Subjects -> BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS (Total: 3841 journals)
    - ACCOUNTING (145 journals)
    - BANKING AND FINANCE (329 journals)
    - BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS (1411 journals)
    - CONSUMER EDUCATION AND PROTECTION (20 journals)
    - COOPERATIVES (4 journals)
    - ECONOMIC SCIENCES: GENERAL (232 journals)
    - ECONOMIC SYSTEMS, THEORIES AND HISTORY (255 journals)
    - FASHION AND CONSUMER TRENDS (20 journals)
    - HUMAN RESOURCES (103 journals)
    - INSURANCE (26 journals)
    - INTERNATIONAL COMMERCE (146 journals)
    - INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND AID (103 journals)
    - INVESTMENTS (22 journals)
    - LABOR AND INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS (66 journals)
    - MACROECONOMICS (17 journals)
    - MANAGEMENT (634 journals)
    - MARKETING AND PURCHASING (116 journals)
    - MICROECONOMICS (23 journals)
    - PRODUCTION OF GOODS AND SERVICES (125 journals)
    - PUBLIC FINANCE, TAXATION (42 journals)
    - TRADE AND INDUSTRIAL DIRECTORIES (2 journals)

BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS (1411 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1566 Journals sorted alphabetically
360 : Revista de Ciencias de la Gestión     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
4OR: A Quarterly Journal of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Abacus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Acta Amazonica     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Acta Commercii     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Acta Marisiensis : Seria Oeconomica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Oeconomica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Acta Scientiarum. Human and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Acta Universitatis Danubius. Œconomica     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Universitatis Lodziensis : Folia Geographica Socio-Oeconomica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Nicolai Copernici Zarządzanie     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
AD-minister     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Adam Academy : Journal of Social Sciences / Adam Akademi : Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
AdBispreneur : Jurnal Pemikiran dan Penelitian Administrasi Bisnis dan Kewirausahaan     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Admisi dan Bisnis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Sustainable Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Developing Human Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Advances in Economics and Business     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Africa Journal of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 78)
African Business     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
African Development Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
African Journal of Business Ethics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
African Review of Economics and Finance     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Afro Eurasian Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Afro-Asian Journal of Finance and Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Afyon Kocatepe Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Akademik Yaklaşımlar Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Akademika : Journal of Southeast Asia Social Sciences and Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
AL-Qadisiyah Journal For Administrative and Economic sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Alphanumeric Journal : The Journal of Operations Research, Statistics, Econometrics and Management Information Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Economic Journal : Applied Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 295)
American Enterprise Institute     Free   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Business     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
American Journal of Business and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 73)
American Journal of Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Economics and Business Administration     Open Access   (Followers: 42)
American Journal of Economics and Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
American Journal of Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
American Journal of Finance and Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
American Journal of Health Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 31)
American Journal of Medical Quality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
ANALES de la Universidad Central del Ecuador     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ankara University SBF Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annales de l'Institut Henri Poincare (C) Non Linear Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Annals in Social Responsibility     Full-text available via subscription  
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annual Review of Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 52)
Anuario Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y Empresariales     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Applied Developmental Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64)
Applied Economics Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Applied Economics Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Applied Financial Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Applied Mathematical Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Applied Stochastic Models in Business and Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Apuntes Universitarios     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arab Economic and Business Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Business Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Arena Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Argomenti. Rivista di economia, cultura e ricerca sociale     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ASEAN Economic Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Asia Pacific Business Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 332)
Asia Pacific Journal of Innovation and Entrepreneurship     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asia Pacific Viewpoint     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Operational Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Rural Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Asia-Pacific Management and Business Application     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Business Review     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Case Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Asian Development Review     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Asian Economic Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Asian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asian Economic Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian Journal of Accounting and Governance     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Asian Journal of Economics, Business and Accounting     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Social Sciences and Management Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Asian Journal of Sustainability and Social Responsibility     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian-pacific Economic Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
ATA Journal of Legal Tax Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Atlantic Economic Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Australasian Journal of Regional Studies, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Cottongrower, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Australian Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Australian Journal of Maritime and Ocean Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Baltic Journal of Real Estate Economics and Construction Management     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Banks in Insurance Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
BBR - Brazilian Business Review     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Benchmarking : An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Benefit : Jurnal Manajemen dan Bisnis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Berkeley Business Law Journal     Free   (Followers: 13)
Beta : Scandinavian Journal of Business Research     Full-text available via subscription  
Bio-based and Applied Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biodegradation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biology Direct     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
BizInfo (Blace) Journal of Economics, Management and Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Black Enterprise     Full-text available via subscription  
Board & Administrator for Administrators only     Hybrid Journal  
Boletim Técnico do Senac     Open Access  
Border Crossing : Transnational Working Papers     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Brazilian Business Review     Open Access  
Briefings in Real Estate Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
British Journal of Industrial Relations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Brookings Papers on Economic Activity     Open Access   (Followers: 72)
Brookings Trade Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
BRQ Business Research Quarterly     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
BU Academic Review     Open Access  
Bulletin of Economic Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Bulletin of Geography. Socio-economic Series     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Bulletin of the Dnipropetrovsk University. Series : Management of Innovations     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Business & Entrepreneurship Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
Business & Information Systems Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Business & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Business : Theory and Practice / Verslas : Teorija ir Praktika     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Business and Economic Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Business and Management Horizons     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Business and Management Research     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Business and Management Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Business and Professional Communication Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Business and Society Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Business Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Business Ethics Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Business Ethics: A European Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Business Horizons     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Business Information Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Business Management Analysis Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Business Management and Strategy     Open Access   (Followers: 51)
Business Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Business Review Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Business Strategy and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Business Strategy and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Business Strategy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Business Strategy Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Business Systems & Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Business, Economics and Management Research Journal : BEMAREJ     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Business, Management and Education     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Business: Theory and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos EBAPE.BR     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cambridge Journal of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 82)
Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences / Revue Canadienne des Sciences de l Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Economics/Revue Canadienne d`Economique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Canadian journal of nonprofit and social economy research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Capitalism Nature Socialism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Case Studies in Business and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
CBU International Conference Proceedings     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Central European Business Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Central European Journal of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Central European Journal of Public Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Chain Reaction     Full-text available via subscription  
Challenge     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Chandrakasem Rajabhat University Journal of Graduate School     Open Access  
China & World Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
China : An International Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
China Economic Journal : The Official Journal of the China Center for Economic Research (CCER) at Peking University     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
China Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
China Finance Review International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
China perspectives     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Chinese Economy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Chinese Journal of Population, Resources and Environment     Open Access  
Chinese Journal of Social Science and Management     Open Access  
Christian University of Thailand Journal     Open Access  
Chulalongkorn Business Review     Open Access  
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia, Economía y Negocios     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Circular Economy and Sustainability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Cleaner and Responsible Consumption     Open Access  
Cleaner Logistics and Supply Chain     Open Access  
Climate and Energy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
CLIO América     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cliometrica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Colombo Business Journal     Open Access  
Community Development Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Compendium : Cuadernos de Economía y Administración     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Compensation & Benefits Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Competition & Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Competitive Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Competitiveness Review : An International Business Journal incorporating Journal of Global Competitiveness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Computational Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Computational Mathematics and Modeling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Computer Law & Security Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Computers & Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Consilience : The Journal of Sustainable Development     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Construction Innovation: Information, Process, Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Consumer Behavior Studies Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Consumer Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Agronomy
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.695
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 18  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2073-4395
Published by MDPI Homepage  [240 journals]
  • Agronomy, Vol. 11, Pages 2369: Oxidative Stress, Ageing and Methods of
           Seed Invigoration: An Overview and Perspectives

    • Authors: Ademola Emmanuel Adetunji, Tomi Lois Adetunji, Boby Varghese, Sershen, Norman W. Pammenter
      First page: 2369
      Abstract: The maintenance of seed quality during the long-term conservation of plant genetic resources is crucial for averting the projected food crises that are linked to the changing climate and rising world population. However, ageing-induced loss of seed vigour and viability during storage remains an inevitable process that compromises productivity in several orthodox-seeded crop species. Seed ageing under prolonged storage, which can occur even under optimal conditions, induces several modifications capable of causing loss of intrinsic physiological quality traits, including germination capacity and vigour, and stand establishment. The problems posed by seed ageing have motivated the development of various techniques for mitigating their detrimental effects. These invigoration techniques generally fall within one of two categories: (1) priming or pre-hydrating seeds in a solution for improved post-harvest performance, or (2) post-storage reinvigoration which often involves soaking seeds recovered from storage in a solution. Seed priming methods are generally divided into classical (hydropriming, osmopriming, redox priming, biostimulant priming, etc.) and advanced (nanopriming, magnetopriming and priming using other physical agents) techniques. With the increasing popularity of seed invigoration techniques to achieve the much-desired enhanced productivity and resilience in the face of a changing climate, there is an urgent need to explore these techniques effectively (in addition to other important practices such as plant breeding, fertilizer application, and the control of pests and diseases). This review aims to provide an overview of ageing in orthodox seeds and invigoration techniques that can enhance desirable agronomic and physiological characters.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2021-11-23
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy11122369
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2021)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 11, Pages 2370: Irrigation with Wastewater and K
           Fertilization Ensure the Yield and Quality of Coloured Cotton in a
           Semiarid Climate

    • Authors: Breno Leonan de Carvalho Lima, Ênio Farias de França e Silva, João Henrique Zonta, Cícero Pereira Cordão Terceiro Neto, Claudivan Feitosa de Lacerda, Jorge Freire da Silva Ferreira, Flávio José Rodrigues Cruz
      First page: 2370
      Abstract: Treated domestic sewage (TDS) can contribute to plant nutrition and improve crop production. However, there are no data for its use in coloured cotton under a deficit or excess irrigation in combination with potassium fertilization rates (KRs), mainly under semiarid tropical conditions. The research was conducted using a randomized complete block design in a factorial scheme (5 × 5, irrigation regimes vs. potassium rates), plus an additional treatment as the control ((5 × 5) + 1). The treatments consisted of five TDS irrigation regimes (50, 75, 100, 125, and 150% of crop evapotranspiration—ETC) and five KRs (0, 50, 100, 150, and 200% of the local crop recommendation), plus a control—CT— (irrigated with fresh water at 100% ETC and fertilized according to the local crop recommendation) and four replications. The optimal crop yield, water use efficiency, and potassium use efficiency were obtained when TDS was applied as a deficit irrigation treatment of 75% of ETc or as full irrigation (100% of ETC) and when associated with moderate increases in K fertilization. These treatments also resulted in a better fibre quality when compared to the CT, meeting or exceeding the requirements of the textile industry. Therefore, moderate deficit irrigation with TDS is indicated as an important strategy to save fresh water and to reduce the use of fertilizers, while having the potential to increase profit margins for cotton production in tropical semiarid regions.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2021-11-23
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy11122370
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2021)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 11, Pages 2371: Buckwheat Yield Traits Response as
           

    • Authors: Ljubiša Kolarić, Vera Popović, Ljubiša Živanović, Nataša Ljubičić, Petar Stevanović, Ljubica Šarčević Todosijević, Divna Simić, Jela Ikanović
      First page: 2371
      Abstract: Buckwheat is an economically important gluten free cereal, and it is a good source of protein, fiber, and energy. The field experiments with buckwheat variety “Novosadska” were set in two experimental years in Pancevo, Serbia. The aim of this study was to determine the most optimal technology for buckwheat production. The study aims were to investigate the effects of (1) row spacing: RS1-25 cm and RS2-50 cm; (2) nutrition variants: (N1) 0 kg ha−1 NPK; (N2) NPK 30 kg ha−1; (N3) NPK 60 kg ha−1; and (N4) NPK 90 kg ha−1; (3) environment: Y1-2018 and Y2-2019; and their interactions on the plant height (PH), number of lateral branches (NoLB), mass of seeds per plant (MSP), number of seeds per plant (NoSP), buckwheat grain yield (GY); and (4) the correlations among these traits. All tested parameters of buckwheat significantly varied across row spacing, environment, and nutrition. The average grain yield in the row spacing, RD1-25 cm, was significantly higher than in the wider spacing, RD2-50 cm, and in 2018 than 2019 as well as with the nutrition NPK applied in the amount of 90 kg ha−1 in relation with all the other nutrition variants. All the studied agronomic traits were positively and strongly correlated with GY.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2021-11-23
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy11122371
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2021)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 11, Pages 2372: Quantification of Root-Knot Nematode
           Infestation in Tomato Using Digital Image Analysis

    • Authors: Top Bahadur Pun, Arjun Neupane, Richard Koech
      First page: 2372
      Abstract: Tomato is the most popular vegetable globally. However, in certain conditions, the vegetable is susceptible to plant parasites such as the root-knot nematode (RKN; Meloidogyne spp.). A proper detection method is required to identify RKN and eliminate related diseases. The traditional manual quantification of RKN using a microscope is a time-consuming and laborious task. This study aims to develop a semi-automated method to discern and quantify RKN based on size using an image analysis method. The length of RKN was assessed using three novel approaches: contour arc (CA), thin structure (TS), and skeleton graph (SG) methods. These lengths were compared with the manual measurement of RKN length. The study showed that the RKN length obtained by manual measurement was highly correlated to the length based on this method, with R2 of 0.898, 0.875, and 0.898 for the CA, TS, and SG methods, respectively. These approaches were further tested to detect RKN on 517 images. The manual and automated counting comparison revealed a coefficient of determination R2 = 0.857, 0.835 and 0.828 for CA, TS, and SG methods, respectively. The one-way ANOVA test on counting revealed F-statistic = 4.440 and p-value = 0.004. The ratio of length to width was investigated further at different ranges. The optimal result was found to occur at ratio range between 10–35. The CA, TS, and SG methods attained the highest R2 of 0.965, 0.958, and 0.973, respectively. This study found that the SG method is most suitable for detecting and counting RKN. This method can be applied to detect RKN or other nematodes on severely infected crops and root vegetables, including sweet potato and ginger. The study significantly helps in quantifying pests for rapid farm management and thus minimise crop and vegetable losses.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2021-11-23
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy11122372
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2021)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 11, Pages 2373: Classification of Non-Infected and Infected
           with Basal Stem Rot Disease Using Thermal Images and Imbalanced Data
           Approach

    • Authors: Izrahayu Che Hashim, Abdul Rashid Mohamed Shariff, Siti Khairunniza Bejo, Farrah Melissa Muharam, Khairulmazmi Ahmad
      First page: 2373
      Abstract: Basal stem rot (BSR) disease occurs due to the most aggressive and threatening fungal attack of the oil palm plant known as Ganoderma boninense (G. boninense). BSR is a disease that has a significant impact on oil palm crops in Malaysia and Indonesia. Currently, the only sustainable strategy available is to extend the life of oil palm trees, as there is no effective treatment for BSR disease. This study used thermal imagery to identify the thermal features to classify non-infected and BSR-infected trees. The aims of this study were to (1) identify the potential temperature features and (2) examine the performance of machine learning (ML) classifiers (naïve Bayes (NB), multilayer perceptron (MLP), and random forest (RF) to classify oil palm trees that are non-infected and BSR-infected. The sample size consisted of 55 uninfected trees and 37 infected trees. We used the imbalance data approaches such as random undersampling (RUS), random oversampling (ROS) and synthetic minority oversampling (SMOTE) in these classifications due to the different sample sizes. The study found that the Tmax feature is the most beneficial temperature characteristic for classifying non-infected or infected BSR trees. Meanwhile, the ROS approach improves the curve region (AUC) and PRC results compared to a single approach. The result showed that the temperature feature Tmax and combination feature TmaxTmin had a higher correct classification for the G. boninense non-infected and infected oil palm trees for the ROS-RF and had a robust success rate, classifying correctly 87.10% for non-infected and 100% for infected by G. boninense. In terms of model performance using the most significant variables, Tmax, the ROS-RF model had an excellent receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve region (AUC) of 0.921, and the precision–recall curve (PRC) region gave a value of 0.902. Therefore, it can be concluded that the ROS-RF, using the Tmax, can be used to predict BSR disease with relatively high accuracy.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2021-11-23
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy11122373
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2021)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 11, Pages 2374: Drought Stress in Grain Legumes: Effects,
           Tolerance Mechanisms and Management

    • Authors: Marium Khatun, Sumi Sarkar, Farzana Mustafa Era, A. K. M. Mominul Mominul Islam, Md. Parvez Anwar, Shah Fahad, Rahul Datta, A. K. M. Aminul Islam
      First page: 2374
      Abstract: Grain legumes are important sources of proteins, essential micronutrients and vitamins and for human nutrition. Climate change, including drought, is a severe threat to grain legume production throughout the world. In this review, the morpho-physiological, physio-biochemical and molecular levels of drought stress in legumes are described. Moreover, different tolerance mechanisms, such as the morphological, physio-biochemical and molecular mechanisms of legumes, are also reviewed. Moreover, various management approaches for mitigating the drought stress effects in grain legumes are assessed. Reduced leaf area, shoot and root growth, chlorophyll content, stomatal conductance, CO2 influx, nutrient uptake and translocation, and water-use efficiency (WUE) ultimately affect legume yields. The yield loss of grain legumes varies from species to species, even variety to variety within a species, depending upon the severity of drought stress and several other factors, such as phenology, soil textures and agro-climatic conditions. Closure of stomata leads to an increase in leaf temperature by reducing the transpiration rate, and, so, the legume plant faces another stress under drought stress. The biosynthesis of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is the most detrimental effect of drought stress. Legumes can adapt to the drought stress by changing their morphology, physiology and molecular mechanism. Improved root system architecture (RSA), reduced number and size of leaves, stress-induced phytohormone, stomatal closure, antioxidant defense system, solute accumulation (e.g., proline) and altered gene expression play a crucial role in drought tolerance. Several agronomic, breeding both conventional and molecular, biotechnological approaches are used as management practices for developing a drought-tolerant legume without affecting crop yield. Exogenous application of plant-growth regulators (PGRs), osmoprotectants and inoculation by Rhizobacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi promotes drought tolerance in legumes. Genome-wide association studies (GWASs), genomic selection (GS), marker-assisted selection (MAS), OMICS-based technology and CRISPR/Cas9 make the breeding work easy and save time in the developmental cycle to get resistant legumes. Several drought-resistant grain legumes, such as the chickpea, faba bean, common bean and pigeon pea, were developed by different institutions. Drought-tolerant transgenic legumes, for example, chickpeas, are developed by introgressing desired genes through breeding and biotechnological approaches. Several quantitative trait loci (QTLs), candidate genes occupying drought-tolerant traits, are identified from a variety of grain legumes, but not all are under proper implementation. Hence, more research should be conducted to improve the drought-tolerant traits of grain legumes for avoiding losses during drought.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2021-11-23
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy11122374
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2021)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 11, Pages 2375: Intra-Plant Variability for Heat Tolerance
           Related Attributes in Upland Cotton

    • Authors: Aneeq ur Rehman, Iqrar Ahmad Rana, Sajid Majeed, Muhammad Tanees Chaudhary, Mujahid Zulfiqar, Seung-Hwan Yang, Gyuhwa Chung, Yinhua Jia, Xiongming Du, Lori Hinze, Muhammad Tehseen Azhar
      First page: 2375
      Abstract: Abiotic stress, particularly heat stress, affects various parts of the cotton plant and ultimately impacts the seed cotton yield. Different portions of a single cotton plant of a cultivar exhibit variable responses to stress during reproductive and vegetative phases. To test this hypothesis, physiological and morphological traits related to heat stress were observed for two flowering positions in 13 genotypes of upland cotton. These genotypes were sown in field conditions in triplicate following a randomized complete block design. Data were collected for pollen germination, pollen viability, cell membrane thermostability, chlorophyll content, boll weight, and boll retention for both the top and bottom branches of each genotype. The collected data were analyzed for the identification of variability within and between genotypes for these two flowering positions. Tukey’s test was applied to estimate the significance of differences between genotypes and positions within each genotype. Results showed that the two positions within the same plant statistically varied from each other. The bottom branches of the genotypes performed significantly better for all traits measured except boll weight. The genotype AA-933 performed best for pollen germination and boll retention, while CYTO-608 exhibited maximum pollen viability in both the bottom and top flower positions compared with other genotypes. Overall, MNH-1016 and CIM-602 showed better cell membrane thermostability and chlorophyll content, respectively. This intra-plant variability can be further exploited in breeding programs to enhance the stress tolerance capabilities of the resulting varieties.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2021-11-23
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy11122375
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2021)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 11, Pages 2376: Evaluation of Soil S Pools under 23 Years
           of Maize Monoculture

    • Authors: Pavel Suran, Martin Kulhánek, Jiří Balík, Jindřich Černý, Ondřej Sedlář
      First page: 2376
      Abstract: Sulfur nutrition is a critical part of proper crop growth and development. In our study, biomass yields (BY) and S uptake were investigated on long-term maize monoculture on haplic luvisol soil during the 23 years of this trial, as well as changes in water extractable (Sw), adsorbed (Sads), mineral (Sav), and pseudo-total S (St) fractions. Treatments used in this study are: (1) Control (Cont); (2) ammonium sulfate (AS); (3) urea and ammonium nitrate (UAN); (4) UAN + phosphorus and potassium (UAN + PK); (5) UAN + phosphorus, magnesium, sulfur (UAN + PMgS); and (6) Fallow. Recently, the Mehlich 3 method started to be used in the Czech Republic to determine content of plant available S. Using this method, it was found that the content of S extracted by Mehlich 3 (SM3) closely correlates to Sav in both topsoil and subsoil (r = 0.958 in 1997 and 0.990 in 2019, both at p < 0.001). We also found that, on average, during the entire experiment, all treatments had increased yields over Cont (135–147%) and increased S uptake (291, 192, 180, and 246% of Cont for AS, UAN, UAN + PK, and UAN + PMgS, respectively). Examining the changes from 1997 to 2019 in topsoil (0–30 cm depth), we discovered a decrease of S content in Sw, Sads, Sav, and St fractions on all treatments to an average of 34.6%, 65.8%, 42.2%, and 78.6% of their initial values. The exception was AS treatment, which doubled its initial content in mineral fractions and maintained the same levels of St, and which we attribute to the very high dose of S on this treatment (142 kg ha−1 year−1). Using the simple balance method, AS and UAN + PMgS treatments lost 142.2 and 95.3 kg S ha−1 year−1 to other sinks, except plant uptake, from the entire soil profile (0–60 cm) during 23 years of experiment. Other treatments also show significant losses with the exception of Fallow. Given these results, it is clear that content of sulfur in soil is generally decreasing and attention should be paid mainly towards minimizing of its losses.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2021-11-23
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy11122376
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2021)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 11, Pages 2377: Strawberry WRKY Transcription Factor WRKY50
           Is Required for Resistance to Necrotrophic Fungal Pathogen Botrytis
           cinerea

