphorus increased by 29.1% and 37.0%. The content of Al-P and Fe-P in the rhizosphere soil decreased by 14.4 to 32.7 mg·kg−1 and 16.04 to 28.7 mg·kg−1, respectively. The compositional difference of the bacterial community became larger, and the relative abundance of 11 bacterial phyla changed significantly, among which the most significant change was found in Proteobacteria. This study also found that the relative abundances of Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Arthrobacter, and Cuprococcus increased by 0.9%, 2.2%, 2.4%, and 0.8%, respectively. Applying 7.5 g glucose per kg of soil can significantly increase the relative abundance of phosphorus solubilizing bacteria (Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Arthrobacter et al.) in rhizosphere soil, activate Al-P and Fe-P, and improve the availability of soil phosphorus.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2022-05-14
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy12051181
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 12, Pages 1182: Chitosan Oligosaccharide Lactate Increases
           Productivity and Quality of Baby Leaf Red Perilla

    • Authors: Piotr Salachna, Łukasz Łopusiewicz
      First page: 1182
      Abstract: Perilla (Perilla frutescens) belongs to the Lamiaceae family, is used as a spicy culinary herb leafy vegetable as well as medicinal and ornamental plant. However, little is known about protocols for baby leaf perilla production. Native chitosan is a well-known biostimulant used in crop plant production. Nevertheless, the influence of water-soluble chitosan oligosaccharide lactate (ChOL) on plant growth and bioactive compounds content remains unknown. The present pot experiment determines the effects of ChOL (0, 50 and 100 mg/L) on growth and selected biochemical characteristics of baby leaf red perilla. Compared to the untreated plants, ChOL application at 50 and 100 mg/L increased plant height (by 14.6% and 13.2%), the fresh weight of the above-ground part of plants (by 17.1% and 26.7%), leaves (by 21.8% and 35.5%) and roots (by 52.2%). The levels of total reducing sugars, polyphenolics, flavonoids and anthocyanins in perilla leaves were significantly higher in all plants treated with ChOL at all tested concentrations. This was confirmed by macromolecules (FT-IR) studies showing higher band intensity for key functional groups in leaf samples. The application of ChOL also enhanced the antioxidant activity by using DPPH, ABTS and O2− radical scavenging activity assays. Based on the research, results suggested that ChOL may be used an effective plant biostimulant for high quality production of baby leaf red perilla.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2022-05-14
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy12051182
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 12, Pages 1183: Estimating Leaf Water Content through
           Low-Cost LiDAR

    • Authors: Akira Hama, Yutaro Matsumoto, Nobuhiro Matsuoka
      First page: 1183
      Abstract: In recent years, rapid development has been achieved in technologies and sensors related to autonomous driving and assistive technologies. In this study, low-cost light detection and ranging (LiDAR) was used to estimate leaf water content (LWC) by measuring LiDAR reflectance instead of morphological measurement (e.g., plant size), which is the conventional method. Experimental results suggest that reflection intensity can be corrected using the body temperature of LiDAR, when using reflection intensity observed by LiDAR. Comparisons of corrected LiDAR observation data and changes in reflectance attributed to leaf drying suggest that the reflectance increases with leaf drying in the 905 nm band observed with a hyperspectral camera. The LWC is estimated with an R2 of 0.950, RMSE of 6.78%, and MAPE of 18.6% using LiDAR reflectance. Although the 905 nm wavelength used by LiDAR is not the main water absorption band, the reflectance is closely related to the leaf structure; therefore, it is believed that the reflectance changes with structural changes accompanying drying, which allows for the indirect estimation of LWC. This can help utilize the reflectance of the 905 nm single-wavelength LiDAR, which, to the best of our knowledge has not been used in plant observations for estimating LWC.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2022-05-14
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy12051183
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 12, Pages 1184: Agri-Food Waste as a Method for Weed
           Control and Soil Amendment in Crops

    • Authors: Paula Lorenzo, Rosa Guilherme, Sara Barbosa, António J. D. Ferreira, Cristina Galhano
      First page: 1184
      Abstract: The continued and extensive use of synthetic herbicides to control weeds to maximize crop yield is no longer sustainable, as it results in negative impacts on the environment and human health. Innovative sustainable and resilient food production systems should preserve resources and environmental health by incorporating alternative natural herbicides, recycling waste, and favoring a circular economy. The present work assesses the value of different organic waste (Urtica dioica residues, Vicia faba pods, spent coffee grounds, and corn cobs) as bioherbicides and fertilizers in different seasons through pot and field two-year sequential experiments. Pot assays revealed that V. faba pods, spent coffee grounds, and corn cob waste showed the best inhibitory effect, which were subsequently evaluated in the Spring–Summer and Autumn crops. In the field, spent coffee grounds reduced the biomass of total naturally-emerged weeds and stimulated crop growth under scarce rainfall and warm days. However, its effect varied under different environmental conditions. Spent coffee grounds can partially control weeds in the field, which valorizes them as a bioherbicide and boosts sustainable agriculture.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2022-05-14
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy12051184
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 12, Pages 1185: Agronomic Performance of Grain Sorghum
           (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) Cultivars under Intensive Fish Farm Effluent
           Irrigation

    • Authors: Ildikó Kolozsvári, Ágnes Kun, Mihály Jancsó, Andrea Palágyi, Csaba Bozán, Csaba Gyuricza
      First page: 1185
      Abstract: The growing global water shortage is an increasing challenge for the agricultural sector, which aims to produce sufficient quantity and quality of food and animal feed. In our study, effluent water from an intensive African catfish farm was irrigated on grain sorghum plants in four consecutive years. In our study the effects of the effluent on the N, P, K, Na content of the seeds, on the phenological parameters (plant height, relative chlorophyll content), the green mass, and on the grain yield of three varieties (‘Alföldi 1’, ‘Farmsugro 180’ and ‘GK Emese’) were investigated. Five treatments (Körös River (K) water and effluent (E) water: 30 and 45 mm weekly irrigation water dose; non-irrigated control) were applied with micro-spray irrigation. Compared to non-irrigated plants, effluent water did not negatively affect the N, P, K and Na contents of the grain crop. In terms of phenological parameters, the quality of the irrigation water (150–230 cm) had no negative effect on any of the measured parameters compared to the control (133–187 cm) values. In terms of biomass in 2020, grain yields were 89–109 g/plant with variety Alföldi 1, 64–91 g/plant with variety Farmsugro 180, and 86–110 g/plant with GK Emese.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2022-05-14
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy12051185
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 12, Pages 1186: Tillage, Water and Nitrogen Management
           Strategies Influence the Water Footprint, Nutrient Use Efficiency,
           Productivity and Profitability of Rice in Typic Ustochrept Soil

    • Authors: Saurabh Tyagi, Rama Krishna Naresh, Rajan Bhatt, M. Sharath Chandra, Abdullah A. Alrajhi, Ahmed Z. Dewidar, Mohamed A. Mattar
      First page: 1186
      Abstract: The current study was conducted to assess how optimal tillage water and nitrogen management system are adopted to reduce various field inputs, to improve water footprint (WF), nutrient use efficiency (NUE), rice productivity and profitability. The W1 (CS to a depth of 5 cm) achieved significantly higher total water footprint (TWFP) compared to all other irrigation strategies. When N1 (control) and N2 (80 kg N ha−1) was used, the highest TWFP was observed. The rice transplanted on wide raised beds (WBed-TPR) (0.71 kg m−3) yielded the greatest water productivity (WPIRRI), followed by reduced tillage transplanted rice (RT-TPR) and conventional tillage puddled transplanted rice (CT-TPR). The physiological NUE values ranged from 33.3 to 50.6 kg grain/kg N absorption, the values decreasing as the N doses rose. According to the findings, WBed-TPR and RT-TPR plots similarly drank more moisture from the deeper profile layer than CT-TPR practice. In plots of CT-TPR and WBed-TPR, the yield contributing characteristics of rice all increased, while grain yield increased by 16.8% and 10.6% over NBed-TPR technique, respectively. Finally, CT-TPR reported with maximum cultivation costs, followed by NBed-TPR and the lowest in RT-TPR plots, although WBed-TPR had the highest net profit, B: C ratio.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2022-05-14
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy12051186
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 12, Pages 1187: Ridge-Furrow Mulching Enhances Capture and
           Utilization of Rainfall for Improved Maize Production under Rain-Fed
           Conditions

    • Authors: Muhammad Mansoor Javaid, Hussah I. M. AlGwaiz, Hasnain Waheed, Muhammad Ashraf, Athar Mahmood, Feng-Min Li, Kotb A. Attia, Muhammad Ather Nadeem, Muneera D. F. AlKahtani, Sajid Fiaz, Muhammad Nadeem, Hafiz Bashir Ahmad
      First page: 1187
      Abstract: The capture and utilization of rainwater by crops under various mulching conditions have great importance in agriculture production systems, especially in dry-prone regions. Understanding the effect of mulching on rainwater use efficiency growth and yield of a crop is very important. For this purpose, field experiments were conducted in 2017 and 2018 to evaluate the potential of ridge-furrow mulching on maize growth and development under rain-fed conditions. The field study compared four treatments, i.e., ridge-furrow without mulch (WM), black plastic mulch (BM), transparent plastic mulch (TM) and grass mulch (GM). The BM treatment consistently increased the soil moisture and temperature, resulting in earlier emergence, as well as increased plant height and plant biomass, compared to the WM treatment. Compared to WM, the two-years mean yield of maize with BM, TM and GM were recorded to be increased by 33.6%, 28.1% and 10.8%, respectively. The BM produced a maximal crop growth rate at 90 days after sowing (DAS) as specified by a greater leaf area index. Transpiration rate and leaf stomatal conductance were significantly higher with BM and TM than with WM, however, the BM treatment showed the highest net photosynthetic rate in both years. Net income for the BM treatment was the highest (USD 1226 ha−1) of all the treatments and USD 335 ha−1 greater than WM. As growth, yield and net income of maize were improved with BM, therefore this treatment was found to be the most effective for maize production in rain-fed conditions. This system is evaluated at a small scale, hence to maximize its effectiveness on a large scale, a simulation design needs to be developed.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2022-05-14
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy12051187
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 12, Pages 1188: Biomass Quality Variations over Different
           Harvesting Regimes and Dynamics of Heavy Metal Change in Miscanthus
           lutarioriparius around Dongting Lake

