Subjects -> BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS (Total: 3841 journals)
    - ACCOUNTING (145 journals)
    - BANKING AND FINANCE (329 journals)
    - BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS (1411 journals)
    - CONSUMER EDUCATION AND PROTECTION (20 journals)
    - COOPERATIVES (4 journals)
    - ECONOMIC SCIENCES: GENERAL (232 journals)
    - ECONOMIC SYSTEMS, THEORIES AND HISTORY (255 journals)
    - FASHION AND CONSUMER TRENDS (20 journals)
    - HUMAN RESOURCES (103 journals)
    - INSURANCE (26 journals)
    - INTERNATIONAL COMMERCE (146 journals)
    - INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND AID (103 journals)
    - INVESTMENTS (22 journals)
    - LABOR AND INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS (66 journals)
    - MACROECONOMICS (17 journals)
    - MANAGEMENT (634 journals)
    - MARKETING AND PURCHASING (116 journals)
    - MICROECONOMICS (23 journals)
    - PRODUCTION OF GOODS AND SERVICES (125 journals)
    - PUBLIC FINANCE, TAXATION (42 journals)
    - TRADE AND INDUSTRIAL DIRECTORIES (2 journals)

BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS (1411 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1566 Journals sorted alphabetically
360 : Revista de Ciencias de la Gestión     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
4OR: A Quarterly Journal of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Abacus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Acta Amazonica     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Commercii     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Marisiensis : Seria Oeconomica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Oeconomica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Acta Scientiarum. Human and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Acta Universitatis Danubius. Œconomica     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Universitatis Lodziensis : Folia Geographica Socio-Oeconomica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Universitatis Nicolai Copernici Zarządzanie     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
AD-minister     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Adam Academy : Journal of Social Sciences / Adam Akademi : Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
AdBispreneur : Jurnal Pemikiran dan Penelitian Administrasi Bisnis dan Kewirausahaan     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Admisi dan Bisnis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ADR Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advanced Sustainable Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Developing Human Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Advances in Economics and Business     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Africa Journal of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 78)
African Business     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
African Development Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
African Journal of Business Ethics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
African Review of Economics and Finance     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Afro Eurasian Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Afro-Asian Journal of Finance and Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Akademik Yaklaşımlar Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Akademika : Journal of Southeast Asia Social Sciences and Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
AL-Qadisiyah Journal For Administrative and Economic sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Alphanumeric Journal : The Journal of Operations Research, Statistics, Econometrics and Management Information Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Economic Journal : Applied Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 279)
American Enterprise Institute     Free   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Business     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
American Journal of Business and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 73)
American Journal of Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
American Journal of Economics and Business Administration     Open Access   (Followers: 40)
American Journal of Economics and Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
American Journal of Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
American Journal of Finance and Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
American Journal of Health Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 31)
American Journal of Medical Quality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
ANALES de la Universidad Central del Ecuador     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ankara University SBF Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annales de l'Institut Henri Poincare (C) Non Linear Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Annals in Social Responsibility     Full-text available via subscription  
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Annual Review of Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 52)
Anuario Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y Empresariales     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Applied Developmental Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Applied Economics Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Applied Financial Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Applied Mathematical Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Applied Stochastic Models in Business and Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Apuntes Universitarios     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arab Economic and Business Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Business Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Arena Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Argomenti. Rivista di economia, cultura e ricerca sociale     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ASEAN Economic Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Asia Pacific Business Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 329)
Asia Pacific Journal of Innovation and Entrepreneurship     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asia Pacific Viewpoint     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Operational Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Rural Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Asia-Pacific Management and Business Application     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Business Review     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Case Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Asian Development Review     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Asian Economic Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Asian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asian Economic Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian Journal of Accounting and Governance     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Asian Journal of Economics, Business and Accounting     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Social Sciences and Management Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Asian Journal of Sustainability and Social Responsibility     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian-pacific Economic Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
ATA Journal of Legal Tax Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Atlantic Economic Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Australasian Journal of Regional Studies, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Cottongrower, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Australian Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Australian Journal of Maritime and Ocean Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Baltic Journal of Real Estate Economics and Construction Management     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Banks in Insurance Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
BBR - Brazilian Business Review     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Benchmarking : An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Benefit : Jurnal Manajemen dan Bisnis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Berkeley Business Law Journal     Free   (Followers: 13)
Beta : Scandinavian Journal of Business Research     Full-text available via subscription  
Bio-based and Applied Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biodegradation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biology Direct     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
BizInfo (Blace) Journal of Economics, Management and Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Black Enterprise     Full-text available via subscription  
Board & Administrator for Administrators only     Hybrid Journal  
Boletim Técnico do Senac     Open Access  
Border Crossing : Transnational Working Papers     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Brazilian Business Review     Open Access  
Briefings in Real Estate Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
British Journal of Industrial Relations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Brookings Papers on Economic Activity     Open Access   (Followers: 72)
Brookings Trade Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
BRQ Business Research Quarterly     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
BU Academic Review     Open Access  
Bulletin of Economic Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Bulletin of Geography. Socio-economic Series     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Bulletin of the Dnipropetrovsk University. Series : Management of Innovations     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Business & Entrepreneurship Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
Business & Information Systems Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Business & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Business : Theory and Practice / Verslas : Teorija ir Praktika     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Business and Economic Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Business and Management Horizons     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Business and Management Research     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Business and Management Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Business and Professional Communication Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Business and Society Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Business Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Business Ethics Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Business Ethics: A European Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Business Horizons     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Business Information Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Business Management Analysis Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Business Management and Strategy     Open Access   (Followers: 51)
Business Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Business Review Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Business Strategy and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Business Strategy and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Business Strategy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Business Strategy Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Business Systems & Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Business, Economics and Management Research Journal : BEMAREJ     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Business, Management and Education     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Business: Theory and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos EBAPE.BR     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cambridge Journal of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 81)
Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences / Revue Canadienne des Sciences de l Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Economics/Revue Canadienne d`Economique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Canadian journal of nonprofit and social economy research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Capitalism Nature Socialism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Case Studies in Business and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
CBU International Conference Proceedings     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Central European Business Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Central European Journal of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Central European Journal of Public Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Chain Reaction     Full-text available via subscription  
Challenge     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Chandrakasem Rajabhat University Journal of Graduate School     Open Access  
China & World Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
China : An International Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
China Economic Journal : The Official Journal of the China Center for Economic Research (CCER) at Peking University     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
China Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
China Finance Review International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
China perspectives     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Chinese Economy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Chinese Journal of Population, Resources and Environment     Open Access  
Chinese Journal of Social Science and Management     Open Access  
Christian University of Thailand Journal     Open Access  
Chulalongkorn Business Review     Open Access  
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia, Economía y Negocios     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Circular Economy and Sustainability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Climate and Energy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
CLIO América     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cliometrica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Colombo Business Journal     Open Access  
Community Development Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Compendium : Cuadernos de Economía y Administración     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Compensation & Benefits Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Competition & Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Competitive Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Competitiveness Review : An International Business Journal incorporating Journal of Global Competitiveness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Computational Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Computational Mathematics and Modeling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Computer Law & Security Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Computers & Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Consilience : The Journal of Sustainable Development     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Construction Innovation: Information, Process, Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Consumer Behavior Studies Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Consumer Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Contemporary Wales     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Contextus - Revista Contemporânea de Economia e Gestão     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Continuity & Resilience Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Benchmarking : An International Journal
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.559
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 9  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1463-5771 - ISSN (Online) 1758-4094
Published by Emerald Homepage  [362 journals]
  • Internal environmental management and green human resource management:
           significant catalysts for improved corporate reputation and performance

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Ebenezer Afum, Yaw Agyabeng-Mensah, Abigail Opoku Mensah, Enoch Mensah-Williams, Charles Baah, Essel Dacosta
      Abstract: This paper investigates the combined effect of internal environmental management (IEM) and green human resource management (GHRM) on corporate reputation (CR), environmental performance (EP) and financial performance (FP). The paper further explores the indirect effects of CR and EP between the direct paths. Data are garnered from 164 firms from three industries in Ghana. Partial least square structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) is the methodological technique used to test the hypothesized relationships. The result demonstrates that unlike IEM which has a significant effect on FP when implemented in isolation, GHRM does not have a significant effect on FP. However, the joint implementation of IEM and GHRM can provide better results in terms of improved CR, enhanced EP and significant FP improvement. CR and EP were further found to mediate the relationship between the direct paths. The results suggest that the joint implementation of IEM and GHRM is critical for firms that seek to enjoy superior reputation, enhance their environmental sustainability and achieve financial gains. Consequently, managers are strongly encouraged to create a sustainable and vibrant company via significant and rational investment in green initiatives like IEM and GHRM. This study happens to be one of the first to develop a research model that investigates the joint effect of IEM and GHRM within the context of CR, environmental sustainability and FP.
      Citation: Benchmarking: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2021-04-08
      DOI: 10.1108/BIJ-09-2020-0504
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Blockchain connectivity inhibitors: weaknesses affecting supply chain
           interaction and resilience

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Mauro Vivaldini, Paulo Renato de Sousa
      Abstract: The paper aims to further understanding of connectivity from the perspective of blockchain technology (BT) in the supply chain (SC). It presents the weaknesses (inhibitors) of connectivity during technology implementation, focusing on supply chain interaction and resilience. Restricting the focus to digital connectivity, interaction and supply chain resilience, this paper uses a systematic literature review (SLR) to examine how the literature has addressed, related or flagged connectivity weaknesses affecting supply chain interaction and resilience. This study highlights the influence of connectivity for blockchain-technology projects. Technical and organisational influencers that affect the adoption of technology in the SC are presented. These influencers support the factors proposed in this study regarding the weaknesses that negatively affect the interaction between the agents involved and the SC's resilience. The research suggests that the weaknesses are related to technical needs and the relationships between companies arising from functionalities. This paper is restricted to a review of the theory and the researched material. Although the author was careful to choose the best search terms related to the research objective, some potentially relevant articles may have been excluded. The study summarises research on blockchain connectivity influencers in the SC, helping managers to anticipate and mitigate some of doubts and concerns in projects of this nature. This is one of the first articles in the area of operations and SCs that addresses the topic of connectivity, focusing on its restrictive factors (connectivity inhibitors), in the context of blockchain implementation in the SC.
      Citation: Benchmarking: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2021-04-08
      DOI: 10.1108/BIJ-10-2020-0510
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Association between fund attributes and fund's performance: a panel data
           approach