    • Authors: Chuangju Ma, Jinsong Xiong, Morong Liang, Xiaoyu Liu, Xiaodong Lai, Yibo Bai, Zongming Cheng
      First page: 2377
      Abstract: WRKY protein is one of the largest plant-specific transcription factors that plays critical roles in plant stress responses, but few WRKY transcription factors have been functionally analyzed in strawberry. In this study, a Botrytis cinerea response WRKY gene, FvWRKY50, was isolated from the woodland strawberry. Expression analysis indicated that the transcript of FvWRKY50 was gradually decreased with fruit ripening, but was significantly induced by B. cinerea infection in mature strawberry fruit. Subcellular localization assay revealed that FvWRKY50 was localized in the nucleus. Several cis-elements related to pathogen responses were observed in the promoter region of FvWRKY50. Pathogen infection assay indicated that overexpression of FvWRKY50 in strawberry fruit significantly enhanced their resistance against B. cinerea, while the silencing of FvWRKY50 dramatically compromised their disease-resistant ability. The expression levels of several genes involved in jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthesis, signaling transduction, and antimicrobial protein biosynthesis were regulated to diverse extents in FvWRKY50 overexpressed and silenced fruit. Collectively, our study inferred that FvWRKY50 is a positive regulator that mediates resistance against B. cinerea through regulating some JA pathway and defense-related genes.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2021-11-24
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy11122377
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2021)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 11, Pages 2378: Soil–Plant Interaction: Effects on
           Plant Growth and Soil Biodiversity

    • Authors: Elena Baldi
      First page: 2378
      Abstract: Soil is a non-renewable resource essential to human life [...]
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2021-11-24
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy11122378
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2021)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 11, Pages 2379: Sustainable Production of Lignocellulolytic
           Enzymes in Solid-State Fermentation of Agro-Industrial Waste: Application
           in Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) Juice Clarification

    • Authors: Priya Rana, Baskaran Stephen Inbaraj, Sushma Gurumayum, Kandi Sridhar
      First page: 2379
      Abstract: Valorization of agro-industrial waste through greener and biotechnological processes are promising approaches to minimize the generation of agro-industrial waste. Therefore, the study aimed to produce lignocellulolytic enzymes from agro-industrial waste under solid-state fermentation (SSF) conditions and study their application in the clarification of pumpkin juice. The SSF was performed with three different combinations of wheat bran + rice bran (WBRB), wheat bran + wheat straw (WBWS), and rice bran + wheat straw (RBWS) as dry solid substrates (1:1) using Fusarium oxysporum (MTCC 7229). The protein, carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase), and xylanase contents ranged from 0.98–3.90 mg/g, 5.89–6.84 U/g substrate, and 10.08–13.77 U/g substrate, respectively in different agro-industrial waste as substrates (WBRB, WBWS, RBWS, and control). The increase in enzyme concentration (0.50–2.40%) added to pumpkin juice exhibited an increased juice yield (16.30–55.60%), reduced browning index (1.03–0.70), and an increase in clarity (5.31–13.77 %T), which was further confirmed by a total variance of 84.83% by principal component analysis. Thus, the low-cost lignocellulolytic enzymes can be produced from agro-industrial waste that might have applications in food and beverage industries. Hence, this approach could be used as a long-term sustainable and circular source to valorize agro-industrial waste towards the greener future and the preservation of ecosystems.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2021-11-24
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy11122379
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2021)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 11, Pages 2380: Negative Pressure Irrigation System Reduces
           Soil Nitrogen Loss for Lettuce during Greenhouse Production

    • Authors: Xiang Gao, Shuxiang Zhang, Yanyan Song, Huaiyu Long
      First page: 2380
      Abstract: Negative pressure irrigation (NPI) to grow crops reduces the application of fertilizer and water while also promoting yield and quality. However, plantation vegetables usually require a large input of nitrogen (N) fertilizer in a greenhouse setting, which will lower the soil quality and accelerate the emission of greenhouse gases. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to explore planting lettuce under an NPI system that retrenches N fertilizer application and mitigates N2O emissions compared with conventional irrigation (CI). This research proved that under NPI conditions, nitrate and ammonium fluctuated slightly in the soil, stabilizing in the range of 18–28 mg kg−1, while that of CI was 20–55 mg kg−1. The NPI alleviated N2O emissions, and NPI-N150 and NPI-N105 decreased them by 18% and 32%, respectively, compared with those for CI-N150. The main explanation was that the NPI inhibited the formation of NO3−-N, reduced the copies number of AOA and AOB as well as the abundance of Nitrospira in the soil, and weakened the soil nitrate reductase and urease activities. The results of this research provide a reliable scientific method for reducing the use of water and N fertilizer while cultivating lettuce, as well as for reducing N2O emissions from agricultural facilities.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2021-11-24
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy11122380
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2021)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 11, Pages 2381: Potential of Sunflower-Legume
           Intercropping: A Way Forward in Sustainable Production of Sunflower in
           Temperate Climatic Conditions

    • Authors: Brankica Babec, Srđan Šeremešić, Nada Hladni, Nemanja Ćuk, Dušan Stanisavljević, Miloš Rajković
      First page: 2381
      Abstract: The ongoing climate change, coupled with the transformations of cultivation practices and land use in sole crop production, may cause a significant decline in sunflower yield stability. Considering that the sunflower is the third oilseed in the world oilseed market, with 45 million tons of grain per year, and that it takes the fourth position in the vegetable oil market, the implementation of sustainable growing technology in sunflower production is a necessity. Considering the above, the goal of the research was to analyze and recommend sustainable sunflower production technology in intercropping systems. A four-year trial was conducted in Serbia’s agroecological conditions (45∘34′23.2′′ N 19∘86′18.9′′ E) using a split-plot design. Two oil-type hybrids and one confectionary-type hybrid were intercropped with common vetch, red clover, and alfalfa. Common vetch × sunflower intercropping resulted in the decrease in almost all sunflower traits. Moreover, sunflower × alfalfa intercropping proved to be the most appropriate. The yield of NS Gricko and Rimi PR were statistically on the same level with sole cropping, while alfalfa biomass had better results after alfalfa was intercropped with NS Gricko, as compared to sole cropping. In view of the prevailing belief that yields are more stable in intercropping than in sole cropping, further research is needed in this respect, in addition to further research of the time and method of sowing.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2021-11-24
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy11122381
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2021)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 11, Pages 2382: A Review of Industrial Crop Yield
           Performances on Unfavorable Soil Types

    • Authors: Jana Reinhardt, Pia Hilgert, Moritz Von Cossel
      First page: 2382
      Abstract: Industrial crop cultivation on marginal agricultural land limits indirect land-use change effects that pose a threat to food security. This review compiles results from 91 published crop-specific field trial datasets spanning 12 relevant industrial crops and discusses their suitability for cultivation on unfavorable soil types (USTs). It was shown that the perennial species Miscanthus (Miscanthus Andersson) and reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea L.) performed well on USTs with both high clay and/or high sand contents. Information on stoniness (particles sizes > 2 mm), where mentioned, was limited. It was found to have only a small impact on biological yield potential, though it was not possible to assess the impact on mechanization as would be used at a commercial scale. For soils with extreme clay or sand contents, half of the crops showed moderate suitability. The large yield variations within and between crops revealed large knowledge gaps in the combined effects of crop type and agronomy on USTs. Therefore, more field trials are needed on diverse USTs in different climates with better equipment and more consistent measurements to improve the accuracy of potential yield predictions spatially and temporally. Additionally, larger trials are needed to optimize cultivation and harvesting.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2021-11-24
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy11122382
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2021)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 11, Pages 2383: Development and Applications of an In Situ
           Probe for Multi-Element High-Resolution Measurement at Soil/Sediment-Water
           Interface and Rice Rhizosphere

    • Authors: Meng Zhao, Jiang Liu, Chuangchuang Zhang, Xuefeng Liang, Qian E, Rongle Liu, Yujie Zhao, Xiaowei Liu
      First page: 2383
      Abstract: The biogeochemistry of multi-elements, such as sulfur (S), phosphorus (P) and arsenic (As), is interlinked especially at interfaces of soil/sediment–water and plant rhizosphere. To explore the biogeochemical behavior of multi-elements such as S-P-As at interfaces, an in situ and high-resolution technology is required. In this study, we developed an in situ probe (LDHs-DGT) based on the diffusive gradients in thin-films technique using a single binding layer to realize the co-measurement of multi-elements including sulfide and oxyanions. Mg-Al layered double hydroxides (LDHs) were synthesized and incorporated into the probe’s binding layer. Laboratorial characterization showed that the LDHs-DGT probe had a high capacity for sulfide, phosphate and arsenate and can effectively determine their levels across a wide range of solution conditions, i.e., pH from 5 to 8 and ionic strengths from 0.005–0.01 mol L−1 NaNO3. The application potential of the LDHS-DGT probe in capturing the concentration profiles of sulfide and oxyanions across the soil/sediment–water interface at a centimeter scale was demonstrated. The synchronous co-variations of labile sulfide and phosphate were observed along an intact river sediment core, demonstrating the redox driven behaviors of oxyanions at aerobic–anaerobic transition zones. Moreover, the LDHS-DGT probe was further used to acquire the dynamic distributions of multi-elements in the plant rhizosphere at a two-dimensional millimeter scale. Compared to treatments of sodium sulfate and mercaptopygorskite fertilization, the addition of elementary S promoted the reduction of sulfate to sulfide along the whole growth stage and thus inhibited the activation of toxic metals in the rice rhizosphere. Collectively, this study provides a tool for convenient measurement of nutrients and metal(loid)s across soil–water/root interfaces at high resolution and thus, a broad application prospect of the tool in sustainable agriculture is expected.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2021-11-24
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy11122383
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2021)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 11, Pages 2384: Reduction of Ammonia Emissions from Laying
           Hen Manure in a Closed Composting Process Using Gas-Permeable Membrane
           Technology

    • Authors: María Soto-Herranz, Mercedes Sánchez-Báscones, Juan Manuel Antolín-Rodríguez, Pablo Martín-Ramos
      First page: 2384
      Abstract: Nitrogen losses during composting processes lead to emissions problems and reduce the compost fertilizer value. Gas-permeable membranes (GPM) are a promising approach to address the challenge of reducing nitrogen losses in composting processes. This study investigated the applicability of two GPM membrane systems to recover N released during the closed composting process of laying hen manure. The ammonia (NH3) capture process was performed using two different systems over a period of 44 days: the first system (S1) consisted of 120 m of an expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) membrane installed inside a 3.7 m3 portable, closed aerobic composter with forced ventilation; the second system (S2) consisted of 474 m of an ePTFE membrane placed inside as an external module designed for NH3 capture, connected to a closed aerobic composter through a pipe. In both cases, a 1 N H2SO4 acidic NH3 capture solution was circulated inside the membranes at a flow rate of 2.1 L·h−1. The amount of total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) recovered was similar in the two systems (0.61 kg in S1 and 0.65 kg in S2) due to the chosen membrane surface areas, but the TAN recovery rate was six times higher in system S1 (6.9 g TAN·m−2·day−1) than in system S2 (1.9 g TAN·m−2·day−1) due to the presence of a higher NH3 concentration in the air in contact with the membrane. Given that the NH3 concentration in the atmosphere of the membrane compartment directly influences the NH3 capture, better performance of the GPM recovery system may be attained by installing it directly inside the closed aerobic composters. Regardless of the chosen configuration, this technology allows N recovery as a stable and concentrated 1.4% N ammonium salt solution, which can be used for fertigation. The presented GPM systems may be used in community composting systems with low volumes of waste to be treated or in livestock facilities that have implemented best available techniques such as solid–liquid separation or anaerobic digestion, provided that the use of GPM technology in combination with these techniques also contributes to odor mitigation and improves biogas yields.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2021-11-24
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy11122384
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2021)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 11, Pages 2385: Mapping Online Geographical Indication:
           Agri-Food Markets on E-Retail Shelves

    • Authors: Guilherme Silva Fracarolli
      First page: 2385
      Abstract: Economics has been trying to understand market functioning for a long time. However, the neoclassical approach does not satisfy the understanding of the mechanisms that operate in the construction, stabilization, and transformation of markets. For this reason, economic sociology proposes to provide subsidies from causal pluralism, rejecting explanatory theories of purely rational choices. Therefore, the use of sociological theories in the understanding of agri-food markets is also necessary. In this sense, this work aimed to compare the market for agri-food products with a geographical indication (GI) between the European Union (EU) and Mercosur, based on the performance of brands and supermarkets in both regions. For this, we used a data survey of thousands of products and respective GI registrations in the most prominent online markets of countries in both regions. We applied analyses that differentiated the economic blocs and used field theory to explain the phenomena found in the findings. The results indicated the formation of relevant bands in the GI market, a little voluminous, but capable of crossing borders, a second, with the majority of GIs found that are only commercialized locally, and a third invisible, where most products are located, which do not exist in these markets. Furthermore, supermarkets’ own brands have great relevance and are decisive in building the market.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2021-11-24
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy11122385
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2021)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 11, Pages 2386: Genotypic and Phenotypic Characterization
           of Lettuce Bacterial Pathogen Xanthomonas hortorum pv. vitians Populations
           Collected in Quebec, Canada

    • Authors: Pierre-Olivier Hébert, Martin Laforest, Dong Xu, Marie Ciotola, Mélanie Cadieux, Carole Beaulieu, Vicky Toussaint
      First page: 2386
      Abstract: Bacterial leaf spot of lettuce, caused by Xanthomonas hortorum pv. vitians, is an economically important disease worldwide. For instance, it caused around 4 million CAD in losses in only a few months during the winter of 1992 in Florida. Because only one pesticide is registered to control this disease in Canada, the development of lettuce cultivars tolerant to bacterial leaf spot remains the most promising approach to reduce the incidence and severity of the disease in lettuce fields. The lack of information about the genetic diversity of the pathogen, however, impairs breeding programs, especially when disease resistance is tested on newly developed lettuce germplasm lines. To evaluate the diversity of X. hortorum pv. vitians, a multilocus sequence analysis was performed on 694 isolates collected in Eastern Canada through the summers of 2014 to 2017 and two isolates in 1996 and 2007. All isolates tested were clustered into five phylogroups. Six pathotypes were identified following pathogenicity tests conducted in greenhouses, but when phylogroups were compared with pathotypes, no correlation could be drawn. However, in vitro production of xanthan and xanthomonadins was investigated, and isolates with higher production of xanthomonadins were generally causing less severe symptoms on the tolerant cultivar Little Gem. Whole-genome sequencing was undertaken for 95 isolates belonging to the pathotypes identified, and de novo assembly made with reads unmapped to the reference strain’s genome sequence resulted in 694 contigs ranging from 128 to 120,795 bp. Variant calling was performed prior to genome-wide association studies computed with single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), copy-number variants and gaps. Polymorphisms with significant p-values were only found on the cultivar Little Gem. Our results allowed molecular identification of isolates likely to cause bacterial leaf spot of lettuce, using two SNPs identified through genome-wide association study.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2021-11-24
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy11122386
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2021)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 11, Pages 2387: Postharvest Physiology of Ornamentals:
           Processes and Their Regulation

    • Authors: Shimon Meir, Sonia Philosoph-Hadas
      First page: 2387
      Abstract: The ornamentals industry is a very important agricultural sector [...]
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2021-11-24
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy11122387
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2021)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 11, Pages 2388: Plant Disease Identification Using Shallow
           Convolutional Neural Network

    • Authors: Sk Mahmudul Hassan, Michal Jasinski, Zbigniew Leonowicz, Elzbieta Jasinska, Arnab Kumar Maji
      First page: 2388
      Abstract: Various plant diseases are major threats to agriculture. For timely control of different plant diseases in effective manner, automated identification of diseases are highly beneficial. So far, different techniques have been used to identify the diseases in plants. Deep learning is among the most widely used techniques in recent times due to its impressive results. In this work, we have proposed two methods namely shallow VGG with RF and shallow VGG with Xgboost to identify the diseases. The proposed model is compared with other hand-crafted and deep learning-based approaches. The experiments are carried on three different plants namely corn, potato, and tomato. The considered diseases in corns are Blight, Common rust, and Gray leaf spot, diseases in potatoes are early blight and late blight, and tomato diseases are bacterial spot, early blight, and late blight. The result shows that our implemented shallow VGG with Xgboost model outperforms different deep learning models in terms of accuracy, precision, recall, f1-score, and specificity. Shallow Visual Geometric Group (VGG) with Xgboost gives the highest accuracy rate of 94.47% in corn, 98.74% in potato, and 93.91% in the tomato dataset. The models are also tested with field images of potato, corn, and tomato. Even in field image the average accuracy obtained using shallow VGG with Xgboost are 94.22%, 97.36%, and 93.14%, respectively.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2021-11-24
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy11122388
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2021)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 11, Pages 2389: Morphological, Biochemical, and Metabolomic
           Strategies of the Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L., cv. Deglet Nour)
           Roots Response to Salt Stress

    • Authors: Safa Bouhouch, Manal Eshelli, Houda Ben Slama, Ali Chenari Bouket, Tomasz Oszako, Adam Okorski, Mostafa E. Rateb, Lassaad Belbahri
      First page: 2389
      Abstract: Numerous Tunisian arid and semi-arid regions are subjected to soil salinity. Thus, they are known for halophytes plants cultivation, including date palms. Phoenix dactylifera L., cv. ‘Deglet Nour’, is a valuable Tunisian cultivar subjected to high salinity levels. In this way, our purpose is to evaluate the response of its roots to long period exposition to increasing salt concentrations. We started by studying the effects of 4 g/L, 8 g/L, 12 g/L, and 16 g/L NaCl on the parameters of germination (Growth rate—GR, Seed Mortality Rate—SLM, Germination Mean Time—GMT, and Germination Speed—GS) of date palm seeds for a 2-month period. We found that 4 g/L NaCl did not affect the seeds germination, and, hereinafter, the parameters of germination and the radicle length decreased with the increase of NaCl concentrations and experiment time. Then, we demonstrated a high antioxidative enzymes CAT and SOD production in case of salt stress augmentation. Lastly, a metabolomic approach was carried out by LC-HRMS, followed by an untargeted and targeted analysis using the XCMS online and MZmine tools, respectively. The roots chemical composition was compared using PCA. We identified 25 secondary metabolites, divided into 3 categories. Metabolites known for their role in salt stress alleviation include δ-tocotrienol, metabolites identified in salt stress for the first time, and other unknown metabolites.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2021-11-24
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy11122389
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2021)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 11, Pages 2390: Utilisation of Miscanthus x giganteus L.
           Based C-Rich Fertilisers for N Immobilisation and Microbial Biomass
           Build-Up in a Crop Rotation

    • Authors: Michael Stotter, Florian Wichern, Ralf Pude, Martin Hamer
      First page: 2390
      Abstract: Cultivation of perennials such as Miscanthus x giganteus Greef et Deuter (Mis) combines the provision of ecosystem services and the generation of additional carbon sources for farming. The potential of Mis based fertilisers, regarding immobilisation of inorganic nitrogen (N) and build-up of soil organic matter (SOM), was tested in a field trial. Therefore, a crop rotation of winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), mustard (Sinapis alba L.) as catch crop, sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was set up. The tested treatments were a mixture of Cattle Slurry (CS) and Mis, a mixture of CS and Wheat Straw (CS–WS), Cattle Manure (CM) from Mis shredded bedding, CM from WS shredded bedding, a pure CS, Urea Ammonium Nitrate (UAN) and a treatment without any N applied (NoN). When the carbon-rich fertilisers (both mixtures and manures) were applied to cereals, they led to a slight N immobilisation compared to pure CS, whereas differences were mostly not significant. Furthermore, Mis fertilisers were at least as efficient as WS-based organic fertilisers in inducing a contribution of SOM build-up and in reducing inorganic N before winter and thus preventing N losses, whereas differences were mostly not significant.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2021-11-24
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy11122390
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2021)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 11, Pages 2391: Chemical and Microbial Characterization of
           Washed Rice Water Waste to Assess Its Potential as Plant Fertilizer and
           for Increasing Soil Health