    • Authors: Xionghui Liao, Yini Wu, Tongcheng Fu, Yasir Iqbal, Sai Yang, Meng Li, Zili Yi, Shuai Xue
      First page: 1188
      Abstract: Miscanthus lutarioriparius has a growing area of 100,000 ha and an annual biomass production of 1 Mt around Dongting Lake. However, due to serious soil pollution, there is a concern that the M. lutarioriparius biomass could have high heavy metal (HM) concentrations. This necessitates investigation of biomass quality to find the appropriate end use. Thus, this study aims to investigate the dynamics of HM elements in the M. lutarioriparius biomass and their impact on biomass quality across different growing areas and harvest times. We analyzed the HM concentrations in soil and biomass from 11 sites under different harvesting times (April, August and December). Results showed that Zn, Cd and Pb in soil samples were 1.68-, 14.15- and 1.8-fold higher, respectively, than the national standards. The heavily polluted soil caused a high HM concentration in the biomass and the accumulation increased with the delayed harvest. The fresh young shoots in April met the food limitation for Cd and Cr, whereas Pb concentration was slightly higher than the threshold limit. The mature biomass from the southern part had higher Mn, Cd and Pb, but lower Cu, Zn and Cr concentrations than that from the eastern part. These results can provide guidance for guaranteeing the consistent quality of the M. lutarioriparius biomass for bio-based industry.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2022-05-15
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy12051188
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 12, Pages 1189: Yield Stability Analysis in Maize Hybrids
           of Southwest China under Genotype by Environment Interaction Using GGE
           Biplot

    • Authors: Chaorui Liu, Chenyu Ma, Jianguo Lü, Zhilan Ye
      First page: 1189
      Abstract: Selecting superior genotypes across different environments is vital for varietal release, crop planting, and commercial use. Therefore, the objectives of this research were to appraise the performance of hybrids approved in recent years in diverse environments, and recommend high-yielding and stable genotypes for wider adaptation. Fourteen single cross maize hybrid genotypes (G), including a check, were implemented across ten environments (E) in two crop seasons (2020 and 2021). The combined analysis of variance revealed that G, E, and their interactive (GEI) significantly (p < 0.01) affected the grain yield. Moreover, the mean grain yield ranged from 9333 kg ha−1 for HH-2 (2021) to 13,195 kg ha−1 for LD-18 (2020). The “which won where” GGE biplot revealed the existence of mega environments with their own best hybrids (LD-18 and LD-29 in 2020; LD-18, LD-19, and YY-1506 in 2021). The “mean vs. stable” GGE biplot suggested that LD-18 and ZY-811, with highest/middle productive and high stability across 10 environments, were closest to the ideal genotype. Furthermore, the “discriminating power vs. representativeness” GGE biplot showed that Xuanwei, Yanshan, Gengma, and Shiling were the most the ideal test environments for hybrid selecting, based on their discriminative ability and representativeness. Therefore, the GGE biplot analysis allowed for an efficient selection of high-yielding and stable maize hybrids to guide ecological planting and commercial use.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2022-05-15
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy12051189
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 12, Pages 1190: Optimizing Irrigation and Nitrogen
           Management to Increase Yield and Nitrogen Recovery Efficiency in
           Double-Cropping Rice

    • Authors: Haijun Zhu, Ting Zhang, Chunlan Zhang, Xiaoe He, Ailong Shi, Weijian Tan, Zhenxie Yi, Xuehua Wang
      First page: 1190
      Abstract: Water and nitrogen are the key factors affecting the yield and nitrogen recovery efficiency of double-cropping rice, but information about optimizing nitrogen fertilizer and irrigation management to achieve high yield is still limited. The purpose was to study the effects of different nitrogen application rates (D1, D2, D3, D4 (0, 112.5, 150.0, and 187.5 kg ha−1 for early-season rice and 0, 135, 180, and 225 kg ha−1 for late-season rice)) and irrigation conditions (G1, Alternate wetting and drying irrigation, G2, flooding irrigation) on rice yield and nitrogen recovery efficiency. Field experiments were carried out in the early and late seasons of the subtropical environment in Heshan County, Hunan Province, China in 2018 and 2019. The results showed that the yield was increased by the comprehensive action of reasonable irrigation mode and nitrogen management. Under G1D4 and G1D3 treatments, the maximum grain yield of early-season rice was 7.42 t ha−1, which was 0.8~35.9% higher than other treatments, and that of late-season rice was 8.20 t ha−1, which was 13.3~67.0% higher than other treatments. The increase of yield in G1D4 and G1D3 treatments was due to the increase in dry matter accumulation, effective Panicles number, and Spikelets per panicle, whose increase was due to an increase in photosynthesis and nitrate reductase activity. Compared with other treatments, late-season rice G1D3 treatment achieved a higher yield with less nitrogen fertilizer, while early-season rice G1D4 treatment achieved the highest yield, but the nitrogen recovery efficiency decreased. We should focus on more effective nitrogen fertilizer and irrigation management to further improve the yield potential of double-cropping rice.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2022-05-16
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy12051190
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 12, Pages 1191: Long-Term Optimal Management of Rapeseed
           Cultivation Simulated with the CROPGRO-Canola Model

    • Authors: Chunmeng Wang, Mancan Xu, Yuchen Wang, William D. Batchelor, Jian Zhang, Jie Kuai, Lin Ling
      First page: 1191
      Abstract: Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is an important oilseed crop grown worldwide with a planting area of 6.57 million ha in China, which accounts for about 20% of the world’s total rapeseed planting area. However, in recent years, the planting area in China has decreased by approximately 12.2% due to the low yield and economic benefits. Thus, to ensure oil security, it is necessary to develop high-efficiency cultivation for rapeseed production. Crop growth models are powerful tools to analyze and optimize the yield composition of crops under certain environmental and management conditions. In this study, the CROPGRO-Canola model was first calibrated and evaluated using the rapeseed planting data of four growing seasons in Wuhan with nine nitrogen fertilizer levels (from 120 to 360 kg ha−1) and five planting densities (from 15 to 75 plants m−2). The results indicated that the CROPGRO-Canola model simulated rapeseed growth well under different nitrogen rates and planting densities in China, with a simulation error of 0–3 days for the anthesis and maturity dates and a normalized root mean square error lower than 7.48% for the yield. Furthermore, we optimized the management of rapeseed by calculating the marginal net return under 10 nitrogen rates (from 0 to 360 kg ha−1 at an increasing rate of 40 kg ha−1) and 6 planting densities (from 15 to 90 plant m−2 at an increasing rate of 15 plant m−2) from 1989 to 2019. The results indicated that the long-term optimal nitrogen rate was 120–160 kg N ha−1, and the optimal planting density was 45–75 plants m−2 under normal fertilizer prices. The optimal nitrogen rate decreased with increasing fertilizer price within a reasonable range. In conclusion, long-term rapeseed management can be optimized based on rapeseed and nitrogen cost using long-term weather records and local soil information.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2022-05-15
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy12051191
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 12, Pages 1192: Defining Suitable Reference Genes for
           qRT-PCR in Plagiodera versicolora (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) under
           Different Biotic or Abiotic Conditions

    • Authors: Chengjie Tu, Pei Xu, Runhua Han, Jing Luo, Letian Xu
      First page: 1192
      Abstract: Plagiodera versicolora (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is one of the most destructive pests of the Salicaceae worldwide, which has established complex interactions with surrounding organisms. Uncovering the molecular mechanisms of some antagonistic interactions would facilitate the development of environmentally friendly pest insect management strategies. Suitable reference genes are essential for reliable qPCR and gene expression analysis in molecular studies; however, a comprehensive assessment of reference genes in P. versicolora is still lacking. In this study, the stability of seven housekeeping genes (including Actin, EF1A, α-tubulin, RPL13a, RPS18, RPL8 and UBC) was investigated under both biotic (developmental stages, tissues, sex and pathogen treatment) and abiotic (RNA interference treatment, temperature treatment) conditions. The geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, and ΔCt programs were used to analyze gene expression data. The RefFinder synthesis analysis was applied to suggest a handful of appropriate reference genes for each experimental condition. RPS18 and EF1A were the most reliable reference genes in different development stages; RPS18 and RPL8 were most stable in female and male adults, different tissues, different temperatures, and pathogen treatment; α-tubulin and RPL13a were most stable after dietary RNAi treatment. The research provides a strong basis for future research into the molecular biology of P. versicolora.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2022-05-15
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy12051192
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 12, Pages 1193: Effects of Salinity-Stress on Seed
           Germination and Growth Physiology of Quinclorac-Resistant Echinochloa
           crus-galli (L.) Beauv

    • Authors: Lamei Wu, Haona Yang, Zuren Li, Lifeng Wang, Qiong Peng
      First page: 1193
      Abstract: With the expansion of saline-alkaline tolerant rice in China, the effects of salinity stress (NaCl) on quinclorac-resistant Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Beauv (E. crus-galli) is unclear. In this study, the growth chamber experiment was conducted to test the germination and growth physiology of seven populations of E. crus-galli with quinclorac-different resistance levels which were collected from Hunan province. The results showed that a significant decrease of the germination rate and fresh weight of the plants, as well as the length of the roots and young shoots appeared, along with the increased resistance while treated with NaCl. However, no significant differences were detected between quinclorac-resistant and -susceptible E. crus-galli populations while without NaCl treatment. A further study with spectrophotometer showed that the salinity treatment resulted in the increase of the GST activity in all E. crus-galli populations, which are more obvious in those resistant biotypes, and transcriptomics revealed that salt stress reduces the adaptability of quinclorac-resistant E. crus-galli by reducing the biosynthesis, activities of antioxidant enzymes and metabolic enzyme. This study demonstrated that salinity stress (NaCl) may reduce the adaptability of quinclorac-resistant E. crus-galli.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2022-05-15
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy12051193
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 12, Pages 1194: Unraveling the Genetic Architecture for Low
           Temperature Germinability-Related Traits in Rice Using Genome-Wide
           Association Study

