Subjects -> BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS (Total: 3570 journals)
    - ACCOUNTING (132 journals)
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    - BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS (1248 journals)
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    - ECONOMIC SCIENCES: GENERAL (212 journals)
    - ECONOMIC SYSTEMS, THEORIES AND HISTORY (235 journals)
    - FASHION AND CONSUMER TRENDS (20 journals)
    - HUMAN RESOURCES (103 journals)
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    - PUBLIC FINANCE, TAXATION (37 journals)
    - TRADE AND INDUSTRIAL DIRECTORIES (2 journals)

BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS (1248 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Showing 201 - 400 of 1566 Journals sorted alphabetically
Cuadernos de Economía     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de Economia - Latin American Journal of Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cuadernos de Estudios Empresariales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos Latinoamericanos de Administración     Open Access  
Current Opinion in Creativity, Innovation and Entrepreneurship     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Data Science in Finance and Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
DBS Business Review     Open Access  
De Economist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Decision Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Decision Analytics Journal     Open Access  
Decision Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Decision Support Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Defence and Peace Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
der markt     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Desenvolvimento em Questão     Open Access  
Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Development and Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
Development and Learning in Organizations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Development Growth and Differentiation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Development in Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Development Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Development Southern Africa     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Developmental Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Developmental Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
DHARANA - Bhavan's International Journal of Business     Full-text available via subscription  
Digital Business     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Dimensión Empresarial     Open Access  
Dinamika Administrasi Bisnis     Open Access  
Dirassat Journal Economic Issue     Open Access  
Distributed and Parallel Databases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
E-Jurnal Ekonomi dan Bisnis Universitas Udayana     Open Access  
e-Jurnal Ekonomi Sumberdaya dan Lingkungan     Open Access  
E-Jurnal Manajemen Universitas Udayana     Open Access  
e-Jurnal Perdagangan Industri dan Moneter     Open Access  
e-Jurnal Perspektif Ekonomi dan Pembangunan Daerah     Open Access  
E3 : Revista de Economia, Empresas e Empreendedores na CPLP     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Early Education and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Earth Perspectives - Transdisciplinarity Enabled     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
East Asian Community Review     Hybrid Journal  
Eastern Economic Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Eastern European Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Ecoforum Journal     Open Access  
Ecological Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 115)
Ecological Indicators     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Ecological Management & Restoration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Econometric Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Econometrics Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Economía     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Economia e Diritto del Terziario     Full-text available via subscription  
Economia e Politica Industriale     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Economia e Sociedade     Open Access  
Economia e società regionale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Economia Pubblica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Economía y Administración (E&A)     Open Access  
Economic Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Economic Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Economic and Business Review     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Economic and Industrial Democracy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Economic and Regional Studies / Studia Ekonomiczne i Regionalne     Open Access  
Economic Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Economic Change and Restructuring     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Economic Cybernetics. International scientific journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Economic Development and Cultural Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 54)
Economic Development Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Economic Inquiry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Economic Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 136)
Economic Management Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Economic Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Economic Notes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Economic Outlook     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Economic Papers : a Journal of Applied Economics and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Economic Record     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Economic Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Economic Systems Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Economic Themes     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Economica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
Economics & Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Economics and Business     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Economics and Business Administration Journal Thaksin University     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Economics and Business Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Economics and Business Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Economics and Finance in Indonesia     Open Access  
Economics and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Economics and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Economics Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64)
Economics of Disasters and Climate Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Economics of Transition and Institutional Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Économie et Institutions     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Économie et Solidarités     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
EconoQuantum     Open Access  
Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Education, Business and Society : Contemporary Middle Eastern Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Educational Technology Research and Development     Partially Free   (Followers: 45)
Ekonomi Bisnis     Open Access  
Electronic Commerce Research and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Electronic Journal of Business Research Methods     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Electronic Journal of Information Systems Evaluation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Empirica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Empirical Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Employee Relations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Employee Responsibilities and Rights Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Employment Relations Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Energy Conversion and Economics     Open Access  
Energy Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Energy Prices and Taxes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Enfoque : Reflexão Contábil     Open Access  
Engineering Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Enlace Universitario     Open Access  
Entrepreneurial Business and Economics Review     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Entrepreneurship & Regional Development: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Entrepreneurship and Sustainability Issues     Open Access  
Entrepreneurship Education and Pedagogy (EE&P)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Environment and Development Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Environment and Urbanization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Environment, Development and Sustainability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Environmental Economics and Policy Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Environmental Engineering Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Environmental Forensics     Hybrid Journal  
Estudios de Administración     Open Access  
Estudios Demográficos y Urbanos     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Estudios economicos.     Open Access  
Estudos Econômicos     Open Access  
Ethiopian Journal of Business and Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Etikonomi : Jurnal Ekonomi     Open Access  
Eurasian Business Review     Full-text available via subscription  
Eurasian Economic Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Eurasian Geography and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
EUREKA : Social and Humanities     Open Access  
EURO Journal of Transportation and Logistics     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
EURO Journal on Decision Processes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Eurochoices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
EuroEconomica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
EuroMed Journal of Business     Hybrid Journal  
European Business Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
European Competition Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
European Cooperation     Open Access  
European Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 98)
European Journal of American Culture     Hybrid Journal  
European Journal of Business and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
European Journal of Development Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
European Journal of Health Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
European Journal of Industrial Relations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
European Journal of Management and Business Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Journal of Operational Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
European Research on Management and Business Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Eutopía - Revista de Desarrollo Económico Territorial     Open Access  
Evaluation Journal of Australasia     Hybrid Journal  
Evolution & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Executive Journal     Open Access  
Experimental Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Facilities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Facta Universitatis, Series : Economics and Organization     Open Access  
Federal Grants & Contracts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
FEU Academic Review     Open Access  
FIIB Business Review     Hybrid Journal  
Finance and Stochastics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Finance Contrôle Stratégie     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Finance Research Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Fiscal Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Fokus Bisnis : Media Pengkajian Manajemen dan Akuntansi     Open Access  
Folia Oeconomica Stetinensia     Open Access  
Forbes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Forum Empresarial     Open Access  
Forum for Social Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Foundations and Trends® in Econometrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Foundations and Trends® in Entrepreneurship     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Foundations and Trends® in Finance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Foundations and Trends® in Microeconomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Frontiers of Business Research in China     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Futures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Futures & Foresight Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Gadjah Mada International Journal of Business     Open Access  
Games     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Games and Economic Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Gaming Law Review and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ganesha Journal     Open Access  
Gender & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 71)
Gender, Work & Organization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
German Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
GESTÃO.Org - Revista Eletrônica de Gestão Organizacional     Open Access  
Gestión & Desarrollo     Open Access  
Global Advances in Business Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Global Business and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Global Business and Organizational Excellence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Global Business Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Global Business Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Global Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Global Finance Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Global Implementation Research and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Global Journal of Economics and Business Studies     Open Access  
Global Journal of Flexible Systems Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Global Strategy Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Gold Bulletin     Hybrid Journal  
Group Decision and Negotiation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Group Processes & Intergroup Relations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Growth and Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
GSI Journals Serie B : Advancements in Business and Economics     Open Access  
GVexecutivo     Open Access  