    • Authors: Abba Nabayi, Christopher Teh Boon Sung, Ali Tan Kee Zuan, Tan Ngai Paing, Nurul Izzati Mat Akhir
      First page: 2391
      Abstract: The wastewater from washed rice water (WRW) is often recommended as a source of plant nutrients in most Asian countries, even though most current research on WRW lack scientific rigor, particularly on the effects of rice washing intensity, volumetric water-to-rice ratio (W:R), and condition of the WRW before plant application. This research was thus carried out: (1) to determine how various rice washing intensities, fermentation periods (FP), and W:R would affect the nutrient content in WRW, and (2) to isolate, identify, and characterize the bacterial community from fermented WRW. The WRW was prepared at several rice washing intensities (50, 80, and 100 rpm), FP (0, 3, 6, and 9 days), and W:R (1:1, 3:1, and 6:1). The concentrations of all elements (except P, Mg, and Zn) and available N forms increased with increasing FP and W:R. Beneficial N-fixing and P- and K-solubilizing bacteria were additionally detected in WRW, which helped to increase the concentrations of these elements. Monovalent nutrients NH4+-N, NO3−-N, and K are soluble in water. Thus, they were easily leached out of the rice grains and why their concentrations increased with W:R. The bacteria population in WRW increased until 3 days of fermentation, then declined, possibly because there was an insufficient C content in WRW to be a source of energy for bacteria to support their prolonged growth. While C levels in WRW declined over time, total N levels increased then decreased after 3 days, where the latter was most possibly due to the denitrification and ammonification process, which had led to the increase in NH4+-N and NO3−-N. The optimum FP and W:R for high nutrient concentrations and bacterial population were found to be 3 to 9 days and 3:1 to 6:1, respectively. WRW contained nutrients and beneficial bacterial species to support plant growth.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2021-11-24
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy11122391
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2021)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 11, Pages 2392: Elevated Fe and Mn Concentrations in
           Groundwater in the Songnen Plain, Northeast China, and the Factors and
           Mechanisms Involved

    • Authors: Yuanzheng Zhai, Xinyi Cao, Xuelian Xia, Bin Wang, Yanguo Teng, Xiao Li
      First page: 2392
      Abstract: Groundwater is an essential source of drinking and irrigation water. However, elevated Fe and Mn concentrations in groundwater have been found in recent decades, which can adversely affect human health and decrease crop quality and yields. The roles of hydrogeochemical changes and groundwater pollution (exogenous reductive material inputs) in this have not been studied adequately. We determined the distribution of Fe and Mn concentrations in groundwater in the Songnen Plain, northeast China, which is known for elevated Fe and Mn concentrations, and investigated the factors and mechanisms involved in causing the elevated concentrations. Chemical and statistical analyses indicated that the Fe and Mn concentrations in groundwater significantly correlated with climate parameters (precipitation and temperature), surface features (altitude, distance from a river, soil type, soil texture, and land use type) and hydrogeochemical characteristics (chemical oxygen demand and NH4+, NO3−, and P concentrations). In particular, the Fe and Mn concentrations in groundwater are higher in areas containing paddy fields and water bodies than other land use type areas. Areas with groundwater containing ultra-high Fe and Mn concentrations have almost all of the favorable factors. The main reasons for the elevated Fe and Mn concentrations in groundwater in the study area are the Fe/Mn mineral-rich strata and soil with abundant organic matter acting as sources of Fe and Mn to the groundwater and the reductive environment in the lower terrain and areas containing water bodies favoring Fe and Mn dissolution in the groundwater. Inputs of pollutants from agricultural activities have caused the Fe and Mn concentrations in groundwater to increase. Future studies should be performed to study interactions between pollutants from agricultural activities and Fe and Mn in groundwater and develop environmental management strategies for preventing future increases in Fe and Mn concentrations and promoting sustainable development of agriculture.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2021-11-24
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy11122392
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2021)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 11, Pages 2393: Fruit Physiology and Sugar-Acid Profile of
           24 Pomelo (Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck) Cultivars Grown in Subtropical
           Region of China

    • Authors: Tengfei Pan, Muhammad Moaaz Ali, Jiangmei Gong, Wenqin She, Dongming Pan, Zhixiong Guo, Yuan Yu, Faxing Chen
      First page: 2393
      Abstract: In the present study, the fruit physiology and sugar-acid ratio of 24 pomelo cultivars grown in ten different locations of the subtropical region of China were measured. The contents of soluble sugars and organic acids were quantified using high-performance (HPLC-MS) and ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS), respectively. The results revealed that the physiological and basic quality attributes of 24 pomelo cultivars, including fruit weight, fruit width, fruit length, peel thickness, number of segments, pulp weight, pulp color, soluble solids, and Vitamin C, ranged between 264.63–1945.85 g, 8.60–19.56 g, 7.40–20.70 g, 0.46–3.33 mm, 11–18.66, 210.25–1351.66 g, 8.59–15.14 Brix°, and 34.79–84.58 mg/100 g, respectively. Soluble sugars, i.e., fructose, glucose, and sucrose, ranged between 16.25–24.25, 16.17–24.22, and 19.90–55.28 mg/g, respectively. Similarly, Organic acids, i.e., pyruvate, fumaric acids, succinic acid, tartaric acid, quinic acid, citric acid, malic acid, and cis-aconitic acid, in 24 pomelo cultivars ranged between 0.48–1.84, 0.02–0.45, 0–0.05, 0.01–0.1, 0–0.14, 3.01–11.85, 0.18–1.42, and 0.01–0.16 mg/g, respectively. The pomelo cultivars ‘Hongzuanmi’, ‘Minihong’, and ‘Hangwanmi’ exhibited maximum contents of citric acid and pyruvate and showed ultimately excessive organic acids. Overall, the ‘Guanximi’ and its budding cultivars, i.e., ‘Hongroumi’, ‘Huangjinmi’, and ‘Sanhongmi’, had the best quality fruits having maximum sugar-acid ratio. Correlation analysis showed that total soluble sugars had a significantly positive correlation with sucrose contents, while citric acids, malic acid, and pyruvate were positively correlated with total organic acids. The determined sugar-acid profile of pomelo cultivars provides the basis for future elucidation of key mechanisms regulating sugars and acids biosynthesis in pomelo.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2021-11-24
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy11122393
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2021)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 11, Pages 2394: Evaluation of Kenya Stem Rust Observation
           Nursery Wheat Genotypes for Yield and Yield Components under Artificial
           Rust Conditions

    • Authors: Madahana, Owuoche, Oyoo, Macharia, Randhawa
      First page: 2394
      Abstract: Common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a major cereal crop contributing to global food and nutrition which necessitates the deployment of wheat genotypes that are high yielding and resistant to prevailing diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate Kenya stem rust observation nursery (KSRON) wheat genotypes for grain yield, yield components and stem rust resistance. A 3-season field experiment was set up in a 25 × 7 alpha lattice design at Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organization (KALRO), Njoro (35°56′60′′ E; 0°20′60′′ S). Significant (p ≤ 0.001) differences due to seasons, genotype and genotype × season interaction was observed for all the traits except days to heading (DH) and number of seeds per spike (SS). Seasons, genotype and genotype × season interaction explained 48.2%, 25.23% and 26.67% of the total variability in grain yield (GY), respectively. Significant (p ≤ 0.05) variation of means between seasons for all the traits were higher in the 2019 main season than the 2019 and 2020 off-seasons except for 1000-kernel weight (TKW). Heritability (H2) estimates ranged from 49.58% for GY to 94.11% for DH. GY had a positive genetic and phenotypic correlation with all the traits except for DH (rg = −0.13, rp = −0.09), stem rust (SR) (rg = −0.53 ***, rp = −0.38 ***) and yellow rust (YR) (rg = −0.28 ***, rp = −0.19 *) severity. SR caused 22%, 14% and 13% reduction in TKW, GY and biomass (BM), respectively. YR caused 2% and 4% reduction in GY and BM. This study identified KSRON 13, KSRON 31, KSRON 40, KSRON 52, KSRON 53, KSRON 78, KSRON 80 and KSRON 144 as the best high GY (8.43–7.79 t ha−1) as well as resistant to SR (AUDPC; 99.0–170.67) and YR (AUDPC; 18.67–128.33).
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2021-11-24
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy11122394
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2021)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 11, Pages 2395: Effect of Pollen Genotype, Temperature and
           Period of Storage on In Vitro Germinability and In Vivo Seed Set in
           Chrysanthemum—Preliminary Study

    • Authors: Natalia Miler, Anita Wozny
      First page: 2395
      Abstract: Among many challenges in chrysanthemum cross-breeding, the access to viable pollen for hybridization of cultivars distant in location and different in flowering time is required. Low pollen viability along with incompatibility are mainly responsible for low seed set in modern chrysanthemum cultivars. The aim of the study was to test various temperatures and periods of pollen storage of Chrysanthemum × morifolium in order to elaborate the method of chrysanthemum pollen preservation for cross-breeding purposes. In the first experiment, in vitro pollen germination of four cultivars was investigated following storage at 20 °C, 4 °C, −20 °C, and −80 °C, for one, four, and eight weeks. The second experiment focused on in vivo seed set after one week pollen treatment with 20 °C, 4 °C, −20 °C, and −80 °C (three pollen donor cultivars tested). Pollen in vitro germinability, as well as seed set efficiency, was generally low and cultivar dependent. Independent of the period of storage, stored pollen germinability was lower (5.30–6.63%) than fresh pollen (8.15%). Incubation of pollen in −80 °C significantly increased pollen germinability (9.80%), as well as seed set efficiency in comparison to control (19.28% and 10.21%, respectively) provided the cultivars are compatible. Among cultivars, the highest germinability of pollen was found in ‘Brda’ and ‘Donna’ (8.2% and 8.23%, respectively), while ‘Bydgoszczanka’ showed the lowest germinability (2.97%). There were also pollen genotype dependent effects in in vivo seed set efficiency, which was highest in ’Brda’ (17.57%) and much lower in ‘Jutrzenka’ and ‘Polka’ (1.34% and 0.39%, respectively), which contributed to the incompatibility of crossed cultivars rather than pollen viability.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2021-11-24
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy11122395
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2021)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 11, Pages 2396: Subsurface-Applied Coated Nitrogen
           Fertilizer Enhanced Wheat Production by Improving Nutrient-Use Efficiency
           with Less Ammonia Volatilization

    • Authors: Muhammad Yaseen, Adeel Ahmad, Muhammad Naveed, Muhammad Asif Ali, Syed Shahid Hussain Shah, Muhammad Hasnain, Hayssam M. Ali, Manzer H. Siddiqui, Mohamed Z. M. Salem, Adnan Mustafa
      First page: 2396
      Abstract: Nitrogen (N) is an essential plant nutrient, therefore, N-deficient soils affect plant growth and development. The excessive and unwise application of N fertilizers result in nutrient losses and lower nutrient use efficiency that leads to the low crop productivity. Ammonia volatilization causes a major loss after N fertilization that causes environmental pollution. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of coating and uncoating N fertilizer in enhancing yield and nutrient-use efficiency with reduced ammonia emissions. The recommended rate of nitrogen and phosphorus, urea and di-ammonium phosphate (DAP) fertilizers were coated manually with 1% polymer solution. DAP (coated/uncoated) and potassium were applied at the time of sowing as subsurface application. While urea (coated/uncoated) was applied as surface and subsurface application. Results showed that nutrient use efficiencies of wheat were found to be maximum with the subsurface application of coated N fertilizer which increased nutrient-use efficiency by 44.57 (N), 44.56 (P) and 44.53% (K) higher than the surface application of uncoated N fertilizer. Ammonia emissions were found the lowest with subsurface-applied coated N fertilizer. Thus, coated fertilizer applied via subsurface was found the best technique to overcome the ammonia volatilization with an improvement in the yield and nutrient-use efficiency of wheat.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2021-11-25
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy11122396
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2021)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 11, Pages 2397: A Critical Review on Lignocellulosic
           Biomass Yield Modeling and the Bioenergy Potential from Marginal Land

    • Authors: Jan Haberzettl, Pia Hilgert, Moritz von Cossel
      First page: 2397
      Abstract: Lignocellulosic biomass from marginal land is needed for a social–ecologically sustainable bioeconomy transition. However, how much biomass can be expected' This study addresses this question by reviewing the limitations of current biomass yield modeling for lignocellulosic crops on marginal land and deriving recommendations to overcome these limitations. It was found that on the input side of biomass yield models, geographically limited research and the lack of universally understood definitions impose challenges on data collection. The unrecognized complexity of marginal land, the use of generic crop growth models together with data from small-scale field trials and limited resolution further reduce the comparability of modeling results. On the output side of yield models, the resistance of modeled yields to future variations is highly limited by the missing incorporation of the risk of land use changes and climatic change. Moreover, several limitations come with the translation of modeled yields into bioenergy yields: the non-specification of conversion factors, a lack of conversion capacities, feedstock yield–quality tradeoffs, as well as slow progress in breeding and the difficulty of sustainability criteria integration into models. Intensified political support and enhancement of research on a broad range of issues might increase the consistency of future yield modeling.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2021-11-25
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy11122397
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2021)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 11, Pages 2398: Characterization of Beekeepers and Their
           Activities in Seven European Countries

    • Authors: Raquel P. F. Guiné, Sónia Mesquita, Jorge Oliveira, Catarina Coelho, Daniela Teixeira Costa, Paula Correia, Helena Esteves Correia, Bjørn Dahle, Melissa Oddie, Risto Raimets, Reet Karise, Luis Tourino, Salvatore Basile, Emilio Buonomo, Ivan Stefanic, Cristina A. Costa
      First page: 2398
      Abstract: Beekeeping is an ancient activity that is gaining interest among practitioners and society in general. It is as an activity with positive impacts in the environmental, social and economic spheres, with the potential to reconnect these dimensions and contribute to sustainable development. Thus, it is important to determine the profiles of beekeepers across the world, and to understand the main social, economic or ecological drivers that shape their activities. Hofstede cross-cultural dimensions were used to better explain differences between countries. A survey was undertaken of beekeepers in different countries (Croatia, Estonia, Finland, Italy, Norway, Portugal, and Spain) in the native language of each nation. A total of 313 questionnaires, using an online platform or in paper form, was delivered face-to-face during training or dissemination events in 2019. Norway and Finland were the countries with the highest percentage of respondents with a university degree (>80%), while Spain (42%) and Croatia (48%) presented the lowest percentages. Most participants were experienced beekeepers (59% had more than five years of experience) with more than 50 colonies. With the exception of Italy, beekeeping appears to be a hobby or an additional professional activity. The main beekeeping products for these beekeepers were honey, wax, colonies and propolis, with an average honey production per season of 24.5 kg/hive. Crossing socio-demographic characteristics and Hofstede cross-cultural dimensions showed a relation among countries with higher Power Distance Index (PDI; this value expresses how society accepts and expects a certain inequality of power) and lower annual income and educational level (Croatia, Portugal, and Spain). A strong correlation appeared between Masculinity Femininity Index (MFI; this value refers to gender effects in society, with feminine societies meaning that the dominant values are caring for others and quality of life, as opposed to masculine societies, which are driven by competition, achievement and success) and age, income and education, with Norway presenting the most feminine society, with more educated and older beekeepers. The Uncertainty Aversion Index (UAI; this value explains how members of a society feel when dealing with unknown situations) was strongly associated with education. The results showed that increasing beekeepers’ income will contribute to balancing the distribution of power among members of society, and that this might be achieved by training, especially in Croatia, Portugal, Spain, and Italy.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2021-11-25
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy11122398
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2021)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 11, Pages 2399: Influence of the Downwash Wind Field of
           Plant Protection UAV on Droplet Deposition Distribution Characteristics at
           Different Flight Heights

    • Authors: Yubin Lan, Shicheng Qian, Shengde Chen, Yingjie Zhao, Xiaoling Deng, Guobin Wang, Yu Zang, Juan Wang, Xingyan Qiu
      First page: 2399
      Abstract: The aerial spraying of pesticides by plant protection unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) is a process in which the spray droplet deposition on target sites occurs under the influence of the downwash wind field. The downwash wind field is the most important factor affecting droplet deposition distribution characteristics in an aerial spray. To understand the mechanism of the downwash wind field, spray tests were conducted at different flight heights by using a DJI UAV, and the downwash wind field in the three-dimensional direction (X-directional wind, Y-crosswind, and Z-vertical wind) was measured by using a wind speed measurement system for UAV. Combined with the droplet deposition of aerial spray, the distribution characteristics of the downwash wind field and the influence of the downwash wind field on droplet deposition were studied. The results showed that it had obvious differences in the distribution of the downwash wind field for UAV at different flight heights. As the flight height increases, the downwash wind field in X-direction and Z-direction showed a strong to weak trend, while the downwash wind field in Y-direction showed an opposite trend. In addition, it was found that the downwash wind field in Y-direction and Z-direction both have a significant influence on droplet deposition. With the increase of flight height, the change of the downwash wind field led to a gradual decrease in droplet deposition in the effective spray area, and droplets deposited more uniformly. For the DJI T16 plant protection UAV in this test, the optimal flight height was 2.0 m, and the downwash wind field had a better improvement effect on droplet deposition. Therefore, in order to make full use of the downwash wind field of UAV, the appropriate flight height should be selected to improve droplet deposition of liquid pesticide and achieve a better control effect for crop disease and pests when UAV is used for aerial spray operations in the field. This study revealed the influence mechanism of the downwash wind field on droplet deposition of aerial spray, and proposed appropriate operation parameters from the perspective of practical operation. It was expected to provide data support for improving the operation quality of aerial spraying and the formulation of field operation specifications.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2021-11-25
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy11122399
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2021)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 11, Pages 2400: Phenotypic and DNA Marker-Assisted
           Characterization of Russian Potato Cultivars for Resistance to Potato Cyst
           Nematodes

    • Authors: Tatjana A. Gavrilenko, Aleksander V. Khiutti, Natalia S. Klimenko, Olga Y. Antonova, Natalia A. Fomina, Olga S. Afanasenko
      First page: 2400
      Abstract: Potato is one of the most important food crops in the world and also in the Russian Federation. Among harmful organisms reducing potato yield potential, the potato cyst nematodes (PCN) are considered to be ones of the most damaging pests. Information on PCN resistant cultivars is important for potato breeding and production. Russian potato cultivars are characterized in the state-bio-test program for resistance to only one PCN species Globodera rostochiensis and one pathotype Ro1 which is reported to be present in the country. This study aimed to find domestic cultivars with multiple resistances to different PCN species and different pathotypes using phenotyping coupled with molecular marker analysis due to the risk of the occasional introduction of new pests. The phenotypic response was determined by the inoculation of plants with pathotypes Ro5 of G. rostochiensis and Pa3 of G. pallida. The obtained results were supplemented by the state-bio-test data on resistance to Ro1 of G. rostochiensis. Nine of 26 Russian cultivars were resistant both to Ro5 and Ro1 pathotypes and two cultivars possess multiple resistances to both PCN species. Most tested molecular markers associated with the Gpa2, GpaVvrn, GpaVsspl, Grp1 loci showed discrepancies with phenotyping. However, a predictive haplotype and epistatic effect were detected.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2021-11-25
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy11122400
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2021)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 11, Pages 2401: Hybrids Development between Greek Salvia
           Species and Their Drought Resistance Evaluation along with Salvia
           fruticosa, under Attapulgite-Amended Substrate

    • Authors: Maria Papafotiou, Aikaterini N. Martini, Eleonora Papanikolaou, Eleftherios G. Stylias, Anastasios Kalantzis
      First page: 2401
      Abstract: Aiming to obtain Salvia hybrids with ornamental value and high drought resistance, for xeriscaping, crossbreeding was made with Greek Salvia species. S. fruticosa and S. officinalis when used as seed parent were successfully crossed with S. pomifera ssp. pomifera, S. ringens and S. tomentosa, while when used as pollen parent it only succeeded between S. fruticosa and S. tomentosa. The growth of S. fruticosa and the four hybrids, S. officinalis × S. pomifera, S. officinalis × S. tomentosa, S. officinalis × S. ringens and S. fruticosa × S. ringens, selected for their ornamental traits, was evaluated under limited irrigation and modification of the substrate with attapulgite clay. The hybrids S. officinalis × S. ringens and S. officinalis × S. tomentosa developed a compact plant shape and most lateral shoots, desirable characteristics for potted plants and xeriscaping. All hybrids, especially S. officinalis × S. pomifera and S. officinalis × S. tomentosa, survived water stress better than S. fruticosa. Modification of the substrate with attapulgite, under limited irrigation, caused a decrease in the above ground/root biomass ratio in some hybrids and in S. fruticosa increased the dry weight of the root indicating increased drought resistance.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2021-11-25
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy11122401
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2021)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 11, Pages 2402: Complex Spectroscopic Study for Fusarium
           Genus Fungi Infection Diagnostics of “Zalp” Cultivar Oat

    • Authors: Dmitrii Pankin, Anastasia Povolotckaia, Alexey Kalinichev, Alexey Povolotskiy, Evgenii Borisov, Maksim Moskovskiy, Anatoly Gulyaev, Aleksandr Lavrov, Andrey Izmailov
      First page: 2402
      Abstract: At present, one of the critical problems in agriculture is the identification of cereals, including oats, infected by Fusarium spp. genus fungi. Timely diagnostics can prevent the further disease spread and help to identify the already stored infected grains. In this regard, the aim of this work is to develop the spectroscopic approaches that determine the infected grains. As an object of the investigation the “Zalp” cultivar oat, both healthy and infected grains of the 2020 harvest were chosen. The spectroscopic diagnostics included FTIR in the mid-IR region, Raman, and luminescence methods. Combination of chemometric tools with FTIR and Raman spectroscopy allowed obtaining approaches based on identified characteristic spectral features which may be used as infection markers. These approaches make it possible to detect the infection on the grain husk. The carotenoid type fungi pigment was identified within the resonance conditions of Raman scattering excitation. The luminescence study of infected oat husk revealed the presence of characteristic chlorophyll α peak which is absent in healthy grain husk.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2021-11-25
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy11122402
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2021)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 11, Pages 2403: Impacts of Farming Layer Constructions on
           Cultivated Land Quality under the Cultivated Land Balance Policy

