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HIGHER EDUCATION (140 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 141 of 141 Journals sorted alphabetically
+E Revista de Extensión Universitaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Academic Leadership Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
Academic Leadership Journal in Student Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
African Journal of Teacher Education     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
AISHE-J: The All Ireland Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Ámbito Investigativo     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Engineering Education     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Arab Journal For Quality Assurance in Higher Education     Open Access  
Arquivos do Museu Dinâmico Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Asian Association of Open Universities Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AUDEM : The International Journal of Higher Education and Democracy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Aula Universitaria     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Campus Virtuales     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Canadian Medical Education Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Canadian Perspectives on Academic Integrity     Open Access  
Chronicle of Higher Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
College Student Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Critical Studies in Teaching and Learning (CriSTaL)     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Educate~     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Educational Research in Medical Sciences Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
EDUMECENTRO     Open Access  
ENGEVISTA     Open Access  
Enhancing Learning in the Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Ethics in Science and Environmental Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
European Journal of Higher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57)
Excellence in Higher Education     Open Access   (Followers: 40)
Extensión en red     Open Access  
Formación Universitaria     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Higher Education Evaluation and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Higher Education for the Future     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Higher Education of Social Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Higher Education Pedagogies     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Higher Education Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 58)
Higher Education, Skills and Work-based Learning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Higher Learning Research Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Högre utbildning     Open Access  
Informing Faculty (IF)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ingeniería Mecánica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Innovation in Teaching and Learning in Information and Computer Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Integración y Conocimiento     Open Access  
International Journal for Educational Integrity     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal for Students as Partners     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of African Higher Education     Open Access  
International Journal of Doctoral Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
International Journal of Engineering Pedagogy     Open Access  
International Journal of Higher Education     Open Access   (Followers: 56)
International Journal of Higher Education and Sustainability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Kinesiology in Higher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of STEM Education     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of the First Year in Higher Education     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Research in Higher Education     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Interpreter and Translator Trainer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
ISAA Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
J3eA     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Jesuit Higher Education : A Journal     Open Access  
Journal for Education in the Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal for the Study of Postsecondary and Tertiary Education     Open Access  
Journal of Academic Writing     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Advanced Academics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Applied Research in Higher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49)
Journal of Biomedical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Collective Bargaining in the Academy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of College Counseling     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Journal of College Teaching & Learning     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Community Engagement and Higher Education     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Critical Scholarship on Higher Education and Student Affairs     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Learning Development in Higher Education     Open Access   (Followers: 38)
Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Nursing Education and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Perspectives in Applied Academic Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Praxis in Higher Education : JPHE     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Problem Based Learning in Higher Education     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Science and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Service-Learning in Higher Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Student Affairs in Africa     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Student Engagement : Education Matters     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Student Financial Aid     Open Access  
Journal of Teacher Education for Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Teaching and Learning for Graduate Employability     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Technology and Science Education     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Journal of the European Honors Council     Open Access  
Journal of University Teaching & Learning Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 44)
Journal of Veterinary Medical Education     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Women and Gender in Higher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Kentucky Journal of Excellence in College Teaching and Learning     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Kentucky Journal of Higher Education Policy and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Land Forces Academy Review     Open Access  
Maine Policy Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Makerere Journal of Higher Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Marketing Education Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Marketing of Scientific and Research Organizations     Open Access  
Medical Teacher     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60)
Merrill Series on The Research Mission of Public Universities     Open Access  
National Teaching & Learning Forum The     Hybrid Journal  
Nauka i Szkolnictwo Wyższe     Open Access  
New Directions for Student Leadership     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
New Directions in the Teaching of Physical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Nordic Journal of Information Literacy in Higher Education     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Nursing Education Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
OUSL Journal     Open Access  
Papers in Postsecondary Learning and Teaching     Open Access  
Pedagogia Social. Revista Interuniversitaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pédagogie Médicale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Perspectiva Educacional     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Planet     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Policy Reviews in Higher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Practical Assessment, Research, and Evaluation     Open Access  
PRISM : A Journal of Regional Engagement     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Prompt : A Journal of Academic Writing Assignments     Open Access  
Recherche & formation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Recruiting & Retaining Adult Learners     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Research Ethics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Research Integrity and Peer Review     Open Access  
Revista d'Innovació Docent Universitària     Open Access  
Revista de Ensino em Artes, Moda e Design     Open Access  
Revista de la Universidad de La Salle     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Revista Digital de Investigación en Docencia Universitaria     Open Access  
Revista Electronica Interuniversitaria de Formacion del Profesorado     Open Access  
Revista Gestão Universitária na América Latina - GUAL     Open Access  
Revista Interuniversitaria de Formacion de Profesorado     Open Access  
RT. A Journal on Research Policy and Evaluation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
RU&SC. Revista de Universidad y Sociedad del Conocimiento     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Strategic Enrollment Management Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Student Engagement in Higher Education Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Student Journal of Professional Practice and Academic Research     Open Access  
Student Success : A journal exploring the experiences of students in tertiary education     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Summer Academe : A Journal of Higher Education     Open Access  
Tartu Ülikooli ajaloo küsimusi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Teaching and Learning Inquiry : The ISSOTL Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
The Qualitative Report     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Transformation in Higher Education     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Trayectorias Universitarias     Open Access  
Triple Helix     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Uniped     Open Access  
Universidad en Diálogo : Revista de Extensión     Open Access  
Universidades     Open Access  
Widening Participation and Lifelong Learning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Women in Higher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Университетское управление: практика и анализ     Open Access  