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Anurag Bhadur Singh, Priyanka Tandon
      Abstract: The present study tries to explore the various fund attributes that influence the mutual fund performance. Further, study examined the effect of mutual fund attributes namely, Net Asset Value (NAV), Portfolio turnover ratio (PTR), fund size (AUM), expense ratio (ExpR) and fund age (Age) on mutual fund's performance using gross return and risk-adjusted performance measures. The study evaluated balanced panel data (short panel) comprising 81 Indian equity mutual fund schemes for the period of 2013–2019. The study estimated relationship between fund attributes (Net asset value, Portfolio turnover ratio, Fund age, fund size and Expense ratio) and fund performance (using gross return and risk-adjusted performance measures), through panel data regression using fixed-effects model as suggested by Hausman specification test on transformed data (due to high multicollinearity), with cluster-robust estimators due to the presence of heteroskedasticity in the model. The findings of the study suggested that using gross return as fund performance measure, PTR, NAV, AUM, Age exhibit significant relationship with the fund performance whereas using risk-adjusted performance measures (Treynor ratio and Jensen alpha) NAV and ExpR significantly influences the fund performance. Identification of the significant relationship between fund characteristics and fund performance offers valuable insights to the investors and fund managers for rationally managing their portfolio with the ultimate objective of the wealth maximization. The study considered only 81 equity mutual fund schemes. Some of the data were not available at the time of the study due to the policy of the company. The present study contributes significantly in examining the expected association between fund attributes and fund performance in the context of Indian mutual fund industry where this relationship were explored less. The findings of the present study will help the investors to take the rational investment decision with the ultimate objective of maximum return with minimal risk. The findings also offer significant germane to the stakeholders in making rational decision-making process. There is dearth of study concerning the relationship between mutual fund characteristics and fund performance with respect to Indian mutual fund industry. Therefore, study provides valuable insights to the area of the portfolio selection and management with respect to Indian mutual funds.
      Citation: Benchmarking: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2021-04-08
      DOI: 10.1108/BIJ-10-2020-0545
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Integrated approach for finding the causal effect of waste management over
           sustainability in the organization

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      Authors: Aarti Singh, Sushil
      Abstract: In developed and developing countries, organizations need to do sustainability reporting. The purpose of this paper is to identify the vital linkages of sustainability, which helps to capture the existing waste management practice in sustainable organizations. This paper reports a mixed-method approach for sustainable organization. Initially, the waste management and sustainability factors have been linked together for finding the relation between them through the situation, actor, process, learning, action, performance (SAP-LAP) linkages framework; it has been used as qualitative design details to achieve sustainability in the organization. The waste management and sustainability factors linkages have been used as a reference to guide the cause and effect relationship through decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL) to upgrade knowledge for a sustainable organization. The proposed method has been used to meet the functional requirements of sustainability in the organization. Waste management has been analyzed as the most significant benchmarks to achieve sustainability in the organization. The causal relationship reveals that the social image of an organization as a sustainable organization is the effect of its governmental directives, followed by the organization. The governmental directives is the most influencing dimension, and waste management efficiency and energy consumption are the most related, whereas wastivity is the most flexible dimension of sustainability in the organization. To increase its customer satisfaction, profit share and market value, these factors must be considered as vital factors of organization's sustainable performance. The scope of the present research has been limited to benchmark sustainability by analyzing eight waste management factors and ten critical sustainability factors that have been grouped into four dimensions in the service sector, which could be generalized. The expert's view has been captured for DEMATEL based on “ratings provided by experts,” which may be biased. Benchmarked sustainability factors have been proposed to increase the value and performance of the organization. The cause and effect relationship is useful to present the capability of waste management to act as a strong foundation for establishing a sustainable organization, where governmental directives, wastivity, waste management efficiency, and energy consumption act as the benchmarking factors to compare sustainable organization performance in developing the county's viewpoint. The present study considered the fourth dimension of sustainability “government and customer” as the dynamic dimension of sustainability, which can absorb and diffuse the changes in sustainable organization with time and can improvise social acceptance. The research improves the existing method of measuring the performance of the sustainable organization by using well-established methods.
      Citation: Benchmarking: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2021-04-05
      DOI: 10.1108/BIJ-08-2020-0419
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Supplier selection and evaluation in e-commerce enterprises: a data
           envelopment analysis approach

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Saurabh Pratap, Yash Daultani, Ashish Dwivedi, Fuli Zhou
      Abstract: E-commerce refers to the facilitation and delivery of goods and services to the customers employing an electronic arrangement. For an e-commerce firm, the customer service level provided by its suppliers can make or break the firm. The purpose of this research is to help e-commerce enterprises in addressing the vast challenge of complex supplier selection and evaluation process that must be performed vigilantly. The present study utilizes a three-pronged approach that integrates supplier management practices with the operational business practices of an e-commerce enterprise. In the first step, key performance factors for e-commerce capable suppliers are identified through an expert opinion and existing supplier management literature. Further, Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) is employed to obtain the efficiency score for each supplier that enables their ranking on various performance parameters. Lastly, the suppliers are classified into different categories based on their performance and efficiency. Under the proposed classification scheme, top five suppliers, i.e. supplier 1, 7, 9, 11 and 17 are categorized as HE (High Performance and Efficient). It is suggested that e-commerce enterprises must build long-term relationship with the identified top performing suppliers. The study also provides real insights into supplier's performance on a number of objective criteria. Further, the present study enhances the overall performance and productivity of an e-commerce firm by achieving input cost minimization and output quality maximization, simultaneously. The results are valid for e-commerce enterprises in general. However, the present DEA model can be further evolved when applied in case of any particular e-commerce enterprise depending upon the internal capabilities of that firm. The nuances related to a firm's own supply capability development can be further explored by practitioners and researchers. The proposed approach is expected to motivate decision-makers to consider using more sophisticated approached like DEA in supplier evaluation processes. Also, as a benchmarking technique, the proposed supplier classification approach is expected to be highly useful for practitioners in real-life settings. The novel contribution of this study includes the supplier evaluation, ranking and classification for e-commerce enterprises based on the real-life data. The insights would help the practitioners to formulate novel strategies for appropriately investing in supplier relationships.
      Citation: Benchmarking: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2021-04-01
      DOI: 10.1108/BIJ-10-2020-0556
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • A holistic model for Global Industry 4.0 readiness assessment

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      Authors: Shubham Tripathi, Manish Gupta
      Abstract: Transformation to Industry 4.0 has become crucial for nations, and a coherent transformation strategy requires a comprehensive picture of current status and future vision. This study presents a comprehensive model for readiness assessment of nations based on rigorous analysis of several global indices and academic Industry 4.0 literature. A holistic approach is taken considering overall socioeconomic development along with industrial innovation and seven readiness dimensions: enabling environment, human resource, infrastructure, ecological sustainability, innovation capability, cybersecurity and consumers. The indicators used for evaluation are standard metrics for which data are collected from reputed sources such as World Bank, United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), World Economic Forum (WEF) and International Organization for Standardization (ISO), and hence internationally acceptable. The formulated model is used to evaluate Industry 4.0 readiness of 126 economies that account for 98.25% of world’s gross national income. Observations show poor scores of most economies on innovation capability and cybersecurity dimension as compared to other 5 dimensions. In 75% countries, I4.0 readiness score is below 0.5 on a scale of 0–1(completely ready), highest being 0.65 for Denmark. A systematic literature review revealed lack of assessment models discussing a nation's current status or readiness for Industry 4.0. This academic study is first of its kind.
      Citation: Benchmarking: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2021-03-31
      DOI: 10.1108/BIJ-07-2020-0354
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Green product innovation and competitive advantage: an empirical study of
           chemical industrial plants in Jordanian qualified industrial zones

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      Authors: Ghaith M. Al-Abdallah, Majda I. Al-Salim
      Abstract: Green product innovation is a global industrial concern. This research examines the possible impact of green product innovation on firms' competitive advantage in industrial enterprises operating in qualified industrial zones (QIZs). This research follows a descriptive analytical methodology, testing two hypotheses formulated based on the reviewed literature among chemical industrial plants of the three Jordanian QIZs (Amman, Zarqa and Irbid) in Jordan. Following a preliminary scoping study of all 219 Jordanian chemical manufacturers, a quantitative five-point Likert scale questionnaire was administered to firms applying green product activities. In total, 20 firms were found to be utilizing green product innovation, representing only 9.13% of the overall population. The hypothesis testing results indicated that green product innovation has a statistically significant positive impact on competitive advantage. The results also showed that the factor “firm resources” has a statistically significant positive moderation effect on the relationship between green product innovation and competitive advantage. The vast majority of Jordanian chemical manufacturers were not implementing green innovation or practices; further study is needed to identify barriers. Findings are limited to managers of chemical industrial plants in Jordan, excluding the demand side (e.g. plant customers who purchase final products), which leaves a different research angle to be explored. This is a pioneering study of green product innovation implications for firm competitive advantage in manufacturing enterprises, especially in QIZs of Jordan (which offer tax exemptions to foreign and local investors and sell products to regional and international markets).
      Citation: Benchmarking: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2021-03-30
      DOI: 10.1108/BIJ-03-2020-0095
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Using VIKOR with structural equation modeling for constructing benchmarks
           in the Internet industry