    • Authors: Caijing Li, Baoli Zou, Changsheng Lu, Guiting Song, Qiang Gao, Peng Wang, Guangliang Wu, Wei Jin, Hui Yin, Qin Cheng, Yanning Wang, Qi Zhong, Shiying Huang, Mengmeng Yang, Tao Huang, Haohua He, Jianmin Bian
      First page: 1194
      Abstract: Rice is frequently affected by cold weather at high altitudes in temperate and subtropical regions. With the popularity of direct seeding, a better understanding of the genetic mechanisms regulating cold tolerance will enable breeders to develop varieties with strong low temperature germinability (LTG). In this study, six indices including low temperature germination percentage (LTGP), relative germination percentage (RGP), relative plumule length (RPL), plumule length after 6-day recovery (PLR), plumule length recovery rate (PLRR) and recovery ability of plumule length after cold stress (RAPL) were measured to assess LTG, and carried out a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify QTL and candidate genes related to LTG by using a natural population comprising 211 rice accessions. A total of 18 QTL including two for LTGP, three for RGP, five for PLR, four for PLRR, two for RPL and two for RAPL were uncovered on 12 chromosome regions located in chromosome 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 9, 10 and 12. On chromosome 2, qLTGP2 and qRGP2 were co-localized at 3.3 Mb, and qPLR2 and qPLRR2 were co-localized at 5.5 Mb; qLTGP5, qPLR5 and qPLR5 were co-localized at 27.8 Mb on chromosome 5; qPLR6 and qPLRR6 were co-localized at 5.7 Mb on chromosome 6; and qPLR12 and qPLRR12 were co-localized at 23.5 Mb on chromosome 12. These results indicated that some LTG-related traits may share the same genetic pathway. For the 18 LTG-related QTL, seven QTL (qLTGP2, qRGP2, qPLR2, qPLRR2, qLTGP5, qPLR5 and qPLR5) were reported for the first time. According to candidate gene analysis, fourteen genes from five QTL (qLTGP2, qPLR2, qLTGP5, qRAPL10 and qPLR12) were considered as candidate genes and will be further functionally validated in subsequent experiments. QTL with superior candidate genes identified in this study will be useful in improving cold tolerance in rice cultivars. The rice varieties with strong LTG identified in this study will enrich the resources of rice cultivation project.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2022-05-16
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy12051194
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 12, Pages 1195: Canopy Segmentation Method for Determining
           the Spray Deposition Rate in Orchards

    • Authors: Shilin Wang, Wei Wang, Xiaohui Lei, Shuangshuang Wang, Xue Li, Tomas Norton
      First page: 1195
      Abstract: The effective quantification of deposition rate is of vital importance in optimizing the application performance and the utilization of pesticides; meanwhile, the canopies of fruit tree orchards are large, with dense branches and leaves shading each other, making it difficult to quantify spraying efficiency. Therefore, it is imperative to develop a facile methodology for assessing the performance of different spraying techniques in terms of distribution and utilization rate in orchards. To evaluate spraying efficacy in orchards, a canopy segmentation method was developed in to be able to determine the spray deposition rate. The distribution and deposition rate of spray liquid applied using three kinds of orchard sprayer were measured in a pear orchard and a peach orchard. The test results showed that the trailer sprayer had the highest deposition rates, with values of 31.54% and 56.92% on peach and pear trees, respectively. The deposition rates of the mounted sprayer in the peach and pear canopies were 21.75% and 40.61%, and the rates of the hand-held sprayer were 25.19% and 29.97%, respectively. The spray gun had the best droplet distribution uniformity, with CVs of the spray in the peach and pear canopies of 20.54% and 25.06%, respectively. The CVs in the peach and pear canopies were 35.98% and 26.54% for the trailer sprayer, and the CVs of the mounted sprayer were 92.52% and 94.90%, respectively. The canopy segmentation method could effectively be used to calculate the deposition rate and drioplet distribution in orchard application, while a great deal of time was consumed by counting the number of leaves in the different areas of the fruit tree canopies. Therefore, research on the density of branches and leaves in fruit tree canopies should be carried out in order to improve the efficiency of fruit tree canopy information extraction.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2022-05-16
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy12051195
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 12, Pages 1196: Fecundity Allocation in Some European Weed
           Species Competing with Crops

    • Authors: Zahra Bitarafan, Christian Andreasen
      First page: 1196
      Abstract: Seed production is an important element of weed population dynamics, and weed persistence relies upon the soil seed bank. In 2017 and 2018, we studied the relationship between the aboveground dry biomass of common weed species and their seed production. Weeds were selected randomly in the fields, and we surrounded the plants with a porous net to collect shed seeds during the growth season. Just before crop harvest, weeds were harvested, the plants’ dry weights were measured, and the number of seeds retained on the weeds was counted. A linear relationship between the biomass and the number of seeds produced was estimated. This relationship was not affected by year for Avena spica-venti, Chenopodium album, Galium aparine, or Persicaria maculosa. Therefore, the data of the two seasons were pooled and analysed together. For Alopecurus myosuroides, Anagallis arvensis, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Geranium molle, Polygonum aviculare, Silene noctiflora, Sonchus arvensis, Veronica persica, and Viola arvensis, the relationship varied significantly between the years. In 2017, the growing season was cold and wet, and the slope of the regression lines was less steep than in the dry season in 2018 for most species. Capsella bursa-pastoris was the most prolific seed producer with the steepest slope.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2022-05-16
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy12051196
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 12, Pages 1197: Assessment of Soil Contamination Using GIS
           and Multi-Variate Analysis: A Case Study in El-Minia Governorate, Egypt

    • Authors: Amr A. Hammam, Wagih S. Mohamed, Safa Essam-Eldeen Sayed, Dmitry E. Kucher, Elsayed Said Mohamed
      First page: 1197
      Abstract: The issue of soil contamination is one of the most important subjects that interests decision-makers all over the world. It is also related to soil fertility and food security. The soils adjacent to the drains in Egypt suffer from increasing concentration of heavy metals, which negatively affects soil and crop quality. Precise spatial distribution maps of heavy metals are an essential key to mitigating the negative impacts on the ecosystem. Sixty random soil locations adjacent to the El-Moheet drainage were chosen on the west side of the Nile River, El-Minia governorate, Egypt. Six heavy metals (Cr, Co, Cu, Cd, Pb, and Zn) were selected to generate their spatial pattern maps using ordinary Kriging (OK). Principal component analysis (PCA) and contamination factors (CF) were applied to evaluate soil contamination levels in the study area. The results showed that the Gaussiang model was a high fit for soil pH, and Pb, the Exponential model was fit for EC, Stable model was fit for OC, Co, Cu, and Cd. In addition, the Spherical model was fit for both Cr and Zn. The MSE values were close to zero in all selected metals, while the values of RMSSE were close to one. The results showed that the soil heavy metal concentrations were grouped into two clusters using PCA. Furthermore, three contamination degrees were obtained (moderate, considerable, and very high), with about 70.7% of the study area characterized by considerable heavy metals concentration, where the average heavy metals concentration (mg kg−1) in this degree was 91.23 ± 19.5, 29.44 ± 5.2, 53.83 ± 10.2, 1.12 ± 0.3, 36.04 ± 18.0, and 101.29 ± 35 for Cr, Co, Cu, Cd, Pb, and Zn, respectively. The current results reflect the mismanagement and use of low-quality water for irrigation in the study area, which increased the toxic element concentration in soil surface layers. In the end, the results of spatial distribution maps of pollutants and their degrees could support decision-makers as a basis for developing appropriate mitigation plans for heavy metals.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2022-05-16
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy12051197
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 12, Pages 1198: Herbicide Tolerance Options for Weed
           Control in Lanza® Tedera

    • Authors: Daniel Real, Harmohinder S. Dhammu, John Moore, David Clegg, Andrew van Burgel
      First page: 1198
      Abstract: Tedera is a drought-tolerant perennial forage legume introduced in Australia in 2006. In October 2018, T15-1218 Lanza®, the world’s first tedera variety, was released by the Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development and Meat & Livestock Australia for commercial use. A key agronomic practise for the successful establishment and adoption of tedera is to have a robust herbicide package to control a range of grass and broadleaf weeds well tolerated by tedera. A total of 9 pre-emergent and 44 post-emergent herbicide treatments were evaluated in eight experiments from 2017 to 2021. To control grasses such as annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum Gaud.), propyzamide and carbetamide can be recommended for pre- or post-emergent applications and butroxydim, clethodim, and haloxyfop for post-emergent applications. The broadleaf pre-emergent herbicides recommended are clopyralid to control emerged capeweed (Arctotheca calendula (L.) Levyns), fomesafen to control pre-emergent wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum L.), and the double mix of fomesafen + diuron, flumetsulam + diuron, and the triple mix of fomesafen + diuron + flumetsulam to control pre-emergent capeweed, pre- and post-emergent wild radish, and other broadleaf weeds. The most consistently well tolerated post-emergent herbicides by tedera seedlings and adult plants were diflufenican, diuron, flumetsulam, fomesafen, and their two- or three-way mixes that will provide good control of capeweed and wild radish. Desiccants such as paraquat or diquat were also well tolerated by 1-year-old tedera plants that recovered after being desiccated.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2022-05-16
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy12051198
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 12, Pages 1199: Effects of Agricultural Management
           Practices on the Temporal Variability of Soil Temperature under Different
           Crop Rotations in Bad Lauchstaedt-Germany

    • Authors: Mahboube Jarrah, Sonia Mayel, Uwe Franko, Katrin Kuka
      First page: 1199
      Abstract: To investigate the effects of management practices on the dynamics of soil temperature, during 2014–2017, a field experiment was carried out in Bad Lauchstaedt, Germany. In this study, four management systems are compared for determining management-induced changes in soil temperature at different depths: (i) conventional tillage (TC) with the standard rate of N fertilizer (P1N1), (ii) conventional tillage with the half-standard rate of N fertilizer (P1N0), (iii) reduced tillage (TR) with the standard rate of N fertilizer (P0N1), and iv) reduced tillage with the half-standard rate of N fertilizer (P0N0). Temporal analysis of soil temperature is assessed to examine data observed at a specific time to achieve a better understanding of the soil temperature dynamic that occurs at different time scales. The results showed that the soil temperature has decreasing amplitudes and increasing phase shifts with increasing soil depth, i.e., the deeper the measurement depth, the smoother the soil temperature changes cycle and the smaller the variability. Results showed that the diurnal temperature variation is found up to 45 cm depth of soil whereas annual temperature variation is up to a depth of 180 cm. The results, moreover, revealed that soil temperature dynamic was affected by tillage systems and fertilization and a time lag is observed between the temperature fluctuations at the surface and deeper layers, due to induced management effects on plant cover, residues, and soil properties. Although higher soil temperature at the sowing stage under TR is contributed to higher amounts of surface crop residues in crop rotations, the effect of residues on soil temperature variation reduces with an increase in percent plant cover and shading of soil, which happens in the last stage of plant growth. At the last stage of crop development regardless of tillage systems, applying more N fertilization increased crop yield, resulting in cooling soil temperature.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2022-05-16
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy12051199
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 12, Pages 1200: Effect of Mepiquat Chloride on Phenology,
           Yield and Quality of Cotton as a Function of Application Time Using
           Different Sowing Techniques