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
European Journal of Health Economics
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.153
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 24  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1618-7601 - ISSN (Online) 1618-7598
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Understanding bias in probabilistic analysis in model-based health
           economic evaluation

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      Abstract: Abstract Guidelines of economic evaluations suggest that probabilistic analysis (using probability distributions as inputs) provides less biased estimates than deterministic analysis (using point estimates) owing to the non-linear relationship of model inputs and model outputs. However, other factors can also impact the magnitude of bias for model results. We evaluate bias in probabilistic analysis and deterministic analysis through three simulation studies. The simulation studies illustrate that in some cases, compared with deterministic analyses, probabilistic analyses may be associated with greater biases in model inputs (risk ratios and mean cost estimates using the smearing estimator), as well as model outputs (life-years in a Markov model). Point estimates often represent the most likely value of the parameter in the population, given the observed data. When model parameters have wide, asymmetric confidence intervals, model inputs with larger likelihoods (e.g., point estimates) may result in less bias in model outputs (e.g., costs and life-years) than inputs with lower likelihoods (e.g., probability distributions). Further, when the variance of a parameter is large, simulations from probabilistic analyses may yield extreme values that tend to bias the results of some non-linear models. Deterministic analysis can avoid extreme values that probabilistic analysis may encounter. We conclude that there is no definitive answer on which analytical approach (probabilistic or deterministic) is associated with a less-biased estimate in non-linear models. Health economists should consider the bias of probabilistic analysis and select the most suitable approach for their analyses.
      PubDate: 2022-05-24
       