    • Authors: Long Kang, Rui Zhao, Kening Wu, Qin Huang, Sicheng Zhang
      First page: 2403
      Abstract: Cultivated Land Balance Policy (CLBP) has led to the “better land occupied and worse land supplemented” program. At the same time, the current field-scale cultivated land quality (CLQ) evaluation cannot meet the work requirements of the CLBP. To this end, this study selected 24 newly added farmland in Fuping County and performed eight different high quality farming layer construction experiments to improve the CLQ. A new comprehensive model was constructed on a field scale to evaluate the CLQ using different tests from multi-dimensional perspectives of soil fertility, engineering, environment, and ecology, and to determine the best test mode. The results showed that after the test, around 62% of the cultivated land improved by one level, and the average cultivated land quality level and quality index of the test area increased by 0.63 and 30.63, respectively. The treatment of “woody peat + rotten crop straw + biostimulation regulator II + conventional fertilization” had the best effect on the improvement of organic matter, soil aggregates, and soil microbial activity, and was the best treatment method. In general, application of soil amendments, such as woody peat when constructing high quality farmland, could quickly improve CLQ, and field-scale CLQ evaluation model constructed from a multi-dimensional perspective could accurately assess the true quality of farmland and allow managers to improve and manage arable land resources under CLBP.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2021-11-25
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy11122403
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2021)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 11, Pages 2404: Agave Steroidal Saponins as Potential
           Bioherbicides

    • Authors: Alexandra G. Durán, Javier Benito, Francisco A. Macías, Ana M. Simonet
      First page: 2404
      Abstract: Agave saponins are a valuable resource for the prospective development of new forms of agrochemicals. The extraction method was optimized and applied to 17 Agave species. Thirteen saponin fractions (SFs) were assayed on wheat etiolated coleoptiles, and analysed using UPLC-QTOF-MSE, NMR spectroscopy and the HMBC method for aglycone identification (HMAI). Six SFs were assayed on standard target species (STS) and weeds. The new extraction method reduces costs to obtain SFs with the same activity. The tested SFs assayed on etiolated wheat coleoptiles that belong to the subgenus Agave were among those with the highest activity levels. The combination of HMAI together with UPLC-MS allowed the identification of 20 aglycones in the SFs, and no isolation or hydrolysis of the saponins was required. A Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed that for the active SFs the structural key would be the length of their sugar chain. The presence of a carbonyl group at C-12 implied an enhancement in phytotoxic activity. Six SFs were assayed on seeds, and no activity on Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) was observed; however, good activity profiles were obtained on weed E. crus-galli (IC50 < 80 ppm), better than the commercial herbicide Logran®. These findings represent a possible lead for the development of natural herbicides through the use of saponins of subgenus Agave species.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2021-11-25
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy11122404
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2021)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 11, Pages 2405: Spatiotemporal Assessment and
           Meteorological Determinants of Atmospheric Drought in Agricultural Areas
           of East-Central Poland

    • Authors: Krzysztof Bartoszek, Alicja Baranowska, Łukasz Kukla, Barbara Skowera, Alicja Węgrzyn
      First page: 2405
      Abstract: Atmospheric drought is an extremely important issue on a global, regional and local scale, especially in the context of climate change. The aim of the study was to assess the spatiotemporal variation of atmospheric (meteorological) drought in agricultural areas of east-central Poland, represented by the Lublin Voivodeship (Lublin region) in 1971–2015. Average monthly air temperatures and monthly precipitation totals recorded over the 45-year period at 25 weather stations were used in the study. The assessment of spatiotemporal variation in atmospheric drought in the study area was based on calculations of the aridity index. The analysis showed an increase in the severity of atmospheric drought in the Lublin region, with intensification of this phenomenon in the last two decades, especially in the warmer half of the year (April, June–August). The main cause of drought in the Lublin region was identified as a statistically significant increase in air temperature (on average, from 0.4 °C to 0.7 °C/10 years in April, July and August, and from 0.2 °C to 0.5 °C/10 years in June) together with the absence of changes in precipitation in the warmer half of the year. This may be linked to some increase in the frequency of high-pressure circulation types, both non-directional and advection from the south. Due to the worsening problem of drought in Poland in recent years, especially in agriculture, there is a need for further research on this subject and for solutions aimed at optimizing agricultural use of the productive environment.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2021-11-25
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy11122405
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2021)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 11, Pages 2406: NRC Designs—New Tools for Successful
           Agricultural Experiments

    • Authors: Agnieszka Łacka
      First page: 2406
      Abstract: In a nested row–column design (NRC), the experimental units in each of n blocks are grouped into n1 rows and n2 columns. Due to its structure, this experimental design allows full control of the experimental material and a relatively simple feedback loop within the “statistical triangle”. By applying such designs in agricultural experiments, we provide an insurance policy against future unexpected problems. Until now, the cost of this policy has been a complex statistical analysis of experimental data. This paper proposes a new “direct” approach to ANOVA based on the latest literature on the subject. The paper provides the theoretical foundations of this approach, indicates the possibility of applying it to factorial and near-factorial experiments, and supplements the theory with a familiar letter-based representation of all-pairwise comparisons, which has so far been lacking in the literature. The methodology is illustrated by the analysis of a field experiment carried out to improve the use of fungicides against late blight in tomato processing. The presented analytical tools are supplemented with code in R.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2021-11-25
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy11122406
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2021)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 11, Pages 2407: Epiphytic Microbial Community and
           Post-Harvest Characteristics of Strawberry Fruits as Affected by Plant
           Nutritional Regime with Silicon

    • Authors: Fabio Valentinuzzi, Youry Pii, Luigimaria Borruso, Tanja Mimmo, Edoardo Puglisi, Marco Trevisan, Stefano Cesco
      First page: 2407
      Abstract: Despite being not essential to plants, Silicon (Si) has proven to have promoting effects on plants growth, yield, and resistance against biotic and abiotic stressors. The increase of concentration in specific minerals in plant tissues can also improve shelf-life, which, in fruits like strawberries, is also affected by the epiphytic microbial community. The present research was carried out to assess whether Si biofortification of strawberry plants, grown in soilless system, could affect plants yield and post-harvest feature of fruits during the storage period, carried out at three different temperatures (i.e., 1, 4 and 10 °C) for 7 and 14 days. Furthermore, we investigated whether the plant nutritional regime, specifically the Si fertilization, can impact the composition of microbial community. Our results showed that biofortification did not significantly affect fruits firmness, whereas, at the highest Si levels, an increase in titratable acidity was observed. The microbial community analysis highlighted for the first time the presence of probiotic bacteria, as Bacillus breve, which could present interesting technological features as strains adapted to the strawberry fruit-sphere. In addition, with the increasing levels of Si biofortification, the depletion of potentially pathogenic microorganisms, like Escherichia coli and Terrisporobacter glycolicus, was also observed. In conclusion, data here reported highlight for the first time the possible role played by the nutritional regimes of strawberry plants in shaping composition of the fruit epiphytic microbial community.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2021-11-26
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy11122407
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2021)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 11, Pages 2408: Modern Short Food Supply Chain, Good
           Agricultural Practices, and Sustainability: A Conceptual Framework and
           Case Study in Vietnam

    • Authors: Viet Hoang
      First page: 2408
      Abstract: The rapid increases in environmental pollution, urbanization, health concerns, and technological progress enhance the demand for greener, healthier, and fairer food production and consumption. The short food supply chain (SFSC) becomes one of the crucial solutions for these issues. This study aims to propose a conceptual framework of the SFSC, assess the short vegetable supply chain (SVSC) in Vietnam, identify its barriers and challenges, and explore interventions and support as key success factors of the SVSC by using both qualitative and quantitative methods. This study initially proposes the SFSC framework with six pillars and 28 indicators, this model is used to assess the SVSC. The results show that the SVSC brings various social, economic, and environmental benefits: First, it can increase farmers’ income, employment, fairness, and health. Second, the SVSC can decrease environmental pollution, food waste, and energy consumption. Third, it can improve food quality and consumers’ health. Fourth, the SVSC enhances on-farm education, agricultural tourism, local livestock farming, and traditional culture and relationship. However, the SVSC encounters various barriers and challenges impeding its performances and benefits. The vegetable value chain gains several interventions and support from the government and the project to overcome these barriers. Overall, the SFSC, good agricultural practice, and sustainability are strongly associated: good agricultural practice and sustainability are inherent in the SFSC.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2021-11-26
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy11122408
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2021)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 11, Pages 2409: Efficiency of Rice Husk Biochar with
           Poultry Litter Co-Composts in Oxisols for Improving Soil Physico-Chemical
           Properties and Enhancing Maize Performance

    • Authors: Hamed Alarefee, Che Fauziah Ishak, Daljit Singh Karam, Radziah Othman
      First page: 2409
      Abstract: Efficient use of co-composted organic manure with biochar is one of the sustainable management practices in an agriculture system to increase soil fertility and crop yield. The objectives of this research are to evaluate the use of co-composted biochar, biochar in formulation with poultry litter (PL), and PL compost on soil properties and maize growth. Organic amendments were applied at 10 Mg ha−1, and synthetic fertilizer was applied at the recommended rate of maize (N: P2O5: K2O at 60:60:40 kg ha−1). The results showed that addition of organic amendment significantly increased the total biomass parameter compared to the control, which ranged from 23.2% to 988.5%. The pure biochar treatment yielded lower biomass than the control by 27.1%, which was attributed to its low nutrient content. Consequently, the application of the co-composted biochar achieved higher plant height and aerial portion, which ranged from 46.86% to 25.74% and 7.8% to 108.2%, respectively, in comparison to the recommended fertilizer rate. In addition, the soil amended with co-composted biochar had a significant increase in soil organic matter and had significantly higher chlorophyll and nutrient concentrations in plants, which increased with an increase in the biochar ratio of the co-composts. This was probably attributed to the release of the nutrients retained during composting, thereby possibly making the co-composted biochar act as a slow-release fertilizer. In conclusion, the addition of organic manure with biochar enhanced the nutrient supply by gradual release in comparison to the mineral fertilizer.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2021-11-26
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy11122409
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2021)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 11, Pages 2410: Soil Health Check-Up of Conservation
           Agriculture Farming Systems in Brazil

    • Authors: Jardel H. Passinato, Telmo J. C. Amado, Amir Kassam, José A. A. Acosta, Lúcio de P. Amaral
      First page: 2410
      Abstract: Conservation agriculture has been promoted as the main strategy to regenerate soil life but its effect on soil enzyme activity remains little documented. This study investigated the β-glucosidase and arylsulfatase enzymes as tools to evaluate soil health at the field level. Croplands in four main grain-producing states in Brazil were selected for this study. In each cropland, three environments (high yield (HYE), medium yield (MYE), and low yield (LYE)) were delineated for soil sampling to determine soil chemical attributes and enzyme activity. In one of these fields with a large temporal database, soil DNA characterization was also undertaken. The two soil enzymes investigated were affected by a range of soil attributes and the most important of these were identified. Around 40% of the data points sampled had low soil organic matter content; these were associated with low enzyme activity. Furthermore, in HYE there was more biodiversity and a higher presence of plant-growth promoters, while in LYE there were more plant pathogenic organisms.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2021-11-26
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy11122410
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2021)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 11, Pages 2411: Proposal for a Crop Protection Information
           System for Rural Farmers in Tanzania

    • Authors: Isakwisa Gaddy Tende, Kentaro Aburada, Hisaaki Yamaba, Tetsuro Katayama, Naonobu Okazaki
      First page: 2411
      Abstract: Crop protection information, such as how to control emergent and outbreak crop diseases and pests, as well as the latest research, regulations, and quality control measures for pesticides and fertilizers, is important to farmers. Rural smallholder farmers in Tanzania have traditionally relied on government agricultural officers who visit them in their villages to provide this crop protection information. However, these officers are few and cannot reach all the farmers on time. This means that farmers fail to make critical farming decisions on time, which can lead to low crop productivity. In this study, we aim to provide farmers with reliable and instant crop protection information by developing a system based on the Short Message Service (SMS) and the Web. This system automatically replies to farmers’ requests for the latest crop protection information in the Swahili language through SMS on a mobile phone or a Web system. The findings reveal that our proposed system can provide farmers with crop protection information at lower cost (500 times cheaper) than the existing Tigo Kilimo system. Furthermore, our proposed system’s deep learning model is effective in understanding and processing Swahili natural language SMS queries for crop protection information with an accuracy of 96.43%. This crop protection information will help farmers make better critical farming decisions on time and improve crop productivity.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2021-11-26
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy11122411
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2021)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 11, Pages 2412: Phenotyping and Identification of Reduced
           Height (Rht) Alleles (Rht-B1b and Rht-D1b) in a Nepali Spring Wheat
           

    • Authors: Kamal Khadka, Mina Kaviani, Manish N. Raizada, Alireza Navabi
      First page: 2412
      Abstract: Nepal is facing more intense early-season drought stress associated with climate change. The introgression of reduced height (Rht) alleles to enable stem dwarfism in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) inadvertently reduced coleoptile length and growth plasticity in seedlings, making improved varieties less suitable for deep seeding; these alleles may have also reduced seedling root length. Therefore, with the long-term objective of breeding wheat for early-season drought stress, a Nepali spring wheat panel was evaluated to assess allelic variation at the most common dwarfing-associated loci (Rht-B1, Rht-D1) and their impact on coleoptile/seedling root traits, and to identify accessions with longer and/or more GA-responsive coleoptiles as parents for future breeding. Here, Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR (KASP) was used to genotype accessions. The panel was phenotyped using the cigar-roll method in the presence/absence of GA3. Plant height was measured under field conditions. The results showed that Nepali landraces had a significantly higher frequency of the non-dwarfing allele Rht-B1a. The dwarfing alleles Rht-B1b and Rht-D1b had negative effects on coleoptile length but positive effects on the length of the longest seedling root. However, 40 potential semi-dwarf accessions (possessing Rht-B1b and/or Rht-D1b alleles) with long and/or more plastic coleoptiles suited for deep sowing were identified. This included 12 accessions that exhibited significant changes in coleoptile length in response to GA3 treatment.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2021-11-26
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy11122412
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2021)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 11, Pages 2413: Optimum Sowing Date and Salt Tolerant
           Variety Boost Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Yield and Water Productivity during
           Boro Season in the Ganges Delta

    • Authors: Sukanta K. Sarangi, Mohammed Mainuddin, Buddheswar Maji, Kshirendra K. Mahanta, Saheb Digar, Dhiman Burman, Uttam Kumar Mandal, Subhasis Mandal
      First page: 2413
      Abstract: Rice-fallow and rice-rice are major cropping systems in the salt affected region of the Ganges Delta covering West Bengal, India and Bangladesh. The dry season rice (Boro) is grown mostly by irrigation from ground water in this water scarce region. Boro encounters soil and water salinity, air temperature fluctuations and intense evaporative demand. We studied six sowing dates (1 October, 15 October, 1 November, 15 November, 1 December and 15 December) and three varieties (WGL 20471, Bidhan 2 and IET 4786) of rice to find an interacting effect on yield and water productivity. Soil and water salinity varied during the growing period with lower soil salinity during the month of November (2.20–2.53 dS m−1) and higher soil salinity towards the end of the growing season (4.30–5.23 dS m−1). The mean field water salinity was higher (1.78 dS m−1) during the Boro 2017–18 compared to that (1.65 dS m−1) during 2016–17, as about 49 mm rainfall was received in the month of March 2017. Sowing dates significantly affected the yield of Boro rice. Earliest sowing on 1 October is not feasible as it significantly reduced the grain and straw yields. Sowing of nursery up to 1 of November was found to be the best possible option, and it should not be delayed up to 15 December. The rice variety IET 4786 was found to be susceptible to salinity with the lowest grain yield 2.65–2.98 t ha−1, compared to Bidhan 2 (3.41–5.95 t ha−1) and WGL 20471 (3.40–5.81 t ha−1). Both irrigation and economic water productivity of Boro were affected by sowing dates and variety. Rice variety IET 4786 required less irrigation water (1320 mm) than the other two varieties (1350 mm). Higher (>0.5 kg m−3) irrigation water productivity of Boro can be achieved by selecting salt tolerant varieties (WGL 20471 and Bidhan 2) and optimum sowing window of 1–15 November.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2021-11-26
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy11122413
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2021)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 11, Pages 2414: Temporary Immersion System for Production
           of Biomass and Bioactive Compounds from Medicinal Plants

    • Authors: Anna De De Carlo, Waed Tarraf, Maurizio Lambardi, Carla Benelli
      First page: 2414
      Abstract: The cultivation of medicinal plants and the production of bioactive compounds derived from them are of fundamental importance and interest, not only at the pharmacological level but also in nutraceutical and cosmetic industries and in functional foods, as well as plant protection in agriculture. In order to respond adequately to the increased demands of the global market from a quantitative and qualitative point of view and to guarantee environmental sustainability of the productions, it is necessary to resort to innovation tools, such as tissue culture in vitro technology. Nowadays, it is well known that the cultivation through the Temporary Immersion System (TIS) in a bioreactor has considerable advantages both for the in vitro mass production of the plants and for the production of secondary metabolites. The present review focuses on the application of TIS during the last two decades to produce biomass and bioactive compounds from medicinal plants. Indeed, almost one hundred papers are discussed, and they particularly focus on the effects of the culture system, vessel design and equipment, immersion time and frequency, and substrate composition for 88 medicinal species in TIS bioreactor culture.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2021-11-27
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy11122414
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2021)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 11, Pages 2415: Photosynthetic Efficiency in Flag Leaves
           and Ears of Winter Wheat during Fusarium Head Blight Infection

    • Authors: Zorana Katanić, Selma Mlinarić, Nataša Katanić, Josipa Ćosić, Valentina Španić
      First page: 2415
      Abstract: Fusarium head blight (FHB) is one of the most serious fungal diseases of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). It causes major reduction of grain yield and quality, while the safety of wheat products is at risk due to mycotoxin contaminations. To contribute to a better understanding of mechanisms governing more efficient defense strategies against FHB, an evaluation of photosynthetic efficiency was performed during different phases of infection, i.e., before visual symptoms occur, at the onset and after the development of disease symptoms. Six different winter wheat varieties were artificially inoculated with the most significant causal agents of FHB (Fusarium graminearum and F. culmorum) at two different locations. Photosynthetic efficiency was assessed in flag leaves and ears of inoculated and untreated (control) plants based on measurements of chlorophyll a fluorescence rise kinetics and the calculation of JIP-test parameters. Obtained results indicate that the response of wheat to Fusarium infection includes changes in photosynthetic efficiency which can encompass alternating reductions and increases in photosynthetic performance during the course of the infection in both flag leaves and ears. FHB-induced photosynthetic adjustments were shown to be somewhat variety-specific, but location was shown to be a more significant factor in modulating the response of wheat to Fusarium infection. Changes in chlorophyll a fluorescence rise kinetics could be detected prior to visible symptoms of the disease. Therefore, this method could be applied for the early detection of Fusarium infection, particularly the analysis of L-band appearance, which showed a similar response in all inoculated plants, regardless of variety or location.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2021-11-27
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy11122415
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2021)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 11, Pages 2416: Starch Morphology and Metabolomic Analyses
           Reveal That the Effect of High Temperature on Cooked Rice Elongation and
           Expansion Varied in Indica and Japonica Rice Cultivars

    • Authors: Nnaemeka Emmanuel Okpala, Mouloumdema Pouwedeou Potcho, Muhammad Imran, Tianyue An, Gegen Bao, Longxin He, Lin Li, Xiangru Tang
      First page: 2416
      Abstract: Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is mainly grouped into indica and japonica varieties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of temperature on cooked rice elongation, cooked rice expansion, and rice fragrance. This study was conducted in three growth temperature chambers with indica cultivar Basmati 385 (B385) and japonica cultivar Yunjingyou (YJY). Grains of B385 grown in low-temperature regimes had the highest cooked rice elongation and expansion, whereas the grains of YJY grown in high-temperature regimes had the highest cooked rice elongation and expansion. Starch granules of B385 grown in low-temperature regimes were more compact and bigger, compared to grains grown in medium- and high-temperature regimes. Conversely, the starch granules of YJY grown in high-temperature regimes were more compact and bigger, compared to those grown in medium- and low-temperature regimes. Metabolomic analyses showed that temperature affected the rice metabolome and revealed that cyclohexanol could be responsible for the differences observed in cooked rice elongation and expansion percentage. However, in both B385 and YJY, grains from low-temperature regimes had the highest 2-AP content and the lowest expression levels of the badh2 gene. The findings of this study will be useful to rice breeders and producers.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2021-11-27
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy11122416
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2021)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 11, Pages 2417: Assessing the Attractiveness of Three Baits
           for Roof Rats in California Citrus Orchards

    • Authors: Kallista N. Wales, Ryan Meinerz, Roger A. Baldwin
      First page: 2417
      Abstract: Roof rats (Rattus rattus) are common pests of tree fruit and nut orchards in California. Tracking tunnels are an effective and practical tool for monitoring changes in roof rat numbers in orchard systems, but they rely on the use of attractive baits to draw in rats to the tracking surface. The identification of baits that are both attractive and readily available would be of great assistance for monitoring changes in roof rat numbers within agricultural fields. Therefore, we tested the attractiveness of a soft bait (Liphatech Rat and Mouse AttractantTM), a wax block (Liphatech NoToxTM), peanut butter, and a control (i.e., no bait applied) to roof rats when applied within tracking tunnels. We did not observe a difference in visitation to any of the tested attractants, although all attractants yielded greater visitation rates than control tunnels. However, tracking tunnels without any attractant were still visited at a relatively high rate, indicating the tracking tunnel is attractive to roof rats. As such, monitoring tools that provide shelter may increase detectability, although this would need to be verified. Regardless, all three food-based lures we tested increased the attractiveness of tracking tunnels and could be used to increase visitation to these monitoring devices.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2021-11-27
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy11122417
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2021)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 11, Pages 2418: Effect of Biochar and PGPR on the Growth
           and Nutrients Content of Einkorn Wheat (Triticum monococcum L.) and
           Post-Harvest Soil Properties