           

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Tartu Ülikooli ajaloo küsimusi
Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2346-5611
Published by U of Tartu Homepage  [13 journals]
  • Saateks

    • Authors: Lea Leppik
      Pages: 5 - 6
      Abstract: 2020. aasta kuulutati Tartu Ülikooli muuseumi plaanides Morgensterni
      aastaks. Keegi ei teadnud, et selle aasta märksõnaks saab
      hoopis koroonaviirus. Kuid tähelepanu jagus siiski ka Tartu ülikooli
      esimesele klassikalise filoloogia professorile, kunstimuuseumi ja
      raamatukogu rajajale Karl Morgensternile tema 250. sünniaastapäevaga
      seoses – anti välja kogumik, korraldati näitusi, muuseumi ja
      raamatukogu ühistööna leidis aset konverents „Morgenstern ja tema
      aeg“. Käesolevas kogumik sisaldab valdavas osas artikleid, mis valmisid
      konverentsi ettekannete põhjal, kuid siia mahtus muudki.
      Kogumiku avaloos annab TÜ klassikalise filoloogia professor Janika
      Päll põhjaliku ülevaate klassikalise filoloogia õpetamisest Tartus
      nii Karl Morgensterni ja tema kaasaegsete kui ka tema järeltulijate
      poolt ning toob selle perioodi käsitlemisse valgustuse kõrvale
      tugevalt sisse uushumanismi diskursuse.
      Eesti Kunstiakadeemia lektor Liisa-Helena Lumberg annab oma artiklis
      „Kunst teadmiste süsteemis Karl Morgensterni kunstimuljete näitel“
      lähivaate, kuidas Morgenstern oma kunstimuljeid publikule püüdis
      edasi anda, tingimustes, kus kaugeltki kõigist lugejaist ei saanud oletada,
      et nad kirjeldatavaid töid on näinud või kunagi tulevikus näevad.
      19. sajandi algupoole Tartu olusid ja kunstielu tundes kerkib küsimus,
      kuivõrd suhtlesid ja kui hästi olid teineteise tegemistega kursis
      kaks Tartu tollase kunstielu tähte: ülikooli kunstimuuseumi juhataja
      Morgenstern ja siinse kultuuriruumi suurima erakollektsiooni
      omanik, Raadi mõisnik Karl Eduard von Liphart' Ingrid Sahk näitab
      oma artiklis, et dokumenteeritud kokkupuuteid on kahe kunstitähe
      vahel üllatavalt vähe. Kuid ega kõik inimesed ei peagi isiklikult sobima
      ja ajaloo keerdkäikude tulemusel on ikkagi juhtunud nii, et suur
      osa Lipharti kunstikogust on jõudnud samuti Tartu ülikooli, kus seda
      Morgensterni kogutuga kõrvuti tulevastele põlvedele säilitatakse.
      Konverentsil tulid kõne alla ka Morgensterni kaasaegsed. Lea
      Leppik võtab vaatluse alla kaks kaasteelist, filosoofiaprofessor Gottlob
      Benjamin Jäsche ja ajalooprofessor Georg Friedrich Pöschmanni
      ning nende mõtted ülikoolis õppimisest ja õpetamisest üldse ning
      õpetajakoolituse tähendusest tollases ülikoolis.
      Veel ühest kaasteelisest – meditsiiniprofessor Erdmannist, kes oli
      samuti kultuurihuviline ning kollektsionäär – kirjutab TÜ raamatukogu
      teadur Kaarina Rein. Artikkel keskendub tema mõjule meditsiinitopograafiate
      koostamisele Tartu ülikoolis.
      Kogumiku põhiosa lõpetab artikkel, mis ei kuulu Morgensterni
      aega ja räägib noorte meedikute tööle suunamisest nõukogude ajal
      (Ken Kalling ja Lea Leppik). Tegelikult leidis sarnane protsess aset
      ka 19. sajandi algul, Morgensterni-aegses ülikoolis, ja nõukogude
      süsteemi juured olidki Tsaari-Venemaa kroonustipendiaatide süsteemis:
      stipendiumi saanud pedagoogide kõrval oli määratud kohal
      teenimise kohustus ka meedikutel. Tol ajal tuli teenida kuus aastat,
      probleemid aga olid üsna sarnased nõukogudeaegsetega.
      Muuseumikogudele pühendatud osas kirjeldab TÜ muuseumi kuraator
      Leili Kriis muuseumis hoiul olevat kaunist luulealbumit, mis
      kuulus kunagi Charles Borchardtile, mehele, kes omas ajas, 19. sajandi
      teisel poolel, oli üks Eesti tuntumaid fotograafe.
      Milline oli õigupoolest Morgensterni-aegne TÜ kunstimuuseum,
      küsib oma artiklis Tartu ülikooli muuseumi teadusdirektor Jaanika
      Anderson. Vastus on veidi ootamatu – see oli väga erinev sellest, millisena
      muuseum viimased 150 aastat siinsele avalikkusele tuntud
      on, olles tihedalt täis kappe ja mappe.
      Mis juhtus siis Morgensterni ajal kogutuga, selle võtab vaatluse
      alla TÜ kunstiajaloo doktorant Kristiina Tiideberg ja selgub, et järeltulijad
      ei näidanud selle vastu üles kuigi suurt respekti. Teema
      on muidugi laiem kui Morgensterni ja tema järel tulnud professorite
      erinevad arusaamad ja väärtushinnangud. Paraku muutuvad arusaamad
      kogude väärtusest ajas ikka ja jälle, ühe põlvkonna jaoks
      väärtuslik ei pruugi olla seda järgmiste silmis.
      Kogumiku lõpetab traditsiooniliselt muuseumi aastaaruanne,
      seekord siis erakordse 2020. aasta kohta.
      PubDate: 2021-11-16
      DOI: 10.15157/tyak.vi49.18387
       