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      Authors: Nuri Gökhan Torlak, Ahmet Demir, Taylan Budur
      Abstract: The study uses VIseKriterijumska Optimizacija I Kompromisno Resenje (VIKOR)-structural equation modeling (SEM) to construct benchmarks for service providers and evaluate a multimethodology practice in the Internet industry. The data were collected using a survey based on an email/interview with 444 Internet users participating. SEM obtained coefficient values by way of customer expectations for Internet service providers. The authors normalized coefficients and integrated them into the VIKOR method for ranking competitors in the Internet industry. VIKOR-SEM revealed that network and information quality and security/privacy significantly positively impact customer trust while network and information quality and customer trust significantly positively affect Internet users' value perceptions. Customer services do not affect customer trust, while security/privacy and customer services have no significant influence on customer value perceptions. Though customer services and Internet users' trust and value perceptions directly, significantly and positively affect their commitments, the quality of network and information and security/privacy indirectly, significantly and positively influence customer commitments. The study was in the Internet industry of Iraq. The results cannot be accurate for the other countries and the service sectors. The researchers/managers can adopt the model in other service sectors to test the multimethodology. VIKOR-SEM evaluated the changes in customer expectations and service providers in the Internet industry.
      Citation: Benchmarking: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2021-03-30
      DOI: 10.1108/BIJ-09-2020-0465
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • The impact of Logistics 4.0 on corporate sustainability: a performance
           assessment of automated warehouse operations

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      Authors: Natnaree Nantee, Panitas Sureeyatanapas
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to gain a better understanding of the impacts of Logistics 4.0 initiatives (focusing on automated warehousing systems) on the economic, environmental and social dimensions of firms' sustainability performance. To achieve this objective, a new framework for the assessment of sustainable warehousing in the 4.0 era is developed. The framework, developed via the item-objective congruence index, Q-sort method and interviews with experts, is employed to assess performance changes through management interviews in two warehousing companies after the implementation of automation technologies. Most aspects of both companies' sustainability performance are considerably improved (e.g. productivity, accuracy, air emission, worker safety and supply chain visibility); however, the outcome for some criteria might be worsened or improved depending on each company's solutions and strategies (e.g. increasing electricity bills, maintenance costs and job losses). The findings provide insight into the effective implementation of warehousing technologies. The proposed framework is also a valid and reliable instrument for sustainability assessment for warehousing operators, which companies can utilise for self-assessment. This paper contributes to establishing a body of literature that explores the previously unclarified effects of Logistics 4.0 on firms' sustainability performance. The proposed framework, which captures critical concerns of corporate sustainability and technological adaptation, is also the first of its kind for warehouse performance assessment.
      Citation: Benchmarking: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2021-03-29
      DOI: 10.1108/BIJ-11-2020-0583
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Benchmarking smart manufacturing drivers using Grey TOPSIS and COPRAS-G
           approaches

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      Authors: Anilkumar Malaga, S. Vinodh
      Abstract: The objective of the study is to identify and analyse drivers of smart manufacturing using integrated grey-based approaches. The analysis facilitates industry practitioners in the identification of preference of drivers through which smart manufacturing can be implemented. These drivers are explored based on existing literature and expert opinion. Modern manufacturing firms have been adopting smart manufacturing concepts to sustain in the global competitive landscape. Smart manufacturing incorporates integrated technologies with a flexible workforce to interlink the cyber and physical world. In order to facilitate the effective deployment of smart manufacturing, key drivers need to be analysed. This article presents a study in which 25 drivers of smart manufacturing and 8 criteria are analysed. Integrated grey Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (grey TOPSIS) is applied to rank the drivers. The derived ranking is validated using “Complex Proportional Assessment – Grey” (COPRAS-G) approach. In total, 25 drivers with 8 criteria are being considered and an integrated grey TOPSIS approach is applied. The ranking order of drivers is obtained and further sensitivity analysis is also done. In the present study, 25 drivers of smart manufacturing are analysed. In the future, additional drivers could be considered. The study presented has been done with inputs from industry experts, and hence the inferences have practical relevance. Industry practitioners need to focus on these drivers in order to implement smart manufacturing in industry. The analysis of drivers of smart manufacturing is the original contribution of the authors.
      Citation: Benchmarking: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2021-03-29
      DOI: 10.1108/BIJ-12-2020-0620
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • A systematic review of machine learning in logistics and supply chain
           management: current trends and future directions

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      Authors: Mohammadreza Akbari, Thu Nguyen Anh Do
      Abstract: This paper presents a review of the existing state-of-the-art literature on machine learning (ML) in logistics and supply chain management (LSCM) by analyzing the current literature, contemporary concepts, data and gaps and suggesting potential topics for future research. A systematic/structured literature review in the subject discipline and a bibliometric analysis were organized. Information regarding industry involvement, geographic location, research design and methods, data analysis techniques, university, affiliation, publishers, authors, year of publications is documented. A wide collection of eight databases from 1994 to 2019 were explored using the keywords “Machine Learning” and “Logistics“, “Transportation” and “Supply Chain” in the title and/or abstract. A total of 110 articles were found, and information on a chain of variables was gathered. Over the last few decades, the application of emerging technologies has attracted significant interest all around the world. Analysis of the collected data shows that only nine literature reviews have been published in this area. Further, key findings show that 53.8 per cent of publications were closely clustered on transportation and manufacturing industries and 54.7 per cent were centred on mathematical models and simulations. Neural network is applied in 22 papers as their exclusive algorithms. Finally, the main focuses of the current literature are on prediction and optimization, where detection is contributed by only seven articles. This review is limited to examining only academic sources available from Scopus, Elsevier, Web of Science, Emerald, JSTOR, SAGE, Springer, Taylor and Francis and Wiley which contain the words “Machine Learning” and “Logistics“, “Transportation” and “Supply Chain” in the title and/or abstract. This paper provides a systematic insight into research trends in ML in both logistics and the supply chain.
      Citation: Benchmarking: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2021-03-26
      DOI: 10.1108/BIJ-10-2020-0514
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Can collaborative buffering strategies reduce distribution costs while
           improving product returns': A case of an Asian e-retailer

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      Authors: Bhavin Shah, Gaganpreet Singh
      Abstract: In order to achieve competitive advantage over the physical marketplace, the e-retailers are insisted on endowing with lenient return policies. The piece-wise returns-and-reordering process incurs excessive buffering and unwanted logistics costs which raises overall fulfillment charges. The objective of this study is to re-design e-retail distribution policy by providing temporal storage at logistics service provides' (LSP) location. The impact of recurrent returns on pricing and profit margins are also investigated over time continuum. A framework is developed to reduce the non-value added (NVA) storage and distribution efforts by providing collaborative buffering between LSP and e-retailer. The knapsack based buffering approach is tested and compared with traditional e-retail distribution practices. The revenue sharing concept is mathematically modelled and implemented in GAMS, which finally validated through multiple return scenarios. The proposed model outperforms the existing one under all scenarios with different configuration settings of re-ordering, profit margins, and buffer time windows. The distribution cost is found, linearly related to the necessary product buffering space. The findings help to re-design sustainable return policies for individual products so that maximum customer value can be yield with minimum costs. This study helps to determine the NVA efforts incurred while storing and delivering multi-time returned products to ensure desired service levels. The revenue sharing model provides pricing strategies for e-retail practitioners deciding which product should store in what quantity for how much time at the shipping agency location so that it fulfils the re-ordering at least waiting and sufficient buffering. The proposed model extends the role of LPSs as temporary buffer providers to reduce returns-and-reordering fulfilment efforts in the e-retail network. This Collaborative framework offers an opportunity to amend the distribution contracts and policies time by time that enhances e-retailer's performance and customer satisfaction.
      Citation: Benchmarking: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2021-03-25
      DOI: 10.1108/BIJ-09-2020-0478
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Strategic innovation and entrepreneurial ownership: an analysis using GEM
           data and fuzzy simulation

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      Authors: Kamala Kannan Dinesh, Sushil
      Abstract: This paper aims to study entrepreneurial ownership and technological input on product innovation globally and in the Indian context. The data used in this study is collected from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM). The study evaluates strategic innovation and entrepreneurial ownership in global and country-level data. The study was extracted from global and country-level data by the GEM. One of the methods used is ordinal regression analysis to examine the importance of entrepreneurial ownership and technology usage on product innovation. Another technique used is the fuzzy-based simulation to simulate the scenario of entrepreneurial ownership and usage of technology in business processes impacting product innovation. Results from statistical analysis indicate that entrepreneurial ownership is high in India compared to the globe. The usage of technology and its excellence is still lower than the global level and in other countries. In India, product innovation is achieved because of strong entrepreneurial ownership but, globally product innovation is achieved because of the higher level of technological excellence and technology usage in innovation activities. The fuzzy-based simulation shows that product innovation is at peak only when both technological input and entrepreneurial ownership are high. This paper's original contribution is that the fuzzy-based simulations are applied to GEM data to study the relationships of entrepreneurial ownership and technological input on product innovation through simulation. The study has shed light on how entrepreneurial ownership and usage of technology are influential in product innovation.
      Citation: Benchmarking: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2021-03-24
      DOI: 10.1108/BIJ-10-2020-0540
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • The role of ecological modernization principles in advancing circular
           economy practices: lessons from the brewery sector

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      Authors: Simone Sehnem, Ana Beatriz Lopes de Sousa Jabbour, Diogo Amarildo da Conceição, Darciana Weber, Dulcimar José Julkovski
      Abstract: There is no literature that sought the revision and integration of ecological modernization of theory (EMT) and circular economy (CE). This article aims to answer the questions: How have companies developed circular economy practices within their operations' Why have companies invested in circular economy practices' Based on the answers to these questions, it would be possible to understand how the assumptions of EMT explain the adoption of CE practices. The research method is based on multiple case studies with Brazilian craft brewery companies. Companies studied have pursed the adoption of circular economy practices, but the full potential of the use of biological cycles within their processes of production has been hampered by the lack of external policies and clear governance toward circular economy. Thus, pollution prevention policies may be an important driver for organizations be able to advance in circular economy practices. Research limitations are coverage only of organizations located in an emerging country. A second limitation is that the data saturation was partially achieved in some of the analyzed cases, especially by the limitation of the time period surveyed (transversal research). The longitudinal evaluation is timely for circular economy surveys. The formulation of a regulatory framework through a participative, interactive and decentralized process, capable of delegating responsibilities and incentives to all entities, to contemplate a tax restructuring for the alcoholic beverage sector, could corroborate to create a new standard of action for the sector. This document highlights how the principles of ecological modernization can contribute to the advancement of the circular economy. The understanding can help in the design of processes that provide circular and sustainable operations as a social good in a effective value. The principles from EMT, such as the development of an institutional environment towards corporate environmental proactive, could enhance the adoption of circular economy practices within the brewery sector. Despite of the class association of the brewery sector has supported the companies studied to move forward in other matters, a clear governance is necessary to guide organizations towards circular economy practices.
      Citation: Benchmarking: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2021-03-19
      DOI: 10.1108/BIJ-07-2020-0364
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Deconstructing corporate value creation: evidence from Indian Information
           Technology enabled Service (ITeS) companies