  • Time and lexicographic preferences in the valuation of EQ-5D-Y with time
           trade-off methodology

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      Abstract: Abstract In the valuation of EQ-5D-Y-3L, adult respondents are asked to complete composite time trade-off (cTTO) tasks for a 10-year-old child. Earlier work has shown that cTTO utilities elicited in such a child perspective are generally higher than when adults take their own perspective. We explore how differences in time preference in child and adult perspectives could explain this effect. Furthermore, as cTTO valuation in a child perspective involves explicit consideration of immediate death for a child, we also consider how cTTO utilities could be affected by decision-makers lexicographically avoiding death in children. We report the results of an experiment in which 219 respondents valued 5 health states in both adult and child perspectives with either a standard cTTO or a lead-time TTO only approach, in which immediate death is less focal. Time preferences were measured in both perspectives. Our results suggest that utilities were lower when lead-time TTO, rather than cTTO, was used. We find large heterogeneity in time preference in both perspectives, with predominantly negative time preference. The influence of time preferences on utilities, however, was small, and correcting for time preferences did not reduce differences between utilities elicited in both perspectives. Surprisingly, we found more evidence for differences in utilities between adult and child perspectives when lead-time TTO was used. Overall, these results suggest that time and lexicographic preferences affect time trade-off valuation in child and adult perspectives, but are not the explanation for differences between these perspectives. We discuss the implications of our findings for EQ-5D-Y-3L valuation.
      PubDate: 2022-05-21
       
  • Mapping the obesity problems scale to the SF-6D: results based on the
           Scandinavian Obesity Surgery Registry (SOReg)

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      Abstract: Background Obesity Problem Scale (OP) is a widely applied instrument for obesity, however currently calculation of health utility based on OP is not feasible as it is not a preference-based measure. Using data from the Scandinavian Obesity Surgery Registry (SOReg), we sought to develop a mapping algorithm to estimate SF-6D utility from OP. Furthermore, to test whether the mapping algorithm is robust to the effect of surgery. Method The source data SOReg (n = 36 706) contains both OP and SF-36, collected at pre-surgery and at 1, 2 and 5 years post-surgery. The Ordinary Least Square (OLS), beta-regression and Tobit regression were used to predict the SF-6D utility for different time points respectively. Besides the main effect model, different combinations of patient characteristics (age, sex, Body Mass Index, obesity-related comorbidities) were tested. Both internal validation (split-sample validation) and validation with testing the mapping algorithm on a dataset from other time points were carried out. A multi-stage model selection process was used, accessing model consistency, parsimony, goodness-of-fit and predictive accuracy. Models with the best performance were selected as the final mapping algorithms. Results The final mapping algorithms were based on OP summary score using OLS models, for pre- and post-surgery respectively. Mapping algorithms with different combinations of patients’ characteristics were presented, to satisfy the user with a different need. Conclusion This study makes available algorithms enabling crosswalk from the Obesity Problem Scale to the SF-6D utility. Different mapping algorithms are recommended for the mapping of pre- and post-operative data.
      PubDate: 2022-05-20
       
  • Does the inclusion of societal costs change the economic evaluations
           recommendations' A systematic review for multiple sclerosis disease

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      Abstract: Background Multiple sclerosis imposes a heavy burden on the person who suffers from it and on the relatives, due to the caregiving load involved. The objective was to analyse whether the inclusion of social costs in economic evaluations of multiple sclerosis-related interventions changed results and/or conclusions. Methods A systematic review was launched using Medline and the Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Registry of Tufts University (2000–2019). Included studies should: (1) be an original study published in a scientific journal, (2) be an economic evaluation of any multiple sclerosis-related intervention, (3) include productivity losses and/or informal care costs (social costs), (4) be written in English, (5) use quality-adjusted life years as outcome, and (6) separate the results according to the perspective applied. Results Twenty-nine articles were selected, resulting in 67 economic evaluation estimations. Social costs were included in 47% of the studies. Productivity losses were assessed in 90% of the estimations (the human capital approach was the most frequently used method), whereas informal care costs were included in nearly two-thirds of the estimations (applying the opportunity and the replacement-cost methods equally). The inclusion of social costs modified the figures for incremental costs in 15 estimations, leading to a change in the conclusions in 10 estimations, 6 of them changing from not recommended from the healthcare perspective to implemented from the societal perspective. The inclusion of social costs also altered the results from cost-effective to dominant in five additional estimations. Conclusions The inclusion of social costs affected the results/conclusions in multiple sclerosis-related interventions, helping to identify the most appropriate interventions for reducing its economic burden from a broader perspective.
      PubDate: 2022-05-20
       