  • Morgenstern ja tema kaasaeg: nn humanistlikud alusained keiserliku Tartu
           ülikooli õppekavas 1803-36

    • Authors: Janika Päll
      Pages: 7 - 33
      Abstract: The foundation of the imperial University of Tartu/Dorpat has been
      described as being part of the rationalist Enlightenment movement,
      with a focus on the importance of the Rector and Professor of Physics
      Georg Friedrich Parrot, or Johann Wilhelm Krause (university architect
      and Professor of Architecture). Johann Karl Simon Morgenstern
      (director of the University Library and Museum, Professor of Rhetoric,
      Classical Philology, Aesthetics, Art History and History of Literature)
      has been studied from various aspects before, but his neo-humanist
      ideas have been mostly described from the perspective of
      classical scholarship. The goal of this paper is to review the sources of
      the humanist curricula of introductory subjects, which Morgenstern
      taught to all faculties during his activity, focussing on two examples.
      Friedrich August Wolf has often—with good reason—been described
      as Morgenstern’s main inspiration, but we also need to consider the
      influence of Julius Erduin Koch, whose Hodegetik offers recommendations
      for introductory subjects in all faculties. Almost all of these
      were taught by Morgenstern from 1803 to 1836.
      PubDate: 2021-11-16
      DOI: 10.15157/tyak.vi49.18376
       