    • Authors: Khadija Murtza, Muhammad Ishfaq, Nadeem Akbar, Saddam Hussain, Shakeel Ahmad Anjum, Najat A. Bukhari, Amal Mohamed AlGarawi, Ashraf Atef Hatamleh
      First page: 1200
      Abstract: Mepiquat chloride (MC) is a plant growth regulator used to manage the rampant vegetative growth of cotton. A two-year field experiment was conducted at the Postgraduate Agricultural Research Station, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan, during 2017 and 2018 to investigate the influence of MC applied at different times on phenology, morphology, lint yield and quality of cotton cultivated using different sowing techniques. MC was applied 50 days after sowing (DAS), 60 DAS and 70 DAS to cotton planted in flat fields (flat sowing), ridges (ridge sowing) and beds (bed sowing). The interactive effect of MC application time and sowing technique did not influence crop phenology, morphology, and lint yield and quality. It was revealed that the crop planted on beds took fewer days to flower (10%) as compared to that on the flat field, and the bed-sown crop produced a higher number of opened bolls (60%) and was characterized by a higher boll weight (32%) and seed cotton yield (50%) in comparison to the flat-sown crop. A late application of MC (at 70 DAS) caused a significant reduction in the time to flowering (8%), with a simultaneous increase in the number of opened bolls (60%), boll weight (32%), ginning out turn (8%) and lint yield (27%) as compared to MC application at 50 DAS. In terms of lint quality, cotton planted on beds had better fiber uniformity (8%) compared to that on the flat field, while MC applied at 70 DAS produced better fiber fineness by 27% in comparison to MC applied earlier. Overall, cotton planting on beds and MC application at 70 DAS may help improve cotton yield and fiber quality and may help in the mechanical picking of cotton.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2022-05-17
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy12051200
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 12, Pages 1201: Temporal and Spatial Dynamics of Carbon
           Storage in Qinghai Grasslands

    • Authors: Xiaotao Huang, Buqing Yao, Xiang Liu, Chunbo Chen
      First page: 1201
      Abstract: Accurate quantification of ecosystem carbon storage dynamics is very important in regional ecological management. However, the dynamics of grassland carbon storage in Qinghai, China, are still unexplored. We investigated the temporal and spatial dynamics of carbon storage in the Qinghai grasslands from 1979 to 2018, using the spatially explicit Biome-BGCMuSo model. The average annual value of vegetation carbon density (VCD) was 52.71 gC·m−2. After 2000, VCD showed an overall increasing trend, with an average rate of 2.14 gC·m−2. The VCD was relatively high in the eastern and southeastern regions of Qinghai compared with that in the western and central areas. The increasing trend in VCD was mainly observed in the eastern and southeastern regions, while a decreasing trend was evident in western and central Qinghai. Annual soil organic carbon density (SOCD) in Qinghai grasslands generally increased from 1979 to 2018. After 2001, the SOCD increased by an average rate of 7.07 gC·m−2. The SOCD was relatively high in eastern and southeastern Qinghai compared with that in western and central Qinghai. The pronounced increasing trend of SOCD was mainly distributed in the southeast and northeast parts of Qinghai, while the decreasing trend was mainly distributed in the area between southeast and northeast Qinghai, and in the central and western regions. This study deepened our understanding of carbon dynamics in the Qinghai grasslands and provided data for guiding the ecological restoration and carbon management of local grasslands.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2022-05-17
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy12051201
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 12, Pages 1202: Seed Coating with Triflumezopyrim Induces
           the Rice Plant’s Defense and Inhibits the Brown Planthopper’s
           Feeding Behavior

    • Authors: Chanyuan Xi, Sheraz Ahmad, Julong Yu, Jieyu Zhang, Yu Chen, Guo Zhang, Haowen Zhu, Linquan Ge, Xiangyang Yu, Zhaolin Shu
      First page: 1202
      Abstract: Triflumezopyrim (TFM), a novel mesoionic insecticide, has been effective in controlling sucking insect pests such as the brown planthopper (BPH). However, the mechanism of TFM as a seed coating agent in paddy fields remains unclear. Here, we investigate the seed germination rates (>80%) and seedling emergence rates (>85%) of rice treated with TFM at 0, 22.5, 45.0, 67.5, and 90.0 g a.i. ha−1 with no significant effect on germination rates. In addition, the low TFM residue concentration (0.04 mg. kg−1) is maintained in the rice stem. Meanwhile, the TFM seeds’ treatments lead to increased oxalic acid, flavonoids, total phenol, callose contents, and elevated C/N ratio in rice plants at 60 and 90 days after sowing (DAS). The electrical penetration graph (EPG) results indicate that TFM as a seed coating treatment prolongs the non-probing period and inhibits phloem sap ingestion at 90 DAS. Furthermore, the mechanically transplanted rice treated with TFM provides long-term prevention against the BPH infestation. This study demonstrates that seeds treated with TFM play a vital role in controlling the BPH population up to >90%. These results provide a novel valuable control strategy for BPH in the rice fields.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2022-05-17
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy12051202
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 12, Pages 1203: Changes in Photosynthetic Characteristics
           of Paeonia suffruticosa under High Temperature Stress

    • Authors: Wen Ji, Haiyan Luo, Yuqin Song, Erman Hong, Zhijun Li, Bangyu Lin, Chenwei Fan, Huasen Wang, Xinzhang Song, Songheng Jin, Xia Chen, Xiangtao Zhu
      First page: 1203
      Abstract: This study explored the changes in the photosynthetic characteristics of the Fengdan peony under high-temperature stress to provide a reference for understanding the tolerance of peony plants under heat stress. In this study, the effects of high-temperature stress (40 °C) on the photosynthetic characteristics of the Fengdan leaves were studied. At 25 °C, the net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), and transpiration rate (Tr) of the leaves decreased gradually with the increase in heat stress time, and intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) decreased first and then increased. High-temperature stress reduced the light energy absorption (ABS/RC) and capture (TRO/RC), light energy for electron transport (ETO/RC), and heat dissipation (DIO/RC) per unit leaf area. The maximum photochemical efficiency (FV/FM), leaf photochemical performance index (PIabs), the probability that captured excitons can transfer electrons to other electron acceptors in the electron transport chain beyond QA (ψO), and the quantum yield for electron transport (φEo), decreased gradually. The results showed that high temperatures damaged the photosynthetic capacity of the peony leaves and destroyed the photosynthetic apparatus of leaves. This study provides a reference for understanding the photosynthetic characteristics and tolerance of peony plants under heat stress.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2022-05-17
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy12051203
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 12, Pages 1204: Eucalyptus Field Growth and Colonization of
           Clones Pre-Inoculated with Ectomycorrhizal Fungi

    • Authors: Lidiomar Soares da Costa, Paulo Henrique Grazziotti, Arley José Fonseca, Débora Cíntia dos Santos Avelar, Márcio José Rossi, Enilson de Barros Silva, Eliane Cristine Soares da Costa, Danielle Cristina Fonseca Santos Grazziotti, Carla Ragonezi
      First page: 1204
      Abstract: Ectomycorrhizae are classified as biotechnology to increase the sustainability of planted forests, and fieldwork is needed to confirm its effectiveness. The growth of rooted cuttings of Eucalyptus clones GG100 and GG680, which had been previously inoculated in the nursery with ectomycorrhizal fungi, was evaluated after planting them in the field. The ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF) inoculated were: Pisolithus microcarpus, Hysterangium gardneri, or Scleroderma areolatum. Uninoculated rooted cuttings were used as controls. The inoculated treatments and the uninoculated controls (low P control) were grown in a nursery with reduced phosphate fertilization. Additionally, uninoculated controls were grown on a substrate with complete phosphate nursery fertilization (high P control). After two months, the plant height of clone GG100 inoculated with P. microcarpus was 16% taller and of clone GG680 13% higher than the low P control treatment. At the same time, the collar diameter of the plants inoculated with H. gardneri and P. microcarpus was the same as in the high P control. At 12 months, the growth of the inoculated and low P control plants was the same as in the high P control. For ectomycorrhizal colonization, after six months, the mean percentage of colonized root tips was highest in plants inoculated with S. areolatum, followed by those inoculated with P. microcarpus and of the low P control. After one year, ECM colonization was equal in all treatments and 4.3 times greater than it was at 6 months. Inoculation with ECM fungi in the nursery boosts early plant growth after transfer to the field, although the effect depends on the specific ectomycorrhizal fungus and the clone. Further ectomycorrhizal colonization of Eucalyptus occurs naturally and increases with tree development in the field.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2022-05-17
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy12051204
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 12, Pages 1205: Genetic Improvement of Heat Stress
           Tolerance in Cereal Crops

    • Authors: Camilla Beate Hill, Chengdao Li
      First page: 1205
      Abstract: Crop heat stress is a threat to food supply, with heatwaves expected to increase in frequency and intensity globally. In addition to yield loss, heat stress dramatically reduces fertility and seed-setting rate, grain quality and weight, and seed germination and growth. Genetic variability for heat stress tolerance can be used in breeding programs to develop tolerant genotypes. The availability of genome assemblies with high-confidence sequences for many cereal crops, including rice, maize, wheat and barley, now allows the identification of heat stress tolerance-associated genes and gene networks. This review focuses on synthesizing current advances in understanding the detrimental effects of heat stress on cereal crop production at the physiological and genetic levels. It provides an account of available genomic resources, genetic variation, candidate genes, and molecular markers for heat stress tolerance. Lastly, this review offers insight into crop genetic improvement for heat stress tolerance, including germplasm screening in glasshouse and field trials, marker-assisted selection, mapping genomic loci and identification of candidate genes, and genomic-assisted breeding.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2022-05-17
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy12051205
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 12, Pages 1206: Physiological Fitness Associated to ACCase
           Target-Site Resistance Enhances Growth and Reproduction in Phalaris
           brachystachys