    • Authors: Fatih Çığ, Ferit Sönmez, Muhammad Azhar Nadeem, Ayman El Sabagh
      First page: 2418
      Abstract: Limited availability of nutrients to crops is a major agricultural concern. Deteriorated soil health and poor fertility status decrease the bioavailability of essential nutrients to the plants. Consequently, organic soil amendment biochar is gaining attention due to its potential benefits. Rhizobacterial inoculation, are also documented as an effective technology for mobilization of immobile nutrients in soil. However, limited literature is available on combined use of rhizobacteria and biochar. Therefore, this study was carried out to examine the changes in the nutrient content of einkorn wheat and the change in some soil properties during the application of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) with biochar. Four doses of biochar (0, 2.5, 5, and 10%) were applied with and without PGPR in the study. Biochar increased the growth criteria such as plant fresh weight (PFW), plant dry weight (PDW), root fresh weight (RFW), root dry weight (RDW), number of tillers, germination rate (GR) and potassium (K), calcium (Ca), sodium (Na), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), and nickel (Ni) elements. While PGPR application increased soil pH, dry and fresh weight of root, R/S, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, and Ni contents, and it caused a decrease in PH, PFW, tillers, GR, P, Cu, and Zn values. Combined biochar applications and PGPR had a significant effect on the pH, RFW, R/S, P, Na, and Cu. In conclusion, the combination of biochar and PGPR applications has shown a positive effect in terms of soil properties, plant growth, and element contents of einkorn wheat.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2021-11-27
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy11122418
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2021)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 11, Pages 2419: The Influence of Industrial Waste on the
           Magnetic Properties of Salt-Affected Soils from Two Soda Ash Manufacturing
           Sites

    • Authors: Katarzyna Łuczak, Sylwia Pindral, Adam Michalski, Grzegorz Kusza, Ewelina Ślęzak, Piotr Hulisz
      First page: 2419
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to characterize the impact of soda ash manufacturing on the magnetic properties of soils located in the agricultural landscape in north-central Poland. Two study sites were chosen: Mątwy (SM) and Janikowo (SJ). Highly saline soils with halophyte communities were selected in order to develop an understanding of the relationship between salinization of water–soil interface and the potential contamination risk of the environment. Basic chemical and physicochemical properties of topsoil (0–25 cm) and water (surface and groundwater) samples from five locations were characterized. The characteristics of soil contamination were based on the content of selected metals, magnetic properties and salinity indices. Potential routes of contaminant migration (air and water fluxes) were analyzed. High magnetic anomalies of technogenic origin were revealed in the studied soils. A statistically confirmed relationship between high magnetic susceptibility and the content of selected metals (Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ba, Pb and Mn) showed the high utility of magnetometric techniques in soil research (diagnosis of soil transformation and contamination during technogenic impact). Three potential factors influencing contaminant migration were revealed: highly saline ground and surface water, eolian transport of fine-grained mineral fractions from waste ponds and atmospheric deposition of coal combustion products.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2021-11-27
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy11122419
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2021)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 11, Pages 2420: Adsorption of Fulvic Acid and Water
           Extractable Soil Organic Matter on Kaolinite and Muscovite

    • Authors: Ksenia Kolchanova, Inna Tolpeshta, Yulia Izosimova
      First page: 2420
      Abstract: The interaction of organic matter with mineral components of the solid phase of soils is the most important process that regulates the cycle and balance of carbon in the biosphere. The adsorption of humic acids on minerals is accompanied by their fractionation in size, composition, and amphiphilicity, thus decreasing their heterogeneity. Despite a strong interest in studying the regularities and mechanisms of the interaction between natural organic matter and layered aluminosilicates, it is necessary to take into account the natural diversity of soil organic matter, adsorption conditions, and mineral composition. This study was designed to investigate the adsorption regularities of fulvic acid (FA) and water-extractable organic matter (WEOM) isolated from horizon H of peaty-podzolic-gleyic soil on kaolinite and muscovite. Sorbates and sorbents were examined by the following methods: high-pressure size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and potentiometric titration. The specific surface areas of the sorbents were determined by the sorption of N2 molecules. We found that hydrophobic components of FA and WEOM are mainly adsorbed on mineral surfaces. The adsorption of FA and WEOM on kaolinite and muscovite is followed by decreased hydrophobicity of organic matter and decreased heterogeneity of its amphiphilic properties in an equilibrium solution. At pH levels around 6, sorption of organic matter from FA solution containing 19% and 81% hydrophilic and hydrophobic components, respectively, onto kaolinite and muscovite occurs mainly due to hydrophobic components. Hydrophobic interactions on siloxane surfaces are the main mechanism to fix FA on both minerals. Kaolinite adsorbs slightly more organic carbon per unit area than muscovite. The adsorption of WEOM from a solution with 41% hydrophilic and 59% hydrophobic components results not only from hydrophobic and hydrophilic components but also from hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions and depends on pH. The most hydrophobic fractions of organic matter are adsorbed from the hydrophobic components on the surface of both minerals. Under conditions of the performed experiments at pH < 5, more WEOM is adsorbed on muscovite than on kaolinite
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2021-11-27
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy11122420
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2021)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 11, Pages 2421: Improving Crop Lodging Resistance by
           Adjusting Plant Height and Stem Strength

    • Authors: Yanan Niu, Tianxiao Chen, Chenchen Zhao, Meixue Zhou
      First page: 2421
      Abstract: Crop height not only determines plant resistance to lodging and crowding, but also affects crop architecture, apical dominance, biomass, and mechanical harvesting. Plant height is determined by the internode elongation, regulated by genes involved in gibberellin (GA) and brassinosteroid (BR) biosynthesis or related signaling networks. Plants’ genetic inability to synthesize or respond to GAs and BRs induce dwarfness. However, the signaling mechanisms of GAs and BRs for controlling plant height individually or collectively are still unclear. Since stem mechanically supports plant during the whole life span, components that affect stem physical strength are also important to crop lodging resistance. One of the major components is lignin, which forms stem structure, thus contributing to crop lodging resistance. In this review, we looked into the reported genes involved in lignin, GAs, and BRs biosynthesis and summarized the signaling networks centered by these genes. Then, we filled the knowledge gap by modifying plant height through interrupting normal GA and BR metabolism utilizing core gene inhibitors. Therefore, we highly endorsed the current approaches of using plant growth regulators (PRGs) to maintain an ideal plant height under lodging stress, and proposed possibilities of modifying crop culm strength against lodging as well.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2021-11-27
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy11122421
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2021)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 11, Pages 2422: Effect of Different Doses of Ash from
           Biomass Combustion on the Development of Diatom Assemblages on Podzolic
           Soil under Oilseed Rape Cultivation

    • Authors: Jadwiga Stanek-Tarkowska, Małgorzata Szostek, Mateusz Rybak
      First page: 2422
      Abstract: The aim of the study was to determine the effect of fertilization with various doses of ash from biomass combustion (balanced to the amount of K2O introduced into the soil) on the growth of representatives of soil microorganisms, i.e., diatoms. In a one-factor field experiment (control, NPK, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 kg/ha), soil samples were collected from the 0–5 cm layer of podzolic soil under the cultivation of winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. var. napus) at the end of August 2019 and 2020. The biomass combustion ash used for soil fertilization was characterized by an alkaline reaction (pH = 12.83 ± 0.68) and high levels of basic macroelements required for proper plant growth and development. The particle size distribution in each plot was identified as loamy silt (pgl). Before the experiment (autumn 2018), the soil exhibited an acidic reaction (pHH2O = 5.8), low conductivity (EC = 68 µS), and 19.09% moisture at the 0–5 cm level. In total, 23 diatom species were identified in the material collected from the topsoil in all variants of the experiment. Hantzschia amphioxys, Mayamaea atomus, Mayamaea permitis, Nitzschia pusilla, Pinnularia obscura, Pinnularia schoenfelderi, and Stauroneis thermicola were the most abundant populations.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2021-11-27
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy11122422
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2021)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 11, Pages 2423: Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Growth in
           Response to Foliar Silicon Application

    • Authors: Wanda Wadas
      First page: 2423
      Abstract: As silicon induces abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants, it was hypothesized that foliar silicon application could improve potato growth in an early crop culture. The effect of dosage (0.25 dm3·ha−1 or 0.50 dm3·ha−1) and time (the leaf development stage, BBCH 14–16, tuber initiation stage, BBCH 40–41, or both the leaf development stage and tuber initiation stage) of application of the silicon-based biostimulant Optysil (200 g SiO2 and 24 g Fe in 1 dm3) on potato growth was investigated. Optysil caused an increase in plant height and above-ground plant biomass, enlarged leaf area and decreased leaf weight ratio (LWR), and, as a result, increased tuber number and tuber weight per plant. The effect of Optysil depended on a water deficit during potato growth. The average tuber weight per plant in the cultivation treated with Optysil was higher by 23% under periodic water deficits during potato growth, and by 13% under drought conditions, than in the cultivation without the biostimulant. Dosage of Optysil had a significant effect on above-ground plant biomass and leaf area in the warm and arid growing season. Under drought stress, Optysil at 0.50 dm3·ha−1 stimulated potato growth more than at 0.25 dm3·ha−1. Under periodic water deficits during potato growth, the time of Optysil application affected potato growth more than the biostimulant dosage. The plants produced greater above-ground biomass and had a larger leaf area with two Optysil applications; one in the initial plant growth period (BBCH 14–16), and a repeated treatment in the tuber initiation stage (BBCH 40–41). The tuber weight per plant was positively correlated with the plant height, above-ground plant biomass, leaf area, and LWR.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2021-11-28
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy11122423
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2021)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 11, Pages 2424: Unraveling the Association between
           Metabolic Changes in Inter-Genus and Intra-Genus Bacteria to Mitigate
           Clubroot Disease of Chinese Cabbage

    • Authors: Lanfang Wei, Jun Yang, Waqar Ahmed, Xinying Xiong, Qi Liu, Qiong Huang, Guanghai Ji
      First page: 2424
      Abstract: Clubroot disease caused by the obligate parasite Plasmodiophora brassicae is a serious threat to cabbage production worldwide. Current clubroot control primarily relies on a fungicide, but this has a negative impact on the environment and the use of a single biocontrol agent cannot efficiently control the disease. Thus, the combined application of different biocontrol agents has been proposed as a promising alternative. In this study, we used bacterial biocontrol agents as a co-culture (inter-genus and intra-genus) and mono-culture to mitigate the clubroot disease of Chinese cabbage. We evaluated their biocontrol effect and plant growth promoter (PGP) traits in in vitro and in vivo experiments. This study revealed that the inter-genus bacterial co-culture significantly suppresses the incidence of clubroot disease and enhances plant growth compared with intra-genus and mono-culture. In pairwise interaction, we observed that Bacillus cereus BT-23 promotes the growth of Lysobacter antibioticus 13-6 (inter-genus bacterial co-culture), whereas L. capsici ZST1-2 and L. antibioticus 13-6 (intra-genus microbial co-culture) are antagonists to each other. Furthermore, a total of 5575 metabolites, 732 differentially expressed metabolites (DEMs), and 510 unique metabolites were detected through the LC-MS/MS technique in the bacterial co-culture. The number of unique metabolites in inter-genus bacterial co-culture (393 metabolites) was significantly higher than in the intra-genus bacterial co-culture (117 metabolites). Further analysis of DEMs showed that the DEMs were mainly involved in four kinds of metabolism pathways, i.e., carbohydrate metabolism, amino metabolism, nucleotide metabolism, and metabolism of cofactors and vitamins. The contents of some secondary metabolites with biocontrol activity and plant growth-promoting functions were increased in inter-genus bacterial co-culture, indicating that inter-genus bacterial co-culture has a solid potential to suppress clubroot disease. We conclude that the inter-genus bacterial interaction changes the community metabolism and improves several secondary metabolites functions with respect to disease control and PGP ability.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2021-11-28
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy11122424
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2021)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 11, Pages 2425: Understanding the Responses of Soil
           Bacterial Communities to Long-Term Fertilization Regimes Using DNA and RNA
           Sequencing

    • Authors: Juan Li, Yanchen Wen, Xiangdong Yang
      First page: 2425
      Abstract: Studies of soil DNA-based and RNA-based bacterial communities under contrasting long-term fertilization regimes can provide valuable insights into how agricultural management affects soil microbial structure and functional diversity. In this study, soil bacterial communities subjected to six fertility treatments in an alkaline soil over 27 years were investigated by 454 pyrosequencing based on 16S rDNA and 16S rRNA. Long-term fertilization showed significant influences on the diversity of the soil DNA-based bacteria, as well as on their RNA-based members. The top five phyla (Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, Actinobacteria, and Planctomycetes) were found in both the DNA- and RNA-based samples. However, the relative abundances of these phyla at both DNA and RNA levels were showed significantly different. Analysis results showed that the diversity of the 16S rRNA samples was consistently lower than that of the rDNA samples, however, 16S rRNA samples had higher relative abundance. PICRUSt analysis indicated that glycan biosynthesis and metabolism were detected mainly in the DNA samples, while metabolism and degradation of xenobiotics and the metabolism of amino acids, terpenoids and polyketides were relatively higher in the RNA samples. Bacilli were significantly more abundant in all the OM-fertilized soils. Redundancy analysis indicated that the relative abundances of both DNA- and RNA-based bacterial groups were correlated with soil total organic carbon content, nitrogen content, Olsen-P, and soil pH. Moreover, the RNA-based Bacilli were positively correlated with available phosphorus (Olsen-P).
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2021-11-28
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy11122425
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2021)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 11, Pages 2426: NLR Genes Related Transcript Sets in Potato
           Cultivars Bearing Genetic Material of Wild Mexican Solanum Species

    • Authors: Alex V. Kochetov, Dmitry A. Afonnikov, Nikolay Shmakov, Gennady V. Vasiliev, Olga Y. Antonova, Natalja V. Shatskaya, Anastasiya Y. Glagoleva, Salmaz M. Ibragimova, Aleksander Khiutti, Olga S. Afanasenko, Tatjana A. Gavrilenko
      First page: 2426
      Abstract: The long history of potato breeding includes the numerous introgressions of resistance genes from many wild species of South and Central America as well as from cultivated species into the breeding genepool. Most R genes belong to the NLR family with nucleotide-binding site–leucine-rich repeat. The aim of this research concerns an evaluation of NLR genes expression in transcriptomes of three potato cultivars (Evraziya, Siverskij, Sudarynya), which combine genetic material from wild and cultivated potato species, and each bears intragenic markers of RB/Rpi-blb1/Rpi-sto1 genes conferring broad-range resistance to late blight. The transcriptomes of the cultivars were compared before and 24 h after the Phytophthora infestans inoculation. The induction of RB/Rpi-blb1/Rpi-sto1 transcript after 24 h of inoculation was detected in the resistant cultivars Siverskij and Sudarynya but not in susceptible cv. Evraziya. This demonstrates the importance of transcriptomic assay for understanding the results of marker-assisted selection and phenotyping. Interestingly, assembling the transcriptomes de novo and analysis with NLR-parser tool revealed significant fractions of novel NLR genes with no homology to the reference genome (from 103 (cv. Siverskij) to 160 (S. stoloniferum, 30514/15). Comparison of novel NLRs demonstrated a relatively small intersection between the genotypes that coincided with their complex pedigrees with several interspecific hybridization events. These novel NLRs may facilitate the discovery of new efficient R genes.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2021-11-28
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy11122426
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2021)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 11, Pages 2427: The Melon Zym Locus Conferring Resistance
           to ZYMV: High Resolution Mapping and Candidate Gene Identification

    • Authors: Nastacia Adler-Berke, Yitzchak Goldenberg, Yariv Brotman, Irina Kovalski, Amit Gal-On, Tirza Doniger, Rotem Harel-Beja, Christelle Troadec, Abdelhafid Bendahmane, Michel Pitrat, Catherine Dogimont, Nurit Katzir, Rafael Perl-Treves
      First page: 2427
      Abstract: Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV; potyviridae) represents a major pathogen of Cucurbitaceae crops. ZYMV resistance in melon PI 414723 is conditioned by a dominant allele at the Zym locus. This resistant accession restricts viral spread and does not develop mosaic symptoms, but necrosis sometimes develops in response to inoculation. In previous studies, Zym has been mapped to linkage group II of the melon genetic map. In the present study, positional cloning of the locus was undertaken, starting from the CM-AG36 SSR marker at approximately 2 cm distance. We utilized five mapping populations that share the same resistant parent, PI 414723, and analyzed a total of 1630 offspring, to construct a high-resolution genetic map of the Zym locus. Two melon BAC libraries were used for chromosome walking and for developing new markers closer to the resistance gene by BAC-end sequencing. A BAC contig was constructed, and we identified a single BAC clone, from the ZYMV susceptible genotype MR-1, that physically encompasses the resistance gene. A second clone was isolated from another susceptible genotype, WMR 29, and the two clones were fully sequenced and annotated. Additional markers derived from the sequenced region delimited the region to 17.6 kb of a sequence that harbors a NAC-like transcription factor and, depending on the genotype, either two or three R-gene homologs with a CC-NBS-LRR structure. Mapping was confirmed by saturating the map with SNP markers using a single mapping population. The same region was amplified and sequenced also in the ZYMV resistant genotype PI 414723. Because numerous polymorphic sites were noted between genotypes, we could not associate resistance with a specific DNA polymorphism; however, this study enables molecular identification of Zym and paves the way to functional studies of this important locus.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2021-11-28
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy11122427
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2021)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 11, Pages 2428: Characterizing Genotype-Specific Rice
           Architectural Traits Using Smart Mobile App and Data Modeling

    • Authors: Yubin Yang, Livia Paleari, Lloyd T. Wilson, Roberto Confalonieri, Adriano Z. Astaldi, Mirko Buratti, Zongbu Yan, Eric Christensen, Jing Wang, Stanley Omar P. B. Samonte
      First page: 2428
      Abstract: The quantity and quality of light captured by a plant’s canopy control many of its growth and development processes. However, light quality-related processes are not very well represented in most traditional and functional–structural crop models, which has been a major barrier to furthering crop model improvement and to better capturing the genetic control and environment modification of plant growth and development. A main challenge is the difficulty in obtaining dynamic data on plant canopy architectural characteristics. Current approaches on the measurement of 3D traits often relies on technologies that are either costly, excessively complicated, or impractical for field use. This study presents a methodology to estimate plant 3D traits using smart mobile app and data modeling. Leaf architecture data on 16 genotypes of rice were collected during two crop seasons using the smart-app PocketPlant3D. Quadratic Bézier curves were fitted to leaf lamina for estimation of insertion angle, elevation angle, and curve height. Leaf azimuth angle distribution, leaf phyllotaxis, canopy leaf angle distribution, and light extinction coefficients were also analyzed. The results could be used for breeding line selection or for parameterizing or evaluating rice 3D architectural models. The methodology opens new opportunities for strengthening the integration of plant 3D architectural traits in crop modeling, better capturing the genetic control and environment modification of plant growth and development, and for improving ideotype-based plant breeding.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2021-11-28
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy11122428
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2021)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 11, Pages 2429: Replacing Synthetic Nitrogen Fertilizer
           with Different Types of Organic Materials Improves Grain Yield in China: A
           Meta-Analysis

    • Authors: Xiaoru Fan, Zekai Chen, Zihan Niu, Ruiyao Zeng, Jingmin Ou, Xingxing Liu, Xiaolong Wang
      First page: 2429
      Abstract: Synthetic nitrogen fertilizer substitution (NSS) with different types of organic material is a cleaner agricultural practice for reducing the application of synthetic N input in farmlands while also relieving the environmental issues caused by the discharge of organic wastes. However, the effects of the NSS practice on crop yields, being the primary objective of agricultural activity, is still uncertain in China. This study conducted a meta-analysis to assess the impacts of the NSS practices with different types of organic materials on crop yields. Results showed that the average crop yield was increased by 3.4%, with significant differences under NSS, thereby demonstrating that this practice contributed to improving crop yields, especially of rice and maize. According to published reports, the NSS practices involving chicken manure, pig manure, and crop straw increased crop yields by 4.79, 7.68, and 3.28%, respectively, with significant differences, thus demonstrating the superior effects needed for replacing synthetic N fertilizer. Moreover, substitution ratios (SR) between 0% and 60% could be suggested when using the NSS practice, with the high SR recommended when the original soil fertility was adequate for crops. Considering the long-term effects of applied organic materials, improving the grain yield with the NSS practice should be expected in the long-term. By effectively applying the NSS, this study attempted to scientifically decide on the type of organic materials and the appropriate SR based on the conditions of the soil and the crop. The results provide research information for the development of clean agricultural production and food security in China.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2021-11-28
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy11122429
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2021)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 11, Pages 2430: The Effect of Soil Sampling Density and
           Spatial Autocorrelation on Interpolation Accuracy of Chemical Soil
           Properties in Arable Cropland