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      Authors: Suresh Srinivasan, Mahima Gupta, Vaidyanathan Jayaraman
      Abstract: To explore building blocks of corporate value creation that can be effectively assembled by practicing managers to deconstruct corporate value creation into distinctive models (customer value creation and shareholder value creation) and stages (resource assembly and capability leverage) in the Indian Information Technology enabled Service (ITeS) industry for exploring efficiency differentials between large Indian ITeS companies. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) technique has been used to uncover efficiency differentials in large Indian ITeS companies that represent 90% of all the ITeS companies listed in the Indian stock market and 13.9% of all companies listed in the Indian stock market, across industries. This paper documents a nuanced understanding of interrelationships among activities that influence corporate value creation and comprehensively highlight those dominant activities that contribute to corporate value creation in an ITeS industry setting. The study demonstrates as to how companies can become more efficient in such crucial value creating components that result in superior corporate value. The explicating methodology proposed in this study can be handy for managers and can be extrapolated to other industry and national settings as well. Deconstructing corporate value creation into granular models, customer value creation and shareholder value creation and further into two stages, being assembling resources to create capabilities and leveraging such capabilities to deliver value, this study provides hands-on value for managers in ITeS companies to create value. Fusing the value creation and appropriation (VCA) framework, the resource-based view (RBV) and its extensions, this paper builds a robust theoretical model specification that is empirically tested.
      Citation: Benchmarking: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2021-03-16
      DOI: 10.1108/BIJ-10-2020-0553
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Benchmarking entrepreneurial intentions of women in the United Arab
           Emirates

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      Authors: Maqsood Ahmad Sandhu, Omer Farooq, Saba Khalid, Mariam Farooq
      Abstract: Based on the extensive literature review and the research published in the context of Western countries, this study proposes that the entrepreneurship education, participation in entrepreneurial seminars at the universities and their involvement in the activities of innovation and incubation center of the universities may foster entrepreneurial intentions (EIs) among Emirati female graduating students. To test the study’s hypothesized model, survey data are collected from 283 female graduating students of 19 public and private universities in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The analysis of the data relies upon multiple hierarchical regression and moderation analysis in SPSS. The results suggest that all three types of educational activities positively influence the women's EIs in the UAE. However, formal entrepreneurship courses are more effective than the participation in seminars and involvement in the activities of innovation/incubation center. The authors also found that perceived social support does not moderate the impact of education on EIs, which means that entrepreneurship education is equally effective in fostering EIs, no matter female students perceive low or high social support. On the other hand, results demonstrate that the level of gender stereotypes negatively moderates the impact of education on it. This implies that if a female student believes in a high gender stereotype, the impact of education on her EIs will be low and vice versa. This study specifically focuses on women entrepreneurship and for the UAE only. However, the results can be generalized for female entrepreneurship, specifically for countries where governments are taking initiatives to foster female entrepreneurship. The study provides specific implications for the UAE public policy government. As the Government of the UAE is keenly interested to boost up the women entrepreneurial behavior, the findings of the study support that in addition to entrepreneurship education, the government should also encourage the universities to arrange entrepreneurship seminars as these seminars also increase the EIs of women. In addition, the government and the universities should also focus on the involvement of women in the incubation centers/innovation park because the incubation centers can provide the practical exposure to the women in the new business start-ups. This research is among the first, which benchmarks women EIs in the UAE.
      Citation: Benchmarking: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2021-03-12
      DOI: 10.1108/BIJ-09-2020-0497
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Performance measurement and NPOs' effectiveness: does internal
           stakeholders' trust matter' Evidence from Palestine

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      Authors: Mohammed Aboramadan, Khalid Abed Dahleez, Caterina Farao, Mohammed Alshurafa
      Abstract: This study proposes a model of the effect of financial and non-financial performance measures on nonprofit organizations’ (NPOs’) effectiveness where internal stakeholders' trust play an intervening role in the aforementioned relationships. Data were collected from 218 employees working at the largest Palestinian NPOs. The perceptions of these employees were used to measure the variables, and structural equation modeling was used to examine the hypotheses. Results suggest that the use of financial and non-financial performance measures was positively related to NPOs' effectiveness. Internal stakeholders' trust showed a significant mediating effect between the use of performance measures and NPOs' effectiveness. This study may be of value for NPOs' managers due to the positive effects performance measurement (PM) can have on NPO effectiveness. Managers and boards should seek to enhance their internal stakeholders' trust to achieve higher levels of effectiveness. This study has three main contributions. First, it is one of the very few papers which empirically examines the links between PM and NPOs' effectiveness, rather than providing conceptual lens. Second, the paper investigates the role of stakeholders' trust as a mediating mechanism in the proposed model, a topic that has been neglected by NPOs governance researchers. Finally, the study uses data from the Palestinian context, contributing to the PM literature by providing evidence on the relationship between performance measures and NPOs' effectiveness from a non-Western context.
      Citation: Benchmarking: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2021-03-11
      DOI: 10.1108/BIJ-07-2020-0347
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Effect of psychological capital on customer value cocreation behavior: the
           mediating role of employees' innovative behavior

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      Authors: Muhammad Farrukh, Nabeel Younus Ansari
      Abstract: Customer value cocreation (VCC) behavior is gaining increased scholarly attention in the services marketing discipline and has become a top research priority in recent times. Despite the growing interest in studying VCC, less scholarly attention has been paid to study the crucial role of frontline service employees in activating customer participation in the VCC process. Hence, to bridge this research gap, the present research expanded VCC research streams by investigating the mediating effect of frontline service employees' innovative behavior in psychological capital and customer VCC behavior relationship. Data collected from 255 hotel employee–customer dyads were analyzed through Smart PLS to measure the proposed relationships. The results suggest the mediating effect of frontline service employees' innovative behavior in psychological capital and customer VCC behavior relationship. The current research made a significant contribution to the VCC field by identifying driving forces that encourage customers to exhibit VCC behaviors.
      Citation: Benchmarking: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2021-03-09
      DOI: 10.1108/BIJ-08-2020-0398
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • An integrated framework for analysing performance indicators of Indian
           microfinance institutions: a multi-stakeholder perspective

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      Authors: Amit Kumar Bardhan, Barnali Nag, Chandra Sekhar Mishra, Pradeep Kumar Tarei
      Abstract: An amalgamation of Decision-Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL) and Analytical Network Process (ANP) has been performed to develop a decision-making framework for improving the overall performance of the microfinance institutions. A primary survey was conducted to collect real-time data from the heterogeneous stakeholders of microfinance institutions across India. The validation of the proposed framework is performed by comparing the results against the conventional method of Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). This study identifies various dimensions and indicators for measuring the performance of Indian microfinance institutions. Additionally, the ranking and prioritisation of the performance dimensions and indicators is obtained by considering the mutual interrelation between them. The study indicates that there exists a significant dyadic relationship between financial performance and social performance for improving the overall performance of the microfinance institutions. Governance is found to unidirectionally influence both financial and social performance. Among all the considered dimensions, financial performance of a microfinance institution is the most critical dimension for improving the overall performance. The top five performance indicators of the Indian microfinance institutions are funding source, borrowing and overhead cost, size of the firm, end-use of the money and depth of outreach. The study was conducted in the context of Indian microfinance institutions; hence the scope of generalisation of the results is limited. This research considers both subjective and objective aspect of the performance dimensions and indicators from the perspective of multiple stakeholders (i.e. firm, society and regulator). The integrated framework is expected to aid in improving overall performance of microfinance institutions by focusing on the most critical (high prioritised) performance indicators. An integrated DEMATEL-ANP framework is used in the domain of microfinance to assess the performance dimensions. This study is unique in terms of analysing performance of microfinance institutions from the perspective of heterogeneous stakeholders.
      Citation: Benchmarking: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2021-03-09
      DOI: 10.1108/BIJ-09-2020-0470
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Effect of inter-organizational systems appropriation in agility and
           resilience development: an empirical investigation

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      Authors: Santanu Mandal, Ritesh Kumar Dubey
      Abstract: This study explored the role of inter-organizational systems (IOS) appropriation in the form of five key IOS usage-based capabilities, namely, IOS use for communication, intelligence, integration, collaboration and coordination in the development of tourism SC agility and resilience. Furthermore, the inter-relationship among these IOS usage-based capabilities were explored. The study collected perceptual measures from hotel managers and tour managers having sufficient experience in the tourism sector. With 209 completed responses, the data were analyzed using partial least squares. The study found IOS use of communication and intelligence as prominent enablers of IOS use for integration, collaboration and coordination. Furthermore, IOS use for integration, collaboration and coordination was found to have a prominent influence in the development of tourism SC agility and resilience. However, the influence of IOS use for communication on collaboration was not supported. Also, the impact of IOS use for collaboration in tourism resilience development was not supported. The study is the foremost to explore the role of IOS appropriation in the development of dynamic capabilities like agility and resilience in tourism. Furthermore, the study also contributed to extant literature on IOS appropriation through suggesting two additional factors, namely, IOS use for collaboration and coordination to the existing IOS usage-based capabilities.
      Citation: Benchmarking: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2021-03-03
      DOI: 10.1108/BIJ-10-2020-0542
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Conceptualising HR outsourcing effectiveness and scale development of
           HROSERVPERF using PLS-SEM