  • Is ultra-hypo-fractionated radiotherapy more cost-effective relative to
           conventional fractionation in treatment of prostate cancer' A
           cost–utility analysis alongside a randomized HYPO-RT-PC trial

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      Abstract: Background Economic evidence for comparing low fraction with ultra-hypo fractionated (UHF) radiation therapy in the treatment of intermediate-to-high-risk prostate cancer (PC) is lacking, especially in Europe. This study presents an economic evaluation performed alongside an ongoing clinical trial. Aim To investigate up to 6 years’ follow-up whether conventional fractionation (CF, 78.0 Gy in 39 fractions, 5 days per week for 8 weeks) is more cost-effective than UHF (42.7 Gy in 7 fractions, 3 days per week for 2.5 weeks inclusive of 2 weekends) radiotherapy in treatment for patients with intermediate-to-high-risk PC. Method HYPO-RT-PC trial is an open-label, randomized, multicenter (10 in Sweden; 2 in Denmark) phase-3 trial. Patients from Sweden (CF 434; UHF 445) were included in this study. The trial database was linked to the National Patient Registry (NPR). Costs for inpatient/non-primary outpatient care for each episode were retrieved. For calculating Quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), the EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire was mapped to the EQ-5D-3L index. Multivariable regression analyses were used to compare the difference in costs and QALYs, adjusting for age and baseline costs, and health status. The confidence interval for the difference in costs, QALYs and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio effectiveness ratio (ICER) was estimated by the bootstrap percentile method. Results No significant differences were found in ICER between the two arms after 6 years of follow-up. Conclusion The current study did not support that the ultra-hypo-fractionated treatment was more cost-effective than the conventional fraction treatment up to the sixth year of the trial.
      PubDate: 2022-05-19
       
  • The association between bed occupancy rates and hospital quality in the
           English National Health Service

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      Abstract: Abstract We study whether hospitals that exhibit systematically higher bed occupancy rates are associated with lower quality in England over 2010/11–2017/18. We develop an economic conceptual framework to guide our empirical analysis and run regressions to inform possible policy interventions. First, we run a pooled OLS regression to test if high bed occupancy is associated with, and therefore acts as a signal of, lower quality, which could trigger additional regulation. Second, we test whether this association is explained by exogenous demand–supply factors such as potential demand, and unavoidable costs. Third, we include determinants of bed occupancy (beds, length of stay, and volume) that might be associated with quality directly, rather than indirectly through bed occupancy. Last, we use a within-between random-effects specification to decompose these associations into those due to variations in characteristics between hospitals and variations within hospitals. We find that bed occupancy rates are positively associated with overall and surgical mortality, negatively associated with patient-reported health gains, but not associated with other indicators. These results are robust to controlling for demand–supply shifters, beds, and volume. The associations reduce by 12%-25% after controlling for length of stay in most cases and are explained by variations in bed occupancy between hospitals.
      PubDate: 2022-05-17
       
  • Demonstrating the value of cancer biomarkers at the population level

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      PubDate: 2022-05-13
       
  • Reply to comment on “Demonstrating the value of cancer biomarkers at
           the population”

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      PubDate: 2022-05-13
       
  • Hospital resource utilisation from HPV-related diseases in England: a
           real-world cost analysis