    • Authors: Dorijan Radočaj, Irena Jug, Vesna Vukadinović, Mladen Jurišić, Mateo Gašparović
      First page: 2430
      Abstract: Knowledge of the relationship between soil sampling density and spatial autocorrelation with interpolation accuracy allows more time- and cost-efficient spatial analysis. Previous studies produced contradictory observations regarding this relationship, and this study aims to determine and explore under which conditions the interpolation accuracy of chemical soil properties is affected. The study area covered 823.4 ha of agricultural land with 160 soil samples containing phosphorus pentoxide (P2O5) and potassium oxide (K2O) values. The original set was split into eight subsets using a geographically stratified random split method, interpolated using the ordinary kriging (OK) and inverse distance weighted (IDW) methods. OK and IDW achieved similar interpolation accuracy regardless of the soil chemical property and sampling density, contrary to the majority of previous studies which observed the superiority of kriging as a deterministic interpolation method. The primary dependence of interpolation accuracy to soil sampling density was observed, having R2 in the range of 56.5–83.4% for the interpolation accuracy assessment. While this study enables farmers to perform efficient soil sampling according to the desired level of detail, it could also prove useful to professions dependent on field sampling, such as biology, geology, and mining.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2021-11-29
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy11122430
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2021)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 11, Pages 2431: Access, Uptake, Use and Impacts of
           Agrometeorological Services in Sahelian Rural Areas: The Case of Burkina
           Faso

    • Authors: Vieri Tarchiani, Hamidou Coulibaly, Grégoire Baki, Cyriaque Sia, Sara Burrone, Pinghouinde Michel Nikiema, Jean-Baptiste Migraine, Jose Camacho
      First page: 2431
      Abstract: Agrometeorological services, as part of weather and climate services, are expected to play a key role in supporting sub-Saharan agriculture facing climate change and variability. In the Sahel, smallholder farmers relying on rainfed crop production systems are particularly vulnerable to climate change and variability because of low resilience and coping capacity. The provision of agrometeorological services is growing across Africa, but they often remain inaccessible for the majority of smallholder farmers or are not very relevant to support on-the-ground decision-making. Our work aims to demonstrate the hypothesis that agrometeorological services can effectively improve agricultural productivity and sustainability provided that appropriate mechanisms are put in place to ensure access, uptake and action. The paper illustrates the case study of Burkina Faso, where the National Meteorological Service, with the support of the World Meteorological Organization, engaged in the provision of accessible, reliable and relevant agrometeorological services for farmers. The study demonstrates that farmers, even in remote rural areas, are willing to profit from weather and climate services for strategic and tactical decisions in agricultural management because of relevant economic benefit. These benefits can be summarized as a 40% reduction in production costs and a 41% increase in income. Results also highlight environmental positive impacts such as the reduction by 50% in the use of fertilizers. Nevertheless, the study concludes that in order to scale-up weather and climate services in West Africa, a new business model released from the development projects approach should be explored.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2021-11-29
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy11122431
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2021)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 11, Pages 2432: Towards a Socio-Economic Model for
           Southwest Asian Cereal Domestication

    • Authors: Alexander Weide
      First page: 2432
      Abstract: Mechanisms of selection for domestication traits in cereals and other annual plants are commonly explained from agro-technological and genetic perspectives. Since archaeobotanical data showed that domestication processes were slow and protracted, research focused on genetic constraints and hypothetical ‘non-selective’ management regimes to explain the low selection rates. I argue that these factors only partially explain the observed patterns and develop a model that contextualises the archaeobotanical data in their socio-economic settings. I propose that developments towards individual storage by small household units and the gradual increase in storage capacities with the development of extended households represent key factors for establishing the conditions for selection, as these practices isolated individually managed and stored cereal subpopulations and gradually reduced the need to replenish grain stocks with grains from unmanaged populations. This genetic isolation resulted in stronger and more persistent selection rates and facilitated the genetic fixation of domestication traits on a population level. Moreover, individual storage facilities within buildings reflect gradual developments towards households as the social units that mobilised agricultural labour, which negotiated new sharing principles over cultivated resources and drove the intensification of cultivation practices. In this sense, selection rates and the slow domestication process can be understood as a function of limited food sharing networks and increased labour-inputs into early arable environments—socio-economic processes that also unfolded gradually over a protracted period of time.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2021-11-29
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy11122432
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2021)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 11, Pages 2433: Sustainability Estimation of Oat:Pea
           Intercrops from the Agricultural Life Cycle Assessment Perspective

    • Authors: Jaroslav Bernas, Tereza Bernasová, Hans-Peter Kaul, Helmut Wagentristl, Gerhard Moitzi, Reinhard W. Neugschwandtner
      First page: 2433
      Abstract: Winter cereal:legume intercropping is considered a sustainable arable farming system not only in temperate regions but also in Mediterranean environments. Previous studies have shown that with suitable crop stand composition, high grain yield can be achieved. In this study, a life cycle assessment (LCA) of the influence of sowing ratio and nitrogen (N) fertilization on grain nitrogen yield of oat (Avena sativa L.) and pea (Pisum sativum L.) in intercrops was performed to find the optimal design to achieve low environmental impact. This study compared the environmental impact of oat:pea intercrops using agricultural LCA. Monocrops of oat and pea and substitutive intercrops, which were fertilized with different levels of N, were compared. The system boundaries included all the processes from cradle to farm gate. Mass-based (grain N yield) and area-based (land demand for generating the same grain N yield) functional units were used. The results covered the impact categories related to the agricultural LCAs. The ReCiPe 2016 Midpoint and Endpoint characterization model was used for the data expression. According to the results, an unfertilized combination of oat and pea (50%:50%) had the lowest environmental impact in comparison with the other 14 assessed variants and selected impact categories. In the assessed framework, pea monocrops or intensively fertilized oat monocrops can also be considered as alternatives with relatively low impact on the environment. However, an appropriate grain N yield must be reached to balance the environmental impact resulting from the fertilizer inputs. The production and use of fertilizers had the greatest impact on the environment within the impact categories climate change, eutrophication, and ecotoxicity. The results indicated that high fertilizer inputs did not necessarily cause the highest environmental impact. In this respect, the achieved grain N yield level, the choice of allocation approach, the functional unit, and the data expression approach played dominant roles.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2021-11-29
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy11122433
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2021)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 11, Pages 2435: Factors Affecting New Agricultural Business
           Entities’ Adoption of Sustainable Intensification Practices in
           China: Evidence from the Main Apple-Producing Areas in the Loess Plateau

    • Authors: Zhao Wang, Jianhong Liu, Tongsheng Li, Jing Chao, Xupeng Gao
      First page: 2435
      Abstract: The unsustainability of China’s agricultural production requires an urgent shift from traditional to more sustainable practices; however, the acceleration thereof remains challenging. New agricultural business entities (NABEs) lead agricultural modernization and strongly guide the application of innovative agricultural technologies and models. Thus, an understanding of the factors that influence NABEs’ adoption of sustainable intensification practices will promote their widespread adoption. We developed a model based on innovation diffusion theory and the technology–organization–environment framework, which can both distinguish the influencing factors at different adoption stages and identify the influencing factors of technology adoption from a multidimensional perspective. The results indicate that differences in regional agroecological endowments emerge as the most important influencing factor. Relative advantage, perceived barriers, and agricultural extension services have a significant effect on adoption intention and decision, but a smaller effect on intention. Management and risk response capacities have a significant positive effect on adoption decisions, but no effect on intention. Meanwhile, organizational size has no effect on adoption intention or decision. Adoption intention significantly positively influences, but only partially explains, adoption decisions. Our findings provide a basis for technology promoters to categorize potential adopters by technology adoption stage and provide targeted strategies to stimulate technology demand.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2021-11-29
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy11122435
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 12 (2021)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 11, Pages 2335: In Silico Characterization and Expression
           Profiles of Heat Shock Transcription Factors (HSFs) in Maize (Zea mays L.)
           

    • Authors: Saqlain Haider, Shazia Rehman, Yumna Ahmad, Ali Raza, Javaria Tabassum, Talha Javed, Hany S. Osman, Tariq Mahmood
      First page: 2335
      Abstract: Heat shock transcription factors (HSFs) regulate many environmental stress responses and biological processes in plants. Maize (Zea mays L.) is a major cash crop that is grown worldwide. However, the growth and yield of maize are affected by several adverse environmental stresses. Therefore, investigating the factors that regulate maize growth and development and resistance to abiotic stress is an essential task for developing stress-resilient maize varieties. Thus, a comprehensive genome-wide identification analysis was performed to identify HSFs genes in the maize genome. The current study identified 25 ZmHSFs, randomly distributed throughout the maize genome. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that ZmHSFs are divided into three classes and 13 sub-classes. Gene structure and protein motif analysis supported the results obtained through the phylogenetic analysis. Segmental duplication is shown to be responsible for the expansion of ZmHSFs. Most of the ZmHSFs are localized inside the nucleus, and the ZmHSFs which belong to the same group show similar physio-chemical properties. Previously reported and publicly available RNA-seq analysis revealed a major role of class A HSFs including ZmHSFA-1a and ZmHSFA-2a in all the maize growth stages, i.e., seed, vegetative, and reproductive development. Under abiotic stress conditions (heat, drought, cold, UV, and salinity), members of class A and B ZmHSFs are induced. Gene ontology and protein–protein interaction analysis indicated a major role of ZmHSFs in resistance to environmental stress and regulation of primary metabolism. To summarize, this study provides novel insights for functional studies on the ZmHSFs in maize breeding programs.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2021-11-18
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy11112335
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 11, Pages 2336: Cd and Zn Concentrations in Soil and Silage
           Maize following the Addition of P Fertilizer

    • Authors: Andrea Giovanna Niño-Savala, Benedikt Weishaar, Jürgen Franzaring, Xuejun Liu, Andreas Fangmeier
      First page: 2336
      Abstract: Studies of soil Cd and Zn are often performed on sites that are contaminated or have deficient Zn conditions. Soil characteristics and crop management could impact the soil mobility and uptake of Cd and Zn, even when considering unpolluted Cd soils and adequate soil Zn levels. The concentrations of these two metals were assessed in soil and silage maize under five P fertilization treatments at two growth stages under low Cd and sufficient Zn conditions. Pearson correlation coefficients and stepwise linear regressions were calculated to investigate the soil characteristics influencing the bioavailable metal fraction in soil and the metal concentration in silage maize. P treatments did not impact Cd accumulation in maize; however, the Zn uptake was affected by P placement at the leaf development stage. From early development to maturity, the Cd level in maize decreased to 10% of the initial uptake, while the Zn level decreased to 50% of the initial uptake. This reduction in both metals may be attributed to a dilution effect derived from high biomass production. Silage maize could alleviate the initial Cd uptake while diminishing the depressant effect of P fertilizer on Zn concentration. Further research is required to understand the effect of P fertilizer on Cd uptake and its relation to Zn under field conditions at early and mature stages.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2021-11-18
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy11112336
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 11, Pages 2337: Reduction of Nitrogen Losses in Winter
           Wheat Grown on Light Soils

    • Authors: Antoni Faber, Zuzanna Jarosz, Agnieszka Rutkowska, Tamara Jadczyszyn
      First page: 2337
      Abstract: Two 16-year-old series of experiments with winter wheat grown in rotation after winter oilseed rape were used in the study. The experiments were located in the cold temperate dry and moist climate zones on light soils. Wheat was fertilized with nitrogen in the doses of 40, 80, 120, 160, and 200 kg N·ha−1 per year. Through the several years of the experiment, critical N rates for maximum yield and gross margin from the linear-plus plateau regressions were 149 ± 23.9 and 112 ± 23.6 kg N·ha−1, respectively. The estimated nitrogen indicators for these doses were as follows: nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) 93 and 108%, N surplus (Ns) 6.8 and −10.1 kg·N·ha−1, yield-scaled Ns, N2O, and NH3 3.5 and −0.2; 0.35 and 0.30; 0.31 and 0.25 kg N·Mg−1, respectively. Experiments have shown that two strategies for reducing nitrogen losses on light soils under wheat cultivation are possible: by limiting the N dose to the critical values due to the yield requirements, or due to the gross margin. The analysis of the 11-year data for 2300 farm fields with winter wheat grown on light soils showed that only 10% of them were implementing the first strategy, and as much as 90% chose the second strategy.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2021-11-18
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy11112337
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 11, Pages 2338: Key Cannabis Salt-Responsive Genes and
           Pathways Revealed by Comparative Transcriptome and Physiological Analyses
           of Contrasting Varieties

    • Authors: Jiangjiang Zhang, Cuiping Zhang, Siqi Huang, Li Chang, Jianjun Li, Huijuan Tang, Susmita Dey, Ashok Biswas, Dengxiang Du, Defang Li, Lining Zhao
      First page: 2338
      Abstract: For the dissection and identification of the molecular response mechanisms to salt stress in cannabis, an experiment was conducted surveying the diversity of physiological characteristics. RNA-seq profiling was carried out to identify differential expression genes and pathway which respond to salt stress in different cannabis materials. The result of physiological diversity analyses showed that it is more sensitive to proline contents in K94 than in W20; 6 h was needed to reach the maximum in K94, compared to 12 h in W20. For profiling 0–72 h after treatment, a total of 10,149 differentially expressed genes were identified, and 249 genes exhibited significantly diverse expression levels in K94, which were clustered in plant hormone signal transduction and the MAPK signaling pathway. A total of 371 genes showed significant diversity expression variations in W20, which were clustered in the phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and plant hormone signal transduction pathway. The pathway enrichment by genes which were identified in K94 and W20 showed a similar trend to those clustered in plant hormone signal transduction pathways and MAPK signaling. Otherwise, there were 85 genes which identified overlaps between the two materials, indicating that these may be underlying genes related to salt stress in cannabis. The 86.67% agreement of the RNA-seq and qRT-PCR indicated the accuracy and reliability of the RNA-seq technique. Additionally, the result of physiological diversity was consistent with the predicted RNA-seq-based findings. This research may offer new insights into the molecular networks mediating cannabis to respond to salt stress.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2021-11-19
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy11112338
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 11, Pages 2339: Rendering Multivariate Statistical Models
           for Genetic Diversity Assessment in a A-Genome Diploid Wheat Population

    • Authors: Zareen Sarfraz, Mohammad Maroof Shah, Muhammad Sajid Iqbal, Mian Faisal Nazir, Ibrahim Al-Ashkar, Muhammad Ishaq Asif Rehmani, Muhammad Shahid Iqbal, Najeeb Ullah, Ayman El Sabagh
      First page: 2339
      Abstract: Diversifying available natural resources to cope with abrupt climatic changes and the necessity to equalize rising agricultural production with improved ability to endure environmental influence is the dire need of the day. Inherent allelic variability regarding significant economic traits featuring both enhanced productivity and environmental adaptability is one such prominent need. To address this requirement, a series of analyses were conducted in this study for exploring natural diploid wheat germplasm resources. The current study involved 98 Recombinant Inbred Lines (RILs) populations developed by crossing two diploid ‘A’ sub-genome wheat species, Triticummonococcum and Triticum boeoticum, enriched with valuable alleles controlling, in particular, biotic and abiotic stresses tolerance. Their 12 phenotypic traits were explored to reveal germplasm value. All traits exhibited vast diversity among parents and RILs via multivariate analysis. Most of the investigated traits depicted significant (p < 0.05) positive correlations enlightening spikelet per spike, total biomass, seed weight per spike, number of seeds per spike, plant height, and days to heading as considerably focused traits for improving hexaploid wheat. Principal component analysis (PCA) exhibited 61.513% of total variation with three PCs for 12 traits. Clustering of genotypes happened in three clades, and the two parents were separated into two extreme clusters, validating their enrichment of diversity. This study provided beneficial aspects of parental resources rich in diverse alleles. They can be efficiently exploited in wheat improvement programs focusing on introgression breeding and the recovery of eroded genetic factors in currently available commercial wheat cultivars to sustain calamities of environmental fluctuations.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2021-11-19
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy11112339
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 11, Pages 2340: Effects of Environmental Stresses (Heat,
           Salt, Waterlogging) on Grain Yield and Associated Traits of Wheat under
           Application of Sulfur-Coated Urea

    • Authors: Adil Altaf, Xinkai Zhu, Min Zhu, Ma Quan, Sana Irshad, Dongyi Xu, Muhammad Aleem, Xinbo Zhang, Sadia Gull, Fujian Li, Amir Zaman Shah, Ahmad Zada
      First page: 2340
      Abstract: Abiotic stresses, such as heat, salt, waterlogging, and multiple-stress environments have significantly reduced wheat production in recent decades. There is a need to use effective strategies for overcoming crop losses due to these abiotic stresses. Fertilizer-based approaches are readily available and can be managed in all farming communities. This research revealed the effects of sulfur-coated urea (SCU, 130 kg ha−1, release time of 120 days) on wheat crops under heat, salt, waterlogging, and combined-stress climatic conditions. The research was done using a completely randomized design with three replicates. The results revealed that SCU at a rate of 130 kg of N ha−1 showed a significantly (p ≤ 0.05) high SPAD value (55) in the case of waterlogging stress, while it was the lowest (31) in the case of heat stress; the control had a SPAD value of 58. Stress application significantly (p ≤ 0.05) reduced the leaf area and was the highest in control (1898 cm2), followed by salt stress (1509 cm2), waterlogging (1478 cm2), and heat stress (1298 cm2). A significantly (p ≤ 0.05) lowest crop yield was observed in the case of heat stress (3623.47 kg ha−1) among all stresses, while it was 10,270 kg ha−1 in control and was reduced up to 35% after the application of heat stress. Among all stresses, the salt stress showed the highest crop yield of 5473.16 kg ha−1. A significant correlation was observed among growth rate, spike length, yield, and physiological constraints with N content in the soil. The SCU fertilizer was the least effective against heat stress but could tolerate salt stress in wheat plants. The findings suggested the feasibility of adding SCU as an alternative to normal urea to alleviate salt stresses and improve wheat crop growth and yield traits. For heat stress tolerance, the applicability of SCU with a longer release period of ~180 days is recommended as a future prospect for study.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2021-11-19
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy11112340
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 11, Pages 2341: Interactive Impact of Biochar and
           Arbuscular Mycorrhizal on Root Morphology, Physiological Properties of
           Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) and Soil Enzymatic Activities

    • Authors: Dilfuza Jabborova, Kannepalli Annapurna, Ravish Choudhary, Subrata Nath Bhowmik, Said E. Desouky, Samy Selim, Islam H. El Azab, Maha M. A. Hamada, Nihal El Nahhas, Amr Elkelish
      First page: 2341
      Abstract: Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) inoculation and biochar amendment has been reported to improve the growth of several crop plant; however, their role in stress amelioration individually as well as in combination has not been worked out. Limited information is available about the synergistic use of biochar and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF). Here, we investigated the synergistic effect of biochar and AMF on plant development, root architecture, the physiological performance of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum), and soil enzymatic activities. Biochar and AMF were shown to have a considerable effect on plant height, according to the data (53.3 and 66.6%, respectively), leaf number (22.5 and 45.1%), total root length (19.8 and 40.1%), root volume (32.1 and 71.4%), chlorophyll a content (26.0 and 17.8%), chlorophyll b content (50.0 and 28.9%), total chlorophyll content (30.0 and 18.1%), and carotenoid content (60.0 and 48.0%) over the control treatment. There was a considerable increase in plant height when biochar and AMF were combined together by 80.9%, total root length by 68.9%, projected area by 48.7%, root surface area by 34.4%, root volume by 78.5%, chlorophyll a content by 34.2%, chlorophyll b content by 68.4%, total chlorophyll content by 44.5%, and carotenoid content by 84.0% compared to the control. Our results recommend that the combination of biochar and AMF is advantageous in fenugreek growth, microbial biomass, and soil enzyme activities.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2021-11-19
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy11112341
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 11, Pages 2342: Larvicidal Activity of Geranylacetone
           Derivatives against Culex quinquefasciatus Larvae and Investigation of
           Environmental Toxicity and Non-Target Aquatic Species

    • Authors: Mohammed Al-Zharani, Mohammed S. Al-Eissa, Hassan A. Rudayni, Daoud Ali, Saud Alarifi, Radhakrishnan Surendrakumar, Akbar Idhayadhulla
      First page: 2342
      Abstract: A grindstone method based on Mannich condensation was used to synthesize geranylacetone derivatives (1a–1f). The method showed a high yield under milder reaction conditions. Analyses of the synthesized compounds were carried out by FTIR, 1H, 13C NMR, mass spectrometry, and elemental analysis. We synthesized and evaluated the larvicidal and ichthyotoxic activities of six compounds (1a–1f) in this study. Compound 1f (5,9-dimethyl-1-phenyl-3-(2-(3-phenylallylidene)hydrazinyl)deca-4,8-dien-1-one) was more active (LD50: 14.1 µg/mL) against the second instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus than geranylacetone (67.2 µg/mL), whereas the former caused 13.9% mortality at 100 µg/mL. Geranylacetone, in an antifeedant screening test, showed 53.1% against Oreochromis mossambicus within 24 h. The compound 1f showed high larvicidal activity against C. quinquefasciatus and was non-toxic to non-target aquatic species.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2021-11-19
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy11112342
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 11, Pages 2343: Establishment and First Year Yield of
           Interseeded Alfalfa as Influenced by Corn Plant Density and Treatment with
           Prohexadione, Fungicide and Insecticide