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      Authors: Siew Chen Sim, Maniam Kaliannan, Mohan Avvari
      Abstract: This study aims to provide a conceptualisation of HR outsourcing (HRO) effectiveness from a service quality perspective and subsequently develop a scale – HROSERVPERF to measure HRO service performance underpinned S-O-R theory. Grounded on theoretical conceptualisation, literature and information collected through semi-structured interviews, HRO service performance items pool were generated. 257 responses from manufacturing firms in Malaysia that have outsourced their HR were collected. PLS-SEM is used for scale confirmation and validation. The conceptualisation of HRO effectiveness and HRO service performance suggests a need for scale development that encompasses service quality-satisfaction-loyalty framework supported by S-O-R theory. Operational improvement, resource alignment and service delivery emerged as the service performance dimensions of HROSERVPERF. This study was limited to manufacturing firms in Malaysia, hence little generalisation could be drawn beyond this context. However, this serves as future research opportunities. HR managers and service providers can employ HROSERVPERF to measure and improve HRO service performance more effectively. Service providers can re-strategise and target their scarce resources to better retain their clients. This is the first paper that provides HRO effectiveness conceptualisation from a service quality perspective followed by a scale development with formative measures using PLS-SEM underpinned S-O-R theory.
      Citation: Benchmarking: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2021-03-01
      DOI: 10.1108/BIJ-05-2020-0248
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • A supply chain risk management maturity model and a multi-criteria
           classification approach

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      Authors: Ingrid Saiala Cavalcante de Souza Feitosa, Luiz Cesar Ribeiro Carpinetti, Adiel Teixeira de Almeida-Filho
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to propose a supply chain risk management (SCRM) maturity model combined with a fuzzy TOPSIS classification method to evaluate and sort an organization into a pre-defined maturity level. An axiomatic and prescriptive research method guided this study. Therefore, it proposes a prescriptive approach of maturity classification based on a theoretical SCRM maturity model combined with a multi-criteria decision technique. The results of a pilot application indicated a consistent classification and the value of the model for diagnosing flaws and pointing directions for improving operational and disruption risk management. Its comprehensiveness allows applying it to supply chains of several industry sectors. The proposed model does not include all possible risks and could be revised in further developments. Also, adjustment of the maturity profiles of the multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) model requires a learning process from practical applications. The adoption of the risk management maturity grid by practitioners may bring the benefit of a more objective and comprehensive evaluation of risk management processes in the supply chain context. An immediate social implication derives from the improvement actions that may result from the diagnosis of risk management vulnerabilities identified in the pilot application. In general, the proposed model has the potential to reduce risks, improve results and contribute to economic sustainability. The maturity grid and decision model integrate overall aspects of risk management, bringing together managerial concepts to deal with a variety of supply chain operational risks. The combined multi-criteria classification procedure to sort the maturity level of an organization is also a novelty.
      Citation: Benchmarking: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2021-03-01
      DOI: 10.1108/BIJ-09-2020-0487
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Omni-channel retailing in supply chains: a systematic literature review

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      Authors: Syed Asif Raza, Srikrishna Madhumohan Govindaluri
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to conduct a structured literature review using advanced bibliometric tools to understand the existing knowledge base, understand the trends in omni-channel (OC) research and identify emerging research topics. More than 500 articles selected through a keyword combination search from reputed databases of peer-reviewed academic sources from period 2009–19 are analyzed for the purposes of this study. The study first presents an exploratory analysis to determine influential authors, sources and regions, among other key aspects. Second, several network analyses including co-citation and dynamic co-citation network analyses are conducted to identify themes. These allow identifying research clusters and emerging research topics algorithmically. Both centrality and modularity-based clustering are employed. A content analysis of the most influential groups within OC literature for each cluster is included. The findings of this paper make unique contributions by using advanced tools from network analysis along with the standard bibliometric analysis tools to explore the current status of OC research, identify existing themes and the guidance for potential areas of future research interest in OC. This research provides a comprehensive view of the range of topics of importance that have been discussed in the literature of OC management. These research trends can serve as a quick guide to researchers and practitioners to improve decision making and also develop strategies. The paper employs advanced tools for the first time to review the literature of OC retailing. The sophisticated tools include co-citation and dynamic co-citation network analysis.
      Citation: Benchmarking: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2021-02-24
      DOI: 10.1108/BIJ-10-2020-0547
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Proposed guidelines for treatment of recurrent failures for sustainability
           of results in the post-project improvement stage process

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      Authors: Caio Melo Almeida, Fernando Oliveira Araujo, Chrystyane Gerth Silveira Abreu, Haydee Maria Correia da Silveira Batista
      Abstract: The maintenance of process improvement programs within organizations is not an easy task. Some processes do not maintain the results achieved with the improvement project and again present low performance shortly after completion of the project. This paper aims to identify the socio-technical causes responsible for the loss of process performance after applying improvement projects, in order to support the mitigation of the problem. A systematic review of the literature was carried out, which allowed the selection of 28 articles. The empirical stage used the benchmarking technique, along a large Brazilian mining company with an international standard of production and quality. This organization has been using improvement projects for more than ten years. The research complements the literature regarding the prioritization of the 26 identified failures and the identification of seven new failure factors and two resources. Findings in this study can be an inspiration for other organizations, considering the similarity of methodological aspects of improvement projects since internationally standardized methodologies such as Six Sigma, Lean, Kaizen and 5S are used. The research presented a proposal of guidelines that corroborate to the mitigation of loss of process performance after improvement project.
      Citation: Benchmarking: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2021-02-19
      DOI: 10.1108/BIJ-06-2020-0277
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • The internet of things in the food supply chain: adoption challenges

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      Authors: Ammar Mohamed Aamer, Mohammed Ali Al-Awlaqi, Ifadhila Affia, Silvia Arumsari, Nabeel Mandahawi
      Abstract: The food supply chain (FSC) challenges coupled with global disruptions, such as the recent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic outbreak, exacerbate its vulnerability. The Internet of things (IoT) is one of the disruptive technologies being adopted in food supply chain management (FSCM). This study aims to address the challenges of IoT adoption in the FSC by systematically analyzing the prior pertinent literature. A structured literature review was used to collate a list of peer-reviewed and relevant publications. A total of 72 out of 210 articles were selected for the final evaluation. The literature review findings suggest five themes: technical, financial, social, operational, educational and governmental related challenges. A total of 15 challenges were devised from the review related literature of IoT adoption. The study concludes with future research recommendations for scholars and practical implications for practitioners. While this study focuses on the overall FSC, further research should address other domains in the FSC such as cold supply chain, agriculture and perishable food to gain a better contextual understanding of the specific case. The topic of IoT adoption in the FSCM is still considered emerging. Therefore, the present work contributes to the limited studies and documentation on the level of IoT implementation in the FSCM. This study should help organizations to assimilate how to adopt and manage the IoT application by addressing the factors and challenges presented in this research.
      Citation: Benchmarking: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2021-02-17
      DOI: 10.1108/BIJ-07-2020-0371
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Towards a further step in understanding business excellence models: a
           comparative approach

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      Authors: Mohammed Hamdan Alanazi
      Abstract: A comparative analysis of the validity of business excellence models (BEMs) has rarely been empirically pursued. In addition to their similarities, BEMs exhibit differences in terms of their criteria, relations and emphasis, and some researchers have claimed that it is because these models tend to represent underlying cultural, economic, or social dynamics, as well as global best practices. Based on three such BEMs (the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award (MBNQA) model, the European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM) model and the King Abdul Aziz Quality Award (KAQA) model), this paper introduces a four-phase study to analyse these models comparatively. This paper: (1) conceptually delineates the distinctive natures of and differences between the three models; (2) develops a comprehensive measurement model based on the content of these models; (3) reviews the relevant literature on BEMs; (4) discusses the motivation behind this comparative approach and (5) introduces a four-phase study to comparatively analyse these models. A comprehensive measurement model and three structural models are developed, but empirical tests have not been performed. This developed approach is introduced here as a first step in the advancement of our understanding of BEMs and their underlying theory. The range of variability and complexity of BEMs—i.e. a holistic and comparative empirical view of BEMs—have not so far been fully considered, and findings in this domain tend to be inclusive, while some of the underlying relations of these models have not been investigated. This paper contributes to filling these research gaps.
      Citation: Benchmarking: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2021-02-17
      DOI: 10.1108/BIJ-08-2020-0407
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • CEO pay sensitivities in innovative firms

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      Authors: Raghavan J. Iyengar, Malavika Sundararajan
      Abstract: This study aims to investigate whether compensation committees provide the chief executive officers (CEOs) with incentives to undertake “income-decreasing” but potentially “value-enhancing” innovation expenditures. The authors specifically analyze pay–performance relationships for innovative firms relative to all other firms. This study is critical because innovation is expensive and has uncertain outcomes. Using alternative accounting performance measures and market performance measures, the authors estimate an econometric model of CEO compensation in innovative firms that incorporates the interaction of endogenous innovation and firm performance. The authors document an incremental positive association between changes in accounting performance measures and CEO compensation changes in innovative firms relative to other firms. This sensitivity of executive pay to firm performance is higher for firms that innovate. These results support the hypothesis that compensation committees provide incentives to carry out risky innovation by tying executive compensation more closely to firm performance. This finding survives a battery of sensitivity tests. The implications of this study are significant. Capital needs to support risky research and development investments (Tidd and Besant, 2018; Baldwin and Johnson, 1995) form the basis of innovative firms' operations. Considering these expenses, if CEOs, who play a critical role in the scanning, adapting and implementing innovative needs in a firm, are not protected and compensated for making risky choices, the entire investment itself will be threatened. Hence, the findings reiterate and support earlier findings that speak to the importance of compensating CEOs to make high-risk investments that will lead to long-term economic and financial gains for the firm when the innovative behaviors result in competitive market shares and profits. The original work is related to the investigation of pay–performance sensitivity in the presence of innovation, which has not been fully investigated in prior literature.
      Citation: Benchmarking: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2021-02-16
      DOI: 10.1108/BIJ-09-2020-0491
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Determining the factors affecting the technical efficiency scores of
           public hospitals using different regression methods