  • Kunst teadmiste süsteemis Karl Morgensterni kunstimuljete näitel

    • Authors: Liisa-Helena Lumberg
      Pages: 34 - 46
      Abstract: Johann Karl Simon Morgenstern (1770–1852) was a Professor of
      Aesthetics, Rhetoric, Philology, and Art History at the University of
      Tartu/Dorpat. Besides coining the term Bildungsroman, Morgenstern
      was also a prolific art historian, creating and spreading knowledge
      about art. The reopening of the University of Tartu and Morgenstern’s
      deeds are a good example of the change in the knowledge regimes
      that occurred around 1800, where art played a crucial role
      (P. Burke, Circa 1808: Restructuring Knowledges. München; Berlin:
      Deutscher Kunstverlag, 2008, p. 50).
      From 1808 to 1810, Morgenstern travelled in Europe and later
      published some of his impressions from visiting various art galleries.
      In this article I focus on two of his texts: a booklet titled Über einige
      Gemälde (Of Some Paintings) from 1805 (K. Morgenstern, Über
      einige Gemälde. Dorpat: Universitätsbuchdrucker M. G. Grenzius,
      1805), and a text about Raphael’s Transfiguration from 1822 (K. Morgenstern,
      Über Rafael Sanzio’s Verklärung.
      Dorpat: J. C. Schünmann;
      Leipzig: P. G. Kummer, 1822). I will analyse Morgenstern’s views in
      the context of Enlightenment ideas on art, and look at the proportion
      of knowledge and emotion present in his texts.
      Although Morgenstern’s main tool was description, he tried to
      provide some analysis as well, taking into consideration composition,
      characters, and anatomical correctness, for example. He wrote
      both about his contemporary artists and the Renaissance Masters.
      Morgenstern’s favourite was apparently Raphael, whom he admired
      greatly and to whom he devoted his longest texts. His emotions are
      the most unambiguously expressed namely in these writings where
      he shows Raphael as a true genius.
      It is also interesting how Morgenstern composed his longer texts.
      First, he described a picture as if he knew nothing about it. He viewed
      the expression of character through certain forms, such as hair or the
      folds of clothing. Second, Morgenstern identified and characterised
      the figures in a detailed manner. Third, he suggested parts of the picture held deeper symbolic meaning. He tried to show how the details
      of a painting contribute to its main emotion and emphasised how
      one has to look for and feel the influence of a painting, as it is hard
      to describe.
      In addition, Morgenstern gave a lot of thought to how his texts
      and the artworks (or their reproductions) would reach the audience.
      He emphasised the importance of viewing original artwork but worked
      diligently to mediate knowledge about it in his lectures at the
      university and his writings.
      PubDate: 2021-11-16
      DOI: 10.15157/tyak.vi49.18377
       
  • Morgenstern ja Liphart. Kahe kunstitähe tegutsemisest samas ajas ja
           ruumis

    • Authors: Ingrid Sahk
      Pages: 47 - 56
      Abstract: What do we know about and how can we describe the encounters
      between Karl Morgenstern and the Lipharts, the Raadi lords of the
      manor, who were the greatest art collectors in 19th century Tartu/
      Dorpat'
      Published sources give the impression that Morgenstern and the
      Lipharts had virtually no interaction, Morgenstern’s name does not
      appear very often in the biography of the Lipharts, and vice versa.
      In Morgenstern’s diaries, Raadi manor (Ratshof) appears as the
      destination of his frequent walks, just like Kadriorg in Tallinn, but
      nothing more personal emerges from it. However, Morgenstern probably
      knew which paintings belonged to the Lipharts, and some of
      them were of great interest to him. At least he published his opinion
      on two of the paintings by Johann Dominik von Fiorillo that belonged
      to the Lipharts’ art collection. The replica of the portrait of Rector
      Parrot painted by F. G. von Kügelgen for R. W. von Liphart was
      also probably mediated by Morgenstern. There is some evidence that
      Morgenstern and Liphart shared information about subscriptions for
      prints and art bulletins.
      What did the Lipharts think and know about the art collected
      by Morgenstern, either for his private collection or the university'
      There is no written evidence of their opinions, no facts or stories of
      the Lipharts visiting Morgenstern’s art collection. Karl Eduard von
      Liphart, who later became a great connoisseur of prints and Italian
      renaissance art, may have used the possibility to train his eye looking
      at prints at the University of Tartu Art Museum in his youth. However,
      this remains only a guess.
      During the lifetime of Karl Morgenstern, the university art museum’s
      collection was formed according to his personal tastes and ideas. It is intriguing that after Morgenstern’s death, the focus of the collection was shifted and the influence of the Lipharts became more prominent. In 1858 curator G. F. von Bradke formed a committee to
      re-evaluate the collections of the University of Tartu Art Museum,
      and K. E. von Liphart became the only external member of the body.
      Although he is more known for his marvellous prints, K. E. von Liphart
      also collected plaster casts that filled his house at Lai Street
      30 in Tartu. Most probably his knowledge and ideas about this subject
      also influenced the committee’s final decision—collecting plaster
      casts of ancient art became the main focus of the university museum.
      The combination of antique sculpture and wall paintings from
      Pompeii had already been used in the interior of the Lipharts’ house
      long before the Pompeian-style decoration was painted for the University
      of Tartu Art Museum in 1868. K. E. von Liphart’s special interest
      in photography, a state-of-the-art technology at that time, also
      left its mark on the university’s collections. When Woldemar Krüger,
      who ran the university’s drawing school in the second half of the
      19th century, started commissioning photographic reproductions of
      famous artworks for instructional purposes, he relied mostly on the
      advice and recommendations of his friend K. E. von Liphart.
      Thus, we may presume that even if there are not enough facts,
      it pays to search more closely for possible personal influences and
      impact. Often, important changes may happen through local and intimate
      contacts, not because of the twists and turns or grand ideas of
      art history in general.
      PubDate: 2021-11-16
      DOI: 10.15157/tyak.vi49.18378
       