    • Authors: Sajedeh Golmohammadzadeh, Javid Gherekhloo, María Dolores Osuna, Farshid Ghaderi-Far, Behnam Kamkar, Ricardo Alcántara-de la Cruz, Rafael De Prado
      First page: 1206
      Abstract: Short-spike canarygrass (Phalaris brachystachys (Link.)) from Iranian wheat fields has developed resistance to acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase) inhibitors due to a target-site mutation (Ile-1781-Thr). Target-site resistance mutations may confer pleiotropic effects in weeds. In this paper, the possible effect of the Ile-1781-Thr mutation on the ecological fitness during life cycles in P. brachystachys plants was investigated. ACCase genes of P. brachystachys populations resistant (R) and susceptible (S) to ACCase inhibitors were sequenced and the vegetative growth and reproductive characteristics of the plants were assessed. In the final growth stage (217 days after planting—DAP), R sub-population plants were 30 cm taller than the S plants. Additionally, the R sub-population produced up to 12 leaves and 2.8 tillers more per plant, and accumulated double the dry weight (2850 g m−2) compared to the S sub-population. The leaf area index (LAI) of the R sub-population was 1.1 times higher than that of the S sub-population. In addition, the net assimilation rate (NAR) and plant growth rate (PGR) between 114 and 182 DAP of the R sub-population were 0.11 and 13 g m−2 d−1 higher than the S sub-population, but the relative growth rate (RGR) was similar between R and S sub-populations. The number of spikes (6 vs. 3.8), the spike length (8.4 vs. 5.5), and number of seeds per plant (1276 vs. 751 seed plant−1) of the R sub-population were higher than the S ones, but the weight (3.25 g) and size (11.6 mm2) of 1000 seeds were similar between populations. The R sub-population of P. brachystachys exhibited higher plant growth and reproductive parameters than the S one, which may increase the frequency of resistance in the population in the absence of adequate weed-control methods.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2022-05-17
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy12051206
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 12, Pages 1207: Spatial and In-Depth Distribution of Soil
           Salinity and Heavy Metals (Pb, Zn, Cd, Ni, Cu) in Arable Irrigated Soils
           in Southern Kazakhstan

    • Authors: Małgorzata Suska-Malawska, Assem Vyrakhamanova, Marya Ibraeva, Maksat Poshanov, Marcin Sulwiński, Kristina Toderich, Monika Mętrak
      First page: 1207
      Abstract: Most irrigated lands in the Republic of Kazakhstan are in its southern part, in the large deltas and ancient alluvial plains in the basins of the rivers Syr Darya and Ili. The combination of climatic features and anthropogenic pressures leads to increased salinity and contamination of cultivated soils in this region, resulting in a qualitative and quantitative decline in crop production. The study’s primary goal was to assess soil secondary salinity and selected heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cd, Ni and Cu) contamination in irrigated arable soils. To identify the potential source of soil pollution, we compared the concentration of salt and heavy metals (both total and mobile forms) in different soil types in three depths of soil profiles obtained from irrigated cultivated and non-cultivated (abounded) territory in the Shauldara massif in the southern part of Kazakhstan. All studied soils are prone to secondary salinization with either a medium or high content of sum of salts with domination by Na+ among cations and by SO42− among anions. The soil contamination with heavy metals was low, and, in most cases, except for cadmium, it was below the limits developed for arable soils in most countries. Soil contamination with cadmium results from contamination of the water used for irrigation of farmland.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2022-05-17
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy12051207
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 12, Pages 1208: Barley Straw Combined with Urea and
           Controlled-Release Nitrogen Fertilizer Improves Lint Yield and Nitrogen
           Utilization of Field-Seeded Cotton

    • Authors: Changqin Yang, Jianan Li, Guowei Zhang, Hongmei Shu, Xiaojing Wang, Wei Hu, Ruixian Liu
      First page: 1208
      Abstract: Straw returning is an important method of improving soil fertility and reducing environmental pollution. Controlled-release nitrogen fertilizer (CRN) is regarded as an effective way to reduce nitrogen (N) loss and increase N-use efficiency and crop yield. In order to determine the combined effects of straw management (straw removal and straw returning) and N-fertilization strategy (CK (no N), urea, CRN, and a mixture of urea and CRN (UC)) on lint yield, N utilization, and soil properties at harvest of field-seeded cotton, field experiments were conducted from 2018 to 2019. The results demonstrated that the lint yield was the highest with a combination of straw returning and UC, increasing by 4.2–46.9% over other combinations. Straw returning combined with UC facilitated biomass-accumulation and N-uptake from squaring to the boll-opening growth stage, contributing to higher N-agronomic-use efficiency and apparent recovery-use efficiency. Moreover, regardless of the straw management, CRN or UC treatment increased the soil microbial N content and sucrase activity at harvest compared to urea or CK treatment. In summary, straw returning combined with UC was beneficial to the lint yield, N utilization, and soil N availability, which might be an optimizing strategy for field-seeded cotton.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2022-05-18
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy12051208
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 12, Pages 1209: Spatiotemporal Patterns of Multiscale
           Drought and Its Impact on Winter Wheat Yield over North China Plain

    • Authors: Jiujiang Wu, Gang Cheng, Nan Wang, Hongzheng Shen, Xiaoyi Ma
      First page: 1209
      Abstract: Drought has a significant impact on agricultural production, but the evolution of drought in the North China Plain (NCP) and its impact on winter wheat yield remain unclear. In this paper, we used the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) and combined with the Standardized Yield Residual Series (SYRS) and the Vegetation Condition Index (VCI) to study the spatiotemporal distribution of drought at different time scales and its impact on winter wheat yield. We found that: (1) The southern NCP was dominated by mild drought at the 1-month scale. In the northern NCP, mild drought was observed at the short-time scale and moderate drought at the medium- and long-time scales; (2) the frequency of mild drought was high and the frequency of moderate drought was a step lower. Moreover, drought risks were increasing in the north-central, eastern, and northeastern NCP, while the southern, west-central, southeastern, and northwestern NCP were becoming wetter (at the 6- and 9-month scales); (3) the maximum correlation coefficients were concentrated in the seedling to the greening stages. (4) Drought affected winter wheat with a lag of approximately 3 months, and the VCI was the most sensitive to the short-term SPEI.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2022-05-18
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy12051209
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 12, Pages 1210: Wool Pellets Are a Viable Alternative to
           Commercial Fertilizer for Organic Vegetable Production

    • Authors: Terence Bradshaw, Kimberley Hagen
      First page: 1210
      Abstract: The maintenance of optimum mineral nutrient fertility is a limiting factor in organic vegetable systems, with many growers resorting to applications of off-farm commercial fertilizer inputs. In this study, pelleted sheep’s wool was compared against a standard commercial fertilizer product for effects on productivity and plant growth in spinach and tomato. Two rates of wool pellets were applied; one was standardized to the nitrogen inputs of the ‘grower standard’ commercial treatment, and a second higher rate which was suggested by the pellet manufacturer with about 2.5 times the nitrogen content. Overall, few differences were observed among the fertilized treatments. Crop yield for both tomato and spinach generally increased with increasing fertility application, with no differences between commercial and wool pellet fertilizers applied at the same rate of nitrogen. The uptake of mineral nutrients in spinach plant tissues differed for K, Mg, P, S, B, and Ca, but there was no general trend that could be attributed to a particular treatment. Tomato fruit quality was the same for all treatments, but non-fertilized fruit had lower total polyphenols than the highest-fertility treatment. Overall, wool pellets performed very similarly to commercial organic fertilizer for both crops and could be a promising alternative that may open up opportunities for greater integration of plant and animal systems on diversified farms.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2022-05-18
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy12051210
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 12, Pages 1211: Improvements in Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.)
           Varieties and Parent Traceability Analysis in Yunnan, China

    • Authors: Yong Zhao, Fenggang Zan, Jun Deng, Peifang Zhao, Jun Zhao, Caiwen Wu, Jiayong Liu, Yuebin Zhang
      First page: 1211
      Abstract: Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) breeding in China has a history of nearly 70 years. Yunnan province represents the second largest sugarcane planting area in China; therefore, by studying the evolution of sugarcane varieties in this region, it is possible to gain an understanding of the process of improvement since the foundation of sugarcane hybrid breeding. In this study, we compared the main industrial and agronomical characteristics of 107 sugarcane varieties, developed between 1952 and 2020, and discussed the reasons for replacement and exchange. Overall, significant differences were observed (p < 0.01), highlighting notable improvements, especially in terms of yield; however, disease incidence remains a serious issue and the fundamental reason for variety replacement. Meanwhile, analysis of parent traceability revealed that the main varieties cultivated at present have a similar parental relationship based around CP, F, and YC series germplasms. Taken together, these findings suggest that disease-resistant breeding should be strengthened, and susceptible varieties eliminated, while making full use of existing varieties as core parents.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2022-05-18
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy12051211
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 12, Pages 1212: A Technological Approach to Support
           Extensive Livestock Management in the Portuguese Montado Ecosystem

    • Authors: João Serrano, Luís Roma, Shakib Shahidian, Anabela D. F. Belo, Emanuel Carreira, Luís L. Paniagua, Francisco Moral, Luís Paixão, José Marques da Silva
      First page: 1212
      Abstract: Extensive livestock production systems based on improved pastures under Montado of Holm oaks represent an approach in line with the challenges of sustainability and biodiversity. The increasing incorporation of technologies in the monitoring of this ecosystem allows for a better knowledge of the spatial and temporal variability and, consequently, a more economically profitable management. In this study, between July 2020 and June 2021, soil and pastures were monitored in a 20 ha Montado area located in Alentejo (Southern Portugal) and used for extensive grazing of cattle. The survey of soil apparent electrical conductivity (ECa), the application of algorithms for definition of homogeneous management zones (HMZ), the use of indices obtained from satellite imagery time series to characterize the evolution of pasture quality and the soil and pasture sampling, including the identification of bio-indicator botanical species, were the basis of this exploratory study, allowing a holistic approach to this complex soil-pasture-trees and animals ecosystem. In the near future, this knowledge could represent an important milestone in providing decision-making support systems to farm managers in terms of smart sampling, differential application of fertilizers, amendments or seeds, choosing the best spacing and density of trees in this ecosystem, promoting dynamic grazing, or identifying the animal feed supplementation needs in the critical periods of the year.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2022-05-18
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy12051212
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 12, Pages 1213: Combined Organic and Inorganic
           Fertilization Can Enhance Dry Direct-Seeded Rice Yield by Improving Soil
           Fungal Community and Structure