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      Authors: Bayram Şahin, Gülnur İlgün, Seda Sönmez
      Abstract: This study aims to identify the efficiency scores of hospitals affiliated to the Ministry of Health in Turkey between the years of 2010–2015 at provincial level and to reveal the factors that affect the efficiency scores. The two-stage data envelopment analysis (DEA) method was used to achieve the study purpose. In the first stage, DEA method based on input-oriented Charnes–Cooper–Rhodes (CCR) model was performed to calculate the efficiency scores of public hospitals at the provincial level between 2010 and 2015, and in the second stage, Tobit regression and linear regression analyses were used to identify whether the efficiency scores of provinces are affected by the input, output and control variables. Upon the analysis, the average efficiency scores of 81 provinces by years were found to vary between 0.79 and 0.89. According to both regression analyses, all of the input and output variables were found to have significant effects on the efficiency scores of provinces while only the population of province among the control variables was identified as the factor with an effect on the efficiency scores of provinces (p 
      Citation: Benchmarking: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2021-02-10
      DOI: 10.1108/BIJ-08-2020-0427
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Building a yardstick–a benchmark framework for assessing higher
           education management institutions

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      Authors: Umayal Palaniappan, L. Suganthi, Shameem Shagirbasha
      Abstract: Higher education management institutions play a vibrant role in imparting managerial skills to the students to face the corporate world. Performance evaluation of such institutions is mandate to ensure the outcome quality. To establish this, the present research explored the critical performance indicators of management institutions using the balanced scorecard (BSC) approach. This research explored the critical performance indicators of public, private and standalone management institutions in India. Data were collected from the representative sample of all the stakeholders in those management institutions. A specific vision was created and a systematic procedure was employed to arrive at the objectives, measures and metrics of the scorecard specific to the vision. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to perform analysis on the collected data. For the objectives and measures that evolved from confirmatory factor analysis, metrics were formulated based on the expert opinion. The study resulted in 16 objectives, 46 measures and 54 metrics encompassing all the four perspectives of BSC. This paper has contributed a concrete, concise, comprehensive and context specific framework. The nature of the BSC framework paves the way for continuous assessment and eventually helps the institutions to attain sustainable growth. This research contributes to the literature of balanced scorecard and also to the performance assessment of the management institutions. BSC-based benchmarking is a unique contribution to the academia of management education to precisely measure the performance of institutions. The model comprehensively includes the indicators from all the perspectives of stakeholders in terms of objectives, measures and metrics, thus proposing a holistic assessment.
      Citation: Benchmarking: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2021-02-09
      DOI: 10.1108/BIJ-07-2020-0383
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Assessment of risks associated with third-party logistics in restaurant
           supply chain

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      Authors: Saket Shanker, Hritika Sharma, Akhilesh Barve
      Abstract: The restaurant network is reforming rapidly due to the advancements encountered so far in the restaurant–third party logistics (3PL) collaborations. These collaborations resulting from a strategical partnership between the restaurant and the 3PLs play a significant role in getting a good handle on the web, logistics activities, online business and many more services. Despite the collaborations, 3PL in the restaurant supply chain is associated with many risks that may hamper the supply chain's profitability. In this study, several risks related to 3PL are investigated and analysed. Deciding the relative importance of different risks is an intricate errand. The predominance of one risk over the others changes from individual to individual and 'rm to 'rm. Therefore, to catch the changeability in choice, the fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (AHP) is an extremely valuable tool used in this research. In addition to this, fuzzy AHP is incorporated with fuzzy TOPSIS for preference ranking of 3PL risks in the restaurant supply chain and obtain risk index value, which provides an excellent approach to rank the risks. Furthermore, we performed a sensitivity analysis to analyse the stability of the results obtained in this study. Results indicate that “macro-level risks” (i.e. the risks associated with 3PL in the restaurant supply chain due to political agitation in the district, cataclysmic events, ailments like COVID-19, bird influenza, etc.) is the most relevant first-level risk with high-risk index as well as high relative weight. As per the analysis of second-level risks, the occurrence of cataclysmic events holds the most elevated risk index value. This research provides the restaurant industry and the 3PL with a generalized framework with set parameters that can be used to attain a successful 3PL in the restaurant supply chain of any developing nation. This research proposes an evaluation framework for the risk assessment of third-party logistics in the restaurant supply chain. This paper explores risks for efficient implementation of 3PL in the restaurant supply chain. From a managerial perspective, the rank table is also provided with the goal that mitigation of the risks can be done quickly.
      Citation: Benchmarking: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2021-02-08
      DOI: 10.1108/BIJ-06-2020-0343
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Identification of cause and effect relationships among barriers of
           

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      Authors: Dheeraj Nimawat, B.D. Gidwani
      Abstract: Industry 4.0 is regarded as a modern industrial phase wherein convergence between horizontal and vertical production systems, along with their interactions, would enable industries to obtain excellent industrial efficiency. This research thus explores the barriers relevant to Industry 4.0 and their cause and effect relations using the decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL) technique, and this will assist in the implementation of Industry 4.0 in manufacturing industries. A comprehensive literature review is carried out to outline the barriers for the Industry 4.0 implementation. The investigative techniques used in this research were conducted utilizing a questionnaire as an instrument for collecting data. The data collected were analysed using the method DEMATEL. The findings indicate that key barriers to implementing Industry 4.0 include their cause and effect relationships. Reported “implementation costs” have been a critical barrier for Industry 4.0 implementation. Prioritization of barriers and their cause and effect relationships was achieved so that decision-makers could concentrate on overcoming such barriers for Industry 4.0 implementation. The research is intended to assist executives in recognizing the barriers to Industry 4.0 implementation in their manufacturing industries. Furthermore, the strong functional and empirical importance of emerging and digital manufacturing technologies ensures that understanding the necessary barriers to implementation is important. This is one of the first few empirical studies in the field of Indian manufacturing industries that uses the DEMATEL method framework as a foundation for recognizing cause-effect interactions among the barriers that affect Industry 4.0.
      Citation: Benchmarking: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2021-02-05
      DOI: 10.1108/BIJ-08-2020-0429
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Millennials and Generation Z: a generational cohort analysis of Indian
           consumers

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      Authors: Packiaraj Thangavel, Pramod Pathak, Bibhas Chandra
      Abstract: Young consumers are recognized as an important and lucrative segment for the businesses across the globe. While initial steps have been taken to understand them, majority of the existing works consider both Millennials and Generation Z as a single and homogeneous market segment. The purpose of this study is to explore the consumer decision-making styles which are prevalent among Indian Millennials and Generation Z e-shoppers, and how significantly they differ from one another on each of those decision-making attributes. This exploratory study used the generational cohort theory (GCT) as a framework. The psychographic statements (Questionnaire items) employed were adopted from several past researches on store orientation and catalog orientation, and they were rephrased to suit to the context of Indian online shopping. The principal components factor analysis with promax rotation has been used to unearth the underlying decision-styles among 503 survey participants. Subsequently, the ANOVA model was run to examine the mean differences between the cohorts. The factor analysis has revealed that frugality (Price), convenience (Home) and social desirableness are the most dominant shopping orientations (decision-styles) that prevail among Indian (Millennials and Generation Z) online shoppers though in varying degrees. The probing of ANOVA results suggested that, though both the cohorts favor e-shopping, Generation Z are more enthusiastic about online shopping than their Millennial counterparts do. Though Generation Z and Millennials share few characteristics between them, they exhibit different consumer behaviors. Marketers need to customize their value offerings and marketing communications that resonate well with each generational cohort. Almost all the existing research works that have been conducted so far on generational cohorts are from Western and European countries and one could confidently say that those findings cannot be applied for the developing nations such as India which is a complex and diverse country in terms of its language, custom, religion and practices with troublesome pasts. Moreover, this is the first empirical work to be conducted to unearth the generational differences that exist between Generation Z and Millennials to the best of authors' knowledge.
      Citation: Benchmarking: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2021-02-04
      DOI: 10.1108/BIJ-01-2020-0050
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Seller experience assessment in online marketplace: a scale development
           study

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      Authors: Amresh Kumar, Pallab Sikdar, Raiswa Saha
      Abstract: Recent decade has witnessed exponential growth in e-commerce segment, leading to emergence of various online selling platforms catering to diverse product requirements of customers. Such a development has provided impetus to both existing businesses and newly established ventures to make available their offerings through online selling platforms with a view to improve the reach of their products. This study is an attempt to identify the experience of registered vendors with the online marketplaces. It aims to develop and validate a scale to measure vendor's experience with e-commerce platforms. As a part of the scale development process, relevant literature sources were scanned to spot the precise knowledge gap and to put in place a sound theoretical background for the study. Thereafter, a scientific approach was adopted for scale creation. First, the scale items were identified through interviews of vendors registered with major online selling platforms and other academic experts pertaining to the marketing domain. Subsequently, major dimensions of seller experience were identified through exploratory factor analysis (EFA) applied on data collected from active vendors by the means of a structured survey instrument. The final data set was subjected to confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) in a bid to validate the scale. The study’s outcomes reveal that seller experience in an online marketplace can be best captured by a multidimensional scale characterized by six major dimensions. These are “Registration,”; “Product Listing”; “Pricing Autonomy”; “Ease of Pick-up and Delivery”; “Credit of Receivables” and “Vendor Assistance.” A proper emphasis to continually improve upon these dimensions by the e-commerce platforms is expected to enhance the utility and overall experience of vendors from such platforms. Existence of a mutually beneficial relationship between vendors and online marketplaces will help marketplaces to mitigate concerns like nonfulfillment of orders and dispatch of substandard products. Sustainable long-term relations between vendors and online marketplaces hold the key for such marketplaces to render error-free and delightful service on each individual order received. Seller experience of registering and operating on such e-marketplaces inspite of playing a defining role in vendor–marketplace relations has received scant attention of researchers, both in academia and industry till date. The present research is a seminal attempt to address this gap in marketing literature and offer additional know-how.
      Citation: Benchmarking: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2021-02-04
      DOI: 10.1108/BIJ-06-2020-0305
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Measuring operational efficiency of isolation hospitals during COVID-19
           pandemic using data envelopment analysis: a case of Egypt