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      Abstract: Background and objective HPV (human papillomavirus) is the virus most often responsible for sexually transmitted infections. The burden of HPV-related diseases on hospital resources represents a major public health problem. The objective of this study was to quantify the lifetime economic burden of HPV-related diseases based on hospital resources from the perspective of National Health Service (NHS) in England. Methods Patients’ data were extracted, anonymised and aggregated by NHS digital from Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) database of patients admitted in 2015 and followed for three years. Data on hospitalizations were identified according to the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10 CM). Health Resource Group (HRG) tariffs and National Reference Costs were used to estimate the hospitalization costs of anal, cervical, genital, oropharyngeal cancers as well as anogenital warts and cervical dysplasia. Results A total of 19,296 hospitalized patients were included in the estimation model, (39% was male and 61% female. At admission, the average age was 60 and 50 years old, respectively). Life-time costs per patients diagnosed with oropharyngeal cancer were £16,911 (£17,142 for male and £16,334 for female), penile cancer £12,539, vaginal cancer £12,676, anal cancer £13.773 (£12,590 for male, £14,525 for female). Cervical cancer accounted for £12,721, whereas cervical dysplasia for £3932. Resource used for hospitalized patients with anogenital warts was equal to £872 (£884 and £856 for men and women, respectively). On average, outpatient accounted for 39% of the total lifetime costs. Conclusion The results of this study highlight that a substantial amount of resources is utilized for the treatment of HPV-related diseases at hospital level in England. These measures have the potential to inform policy decisions to ensure an optimal use of the NHS resources.
      PubDate: 2022-05-13
       
  • Comparing EQ-5D-3L and EQ-5D-5L in measuring the HRQoL burden of 4 health
           conditions in China

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      Abstract: Background EQ-5D-3L has been used in the National Health Services Survey of China since 2008 to monitor population health. The five-level version of EQ-5D was developed, but there lacks evidence to support the use of five-level version of EQ-5D in China. This study was conducted to compare the measurement properties of both the EQ-5D-3L and EQ-5D-5L in quantifying health-related quality of life (HRQoL) burden for 4 different health conditions in China. Methods Participants from China were recruited to complete the 3L and 5L questionnaire via Internet. Quota was set to recruit five groups of individuals, with one group of individuals without any health condition and one group of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), HIV/AIDS, chronic Hepatitis B (CHB), or depression, respectively. The 3L and 5L were compared in terms of response distributions, percentages of reporting ‘no problems’, index value distributions, known-group validity and their relative efficiency. Results In total, 500 individuals completed the online survey, including 140 healthy individuals, 122 individuals with hepatitis B, 107 with depression, 90 individuals with GAD and 101 with HIV/AIDS. 5L also had smoother and less clustered index value distributions. Healthy group showed different response distributions to the four condition groups. The percentage of reporting ‘no problems’ decreased significantly in the 5L in all domains (P < 0.01), especially in the pain/discomfort dimension (relative difference: 43.10%). Relative efficiency suggested that 5L had a higher absolute discriminatory power than the 3L version between healthy participant and the other 4 condition groups, especially for the HIV/AIDS group when the 3L results was not significant. Conclusions The 5L version may be preferable to the 3L, as it demonstrated superior performance with respect to higher sensitivity to mild health problems, better relative efficiency and responses and index value distributions.
      PubDate: 2022-05-10
       
  • Disutility of injectable therapies in obesity and type 2 diabetes
           mellitus: general population preferences in the UK, Canada, and China

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      Abstract: Introduction Once-daily and once-weekly injectable glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist therapies (GLP-1 RAs) are established in obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In T2DM, both once-daily and once-weekly insulin are expected to be available. This study elicited utilities associated with these treatment regimens from members of the general public in the UK, Canada, and China, to quantify administration-related disutility of more-frequent injectable treatment, and allow economic modelling. Methods Two anchor states (no pharmacological treatment), and seven treatment states (daily oral tablet and generic injectable regimens of variable frequency), with identical outcomes were tested A broadly representative sample of the general public in each country participated (excluding individuals with diabetes or pharmacologically treated obesity). An adapted Measurement and Valuation of Health protocol was administered 1:1 in web-enabled interviews by trained moderators: visual analogue scale (VAS) as a “warm-up”, and time trade-off (TTO) using a 20-year time horizon for utility elicitation. Results A total of 310 individuals participated. The average disutility of once-daily versus once-weekly GLP-1 RA was − 0.048 in obesity and − 0.033 in T2DM; the corresponding average disutility for insulin was − 0.064. Disutilities were substantially greater in China, relative to UK and Canada. Discussion Within obesity and T2DM, more-frequent treatment health states had lower utility. Scores by VAS also followed a logical order. The generated utility values are suitable for use in modelling injectable therapy regimens in obesity and T2DM, due to the use of generic descriptions and assumption of equal efficacy. Future research could examine the reasons for greater administration-related disutility in China.
      PubDate: 2022-05-08
       