    • Authors: Xiaohong Guo, Jiajun Liu, Lingqi Xu, Fujing Sun, Yuehan Ma, Dawei Yin, Qiang Gao, Guiping Zheng, Yandong Lv
      First page: 1213
      Abstract: Direct seeding of rice has emerged as a strategy for sustainable rice (Oryza sativa L.) production because of advantages, such as fewer production links, labor and farmland water-saving, easy mechanization, and high economic benefits. However, few studies have investigated the effects of different organic fertilizers on soil fungal community and rice yield in dry direct-seeded paddy fields. In order to select the best combination of organic fertilizer and chemical fertilizer, field experiments were used to evaluate the role of no fertilizer (F0); CF, conventional NPK fertilizer, OF1, biochar + conventional NPK fertilizer; OF2, seaweed bioorganic fertilizer + conventional NPK fertilizer; OF3, Jishiwang bioorganic fertilizer + conventional NPK fertilizer; and OF4, attapulgite organic fertilizer + conventional NPK fertilizer on microbial structure and diversity and rice yield. Under Jishiwang bioorganic fertilizer + conventional NPK fertilization, the number of fungal OTUs was 365 and ranged from 1 to 9. The Ascomycota relative abundance was increased by 28.25% under Jishiwang bioorganic fertilizer application compared with CF, but the Basidiomycota decreased. Sordariomycetes and Leotiomycetes relative abundances were increased under organic fertilization. The relative abundance of dung saprotrophs, fungal parasites, and leaf saprotrophs was increased under organic fertilizer compared to CF, and animal pathogens decreased, but organic fertilizers also increased plant pathogens. Rice yield was increased under Jishiwang bioorganic fertilizer + conventional NPK fertilizer and was positively correlated with Ascomycota and Sordariomycetes relative abundances. The use of Jishiwang bioorganic fertilizer + conventional NPK fertilizer improves fungal community diversity and rice yield.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2022-05-18
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy12051213
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 12, Pages 1214: Forage Yield, Quality, and Impact on
           Subsequent Cash Crop of Cover Crops in an Integrated Forage/Row Crop
           System

    • Authors: Weston M. Bracey, Virginia R. Sykes, Xinhua Yin, Gary E. Bates, David M. Butler, David W. McIntosh, Allison R. Willette
      First page: 1214
      Abstract: Dual-use cover crops as forage for livestock could offer ecological and economic benefits when incorporated into rotations with corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr) in the Mid-South USA; however, information on implementation and impact is limited. A factorial of sixteen cool-season species and a no-cover control by two management systems (forage harvest and residue left in the field) was repeated under two cover crop planting/termination timings: long-season (Oct. through May; corn/cover-crop/soybean) and short-season (Nov. through Apr.; soybean/cover-crop/corn), two locations (Spring Hill and Knoxville, TN), and two growing seasons (2017/2018 and 2018/2019). Data were analyzed using a mixed model ANOVA (SAS 9.4.). The forage biomass did not differ by species within the short-season (415 to 1583 kg ha−1) but did in the long-season (475 to 4282 kg ha−1). Within the long-season, crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum L.) and winter pea (Pisum sativum subsp. arvense (L.)) had crude protein and acid detergent fiber values within the range for prime forage and were among the highest biomasses. The forage harvest did not negatively affect soil properties or succeeding crop yield and quality. If appropriate species are selected, cover crops within a corn/cover-crop/soybean rotation can provide quality forage, without reducing the short term ecological benefits.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2022-05-18
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy12051214
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 12, Pages 1215: In Vitro Induction and Primary Evaluation
           of Octoploid Plants in Saskatoon Berry (Amelanchier alnifolia Nutt.)

    • Authors: Danuta Kucharska, Małgorzata Podwyszyńska, Aleksandra Trzewik, Agnieszka Marasek-Ciołakowska, Stanisław Pluta, Łukasz Seliga
      First page: 1215
      Abstract: Polyploids of many species of horticultural plants are widely used in breeding programs since they are characterized by vigorous growth, larger organs, and greater resistance to biotic and abiotic stress. Saskatoon berry (Amelanchier alnifolia Nutt.) is in a form of diploid (2n = 2x = 34) and tetraploid. So far, no reports on induction of polyploidy in this species have been found. The aim of the study was to obtain Saskatoon berry octoploids with the use of in vitro shoot cultures. Shoots of the tetraploid of Canadian cultivars ‘Martin’ and ‘Smoky’ derived from in vitro cultures were used for induction of chromosome doubling. The shoot explants were incubated in a multiplication medium with the addition of one of the following antimitotics: colchicine, trifluralin, oryzalin or amiprophos methyl (APM) for two weeks (six days in the darkness and then eight days under a 16-h photoperiod). Then, the shoots were transferred to the multiplication medium without antimitotics and propagated in vitro by two subcultures. Octoploids were selected based on flow cytometry. Trifluralin showed the most phytotoxic effect. Six octoploids were obtained, four for ‘Martin’ after treatment with 250 mg L−1 of colchicine and two for ‘Smoky’ following the treatment with 5 mg L−1 of APM. All obtained octoploid individuals were multiplied and the level of ploidy was re-examined by flow cytometry and chromosome counting, which confirmed their octoploid genotype (2n = 8x = 136). They are probably the first octoploids of the genus Amelanchier in the world. The newly obtained octoploids were rooted in vitro, acclimatized to ex vitro conditions and grown in a greenhouse. Octoploids grew very slowly and showed a tendency to premature dormancy, which was manifested by inhibition of growth. In octoploid plants, the stomata were significantly larger and the number of stomata per 1 mm2 of leaf area was lower, compared to the tetraploid counterparts.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2022-05-18
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy12051215
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 12, Pages 1216: Influence of Simultaneous Intercropping of
           Maize-Bean with Input of Inorganic or Organic Fertilizer on Growth,
           Development, and Dry Matter Partitioning to Yield Components of Two Lines
           of Common Bean

    • Authors: Juan Carlos Suárez, José Alexander Anzola, Amara Tatiana Contreras, Dina Luz Salas, José Iván Vanegas, Milan O. Urban, Stephen E. Beebe, Idupulapati M. Rao
      First page: 1216
      Abstract: Intercropping is a common practice among smallholder farmers cultivating common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and maize (Zea mays L.). It affects agronomic performance, dry matter partitioning, and grain yield. Simultaneous intercropping of common bean with maize can influence growth, development, and dry matter partitioning of grain of common bean. The main objectives of this study are to: (i) evaluate the dynamics of growth and development of the different vegetative organs, and (ii) determine the efficiency in dry matter partitioning to yield components of two common bean lines grown under monoculture compared with two simultaneous intercropping patterns (pattern 1, pattern 2) with maize and managed with two types of fertilizer application. A randomized complete block design (RCBD) with 3 replications was used in a nested trifactorial arrangement in split-plot scheme. The field experiment was conducted in two seasons under conditions of acid soils and high temperatures in the western Amazon region of Colombia. Simultaneous intercropping patterns 1 and 2 had a negative effect on growth dynamics of maize compared to maize monoculture. But the two bean lines when associated with maize showed no significant differences on growth dynamics under both types of fertilizer application. Under both intercropping patterns, the maize cobs were larger, a condition that increased the number of grains, but with smaller size of grains compared to monoculture. In the case of two bean lines, the growth and development responses were different: under monoculture the number of pods and seeds per plant was higher while the number of grains per pod increased under intercropping patterns. Among the two bean lines, 100-seed weight was significantly higher in BFS 10 compared to ALB 121. At the grain yield level of common bean, the simultaneous intercropping pattern increased 516 kg ha−1 and 993 kg ha−1 more than that obtained in monoculture (4936 kg ha−1) with inorganic and organic fertilizer, respectively. Results from this study indicated that smallholders in the Amazon region of Colombia can achieve higher grain yield through the implementation of simultaneous intercropping of maize with common bean line (BFS 10) under organic fertilizer application.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2022-05-18
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy12051216
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 12, Pages 1217: Genetic Characterization and Agronomic
           Evaluation of Drought Tolerance in Ten Egyptian Wheat (Triticum aestivum
           L.) Cultivars

    • Authors: Mohamed A. Emam, Amal M. Abd EL-Mageed, Gniewko Niedbała, Samah A. Sabrey, Ahmed S. Fouad, Tarek Kapiel, Magdalena Piekutowska, Soad A. Mahmoud
      First page: 1217
      Abstract: This investigation was carried out for genetic characterization and determination of drought tolerance of ten Egyptian cultivars of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), namely Misr 1, Misr 2, Gemmiza 9, Gemmiza 10, Gemmiza 11, Gemmiza 12, Shandawel 1, Giza 168, Giza 171, and Sids 14. These cultivars were grown in two winter seasons: 2018/2019 and 2019/2020 at the experimental farm Fac. of Agric., Suez Canal Univ., Ismailia, Egypt, under two watering regimes: normal (100%) and stress (50% FC) conditions. Six agronomic traits and five tolerance indices, namely stress tolerance (TOL), mean productivity (MP), geometric mean productivity (GMP), yield stability index (YSI), and drought susceptibility index (DSI), were used to evaluate the impact of drought stress. The results reflected Giza 171, Misr 2, and Giza 168 as precious germplasm for breeding of high-yielding drought-tolerant wheat. A highly significant positive correlation was recorded between yield under normal and stress conditions on the one hand and each of MP and GMP on the other hand. In addition, YSI appeared engaged in a highly significant positive correlation with yield under drought conditions only. TOL and DSI appeared insignificantly correlated with yield. Therefore, MP and GMP were reflected as the first runners among indices suitable to distinguish the high-yielding cultivars under drought conditions. At the molecular level, five primers of Start Codon Targeted (SCoT) markers were able to resolve and characterize the studied cultivars, which reflected SCoT as a potent gene-targeting molecular marker, able to characterize and resolve genetic diversity in wheat at the cultivar level using few primers. Therefore, SCoT is a time-efficient molecular marker, and it can efficiently replace indices in characterization of drought-tolerant genotypes with a high confidence level and reasonable cost.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2022-05-18
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy12051217
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 12, Pages 1218: Improving the Authorization of Microbial
           Biological Control Products (MBCP) in the European Union within the EU
           Green Deal Framework