    • Authors: John H. Grabber, Damon L. Smith, William R. Osterholz, Mark J. Renz
      First page: 2343
      Abstract: Interseeding alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) into a silage corn (Zea mays L.) companion crop can increase the yield and profitability of forage production and reduce the risk of nutrient and soil loss from cropland, but unreliable establishment of alfalfa hampers the adoption of this practice on dairy farms. This study evaluated plant survival, foliar health, and dry matter yields of two alfalfa varieties when established in corn sown at populations ranging from about 47,500 to 100,000 plants per ha−1 and when treated with prohexadione (PHD), PHD followed by fungicide and insecticide (PHD-FI), or not treated with agrichemicals. The plant density of alfalfa during establishment was adversely impacted by above average precipitation and high corn populations, but substantially improved by PHD-FI treatment, which limited alfalfa etiolation, disease, and defoliation. First-cut dry-matter yields of interseeded alfalfa after corn were maximized at a stand density of approximately 200 plants m−2 or 850 stems m−2 and total first year yield exceeded conventionally spring-seeded alfalfa by 59 to 75%. Overall, our results indicated that PHD-FI treatment promoted good establishment and subsequent forage production of interseeded alfalfa. Applications of PHD-FI must, however, be fine-tuned, and additional management practices must be developed to ensure both good yields of corn silage and reliable establishment of interseeded alfalfa, especially during wet growing conditions.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2021-11-19
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy11112343
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 11, Pages 2344: Assessment and Prediction of Maize
           Production Considering Climate Change by Extreme Learning Machine in
           Czechia

    • Authors: Mansoor Maitah, Karel Malec, Ying Ge, Zdeňka Gebeltová, Luboš Smutka, Vojtěch Blažek, Ludmila Pánková, Kamil Maitah, Jiří Mach
      First page: 2344
      Abstract: Machine learning algorithms have been applied in the agriculture field to forecast crop productivity. Previous studies mainly focused on the whole crop growth period while different time windows on yield prediction were still unknown. The entire growth period was separated into each month to assess their corresponding predictive ability by taking maize production (silage and grain) in Czechia. We present a thorough assessment of county-level maize yield prediction in Czechia using a machine learning algorithm (extreme learning machine (ELM)) and an extensive set of weather data and maize yields from 2002 to 2018. Results show that sunshine in June and water deficit in July were vastly influential factors for silage maize yield. The two primary climate parameters for grain maize yield are minimum temperature in September and water deficit in May. The average absolute relative deviation (AARD), root mean square error (RMSE), and coefficient (R2) of the proposed models are 6.565–32.148%, 1.006–1.071%, 0.641–0.716, respectively. Based on the results, silage yield will decrease by 1.367 t/ha (3.826% loss), and grain yield will increase by 0.337 t/ha (5.394% increase) when the max temperature in May increases by 2 °C. In conclusion, ELM models show a great potential application for predicting maize yield.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2021-11-19
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy11112344
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 11, Pages 2345: Alternate Wetting and Drying (AWD)
           Mitigates the Decline in Grain Filling of Basmati 370 Due to Low
           Temperature in Tropical Highlands

    • Authors: Takahiro Kakehashi, Mayumi Kikuta, Daniel Makori Menge, Emily Waringa Gichuhi, Hiroaki Samejima, Daigo Makihara
      First page: 2345
      Abstract: In the rice growing area of Kenya’s highlands, the development of a water-saving rice cultivation system is a key strategy because the shortage of irrigation water is a frequently occurring problem. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of alternate wetting and drying (AWD) on the growth and yield of rice under the unique cultivation environment of tropical highlands. Field experiments were performed over a period of four years (2014–2017) in a paddy field. Dry matter production of a lowland variety, Basmati 370, was greater under continuous flooding (CF) than under AWD. In years with low minimum temperature (less than 15 °C) during the reproductive and ripening stages, filled grain ratios were significantly higher under AWD than under CF. Accordingly, higher dry matter production under CF did not contribute to grain yield. In the years when rice was not exposed to low minimum temperature during the reproductive and ripening stages, filled grain ratio did not decrease even under CF. Therefore, there was no difference between filled grain ratio under AWD and CF. Our results indicated that AWD could mitigate the decline in grain filling, induced by low minimum temperature during the reproductive and ripening stages in Basmati 370, under the cultivation conditions in tropical highlands. Although AWD may reduce the above-ground biomass, its mitigation effect on grain filling could outweigh this drawback and can still be beneficial to rice farmers in the tropical highlands.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2021-11-19
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy11112345
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 11, Pages 2346: Effect of Spatial-Temporal Light
           Competition on Cotton Yield and Yield Distribution

    • Authors: Qingru Wang, Huanxuan Chen, Yingchun Han, Fangfang Xing, Zhanbiao Wang, Lu Feng, Guoping Wang, Beifang Yang, Yaping Lei, Shiwu Xiong, Xiaofei Li, Minghua Xin, Wenli Du, Yabing Li
      First page: 2346
      Abstract: The photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) of crop canopy is highly related to yield formation, but how it relates to yield and yield distribution is not well understood. The focus of this study was to explore the relationship between light competition under different densities and yield distributions of cotton. The experiment was conducted in 2019 and 2020 at the Cotton Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences in Anyang city, Henan Province, China. A randomized block design was employed, with a total of three repeats. Each repeat had six density treatments: D1: 15,000; D2: 33,000; D3: 51,000; D4: 69,000; D5: 87,000; and D6: 105,000 plants·ha−1. As predicted, the results showed that the canopy light interception, leaf area index, plant height, and biomass of high-density cotton were higher than those of low-density cotton. The aboveground biomass produced by D6 was the highest, and was 12.9, 19.5, 25.4, 46.3, and 69.2% higher in 2019 and 14.3, 19.9, 32.5, 53.7, and 109.9% higher in 2020 than D5, D4, D3, D2, and D1, respectively. Leaf area, plant height, biomass, boll number, and boll weight were significantly correlated with the light interception rate. D5 (87,000 plants·ha−1) had a higher light interception rate and the highest yield. The highest lint yields produced by D5 were 1673.5 and 1375.4 kg·ha−1 in two years, and was 3.2, 4.3, 5.6, 9.7, and 24.7% higher in 2019, and 6.8, 10.6, 13.5, 21.5, and 34.4% higher in 2020 than D6, D4, D3, D2, and D1, respectively. The boll retention of the lower fruit branch under D5 reached 0.51 and 0.57 in two years, respectively. The shedding rate of the upper fruit branch decreased with the increase in cotton density in two years. The boll retention rate and shedding rate in the lower part of cotton plants were most closely related to light interception, with R2 values of 0.91 and 0.96, respectively. Our study shows cotton yield could be improved through higher light interception by optimizing planting density and canopy structure.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2021-11-19
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy11112346
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 11, Pages 2347: The Multiple Activities and the Plant
           Beneficial Potential of Bacillus spp. Derived from the Permafrost of
           Western Siberia

    • Authors: Olga V. Domanskaya, Nina A. Bome, Aleksandr V. Iashnikov, Anastasia V. Vasilchenko, Alexey S. Vasilchenko
      First page: 2347
      Abstract: Agents of biological control are an important part of traditional agriculture, as well as organic farming. However, in the climatic conditions of countries that are located in cold and temperate regions, plant protection requires particular biocontrol agents that have adapted to environments with low and unstable temperatures. This work presents the biocontrol potential and plant-promoting activity of Bacillus spp. that was isolated from permafrost sediments in Western Siberia. It was found that all of the studied strains (n = 10) were able to produce indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and chitinolytic enzymes at low positive temperatures (5 °C). The antifungal activity of cold-tolerant bacilli against Microdochium sp., Fusarium spp., and Alternaria sp was recorded. In greenhouse and field conditions, the selected strains (B. simplex 948 P1 (IAA-producing) and B. megaterium 312 (with antifungal activity)) were assessed in comparison to a commercially available fungicide (tebuconazole) and biofungicide (B.subtilis 26D). It was found that the bacilli in the seed germination assay exhibited low phytotoxicity and there was no significant advantage over the conventional fungicides in the yield stimulation assay. However, the twin consortia of B. megaterium 312 and B.subtilis 26D was able to increase winter wheat yields by 50% (compared to the untreated group), and by 70% (compared to the commercial biofungicide-treated group). Moreover, applying the twin consortia of Bacillus spp. significantly reduced the infection rate of Fusarium spp. in first-generation wheat grain.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2021-11-19
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy11112347
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 11, Pages 2348: The Effect of Microbial Inoculation under
           Various Nitrogen Regimes on the Uptake of Nutrients by Apple Trees

    • Authors: Kamila Łucja Bokszczanin, Dariusz Wrona, Sebastian Przybyłko
      First page: 2348
      Abstract: The European Green Deal strategy currently implemented in the EU aims to, among others, reduce the negative impact of fertilization on the environment. One of the solutions influencing the nutritional status of plants and the improvement of soil quality is the use of plant symbiosis with microorganisms. Thus, in this study we investigated the effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMFs) and plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) colonization on the nutritional status of apple leaves and fruit, depending on the nitrogen treatment. In a fully factorial experiment, trees were grown for nine years with or without AMFs and PGPR. We compared several ammonium nitrate treatments as well as growth without fertilization as a control. The interactions between inoculation and doses of nitrogen fertilization were observed. AMF + PGPR significantly increased the concentration of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) in leaves up to 5%, 23%, and 19%, respectively, depending on the N dosage. Conversely, in uninoculated trees, the nitrogen treatment had a negative impact on the leaf P mineral status. On the other hand, under microbial inoculation conditions, the dose of 100 kg N∙ha−1 diminished the leaf phosphorus content in comparison to other N doses, by a maximum of 9.6%. AMF + PGPR, depending on the N treatment, either did not influence or it decreased the Mg and Ca concentrations in the leaves by maximums of 8% and 15%, respectively. Microbial inoculation had no effect on the acquisition of Ca and Mg by fruits, except for the coupled negative influence of the 100 kg N∙ha−1 treatment. Symbiosis positively conditioned the K in fruits under a specific N regime—100 kg N∙ha−1 divided into two applications during the season and 50 kg N∙ha−1 applied to the herbicide strip, increasing the concentration by approximately 4% and 8%, respectively. This study greatly contributes to our understanding of the benefits of AMF and PGPR on perennials and encourages the future exploration of their effects on apple yield and fruit quality.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2021-11-19
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy11112348
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 11, Pages 2349: Do AMF and Irrigation Regimes Affect Sweet
           Pepper Fruit Quality under Open Field Conditions'

    • Authors: Renata Nurzyńska-Wierdak, Halina Buczkowska, Andrzej Sałata
      First page: 2349
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a mycorrhizal inoculation (AMF) and irrigation regime on certain yield morphological parameters and the biological value of fruits of open field-grown sweet pepper under temperate climate conditions. A study on the Polish hybrid cultivar ‘Roberta F1’ was conducted over the period 2016–2018 in a private certified organic farm. Sweet pepper was harvested at physiological maturity from the second 10 days of August to the first 10 days of October. AMF and irrigation were shown to significantly modify the selected morphological parameters of the peppers. Fruits with the highest weight, length, and width were harvested from AMF-inoculated plants, both irrigated and non-irrigated ones. The chemical composition and antioxidant activity (AA) of pepper fruit extracts were significantly affected by AMF and irrigation. AMF application contributed to a decrease in the percentage of dry matter, vitamin C, reducing sugars, extract, carotenoids, and AA. Irrigation, on the other hand, had a beneficial effect on enhancing the biological value of pepper fruits (except for vitamin C), also increasing their AA. The highest levels of carotenoids (4.64 mg 100 g−1 of fresh matter (FM) were found in the fruits of irrigated plants without AMF, whereas the highest levels of vitamin C (134.10 mg 100 g−1 FM) were accumulated by the fruits of plants grown without AMF and without irrigation.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2021-11-19
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy11112349
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 11, Pages 2350: Allelopathic Efficiency of Plant Extracts
           to Control Cyanobacteria in Hydroponic Culture

    • Authors: Chan Saem Gil, Shucheng Duan, Ji Hye Kim, Seok Hyun Eom
      First page: 2350
      Abstract: Cyanobacteria rapidly form harmful algal blooms (HABs) that cause serious nutritional imbalances in crop production via hydroponics. Allelopathic extracts from plants can be applied as a solution for ecologically sustainable control of algal blooms. In this study, the effects of 11 aqueous extracts of 10 allelopathic plants in controlling Microcystis aeruginosa were evaluated. Among the extracts, walnut husk and rose leaf extracts exhibited high inhibitory levels for efficient control of algae. High inhibitory levels were achieved owing to large amounts of water-soluble tannins, especially tannic acid. The effective extracts were applied to a hydroponic system cultivated on leafy perilla vegetables. Although the severe doses (IC90) did not guarantee complete algal control due to partial algal regrowth, walnut husk and rose leaf extracts only exerted strong persistent effects on algae control. Persistent algae inhibition contributed to the increase in perilla growth and leaf quality. Rose leaf was potentially a more useful resource for controlling algae in a hydroponic system because the application of rose leaf extract efficiently controlled the algae and was less toxic to perilla growth. In contrast, the treatment of walnut husk extract also controlled algae but inhibited perilla growth with pale green leaves.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2021-11-19
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy11112350
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 11, Pages 2351: A Holistic Framework towards Developing a
           Climate-Smart Agri-Food System in the Middle East and North Africa: A
           Regional Dialogue and Synthesis

    • Authors: Ajit Govind, Jacques Wery, Bezaiet Dessalegn, Amgad Elmahdi, Zewdie Bishaw, Vinay Nangia, Chandrashekhar Biradar, Zaib Un Nisa, Kibrom Abay, Giriraj Amarnath, Clemens Breisinger, Nabil Ahmed Ibrahim, Charles Kleinermann, Abdoul Aziz Niane, Marja Thijssen
      First page: 2351
      Abstract: Agriculture and agri-food systems of the highly vulnerable Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region needs a radical transformation under a changing climate. Based on a two-year effort, initially we developed a mega hypothesis on how to achieve climate-smart agri-food transformation in the region. In the study, we hypothesized that “Climate-Smart Lifts” implemented in the enabling environments can rapidly facilitate agri-food transformation in the region. In order to gather the stakeholders’ perception about this, we organized a collective conversation among ~400 stakeholders that represent various scales and sectors within the agriculture sector in MENA. These “listening cum learning consultations” were conducted through a survey followed by a series of webinars. The webinar discussions were strategically guided based on our hypothesis, the responses from the surveys and the regional needs. These discussions provided a forum to bring-out the stakeholders’ perspective on what new knowledge, partnerships, instruments and projects were needed in the MENA. The deliberation focused on the opportunities of public–private partnerships focusing in all the four major agroecosystems in MENA (irrigated, rainfed, rangelands, and deserts). In result, we developed an effective framework for strategic resource mobilization in the region, keeping in view the strong regional needs for climate actions and the requisite long-term commitments for the SDGs implementation.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2021-11-19
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy11112351
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 11, Pages 2352: Effects of NaCl on Hydroponic Cultivation
           of Reichardia picroides (L.) Roth

    • Authors: Rita Maggini, Stefano Benvenuti, Federico Leoni, Luca Incrocci, Alberto Pardossi
      First page: 2352
      Abstract: Wild edible plant species are often more tolerant to salinity than many crop plants. Considering the salinization of irrigation water that is progressively affecting the Mediterranean region and the market demand for new plant foods, the cultivation of wild edible species could represent a valid alternative to conventional vegetable crops. In this study, Reichardia picroides (L.) Roth, a widespread spontaneous herb of ethnobotanical tradition, was grown for four or six weeks under a greenhouse in a floating system for the production of baby leaves. In order to improve the nutraceutical quality of the tissues, the plants were exposed to the following NaCl concentrations in the nutrient solution: 1.7 (control), 25, 50, and 100 mM. The results showed that a 4-week growing period in a floating system with 50 mM NaCl in the nutrient solution increased the content of bioactive molecules without affecting the fresh yield. After six weeks of cultivation, despite a decrease in biomass production as compared with the control, the leaves of salt-treated plants contained higher levels of bioactive molecules along with lower amounts of nitrate ion.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2021-11-20
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy11112352
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 11, Pages 2353: Plum Ripeness Analysis in Real Environments
           Using Deep Learning with Convolutional Neural Networks

    • Authors: Rolando Miragaia, Francisco Chávez, Josefa Díaz, Antonio Vivas, Maria Henar Prieto, Maria José Moñino
      First page: 2353
      Abstract: Digitization and technological transformation in agriculture is no longer something of the future, but of the present. Many crops are being managed by using sophisticated sensors that allow farmers to know the status of their crops at all times. This modernization of crops also allows for better quality harvests as well as significant cost savings. In this study, we present a tool based on Deep Learning that allows us to analyse different varieties of plums using image analysis to identify the variety and its ripeness status. The novelty of the system is the conditions in which the designed algorithm can work. An uncontrolled photographic acquisition method has been implemented. The user can take a photograph with any device, smartphone, camera, etc., directly in the field, regardless of light conditions, focus, etc. The robustness of the system presented allows us to differentiate, with 92.83% effectiveness ,three varieties of plums through images taken directly in the field and values above 94% when the ripening stage of each variety is analyzed independently. We have worked with three varieties of plums, Red Beaut, Black Diamond and Angeleno, with different ripening cycles. This has allowed us to obtain a robust classification system that will allow users to differentiate between these varieties and subsequently determine the ripening stage of the particular variety.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2021-11-20
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy11112353
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 11, Pages 2354: Regulation of Phosphorus Supply on
           

    • Authors: Hongyu Li, Xiangxiang Wang, Quanxi Liang, Xiaochen Lyu, Sha Li, Zhenping Gong, Shoukun Dong, Chao Yan, Chunmei Ma
      First page: 2354
      Abstract: Phosphorus (P) is an important nutrient affecting nodulation and nitrogen fixation in soybeans. To further investigate the relationship of phosphorus with soybean nodulation and nitrogen fixation, the seedling grafting technique was applied in this study to prepare dual-root soybean systems for a sand culture experiment. From the unfolded cotyledon stage to the initial flowering stage, one side of each dual-root soybean system was irrigated with nutrient solution containing 1 mg/L, 31 mg/L, or 61 mg/L of phosphorus (phosphorus-application side), and the other side was irrigated with a phosphorus-free nutrient solution (phosphorus-free side), to study the effect of local phosphorus supply on nodulation and nitrogen fixation in soybean. The results are described as follows: (1) Increasing the phosphorus supply increased the nodules weight, nitrogenase activity, ureide content, number of bacteroids, number of infected cells, and relative expression levels of nodule nitrogen fixation key genes (GmEXPB2, GmSPX5, nifH, nifD, nifK, GmALN1, GmACP1, GmUR5, GmPUR5, and GmHIUH5) in root nodules on the phosphorus-application side. Although the phosphorus-application and phosphorus-free sides demonstrated similar changing trends, the phosphorus-induced increases were more prominent on the phosphorus-application side, which indicated that phosphorus supply systematically regulates nodulation and nitrogen fixation in soybean. (2) When the level of phosphorus supply was increased from 1 mg/L to 31 mg/L, the increase on the P– side root was significant, and nodule phosphorus content increased by 57.14–85.71% and 68.75–75.00%, respectively; ARA and SNA were 218.64–383.33% and 11.41–16.11%, respectively, while ureide content was 118.18–156.44%. When the level of phosphorus supply was increased from 31mg/L to 61mg/L, the increase in the regulation ability of root and nodule phosphorus content, ARA, SNA, and ureide content were low for roots, and the value for nodules was lower than when the phosphorus level increased from 1 mg/L to 31 mg/L. (3) A high-concentration phosphorus supply on one side of a dual-root soybean plant significantly increased the phosphorus content in the aboveground tissues, as well as the roots and nodules on both sides. In the roots on the phosphorus-free side, the nodules were prioritized for receiving the phosphorus transported from the aboveground tissues to maintain their phosphorus content and functionality.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2021-11-20
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy11112354
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 11, Pages 2355: The Effects of Bioinoculants Based on
           Mycorrhizal and Trichoderma spp. Fungi in an Apple Tree Nursery under
           Replantation Conditions

    • Authors: Zofia Zydlik, Piotr Zydlik, Robert Wieczorek
      First page: 2355
      Abstract: Both mycorrhizal and Trichoderma spp. fungi are known for antagonistic effects against certain biological pathogens causing apple replant disease (ARD). The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of the bioinoculants based on endomycorrhizal and Trichoderma spp. fungi on the biological properties of soil as well as the parameters of the apple tree growths in a fruit tree nursery under replantation conditions. A two-year experiment was conducted on Jonagold apple trees grafted on to M.9 rootstock in western Poland. The trees were planted in the replant soil—from areas used for the production of apple trees, and in the crop rotation soil, that had not been used for nursery purposes before. A mycorrhizal inoculum and preparations containing Trichoderma spp. fungi were applied to the replant soil. Biological properties of the soil and the growth of the aerial and underground parts of the apple trees were assessed. The enzymatic (dehydrogenases and protease) and respiratory activity of the replant soil was significantly lower than that of the crop rotation soil. The apple trees grew worse when exposed to the ARD conditions. The effectiveness of applied bioinoculants in mitigating the effects of replantation in the nursery were shown. Both the treatment mycorrhization and the application of bioinoculants containing Trichoderma spp. increased the respiratory and enzymatic activity of the replant soil. The growth of the root system and the aerial parts of the trees (including leaves) was much better after the combined use of both types of fungi than in the replant soil that had not received the fungal treatment.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2021-11-20
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy11112355
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 11, Pages 2356: AS-Solar, a Tool for Predictive Maintenance
           of Solar Groundwater Pumping Systems