  • Does a working day keep the doctor away' A critical review of the
           impact of unemployment and job insecurity on health and social care
           utilisation

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      Abstract: Abstract While the negative impact of unemployment on health is relatively well established, the extent to which that impact reflects on changes in health and social care utilisation is not well understood. This paper critically reviews the direction, magnitude and drivers of the impact of unemployment and job insecurity on health and social care utilisation across different care settings. We identified 28 relevant studies, which included 79 estimates of association between unemployment/job insecurity and healthcare utilisation. Positive associations dominated mental health services (N = 8 out of 11), but not necessarily primary care (N = 25 out of 43) or hospital care (N = 5 out of 22). We conducted a meta-analysis to summarise the magnitude of the impact and found that unemployed individuals were about 30% more likely to use health services compared to those employed, although this was largely driven by mental health service use. Key driving factors included financial pressure, health insurance, social network, disposable time and depression/anxiety. This review suggests that unemployment is likely to be associated with increased mental health service use, but there is considerable uncertainty around primary and hospital care utilisation. Future work to examine the impact across other settings, including community and social care, and further explore non-health determinants of utilisation is needed. The protocol was registered in PROSPERO (CRD42020177668).
      PubDate: 2022-05-06
       
  • Healthcare costs of diabetic foot disease in Italy: estimates for event
           and state costs

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      Abstract: Objective This study aimed to estimate healthcare costs of diabetic foot disease (DFD) in a large population-based cohort of people with type-2 diabetes (T2D) in the Tuscany region (Italy). Data sources/study setting Administrative healthcare data of Tuscany region, with 2018 as the base year. Study design Retrospective study assessing a longitudinal cohort of patients with T2D. Data collection/extraction methods Using administrative healthcare data, DFD were identified using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes. Methods We examined the annual healthcare costs of these clinical problems in patients with T2D between 2015 and 2018; moreover, we used a generalized linear model to estimate the total healthcare costs. Principal findings Between 2015 and 2018, patients with T2D experiencing DFD showed significantly higher average direct costs than patients with T2D without DFD (p < 0.0001). Among patients with T2D experiencing DFD, those who experienced complications either in 2015–2017 and in 2018 incurred the highest incremental costs (incremental cost of € 16,702) followed by those with complications in 2018 only (incremental cost of € 9,536) and from 2015 to 2017 (incremental cost of € 800). Conclusions DFD significantly increase healthcare utilization and costs among patients with TD2. Healthcare costs of DFD among patients with T2D are associated with the timing and frequency of DFD. These findings should increase awareness among policymakers regarding resource reallocation toward preventive strategies among patients with T2D.
      PubDate: 2022-05-05
       
  • Survival analysis of cancer patients in Portugal following the reference
           centre model implementation

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      Abstract: Abstract Cancer has affected around eighteen million people all over the world in 2018. In Portugal, cancer was diagnosed in sixty thousand individuals during 2018, being the second leading cause of death (one in every four deaths). Following the European Directive 2011/24/EU, the Portuguese Health System has been recognizing oncology Reference Centres (RCs), which are focused on delivering best-in-class treatment for cancer patients. This paper performs a survival analysis of cancer patients in Portugal, having hospital episodes with discharge date after the official recognition, in 2016, of the first RCs for hepatobiliary, pancreatic, sarcomas and oesophageal cancer. The aim is to assess the impact of RCs on the survival probability of these patients. For each cancer type, survival curves are estimated using the Kaplan–Meier methodology, and hazard ratios are estimated for different covariates, using multivariate Extended Cox models. The results obtained support the implementation and encourage the further extension of the RC model for oncology in Portugal, as cancer patients treated in an oncology RC, overall, have a better survival probability when compared to patients who had no episode in an RC. These results are clearer for hepatobiliary and pancreatic cancer, but also visible for sarcomas and oesophageal cancer.
      PubDate: 2022-05-04
       