    • Authors: Florența-Elena Helepciuc, Arpad Todor
      First page: 1218
      Abstract: Developing sustainable agriculture by identifying non-chemical alternative Plant Protection Products (PPP) is a cornerstone in achieving long-sought environmental friendliness. Despite significant legislative and political efforts to promote biocontrol solutions and Integrated Pest Management (IPM), the literature points out the disadvantages posed by European Union’s (EU) two-tier system for Microbial Biological Control Agents (MBCA) approval and subsequent Microbial Biological Control Products (MBCP) authorization by each EU Member State (MS). Despite the disadvantages, in a recent article, we showed that the EU had outcompeted the US and other countries in approved MBCA in the last decades; however, MBCP approval at the national level lags. Achieving the EU Green Deal’s aim set out in the ‘Farm to Fork Strategy’ to reduce the use and risk of pesticides by 50% by 2030 is difficult without developing viable alternatives. Why do we not have higher MBCP availability and usage in the EU' Is it the current legislation, its poor application, or some other factors' The current legislative framework stimulated MBCA approval. Thus, we compare MBCA approval and MBCP authorization procedure to evaluate if MBCP authorization is more difficult and thus causes a bottleneck. We find that requirements for MBCP authorization are unnecessarily more complex. We recommend simplifying the MBCP dossier requirements and making them as similar to MBCA as possible to accelerate the MBCP authorization in more EU MS to increase their availability and integration in agronomic crops’ pest management plans.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2022-05-18
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy12051218
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 12, Pages 1219: Toxic Impact of Soil Microplastics (PVC) on
           Two Weeds: Changes in Growth, Phenology and Photosynthesis Efficiency

    • Authors: Rodolfo Gentili, Lara Quaglini, Elisa Cardarelli, Sarah Caronni, Chiara Montagnani, Sandra Citterio
      First page: 1219
      Abstract: Experimental evidence on the bio-ecological effects of microplastics on terrestrial plants is still lacking. In this study, we hypothesized that soil polluted with polyvinyl chloride (PVC) microparticles can negatively influence plant traits, photosynthetic efficiency and phenology of two weeds but with different strength in relation to the species’ life traits. Therefore, we conducted an experiment in a common garden growing the wild species Senecio inaequidens and Centaurea cyanus for about 60 days. The possible toxic effects of soil microplastics (1% of PVC in 100 g of soil medium) were investigated, coupling an analyses on plant traits with an evaluation of the microplastic-induced changes in terms of phenology and photosynthetic efficiency. Overall, results showed that plants in control pots were higher and larger than those in treated ones (C. cyanus plant width: p < 0.05; S. inaequidens—plant height: p < 0.05; plant width: p < 0.05). Moreover, for C. cyanus, photosynthetic efficiency (index Fv/Fm) was significantly lower in the treatment than that in control (p < 0.05). About phenology, the second leaf of S. inaequidens emerged earlier in control than that in treatments (day 12.2 ± 0.25 and 14.3 ± 0.3, respectively; p < 0.001). The obtained results highlight that PVC microparticles may have had negative effects on soil–plant system reducing the performance of plants. Since, up to now, research on the interaction between soil microplastics and terrestrial plants has mainly focused on agricultural plants, this work fills a gap of knowledge regarding wild species (weeds), highlighting the possible future impact of microplastics on biodiversity.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2022-05-19
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy12051219
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 12, Pages 1220: Endophytic Fungi Accelerate Leaf
           Physiological Activity and Resveratrol Accumulation in Polygonum
           cuspidatum by Up-Regulating Expression of Associated Genes

    • Authors: Rui-Ting Sun, Ze-Zhi Zhang, Xiang-Cao Feng, Nong Zhou, Hai-Dong Feng, Yi-Mei Liu, Wiwiek Harsonowati, Abeer Hashem, Elsayed Fathi Abd_Allah, Qiang-Sheng Wu
      First page: 1220
      Abstract: Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb. et Zucc. is a major raw material for the extraction of drugs such as resveratrol, while the over-exploitation of P. cuspidatum decreases the yield and drug components. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of inoculation with root endophytic fungi Funneliformis mosseae and Piriformospora indica singly or in combination in biomass production, physiological activities (e.g., chlorophyll, soluble protein, and gas exchange) and main medicinal ingredients of P. cuspidatum, accompanied by the expression levels of associated genes in resveratrol biosynthesis. Single and co-inoculation with P. indica significantly improved shoot and root biomass production, and single and co-inoculation with F. mosseae and P. indica, especially single P. indica, significantly promoted leaf chlorophyll and soluble-protein concentrations and improved leaf gas exchange, including photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, and intercellular CO2 concentration. The application of endophytic fungi increased resveratrol and polydatin concentrations, while it affected chrysophanol, emodin, and physcion concentrations in a complex manner. In addition, F. mosseae inoculation and co-inoculation induced the expression of PcCRS1, PcRS11, PcRS, and PcSTS, and only single F. mosseae and P. indica inoculation up-regulated the expression of PcCHS1 and PcCHS2. It was concluded that endophytic fungi accelerated biomass production, leaf physiological activity, and resveratrol accumulation in P. cuspidatum, which was associated with the up-regulation of related gene expression in resveratrol biosynthesis.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2022-05-19
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy12051220
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 12, Pages 1221: Phytoremediation of Soil Contaminated with
           Heavy Metals via Arbuscular Mycorrhiza (Funneliformismosseae) Inoculation
           Ameliorates the Growth Responses and Essential Oil Content in Lavender
           (Lavandula angustifolia L.)

    • Authors: Yaghoub Pirsarandib, Mohammad Bagher Hassanpouraghdam, Farzad Rasouli, Mohammad Ali Aazami, Ivana Puglisi, Andrea Baglieri
      First page: 1221
      Abstract: Phytoremediation of heavy metals (HMs) is an efficient methodology to remove toxic metals from the soil. On the other hand, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are utilized as biological fertilizers as they improve root expansion, nutrient uptake, shoot growth, and plant biological performance. In this study, the effect of AMF inoculation on the morphological traits, macro- and micronutrient contents, essential oil content (EOC), and essential oil yield (EOY) of lavender (Lavandula angustifolia L.) was investigated, under HM (Pb and Ni) stress in greenhouse conditions. The performed treatments were as follows: AMF (Funneliformis mosseae) inoculation (5 g kg−1 soil), and HM stress, including Pb (150 and 225 mg kg−1 soil from Pb(NO3)2) and Ni (220 and 330 mg kg−1 soil from Ni(NO3)2). The controls were the absence of AMF and HM treatments. The results showed that the contamination with Pb and Ni decreased plant height, branch number, fresh and dry weights of shoots and roots, and P, K, Mg, Fe, Zn, and Mn contents. At the same time, AMF inoculation modulated the adverse effects of Pb and Ni treatments. AMF inoculation and lower concentrations of Pb and Ni increased the EOC and EOY of lavender plants, whereas the higher levels of HMs reduced the morphobiometric traits. AMF inoculation increased the Pb and Ni contents in roots. The treatment with Pb at 220 mg kg−1 led to a higher stress effect than that of Ni treatment. In conclusion, the results recommend AMF inoculation as a helpful procedure to improve the growth responses and EOY of lavender in environments polluted with the tested HMs and suggest that AMF inoculation is potentially efficient in mitigating HM stress effects.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2022-05-19
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy12051221
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 12, Pages 1222: Plastic Pollution in Soil and Crops:
           Effects of Film Residuals on Soil Water Content and Tomato Physiology

    • Authors: Zhuoran Li, Juanjuan Ma, Xihuan Sun, Xianghong Guo, Lijian Zheng, Jinping Chen
      First page: 1222
      Abstract: Agricultural producers in China are presently confronting the challenge of “white pollution” caused by the continuous expansion of plastic film area coverage. The main objective of this research is to address the increasing interest in the effects of film residual on tomato growth, yield, and quality under drip irrigation. To reveal the effects of film residual on tomato physiology, field trials were conducted with five levels of film residual treatment applied in two consecutive cropping seasons from 2019 to 2020. Soil water content, plant height, stem diameter, photosynthetic characteristics, yield, soluble sugar content (SSC), organic acid (OA), vitamin C (VC), and nitrate content (NC) were measured; furthermore, four analysis methods were used to assess the comprehensive tomato quality. The results showed that film residuals significantly affected soil water content in 2019 and 2020 and inhibited tomato plant height and stem diameter. The variations in photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance showed practically the same trend, increasing with an increase in the film residual at the seedling stage. The maximum yields were observed at 94.02 ton/hm2 and 84.44 ton/hm2 in 2019 and 2020, respectively, and tomato yield exhibited a shape reduction with increasing amounts of film residual in all years. SSC, VC, and NC showed an increasing trend with increasing amounts of film residual. The best tomato comprehensive quality was observed when the amount of film residual was lower than 200 kg/hm2 and declined with an increasing amount of film residual. Overall, the soil water content, tomato growth, and fruit quality changed significantly under the influence of film residual. These results not only deepen our understanding of the harm caused by film residual to tomato growth and fruit quality but also provide reasonable advice to establish a management system for residual pollution on cultivated land.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2022-05-19
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy12051222
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 12, Pages 1223: Germination and Growth Performance of
           Water-Saving and Drought-Resistant Rice Enhanced by Seed Treatment with
           Wood Vinegar and Biochar under Dry Direct-Seeded System

    • Authors: Kangkang Zhang, Zaid Khan, Jiahuan Liu, Tao Luo, Kunmiao Zhu, Liyong Hu, Junguo Bi, Lijun Luo
      First page: 1223
      Abstract: Dry direct-seeded rice (dry-DSR) is an efficient, resource-saving and environmentally friendly cropping system. The employment of water-saving and drought-resistant rice (WDR) for dry direct-seeding can better meet the needs of dry-direct seeding systems. However, the decline in seedling emergence rate and poor seedling growth are the main bottlenecks under current direct-seeded rice production. Seed treatment is a sustainable and effective technique to overcome these issues. Therefore, growth chamber and field experiments were conducted to assess the impact of poplar wood vinegar (WV) priming and rice straw biochar (BC) coating on emergence, establishment, growth, physio-biochemical events, and ultimate yield. We treated the seeds of WDR viz., Hanyou 73 with WV, BC, and co-treatment WV + BC. The results showed that seed priming with 1:50 WV concentration and coating with 20% BC content was the optimal ratio for promoting germination and seedling growth. The field evaluation indicated that individual WV and BC markedly promoted the final emergence by 58% and 31%, respectively, while co-treatment WV + BC increased by 67%. Likewise, WV and BC significantly enhanced total seedling biomass by 26% and 10%, respectively, and the respective enhancement of WV + BC was 31%. For ultimate yield, WV and BC produced 12% and 19% higher grain yield, respectively, whereas WV + BC yielded 20%. The above results revealed that WV and WV + BC were the most effective treatment. Our findings may provide new avenues for advancing pre-sowing seed treatments facilitating the stand establishment and grain yield of dry direct-seeded rice.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2022-05-19
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy12051223
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 12, Pages 1224: Effect of Harvest Date on Kernel Quality
           and Antioxidant Activity in su1 Sweet Corn Genotypes