    • Authors: Jorge Cervera-Gascó, Jesús Montero, Miguel A. Moreno
      First page: 2356
      Abstract: Energy for water abstraction limits the viability of some irrigable areas. Increasing efficiency and introducing renewable energy can reduce energy cost. Solar pumping is a widely recognized renewable energy solution. These pumping systems suffer special wear out due to sudden changes and for having working conditions far from the nominal points. Thus, monitoring systems are becoming more frequent for maintenance issues. A new decision support system, named AS-Solar, was developed to perform predictive maintenance. This model permits detecting if the source of the anomaly in the pump performance is the pump, the electrical components (motor, variable frequency drive (VFD) or cables) or the pumping pipe. It demands real-time data from the monitoring system and an accurate simulation model, together with an optimization process that helps in the decision making in predictive maintenance. To validate the developed model, it was applied to a complex case study of a solar pumping system of 40 kWp that abstracts groundwater from nearly 200 m deep. This pumping system has a VFD, two lines of cables up to the pump and aggressive water with slimes, which causes different problems in the pumping system. In this case study, the AS-Solar model shows an acceptable accuracy, with a relative error (RE) of the 2.9% in simulated power and 7.9% in simulated discharge.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2021-11-20
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy11112356
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 11, Pages 2357: Sustainable Purchasing of Fresh Food by
           Restaurants and Cafes in France

    • Authors: Arthus Chevallier-Chantepie, Peter J. Batt
      First page: 2357
      Abstract: This paper explores the purchasing practices adopted by restaurants and cafés operating in France to observe how the owner/operator(s) attitudes towards sustainable business practice impact on the choice of fresh food suppliers. A two-stage cluster analysis revealed the presence of two clusters: conventional buyers and green buyers that showed significant differences in the adoption of sustainable purchasing practices, the perceived benefits derived from the adoption of sustainable business practices, and barriers to the adoption of green purchasing. In making the decision to operate as a green restaurant, the personal beliefs of the owner/operator(s) were paramount, guided in part by the belief that in order to prepare and present the best-tasting food to patrons, executive chefs needed to procure the very best ingredients. In procuring the best quality fresh food ingredients, executive chefs preferred to deal with many small suppliers with whom they had developed a long-term relationship based on their reputation for delivering premium quality products in season.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2021-11-21
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy11112357
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 11, Pages 2358: Comparison and Characterization of
           Oxidation Resistance and Carbohydrate Content in Cd-Tolerant and
           -Sensitive Kentucky Bluegrass under Cd Stress

    • Authors: Yong Wang, Ting Cui, Kuiju Niu, Huiling Ma
      First page: 2358
      Abstract: Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.), a turf grass species that is hypertolerant of cadmium (Cd), is a potential phytoremediation material for soil polluted with Cd. However, the mechanism of Cd phytotoxicity in Kentucky bluegrass is unclear. Here, we compared the phenotype, induction of oxidative stress, and structural and non-structural carbohydrate contents between a Cd-tolerant genotype (‘Midnight’, M) and Cd-sensitive genotype (‘Rugby’, R). The results showed that both genotypes accumulated more Cd in the roots, whereas the R genotype distributed more Cd into the leaves compared with the M genotype. In both genotypes, Cd inhibited the length and fresh weight of the leaves and roots; increased the peroxidase (POD) activity but inhibited ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and catalase (CAT) activity; and increased the superoxide radical (O2−), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents. However, the M genotype exhibited lower root length inhibition, and the H2O2 and MDA contents confirmed that the M genotype had increased Cd accumulation and resistance, while the R genotype exhibited a better distribution of Cd. Moreover, Cd stress significantly increased the soluble sugar, trehalose, and sucrose contents of both genotypes. Pectin, lignin, and cellulose were significantly increased to prevent the entry of Cd into the roots. The Cd-induced growth inhibition and physiological responses in Kentucky bluegrass were preliminarily explored herein, with the chelation of pectin, lignification, and antioxidant response being possible contributors to Cd detoxification in Kentucky bluegrass. In addition, the Cd-induced increase in trehalose, sucrose, and soluble sugar contents might play a pivotal role in the defense against Cd stress in Kentucky bluegrass.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2021-11-21
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy11112358
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 11, Pages 2359: A Review: Soil Management, Sustainable
           Strategies and Approaches to Improve the Quality of Modern Viticulture

    • Authors: Eleonora Cataldo, Maddalena Fucile, Giovan Battista Mattii
      First page: 2359
      Abstract: Conservative and sustainable soil management in vineyards is an approach of primary importance not only for the yield (tons per hectare) and grapes’ quality (primary and secondary metabolites), but also for the greater preservation of the ecosystem. Compared to sustained-conventional tillage and perpetual applications of fertilizers and phytopharmaceutical, these techniques give a primary role for safeguarding biodiversity, conserving soil fertility, and keeping vegetative–productive balance. The soil and, consequently, the wine production are in fact an intimate ecosystem jeopardized not only by a reckless approach by man (technical input, such as pesticides, fuel, fertilizers, and herbicides, are estimated to be responsible for 24% of anthropogenic greenhouse gases emissions), but also by climate change, as rising summer temperatures and reduced precipitation leads to production declines and water shortages in the soil. In fact, there are several risks associated with unbalanced soil management, such as compaction, pollution, soil erosion, soil organic matter (SOM) depletion, and loss of biodiversity, that lead to a drop in grape quality and quantity. In this context, soil management in viticulture and sustainable strategies assume greater significance to improve the quality of modern viticulture. This review aims to highlight new agronomic techniques capable of enhancing the resilience of the system and contributing to conservation and ecosystem services provision, especially as wine consumers increasingly appreciate environmentally friendly farming practices. In particular, the review aims to focus the positive implications and repercussions as a result of these practices (e.g., compost, vermicompost, biochar, Ascophyllum nodosum, Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), Trichoderma, zeolite, partial root drying, cover cropping, and mulching).
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2021-11-21
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy11112359
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 11, Pages 2360: The Biological Function and Roles in
           Phytohormone Signaling of the F-Box Protein in Plants

    • Authors: Keheng Xu, Nan Wu, Wenbo Yao, Xiaowei Li, Yonggang Zhou, Haiyan Li
      First page: 2360
      Abstract: The ubiquitin–proteasome pathway (UPP) is an important protein degradation pathway that can participate in the regulation of the physiological process of organisms by specifically removing abnormal peptides and degrading cell regulators. UPP mainly involves three enzymes, among which the E3 ubiquitin ligase function is central to UPP. E3 ubiquitin ligases can recruit substrate protein for ubiquitination, and they have various forms. Among them, the Skp1–Cul1–F-box (SCF) complex is the most representative member of the cullin RING ubiquitin ligases type in RING-domain E3 ligases, being mainly composed of Cullin 1, Skp1, Rbx1, and F-box proteins. The F-box protein is the key component for SCF to perform specific functions. The F-box protein is one of the largest protein families in plants, and its family members are involved in the regulation of many key physiological processes, such as growth and development of plants and the response to external stimuli. Herein, we briefly review the structure, classification, function, and hormone signaling pathways of F-box proteins.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2021-11-22
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy11112360
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 11, Pages 2361: The Effect of Foliar Application of K2SO4
           or KH2PO4 on Skin Color of the ‘Kyoho’ Grape

    • Authors: Linnan Wu, Pengcheng Li, Haifeng Jia, Fesobi Olumide Phillip, Xingcheng Bao, Fengyun Zhao, Benzhou Zhao, Jianrong Feng, Kun Yu
      First page: 2361
      Abstract: Anthocyanins in red grape skin have a positive effect on fruit color and human health. The effect of foliar potassium application on anthocyanin accumulation in grape skin is not well understood. The study aimed to better understand the mechanism of anthocyanin accumulation in grape skin in response to foliar sprays of K2SO4 and KH2PO4. In this study, we investigated the effects of foliar application of KH2PO4 (T2), K2SO4 (T1) and distilled water (CK) on the skin color of ‘Kyoho’ grapes at mid-ripe and mature stages. At 90 and 110 days after full bloom (DAFB), T2 had the greatest total soluble solids (TSS), flavonoid and total anthocyanin contents, followed by T1 and CK. At two stages, the titratable acid content decreased and the juice pH increased under T2 treatment relative to CK. T1 and T2 had lower lightness (L*) than CK, and the color index of red grapes (CIRG) under T1 and T2 increased at two stages compared to CK. KEGG metabolic pathway analysis revealed that flavonoid biosynthesis was the most significantly enriched pathway in CK vs. T2 at 90 and 110 DAFB. At 90 DAFB, T2 had higher expressions of phenylalanine ammonia-lyas (PAL), cytochrome P450 CYP73A100 (CYP73A), 4-coumarate: CoA ligase (4CL), chalcone synthase (CHS), flavanone 3-dioxygenase-like (F3H) and UDP glucose: flavonoid 3-o-glucosyl transferase (UFGT) than CK and T1. Foliar application of potassium fertilizer may accelerate anthocyanin accumulation by altering the transcript levels of PAL, CYP73A, 4CL, CHS, F3H, and UFGT of the flavonoid biosynthesis.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2021-11-22
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy11112361
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 11, Pages 2362: Gram-Negative Bacteria from Organic and
           Conventional Agriculture in the Hydrographic Basin of Loja: Quality or
           Pathogen Reservoir'

    • Authors: Darío Cruz, Rodrigo Cisneros, Ángel Benítez, Wilson Zúñiga-Sarango, Jhoan Peña, Heriberto Fernández, Andrea Jaramillo
      First page: 2362
      Abstract: Organic and conventional agriculture are vital for the development of human society; however, the use of contaminated water and the inappropriate use of organic chemical fertilizers can lead to an increase in the microbial load (potentially pathogenic) of the normal microbiota of the agricultural soil. In this context, the aim of our study was to isolate Gram-negative bacteria from the superficial soil layer and irrigation water of agricultural areas (11 organic farms and nine conventional farms) and consider their potential ecological and health risk importance. Through culture isolation using three bacterial media (TSA) trypticase soy agar (general nutritive media); MacConkey Gram-negative bacteria and (EMB) eosin methylene blue agar (selective for Enterobacteriaceae) and classical biochemical tests, we recorded a total of 12 bacterial species, most belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family, such as Enterobacter, Escherichia, Klebsiella, Salmonella and Shigella, which can be pathogenic for humans and animals. In contrast, bacteria such as Pantoea agglomerans, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, P. fluorescens and Burkholderia mallei could facultatively work as diazotrophic or plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria. Soil bacteria richness detected with the media applied was significantly higher than water bacteria, but we found no significant differences between organic and conventional agriculture. We conclude that the isolated bacteria in water and soil mostly belongs to enteropathogenic bacteria which could be pathogenic to animals and humans. While other bacteria like Pseudomonas aeruginosa could be viewed as useful by improving nutrient availability in agricultural soil.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2021-11-22
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy11112362
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 11, Pages 2363: Long-Term Effects of the Use of Organic
           Amendments and Crop Rotation on Soil Properties in Southeast Spain

    • Authors: Antonio Sánchez-Navarro, Juan Sánchez-Martínez, Eva María Barba-Corbalán, Magdalena Valverde-Pérez, Aldara Girona-Ruíz, María José Delgado-Iniesta
      First page: 2363
      Abstract: The evolution of soil chemical properties over 20 years was monitored to assess the effects of the change in soil management from a rainfed to an irrigated model and the use of organic amendments and crop rotation. Intensive agriculture has been the activity that has caused most degradation and contamination of this soil. Long-term monitoring of the soil profile made it possible to assess its response to the application of sustainable agricultural techniques intended to offset these effects. Three profiles of the same soil were studied—P1 (1998), P2 (2003), P3 (2017)—to show the evolution in time and space. An incipient degradation process was detected in the first five years, verified by increases in salinity (2.3 dS m−1), exchangeable Na (0.5 g kg−1), and TN (1.3 g kg−1) in P2 in comparison with P1 (1.0, 0.2, and 1.1, respectively). There was also leaching towards the deep horizons for TN (0.4, 0.9, and 0.7 g kg−1 for P1, P2, and P3, respectively), and for assimilable elements such as P (1.1, 6.4, and 3.8), Fe (2.0, 2.1, and 5.6), Mn (0.3, 6.5, and 1.9), Zn (0.3, 0.5, and 0.9), and Cu (0.5, 0.6, and 1.3) (all mg kg−1, for P1, P2, and P3, respectively). Between 2004 and 2017, organic amendments (sheep manure) were reduced by 50%, crop rotation was intensified, and green fertilization and forage maize cultivation were included. As a result, P3 showed an improvement in comparison with P2, with decreases in EC (1.4 dS m−1), exchangeable Na (0.2 g kg−1), and TN (0.8 g kg−1). The change in soil management enhanced some soil functions (carbon sink and chemical fertility) and attenuated soil degradation.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2021-11-22
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy11112363
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 11, Pages 2364: A Novel Technique for Classifying Bird
           Damage to Rapeseed Plants Based on a Deep Learning Algorithm

    • Authors: Ali Mirzazadeh, Afshin Azizi, Yousef Abbaspour-Gilandeh, José Luis Hernández-Hernández, Mario Hernández-Hernández, Iván Gallardo-Bernal
      First page: 2364
      Abstract: Estimation of crop damage plays a vital role in the management of fields in the agriculture sector. An accurate measure of it provides key guidance to support agricultural decision-making systems. The objective of the study was to propose a novel technique for classifying damaged crops based on a state-of-the-art deep learning algorithm. To this end, a dataset of rapeseed field images was gathered from the field after birds’ attacks. The dataset consisted of three classes including undamaged, partially damaged, and fully damaged crops. Vgg16 and Res-Net50 as pre-trained deep convolutional neural networks were used to classify these classes. The overall classification accuracy reached 93.7% and 98.2% for the Vgg16 and the ResNet50 algorithms, respectively. The results indicated that a deep neural network has a high ability in distinguishing and categorizing different image-based datasets of rapeseed. The findings also revealed a great potential of deep learning-based models to classify other damaged crops.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2021-11-22
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy11112364
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 11, Pages 2365: Automated Muzzle Detection and Biometric
           Identification via Few-Shot Deep Transfer Learning of Mixed Breed Cattle

    • Authors: Ali Shojaeipour, Greg Falzon, Paul Kwan, Nooshin Hadavi, Frances C. Cowley, David Paul
      First page: 2365
      Abstract: Livestock welfare and management could be greatly enhanced by the replacement of branding or ear tagging with less invasive visual biometric identification methods. Biometric identification of cattle from muzzle patterns has previously indicated promising results. Significant barriers exist in the translation of these initial findings into a practical precision livestock monitoring system, which can be deployed at scale for large herds. The objective of this study was to investigate and address key limitations to the autonomous biometric identification of cattle. The contributions of this work are fourfold: (1) provision of a large publicly-available dataset of cattle face images (300 individual cattle) to facilitate further research in this field, (2) development of a two-stage YOLOv3-ResNet50 algorithm that first detects and extracts the cattle muzzle region in images and then applies deep transfer learning for biometric identification, (3) evaluation of model performance across a range of cattle breeds, and (4) utilizing few-shot learning (five images per individual) to greatly reduce both the data collection requirements and duration of model training. Results indicated excellent model performance. Muzzle detection accuracy was 99.13% (1024 × 1024 image resolution) and biometric identification achieved 99.11% testing accuracy. Overall, the two-stage YOLOv3-ResNet50 algorithm proposed has substantial potential to form the foundation of a highly accurate automated cattle biometric identification system, which is applicable in livestock farming systems. The obtained results indicate that utilizing livestock biometric monitoring in an advanced manner for resource management at multiple scales of production is possible for future agriculture decision support systems, including providing useful information to forecast acceptable stocking rates of pastures.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2021-11-22
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy11112365
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 11, Pages 2366: Isolation and Identification of
           Antibacterial and Antifungal Compounds from Praxelis clematidea R. M. King
           & H. Robinson as an Effective Potential Treatment against Rice
           Pathogens

    • Authors: Cuong C. Nguyen, Thanh Q. C. Nguyen, Kenji Kanaori, Tran Duy Binh, Le Van Vang, Kaeko Kamei
      First page: 2366
      Abstract: Bacterial leaf blight and blast diseases caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae and the fungus Pyricularia oryzae, respectively, are among the most important infectious diseases affecting rice. We evaluated the antimicrobial effects of compounds derived from Praxelis clematidea on Xanthomonas oryzae and Pyricularia oryzae. The dried aerial parts of Praxelis clematidea were subjected to ethanol extraction, separated by solvent partitioning using hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and water. In vitro assays demonstrated that the main antibacterial and antifungal activities were distributed in the ethyl acetate and chloroform fractions, respectively. These fractions were further separated using silica gel chromatography and reversed-phase chromatography. Finally, we isolated five compounds, 1–5, that inhibited the growth of Xanthomonas oryzae in vitro and four compounds, 6–9, that exhibited in vitro antifungal activity against Pyricularia oryzae. We evaluated their antimicrobial activities and identified their chemical structures by NMR and mass spectrometry analyses. This is the first study to isolate compound 2 (4,4′,4′′-nitrilotriphenol) as an alternative microbial from natural resources and evaluate its physiological activity. Moreover, this is the first report to demonstrate antibacterial activity in comparison with flavonoids. Praxelis clematidea extracts plausibly exert both antibacterial and antifungal effects, which should be further validated in field trials.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2021-11-22
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy11112366
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 11, Pages 2367: Adaptability Mechanisms of Japonica Rice
           Based on the Comparative Temperature Conditions of Harbin and Qiqihar,
           Heilongjiang Province of Northeast China

    • Authors: Muhammad Shahbaz Farooq, Amatus Gyilbag, Ahmad Latif Virk, Yinlong Xu
      First page: 2367
      Abstract: Japonica rice has been considerably impacted from climate change, mainly regarding temperature variations. Adjusting the crop management practices based on the assessment of adaptability mechanisms to take full advantage of climate resources during the growing season is an important technique for japonica rice adaptation to climate changed conditions. Research based on the adaptability mechanisms of japonica rice to temperature and other environmental variables has theoretical and practical significance to constitute a theoretical foundation for sustainable japonica rice production system. A contrived study was arranged with method of replacing time with space having four different japonica cultivars namely Longdao-18, Longdao-21, Longjing-21, and Suijing-18, and carried out in Harbin and Qiqihar during the years 2017–2019 to confer with the adaptability mechanisms in terms of growth, yield and quality. The formation of the grain-filling material for superior and inferior grains was mainly in the middle phase which shared nearly 60% of whole grain-filling process. Maximum yield was noticed in Longdao-18 at Harbin and Qiqihar which was 9500 and 13,250 kg/ha, respectively. The yield contributing components fertile tillers, number of grains per panicle, and 1000-grain weight were higher at Qiqihar; therefore, there was more potential to get higher yield. The data for grain-filling components demonstrated that the filling intensity and duration at Qiqihar was contributive to increase the grain yield, whereas the limiting agents to limit yield at Harbin were the dry weights of inferior grains. The varietal differences in duration and time of day of anthesis were small. Across all cultivars and both study sites, nearly 85% of the variation of the maximum time of anthesis could be justified with mean atmospheric temperature especially mean minimum temperature. Mean onset of anthesis was earliest in Longdao-21 at Harbin, whereas it was latest in Longdao-18 at Qiqihar. The maximum time to end anthesis and the longest duration of anthesis were taken by Longdao-18, i.e., 9.0 hasr and 4.2 h, respectively. Chalkiness and brown rice percentages were elevated at Qiqihar showing Harbin produced good quality rice. This study investigated the adaptability mechanisms of japonica rice under varying temperature conditions to distinguish the stress tolerance features for future sustainability and profitability in NEC. It was concluded that there is an adaptive value for anthesis especially regarding Tmin and, moreover, earlier transplantation may produce tall plants. The results demonstrated that high temperature at the onset of anthesis at the start of the day enhanced the escape from high temperature later during the day. Early transplantation is recommended in NEC because earlier anthesis during humid days rendered for potential escape from high ambient temperature later during that day. Temperature influenced japonica rice significantly and coherently, whereas the influence of growing season precipitation was not significant. Daily mean sunshine influenced the japonica rice significantly, but the impact was less spatially coherent. The results foregrounded the response of the japonica rice to external driving factors focusing climate, but ignored socioeconomic suggesting emphasis on both driving factors to target future research and render important insights into how japonica rice can adapt in mid-high-latitude regions.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2021-11-22
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy11112367
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Agronomy, Vol. 11, Pages 2368: Association Study of Symbiotic Genes in Pea
           (Pisum sativum L.) Cultivars Grown in Symbiotic Conditions

    • Authors: Vladimir A. Zhukov, Aleksandr I. Zhernakov, Anton S. Sulima, Olga A. Kulaeva, Marina S. Kliukova, Alexey M. Afonin, Oksana Y. Shtark, Igor A. Tikhonovich
      First page: 2368
      Abstract: In garden pea (Pisum sativum L.), several symbiotic genes are known to control the development of mutualistic symbioses with nodule bacteria (NB) and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Here, we studied whether the allelic state of the symbiotic genes was associated with the growth parameters of pea plants under single inoculation with NB and under double inoculation with NB + AMF. Using different statistical methods, we analyzed the dataset obtained from a pot experiment that involved 99 pea cultivars, 10 of which were characterized as having shortened internodes due to the presence of the natural mutation p.A229T in the developmental gene Le. The plant’s habitus strongly influenced most of the studied growth and yield parameters and the effectiveness of the symbiotic interactions under NB and NB + AMF inoculation. Double inoculation had different effects on Le+ (normal) and le− (dwarf) plants with regard to nitrogen and phosphorus content in seeds. Regardless of the Le-status of plants, allelic states of the symbiotic gene LykX encoding the putative receptor of Nod factors (bacterial signal molecules) were shown to be associated with seed number, thousand-seed weight, and pod number at the level of FDR < 0.001, whereas associations of allelic states of the other studied symbiotic genes were less significant.
      Citation: Agronomy
      PubDate: 2021-11-22
      DOI: 10.3390/agronomy11112368
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 11 (2021)
       
 
JournalTOCs
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
 


Your IP address: 52.90.49.108
 
Home (Search)
API
About JournalTOCs
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-