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      Authors: Mahmoud Abdelrahman Kamel, Mohamed El-Sayed Mousa
      Abstract: This study used Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to measure and evaluate the operational efficiency of 26 isolation hospitals in Egypt during the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as identifying the most important inputs affecting their efficiency. To measure the operational efficiency of isolation hospitals, this paper combined three interrelated methodologies including DEA, sensitivity analysis and Tobit regression, as well as three inputs (number of physicians, number of nurses and number of beds) and three outputs (number of infections, number of recoveries and number of deaths). Available data were analyzed through R v.4.0.1 software to achieve the study purpose. Based on DEA analysis, out of 26 isolation hospitals, only 4 were found efficient according to CCR model and 12 out of 26 hospitals achieved efficiency under the BCC model, Tobit regression results confirmed that the number of nurses and the number of beds are common factors impacted the operational efficiency of isolation hospitals, while the number of physicians had no significant effect on efficiency. The limits of this study related to measuring the operational efficiency of isolation hospitals in Egypt considering the available data for the period from February to August 2020. DEA analysis can also be an important benchmarking tool for measuring the operational efficiency of isolation hospitals, for identifying their ability to utilize and allocate their resources in an optimal manner (Demand vs Capacity Dilemma), which in turn, encountering this pandemic and protect citizens' health. Despite the intensity of studies that dealt with measuring hospital efficiency, this study to the best of our knowledge is one of the first attempts to measure the efficiency of hospitals in Egypt in times of health' crisis, especially, during the COVID-19 pandemic, to identify the best allocation of resources to achieve the highest level of efficiency during this pandemic.
      Citation: Benchmarking: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2021-02-02
      DOI: 10.1108/BIJ-09-2020-0481
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Social capital and individual entrepreneurial orientation: innovativeness,
           proactivity, and risk-taking in an emerging economy

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      Authors: Victor Silva Corrêa, Maciel M. Queiroz, Helena Belintani Shigaki
      Abstract: This paper investigates if and how entrepreneurs' social capital influences their individual entrepreneurial orientation attributes (innovativeness, proactiveness, and risk-taking). The research method adopted is an exploratory multiple case study. The case chosen is that of an emerging and under-examined entrepreneur, the religious entrepreneur. The study investigates 20 pastors responsible for small enterprise-churches in Brazil. Social capital influences individual entrepreneurial orientation, being characterized by a relative paradox. The networks must be dense enough to stimulate entrepreneurs' individual entrepreneurial orientation but not be so dense as to harm innovativeness, proactivity and risk-taking. Further, data show that individual entrepreneurial orientation influences social capital. One limitation relates to the semi-structured interviews' restricted use. A second limitation is associated with the recognition of churches only as productive enterprises. This article suggests the significance of incorporating both themes in entrepreneurial education and training programs. It also stresses the appropriateness of religious entrepreneurship as an empirical research field for business scholars. The contributions are fivefold. First, the authors build exploratory theoretical propositions on the influence of social capital on individual entrepreneurial orientation. Second, they highlight the significance of dense networks for individual entrepreneurial orientation, expanding the literature that supports the relevance of cohesive networks solely to the construct's organizational dimension. Third, the authors suggest that a relative paradox may characterize individual entrepreneurial orientation. Fourth, the authors suggest the existence of recursion between both constructs. Finally, this study is one of the first to examine social capital and individual entrepreneurial orientation, considering innovativeness, proactivity, and risk-taking, which represents a neglected field in benchmarking studies.
      Citation: Benchmarking: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2021-02-02
      DOI: 10.1108/BIJ-11-2020-0602
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Improving assessment accountability in initial teacher education programs
           through benchmarking

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      Authors: Marianne June Knaus, Gill Kirk, Pauline Roberts, Lennie Barblett, Bev Adkin
      Abstract: In Australia, political imperatives that drive the Tertiary Education Quality and Standards Agency (TEQSA) and Australian Institute for Teaching and School Leadership (AITSL) call for a new understanding of assessment at the tertiary level. Assessment strategies are under the microscope to provide accountability but are increasingly called to measure a wider set of attributes considered important in equipping graduates to meet 21st century opportunities and challenges. This paper reports on a shared benchmarking exercise between two universities to ensure the current assessment strategies in their undergraduate early childhood programs meet such requirements. Data were collected using qualitative methodology and conceptualised using an interpretivist frame that enabled the collaborative groups to socially construct the meaning of assessment and identify what was specific, unique and different across the two programs. A cross-case analysis enabled a robust examination of the data. Findings identified key structural and procedural differences between the two benchmarked university programs in terms of cohort size, university policies around assessment points, the use of exams and the choices surrounding professional experience placements. Implications of the research note the complexity of contextual factors such as university policies on assessment and the impact these have on the quality of assessment. This paper is unique in that it used the conceptual framework for self-evaluation from TEQSA and followed their six key phases of benchmarking.
      Citation: Benchmarking: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2021-01-29
      DOI: 10.1108/BIJ-06-2020-0289
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Employee development and retention of Generation-Z employees in the
           post-COVID-19 workplace: a conceptual framework

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      Authors: Hasaranga Dilshan Jayathilake, Dazmin Daud, Hooi Cheng Eaw, Nursyamilah Annuar
      Abstract: The purpose of this article is to demonstrate a conceptual framework on employee development, organizational performances and retention of Generation-Z employees in the new normal environment beyond the COVID-19 pandemic. With referring to the present literature and utilizing social-exchange and human needs approach, from this study, the authors illustrate a conceptual framework with democratize learning, reverse mentoring and intrepreneurship as key modifications for employee development perspective to retain Generation-Z employees and enhance organizational performance to secure the competitiveness. Democratize learning, reverse mentoring and intrapreneurship have a significant potential impact on enhancing Generation-Z employees' development which may effect on attaining better organizational performance and employee retention. In addition, organizational performance may have a moderating effect on employee intention to stay longer. The proposed conceptual framework would be empirically validated in future research. Based on the framework, the authors suggest approaches for Generation-Z specific retention strategies on upgrading the employee development subcategory under human resource function in terms of minimizing the disadvantages that are associated with the work from home concept in a post-COVID-19 pandemic era. One of the very first studies to propose a holistic framework on employee development that subsequently impact on retaining Generation-Z employees in a pandemic situation. This article enriches the human resource management literature by explaining the novel moderating relationship that articulated from organizational performance to employee retention and focussing on Generation-Z employees (younger generation employees).
      Citation: Benchmarking: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2021-01-29
      DOI: 10.1108/BIJ-06-2020-0311
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Black swan: bibliometric analysis and development of research agenda

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      Authors: Nakul Parameswar, Akriti Chaubey, Sanjay Dhir
      Abstract: There has been an increasing interest amongst the researchers to work and explore, “Black Swan” events which are not well studied. However, the “Black Swan” events hold an eminent relevance amongst academicians and practitioners. The present study offers nuanced understanding of “Black Swan” events. We undertook an extensive bibliometric analysis of the extant literature using “Black Swan” as guiding keyword with the help of SCOPUS database. The search for articles only yielded 59 articles. Our analyses highlight the prominent works, authors and journals. Further, this study reveal the research gaps that may help guide future scholars interested in “Black Swan” events to examine in different context. The current study develops a research agenda and offers numerous research directions. Research on “Black Swan” events can be apprehended at three different stages – pre-black swan event, about black swan event and post-black swan event with identified sub-themes. This paper is the pioneer research work to dedicatedly analyse the existing set of literature with “Black Swan”.
      Citation: Benchmarking: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2021-01-21
      DOI: 10.1108/BIJ-08-2020-0443
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Digital supply chain to unlock new agility: a TISM approach

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      Authors: Akanksha Choudhury, Abhishek Behl, Pratima Amol Sheorey, Abhinav Pal
      Abstract: Traditional supply chain arrangements have failed to keep up with escalating customer demands and breakthrough innovations. The way forward is a flexible yet innovative network that leverages ecosystem partners and digital tools to unlock new agility. The paper aims at identifying and analyzing numerous critical success factors (CSFs) that may improve the efficiency of a digital supply chain. Twelve CSFs are identified in this paper through an extensive literature survey. Expert opinion has been considered and the hierarchical structure built using total interpretative structural modeling (TISM) which highlights the interdependencies between these CSFs. Cross-impact matrix multiplication (MICMAC) is used to determine the driving and dependence power of each factor. This study identified 12 CSFs through an extensive literature survey. The ISM model resulted in six different levels beginning from redesign organization at the bottom of the structure. The TISM model explained why redesigning the organization is pivotal to bringing about novel agility in the supply chain. MICMAC analysis confirmed that the following enhanced the success of a digital supply chain: Sales and Operation Planning Strategies, Strategic Sourcing Techniques, Smart Manufacturing Processes and Warehouse Management. Various other components contributing to the 12 CSFs identified in this paper may be discovered and detailed in future research. Additionally, further research is required to expand the existing technology-based services structural model to a more empirical form. This study offers a comprehensive but not exhaustive list of CSFs essential to digital supply chain growth. It will enable market experts and leaders to concentrate on key factors leading to tactical decisions and maximum value for firms. The paper seeks to add to the body of knowledge on real digitally-led supply chain transformation, which is still in its early stages. This study is one of the first, if not the first, to examine success factors critical to the improvement of the performance of the supply chain. It lays the foundation for further research in this field.
      Citation: Benchmarking: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2021-01-19
      DOI: 10.1108/BIJ-08-2020-0461
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Family incivility, burnout and job satisfaction: examining the mediation
           effect