    • Authors: Tatjana Ledenčan, Daniela Horvat, Sanja Špoljarić Marković, Zlatko Svečnjak, Antun Jambrović, Domagoj Šimić
      First page: 1224
      Abstract: In order to achieve a high-quality product, sweet corn should be harvested at the optimal stage of maturity. The taste of sweet corn depends largely on the kernel moisture (KM) and total sugars (TS) content while its health properties are attributed to the content of total phenols (TPH) and antioxidant activity (AO). This study aimed to estimate quality in sugary (su1) sweet corn hybrids based on the maximum content of kernel chemical compounds and the content change during maturation. During two growing seasons, five harvests by year were made at 2-day intervals from 17 to 25 days after pollination (DAP). KM decreased among hybrids from 6.6% to 14% over an eight-day period, or 0.8% to 1.8% per day. TS content was the highest at 17 DAP (16.5–28.7 mg/g DW) and decreased during maturation from 27% to 67%. Hybrids differed significantly in TPH at 17 DAP (204.4–357.1 mg GAE/100 g DW). TPH change during maturation ranged from the no significant differences up to a 29.3% decrease. DPPH- radical scavenging activity ranged among genotypes from 52.5% to 74.9% inhibition at 17 DAP and significantly increased during maturation. A well-defined hybrid-specific harvest window is necessary to maintain kernel quality in su1 sweet corn.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2022-05-19
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy12051224
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 12, Pages 1225: Introgression of Resistance to Multiple
           Pathotypes of Plasmodiophora brassicae from Turnip (Brassica rapa ssp.
           rapifera) into Spring B. napus Canola

    • Authors: Kawalpreet Kaur, Yingyi Liu, Habibur Rahman
      First page: 1225
      Abstract: Clubroot disease resistance has been introgressed from Brassica rapa into canola following different approaches including a B. napus × B. rapa interspecific cross; however, the details of this cross are not available. To extend our knowledge of this cross for the introgression of resistance to multiple pathotypes, we crossed a clubroot-resistant turnip with a susceptible canola and backcrossed the F1′s to canola. The backcross population was subjected to pedigree breeding with selection for clubroot resistance and canola-quality traits; selection for resistance to pathotype 3H and 3A was performed in the early and advanced generations, respectively. The advanced generation lines were also evaluated for resistance to 3H, 3A, 2B, and 5x, and for field resistance to clubroot, and agronomic and seed quality traits. Following this, we developed canola lines carrying resistance to multiple pathotypes and nuclear DNA content similar to B. napus. Resistance to 3H showed a weak correlation with other pathotypes whereas resistance to 3A showed a strong positive correlation with 5x indicating that resistance to these pathotypes was under a similar genetic control. Thus, the results demonstrate that resistance to multiple pathotypes can be introgressed from a turnip into a canola even when selection for resistance to single pathotype is performed in early generations.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2022-05-19
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy12051225
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 12, Pages 1226: Endophytic Bacteria Can Replace the Need
           for Synthetic Auxin during In Vitro Rooting of Pyrus communis

    • Authors: Michele Carla Nadal, Gustavo Magno dos Reis Ferreira, Gracielle Vidal Silva Andrade, Victor Hugo Buttrós, Filipe Almendagna Rodrigues, Caroline Marcela da Silva, Adalvan Daniel Martins, Léo Rufato, José Magno Queiroz Luz, Joyce Dória, Moacir Pasqual
      First page: 1226
      Abstract: This study aimed to investigate the presence of beneficial microorganisms in the micropropagation of Pyrus communis rootstocks through the isolation, identification, and selection of auxin-producing bacteria. The selected microorganisms were also inoculated in vitro to evaluate their effect on the plant rooting process and their behavior during the acclimatization phase. The results showed the presence of endophytic microorganisms in plant tissue cultures of the ‘OH×F87′ and ‘PDW’ selections. A low diversity was observed in the population of microorganisms isolated from the in vitro culture of the ‘OH×F87’and ‘PDW’ selections, with a predominance of the genera Acinetobacter, Bacillus, and Buttiauxella. The selection of promoting microorganisms was performed based on the auxin production test, in which 30.36% of the microorganisms tested positive. In the in vitro inoculation, it was possible to observe the promotion of growth and emission of roots in the pear rootstocks, from the inoculation with bacteria identified as capable of producing auxin. This process can be used to replace the inclusion of synthetic auxin in the productive chain of woody fruit trees propagated by vegetative means, such as pears. None of the bacterial isolates was notably more promising, but the general similarity of treatments containing the A. septicus and A. ursingii strains, with the synthetic auxin treatment, suggests the possibility of its use on a large scale allowing the adoption of the cheaper method. of rooting. This work opens the door for further research using new, more promising microbial isolates, and also for lower-cost microorganism cultivation techniques, such as low-cost media obtained from agro-industrial residues.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2022-05-19
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy12051226
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 12, Pages 1227: Extraction of Phenolic Compounds from
           Cherry Seeds: A Preliminary Study

    • Authors: Yuliya Dulyanska, Luísa Paula Cruz-Lopes, Bruno Esteves, José Vicente Ferreira, Idalina Domingos, Maria João Lima, Paula M. R. Correia, Manuela Ferreira, Anabela Fragata, Maria João Barroca, Aida Moreira da Silva, Raquel P. F. Guiné
      First page: 1227
      Abstract: Agri-food waste has proved to be a valuable bioresource that can be used to obtain a variety of valuable materials, ingredients and chemicals. The optimum conditions for extracting bioactive compounds from sweet cherry seeds (SCS) with different solvents and temperatures were tested in this work. The choice criteria were based on the most efficient extracting capacity while looking for cleaner techniques with lower health or environmental impacts. Some extracting solvents (methanol, ethanol and water) were tested in different combinations and temperatures. The obtained extracts were evaluated for total phenolic compounds and some families of phenolics as well, using spectrophotometric methods. The results obtained showed that the highest extraction of total phenolic compounds was at 70 °C with 60:40 ratio water:ethanol (2.65 mg GAE/g), while maximum flavonoids were obtained at 80 °C and 50% ethanolic aqueous solution (7.26 mg QE/g). The highest value for ortho-diphenols was 21.47 mg GAE/g for 50 °C and water:ethanol 50:50 solution. The highest proanthocyanidins and flavonols were obtained for 50:50 solution at 70 °C (6.43 mg CE/g and 3.88 mg QE/g, respectively), while the same solution at 80 °C allowed obtaining maximum phenolic acids (1.68 mg CAE/g). The extraction of anthocyanins was found to vary significantly with concentration and temperature, being highest in the range 35–40 °C, when using an 80:20 water:ethanol solution. Hierarchical clustering showed three clusters, while factor analysis resulted in two factors and four groups of samples. In conclusion, it was found that extracts obtained from sweet cherry seeds have relevant bioactive compounds with applications in the food, pharmaceutical or cosmetic industries.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2022-05-20
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy12051227
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 12, Pages 1228: The Importance of Agronomic Knowledge for
           Crop Detection by Sentinel-2 in the CAP Controls Framework: A Possible
           Rule-Based Classification Approach

    • Authors: Filippo Sarvia, Samuele De Petris, Federica Ghilardi, Elena Xausa, Gianluca Cantamessa, Enrico Borgogno-Mondino
      First page: 1228
      Abstract: Farmers are supported by European Union (EU) through contributions related to the common agricultural policy (CAP). To obtain grants, farmers have to apply every year according to the national/regional procedure that, presently, relies on the Geo-Spatial Aid Application (GSAA). To ensure the properness of applications, national/regional payment agencies (PA) operate random controls through in-field surveys. EU regulation n. 809/2014 has introduced a new approach to CAP controls based on Copernicus Sentinel-2 (S2) data. These are expected to better address PA checks on the field, suggesting eventual inconsistencies between satellite-based deductions and farmers’ declarations. Within this framework, this work proposed a hierarchical (HI) approach to the classification of crops (soya, corn, wheat, rice, and meadow) explicitly aimed at supporting CAP controls in agriculture, with special concerns about the Piemonte Region (NW Italy) agricultural situation. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach, a comparison is made between HI and other, more ordinary approaches. In particular, two algorithms were considered as references: the minimum distance (MD) and the random forest (RF). Tests were operated in a study area located in the southern part of the Vercelli province (Piemonte), which is mainly devoted to agriculture. Training and validation steps were performed for all the classification approaches (HI, MD, RF) using the same ground data. MD and RF were based on S2-derived NDVI image time series (TS) for the 2020 year. Differently, HI was built according to a rule-based approach developing according to the following steps: (a) TS standard deviation analysis in the time domain for meadows mapping; (b) MD classification of winter part of TS in the time domain for wheat detection; (c) MD classification of summer part of TS in the time domain for corn classification; (d) selection of a proper summer multi-spectral image (SMSI) useful for separating rice from soya with MD operated in the spectral domain. To separate crops of interest from other classes, MD-based classifications belonging to HI were thresholded by Otsu’s method. Overall accuracy for MD, RF, and HI were found to be 63%, 80%, and 89%, respectively. It is worth remarking that thanks to the SMSI-based approach of HI, a significant improvement was obtained in soya and rice classification.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2022-05-20
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy12051228
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 12, Pages 1229: Crop Sequencing to Improve Productivity and
           Profitability in Irrigated Double Cropping Using Agricultural System
           Simulation Modelling

    • Authors: Ketema Zeleke, Jeff McCormick
      First page: 1229
      Abstract: Land and water are two major inputs for crop production. Simulation modelling was used to determine crop sequences that maximise farm return. Crop yield was determined for different irrigation scheduling scenarios based on the fraction of available soil water (FASW). Farm returns ($ ML−1 and $ ha−1) were evaluated for seven crop sequences. Three irrigation water price scenarios (dry, median, wet) were considered. The yield of summer crops increased with irrigation. For winter crops, despite increase in irrigation, the yield would not increase. The optimum irrigation (ML ha−1) was: soybean 8.2, maize 10.4, wheat 2.5, barley 3.1, fababean 2.5, and canola 2.7. The water productivity curve of summer crops has a parabolic shape, increasing with FASW, reaching a maximum value at FASW 0.4–0.6, and then decreasing. The water productivity of winter crops decreases as FASW increases following a power function. Gross margins are positive when water is cheap ($60 ML−1) and when water has a median price ($124 ML−1). When water is expensive ($440 ML−1), positive gross margin would be obtained only for the continuous wheat scenario. Deficit irrigation of summer crops leads to significant yield loss. Supplemental irrigation of winter crops results in the highest gross margin per unit of water.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2022-05-20
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy12051229
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2022)
       
 
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