  • Vaccination or NPI' A conjoint analysis of German citizens'
           preferences in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic

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      Abstract: Abstract This research uses discrete choice-based conjoint analysis that elicits the preference structure of German citizens when it comes to their timely intention to vaccinate. The focus is on the trade-offs between pharmaceuticals (vaccine) and "non-pharmaceutical interventions" (NPIs) such as lock-downs and social distancing measures, as well as the value of voluntary versus mandatory compliance to the citizens. Our results highlight three critical insights: (a) value of waiting: at 70% effective vaccine, 1/3 of citizens still would prefer to be vaccinated in the next 6 months rather than immediately; (b) costs of NPI constraints: an effective vaccine may come as a solution to compensate for the costs induced by invasive NPI imposed for an extended period; (c) freedom of choice: voluntary compliance is preferred by citizens over imposed measures whether it relates to vaccination choice, lock-down measures, or work location choice during the pandemic. Backing up those findings in monetary value, a quick shot of a 100% effective vaccination is estimated to be worth in the range of 11,400€. Still, the value of the shot quickly falls to no value when effectiveness drops below 50. At the same time, the cost of imposing protective rules lies in the range of 1500–2500€, depending on the rule analyzed. In comparison, the burden of extra complete lock-down and social distancing is about 775€ per citizen per month. As most current vaccines are being proven to have high efficacy, a strategy that selects the most effective vaccine candidates while emphasizing how the vaccine may stop the pain of lasting lock-downs will be appropriate to nudge the population towards vaccination. Control measures that are too restrictive may be welfare-deteriorating, but enough NPI measures must be recommended as long as vaccination adoption is not sufficiently large.
      PubDate: 2022-04-25
       
  • Comparing the psychometric properties of the EQ-5D-3L and EQ-5D-5L
           descriptive systems and utilities in atopic dermatitis

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      Abstract: Background Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common chronic inflammatory skin disorder affecting up to 10% of adults. The EQ-5D is the most commonly used generic preference-accompanied measure to generate quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) for economic evaluations. Objectives We aimed to compare psychometric properties of the three-level and five-level EQ-5D (EQ-5D-3L and EQ-5D-5L) in adult patients with AD. Methods In a multicentre cross-sectional study, 218 AD patients with a broad range of severity completed the EQ-5D-3L, EQ-5D-5L, Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) and Skindex-16. Disease severity outcomes included the Investigator Global Assessment, Eczema Area and Severity Index and the objective SCORing Atopic Dermatitis. Results A good agreement was established between the two EQ-5D versions with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.815 (95% CI 0.758–0.859, p < 0.001). Overall, 33 different health state profiles occurred in the EQ-5D-3L and 84 in the EQ-5D-5L. Compared to the EQ-5D-3L, ceiling effect was reduced for the mobility, self-care, usual activities and pain/discomfort dimensions by 4.6–11.5%. EQ-5D-5L showed higher average relative informativity (Shannon’s evenness index: 0.64 vs. 0.59). EQ-5D-5L demonstrated better convergent validity with EQ VAS, DLQI and Skindex-16. The two measures were similar in distinguishing between groups of patients based on disease severity and skin-specific quality of life with a moderate or large effect size (η2 = 0.083–0.489). Conclusion Both instruments exhibited good psychometric properties in AD; however, the EQ-5D-5L was superior in terms of ceiling effects, informativity and convergent validity. We recommend the use of the EQ-5D-5L to measure health outcomes in clinical settings and for QALY calculations in AD.
      PubDate: 2022-04-12
       
  • Financial risk allocation and provider incentives in hospital–insurer
           contracts in The Netherlands

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      Abstract: Abstract In healthcare systems with a purchaser–provider split, contracts are an important tool to define the conditions for the provision of healthcare services. Financial risk allocation can be used in contracts as a mechanism to influence provider behavior and stimulate providers to provide efficient and high-quality care. In this paper, we provide new insights into financial risk allocation between insurers and hospitals in a changing contracting environment. We used unique nationwide data from 901 hospital–insurer contracts in The Netherlands over the years 2013, 2016, and 2018. Based on descriptive and regression analyses, we find that hospitals were exposed to more financial risk over time, although this increase was somewhat counteracted by an increasing use of risk-mitigating measures between 2016 and 2018. It is likely that this trend was heavily influenced by national cost control agreements. In addition, alternative payment models to incentivize value-based health care were rarely used and thus seemingly of lower priority, despite national policies being explicitly directed at this goal. Finally, our analysis shows that hospital and insurer market power were both negatively associated with financial risk for hospitals. This effect becomes stronger if both hospital and insurer have strong market power, which in this case may indicate a greater need to reduce (financial) uncertainties and to create more cooperative relationships.
      PubDate: 2022-04-12
       