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      Authors: Maria Tresita Paul V, Nimitha Aboobaker, Uma Devi N
      Abstract: Drawing from the work-home resources model and the conservation of resources theory, this study examines the potential of family incivility in instigating burnout and reduced job satisfaction. This study employed structured questionnaires to collect data from a sample of 290 doctors working in tertiary care hospitals across India. Measurement modeling was done using IBM AMOS 23.0 and PROCESS macro was employed for hypothesis testing. The study revealed that family incivility has a positive spillover effect on burnout, subsequently leading to lowered levels of job satisfaction. Furthermore, burnout mediated the aforementioned relationship. This study is cross-sectional, and a longitudinal study will help test more rigorously; the causal relationships between the focal variables are recommended. Self-report data pose limitations concerning common method bias. Data collected from different occupations and cultures would help with further generalizability of the results. This study establishes that incivility within the family can negatively affect various vital work outcomes. Accordingly, it is recommended for organizations to support employees to achieve improved work-family integration. Further research should explore various coping strategies that will help with mitigating these spillover effects. This study offers a new perspective on the negative effect of family interactions on work-domain outcomes. The paper extends the scholarly literature on stress and work-family interface by demonstrating that family incivility has spillover effects. This is the pioneering study that examines family incivility as a home demand causing long-term severe damages at work.
      Citation: Benchmarking: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2021-01-19
      DOI: 10.1108/BIJ-10-2020-0534
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • A framework for measuring customer loyalty for 3PL industry: a case of
           evolving market

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      Authors: Waqar Ahmed, Arsalan Najmi, Simonov Kusi-Sarpong, Sharfuddin Ahmed Khan, Asad Khushal, Joseph Quartey
      Abstract: This research aims to propose a framework for measuring customer loyalty for third party logistics (3PL) industry by exploring the attributes that are more attractive to customers and ascertain the mechanisms for increasing customer loyalty in 3PL industry. Data were collected from one hundred and thirty-three (133) respondents who were employees of different industries that outsource 3PL services. The partial least square structural equation modeling (PLS–SEM) was deployed for analysis. The results showed that service quality has a significant positive impact on customer orientation, customer satisfaction and relationship quality. On the other hand, customer orientation has been observed to positively impact customer satisfaction but an insignificant impact on customer loyalty and relationship quality. Customer satisfaction has a significant positive impact on relationship quality but an insignificant impact on customer loyalty. Also, relationship quality has a significant positive impact on customer loyalty. The results recommend that 3PL companies' managers focus more on developing quality relationships with their customers, delivering exemplary service quality and offering customer orientation. This study will help the stakeholders gain much more understanding and insights on how competitive advantage can be achieved and, consequently, help 3PL become the market leaders.
      Citation: Benchmarking: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2021-01-15
      DOI: 10.1108/BIJ-04-2020-0172
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Selection of environmental-conscious sourcing: an empirical investigation

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      Authors: Sudipta Ghosh, Madhab Chandra Mandal, Amitava Ray
      Abstract: The prime objective of this paper is to design a green supply chain management (GSCM) framework to evaluate the performance of environmental-conscious suppliers using multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) approach. The literature survey reveals critical factors for implementing GSCM, adopted methodologies and the result obtained by several researchers. Data have been collected by conducting surveys and interviews with strategic-level personnel of five esteemed organizations in automobile manufacturing sectors. A GSCM framework is developed in which a mathematical tool entropy–the technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) has been used to analyze the six parameters of automobile manufacturing unit. Initially, entropy is used to find the weights of each of the parameters that influence the decision matrix of the TOPSIS method. Secondly, the proposed GSCM framework ranks the supplier. Finally, sensitivity analysis of the model satisfies the GSCM framework and benchmarked the supplier. The result shows that “Total CO2 emission” has an influential role for GSCM sustainability, and hence, firms should put more effort to reduce emissions to improve overall performance. Again, the parameters like investment in R&D and total waste generation may be ignored in the selection process. The result reveals the benchmarked supplier and its strategies for effective sourcing, which would have an indirect effect on organizations' overall sustainability. This research entirely focuses on sustainability within supply chain considering economic, social and environmental paradigms. The mathematical modeling of the proposed work considers many influential parameters and provides an easy and comprehensive decision-making technique. The methods may be adopted by the industries for sustainable supply chain management. This study benchmarks the supplier organizations and explores the adopted policies by benchmarked organizations. Other organizations should follow the policies followed by benchmarked organization for enhancing environmental, social and economic performance. Organizations striving for sustainable development can adopt this framework for evaluation of supplier performance and benchmark with better accuracy. The design of the GSCM framework explores both the qualitative and quantitative data based on environmental, social and economic parameters simultaneously in the evaluation of environmentally conscious suppliers. The research also investigates the constraints of the system to implement the GSCM in automobile manufacturing unit. Additionally, the sensitivity analysis justifies the benchmarked supplier and the adopted strategies to be followed by other manufacturing unit.
      Citation: Benchmarking: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2021-01-15
      DOI: 10.1108/BIJ-08-2020-0416
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Customer co-creation, COVID-19 and sustainable service outcomes

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      Authors: Priyanka Sharma
      Abstract: Many changes that call for concerted social action were observed in society and business performance during the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak. The impact of digitization and customer participation was evident in providing medical guidelines, updates on government initiatives, education or the supply of essential services during lockdown in many countries. However, there were aberrations. The purpose of this study is to explore some consumers and firms' being better equipped for service co-creation than others, specifically during a pandemic; the different degrees of service co-creation and the possible outcomes of customer participation in the service context. Qualitative study with 35 in-depth interviews of supply- and demand-side actors, with coding and analysis of interview transcripts was conducted. The authors identify two levels of service co-creation: (1) service co-development and (2) service co-evaluation that are affected by customer capabilities and firm/institutional barriers. The outcome of service co-creation lies in the social, economic and experiential values thus created. A pandemic strengthens the effect of antecedents (customer capabilities and firm capabilities) on the co-creation process. Managers can refer to the findings to manage customer engagements and co-creations effectively, especially during a pandemic. The impact of the pandemic on the service co-creation process in an emerging market, and the antecedents (firm- and customer-side) and consequences (mutual value outcomes) of service co-creation and actor participation are explored.
      Citation: Benchmarking: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2021-01-14
      DOI: 10.1108/BIJ-10-2020-0541
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Patient-centered communication: an extension of the HCAHPS survey

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      Authors: Shahidul Islam, Nazlida Muhamad
      Abstract: The Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) has been recognized as a “gold standard” set of “practical standardized measures” for assessing hospital service quality. Beginning with the HCAHPS, the purpose of this paper is to extend efforts to assess patient-centered communication (PCC) and the quality of healthcare and presents a scale for measuring patient perceptions and expectations of service quality in an emerging economy context. A self-administered survey of patients in private hospitals (N = 171) was conducted to test the proposed framework. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used to establish the measurement model. Multiple regression analysis was used to explain the scale's predictive ability. ANOVA was used to analyze service quality gaps and rank patients' priorities. Five components of PCC are identified. Among these, nurse affective communication has a significant positive effect on patient satisfaction. The gap analysis shows that patients have high expectations for doctors' affective communication, while they perceive a low level of service performance in the realm of nurse affective communication. The study highlights a new means of measuring “reliability” in healthcare. Important findings on patients' priorities are evaluated and discussed. Healthcare organizations and practitioners can improve patient-centered care by stressing the dimensions of PCC, including clinicians' affective and instrumental communication. The study expands the understanding of HCAHPS instruments in an emerging economy context and opens avenues for more widespread use of the measures. The research contributes to the literature on patient-centered care and healthcare service quality by proposing a scale for managing specific practices and interactions in healthcare.
      Citation: Benchmarking: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2021-01-13
      DOI: 10.1108/BIJ-07-2020-0384
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Economic sustainability benchmarking of environmental initiatives: a case
           of wastewater treatment plant

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      Authors: Abhijit Majumdar, Sanjib Kumar Sinha
      Abstract: It has been long debated whether the three bottom lines of sustainability (economic, environmental and social) can be achieved simultaneously or whether achieving one adversely affects the others. This paper analyses the economic sustainability of an environmental initiative, namely, effluent treatment plant (ETP), adopted by an Indian textile industry. Two situations have been considered for the analysis. First, pure economic view with the operating and installed capacities has been considered. Second, combined economic-environmental view using shadow prices of undesirable outputs (biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen, total phosphorous, etc.) has been analysed. It has been found that when pure economic view is considered, the net present value (NPV) of the ETP with present operating capacity (10,200 kL/day) is negative, implying that it is not economically sustainable. However, if the ETP is operated with the full installed capacity (17,000 kL/day), it becomes economically sustainable except in the case of very high cost of capital (13%). Finally, when shadow prices of undesirable outputs are considered, the NPV becomes positive, bolstering the economic-environmental sustainability of ETP. In future, multiple case studies should be conducted in similar organisations to extend the general applicability of the outcome of this study. This research considers the economic and environmental aspects of ETP. However, social benefits have not been considered in this research work, which can definitely be addressed in future endeavours. Though very high capital investment of ETP acts as a barrier, the results of this study imply that the top management of textile and clothing organisations should look at it from the holistic economic-environmental viewpoint. The use of ETP also leads to social benefits by improving the health of local community and by reducing their hospitalisation, medical expenditure and absenteeism from school and workplace. The outcome of this research may enthuse the entrepreneurs to adopt environmental initiatives. The paper provides a framework to evaluate the economic feasibility of ETP by considering the time value of money. It is demonstrated with a real case that the environmental initiatives can be economically rewarding.
      Citation: Benchmarking: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2021-01-12
      DOI: 10.1108/BIJ-09-2020-0482
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Benchmarking: An International Journal

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