  • Online and offline health information seeking and the demand for physician
           services

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      Abstract: Abstract We examine the relationship between Internet-based health information seeking and the demand for physician services, using data collected from the 28 European Union states in 2014. Unlike previous research, our analysis distinguishes seekers of health information into those who use only non-Internet sources and those who use the Internet and possibly non-Internet sources. By comparing the frequencies of physician visits among the two groups of health information seekers and non-seekers, we infer the net association between online health information and the demand for physician services while partially controlling for the effects of concurrent seeking of offline health information. The following are the two key findings: (1) individuals’ health status and sociodemographic factors shape online and offline health information seeking patterns in similar ways; and (2) the demand for physician services is positively associated with offline health information seeking and not with online health information. The net association with online health information would be even smaller after controlling for the effect of concurrent offline health information seeking. These results suggest that extending the availability of online health information would potentially reinforce the unequal access to health information, which could create greater variation in individuals’ health management skills and benefits from health care in the long term. However, it would be associated with little or no increase in the demand for physician services, unlike the implications of previous research.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
       
  • Income and conversion handicaps: estimating the impact of child chronic
           illness/disability on family income and the extra cost of child chronic
           illness/child disability in Ireland using a standard of living approach

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      Abstract: Abstract Child chronic illness/ disability can present significant challenges for children, families and society that require appropriate policy responses; yet little is known about the demands placed on families resources from an economics perspective in terms of its impact on household income and the extra income required to achieve the same standard of living as families who do not have a child with a chronic illness/disability. The paper uses data from the Growing Up in Ireland National survey dataset for nine year olds. It is the first study to empirically investigate the impact of child chronic illness/disability on earnings, standard of living and the extra cost of disability together. It is also the first study to explicitly address endogeneity in the standard of living model by using a two-stage process where residuals were harvested to provide efficient estimates. The findings show that families experience significant disadvantage and economic hardship due to reduced household income and a lower standard of living due to the extra cost of disability that would require considerable income to compensate. Policy implications of these findings suggest that a tiered approach to disability support payments which encompass broader criteria for inclusion based on varying severity levels be introduced to alleviate the financial hardship and compromised economic wellbeing of families affected. In addition, more innovative policies are required to implement appropriate timely access to health and social care services and flexi parental employment, which in turn requires the provision of adequate access to high quality educational and care facilities.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
       
  • A guide to extending and implementing generalized risk-adjusted
           cost-effectiveness (GRACE)

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      Abstract: Abstract The generalized risk-adjusted cost-effectiveness (GRACE) model generalizes conventional cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) by introducing diminishing returns to Health-Related Quality of Life (QoL). This changes CEA practice in three ways: (1) Willingness to pay (WTP) increases exponentially with untreated illness severity or pre-existing permanent disability, and WTP ends up lower for mild diseases but higher for severe diseases compared with conventional CEA; (2) Average treatment effectiveness should be adjusted for uncertainty in outcomes; and (3) The marginal rate of substitution between life expectancy and QoL varies with health state. Implementing GRACE requires new parameters describing risk preferences over QoL, the marginal rate of substitution between life expectancy (LE) and QoL, and the variance and skewness of treatment outcomes distributions. In this paper, we provide: (1) a generalized WTP threshold incorporating the possibility of permanent disability; (2) a simpler method to estimate the tradeoff rate between QoL and LE, eliminating the need to carry out treatment-by-treatment estimates; (3) a more-general method to adjust WTP for illness severity that permits non-constant relative risk-aversion in QoL; (4) a new approach to estimating risk-preferences over QoL, leveraging established empirical methods from “happiness” economics; and (5) a step-by-step guide for practitioners wishing to implement multi-period GRACE analyses.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
       
 
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