  • Tartu ülikooli üldise õpetajate instituudi kaasdirektorid Jäsche ja
           Pöschmann ning nende pedagoogilised vaated

    • Authors: Lea Leppik
      Pages: 57 - 74
      Abstract: One of the important tasks of the University of Tartu/Dorpat, which
      was reopened in the spirit of the Enlightenment in 1802, was to train
      teachers for local provinces. The General Teachers’ Institute (1803–
      1820) had three directors: philologist Morgenstern, philosopher
      Jäsche and historian Pöschmann. All three directors were also members
      of the university school committee and thus directly contributed
      to the formation of the Tartu school district. While Morgenstern dreamed
      of a philological seminary from the very beginning, believing
      that the moral upbringing of teachers based on antique models was
      paramount in educating teachers, the General Teachers’ Institute at
      the University of Tartu initially followed the direction of teaching
      many different subjects (including sciences). Morgenstern’s pedagogical
      views have been described repeatedly, but those of the other two
      directors have not.
      As a philosopher, Jäsche has been considered a follower of Immanuel
      Kant, and his pedagogical views, which have reached us through
      a speech he gave to students in 1808, were also clearly influenced
      by Kant. He considered that studying at a university should be a
      conscious and purposeful effort, but not a dull craft. Its ultimate goal
      was to improve oneself and others, and the path to personal happiness
      was to serve society to the best of one’s ability.
      Pöschmann lived and worked in Tartu for a short while (10 years,
      he died in 1812), but he managed to prove himself as a very enthusiastic
      academic instructor and organiser. He played an important role
      in the school committee, for example in founding the Vyborg Girls’
      School. He can also be considered a pioneer of the local Livonian school-
      history writing.
      In order to improve the instruction of students, which Pöschmann
      considered essential in view of the characteristics of the local school
      system, he compiled a number of handbooks highly valued by his
      contemporaries. His Einleitung in die allgemeine Menschengeschichte
      als Leitfaden zu akademischen Vorlesungen von G. Fr. Pöschmann
      provided an overview of the history, sources, and auxiliary sciences
      of historical writing. His book about studying at the university titled
      Ueber die zweckmässige Führung des academischen Lebens: ein
      Leitfaden zu Vorlesungen von G. Fr. Pöschmann was intended as a
      guide for young men who had to start organising their own life when
      they flew the nest. In addition to explaining the system of all sciences
      and the best techniques for studying at university, the book included
      practical instructions for budgeting ec. In his keynote speech, in
      which Pöschmann spoke of new and old methods of education (1808),
      he showed himself to be a moderate school innovator who was able
      to maintain a balance between the variety of methods and teachings
      prevailing at the time, and, above all, respect for both teachers and
      students. So many of the topics that were relevant at the time (e.g.,
      how much material should be memorised or how strict discipline
      should be) are still at the forefront today.
      In their surviving publications, both co-directors of the General
      Teachers’ Institute display broad ideas inspired by the Enlightenment,
      and their activities in the school committee showed their readiness
      to contribute to the spread of education.
      PubDate: 2021-11-16
      DOI: 10.15157/tyak.vi49.18379
       
  • Johann Friedrich von Erdmann ja meditsiinitopograafiad Tartu
           ülikoolis

    • Authors: Kaarina Rein
      Pages: 75 - 100
      Abstract: Johann Friedrich von Erdmann was born in Wittenberg (1778–1846)
      in the family of high-ranking clergyman. He acquired an excellent
      knowledge of Latin from his father and older brother. He first studied
      theology at the University of Wittenberg, but switched to medicine
      after a year and became a student of Professor Friedrich Ludwig
      Kreysig (1770–1839), largely known for his work with cardiological
      diseases. In 1802 Erdmann defended his doctoral thesis on electrolysis
      titled Utrum aqua per electricitatem columnae a celeberrimo Volta
      inventae in elementa sua dissolvatur' at the University of Wittenberg
      and obtained a degree in medicine and surgery. After the defence of
      his thesis he completed his studies in Vienna under the supervision
      of Johann Peter Frank (1747–1821) who was regarded a pioneer in
      the field of public health. After his return to Wittenberg in 1804 Erdmann
      became Professor of Pathology and Therapy at the local university.
      In 1810 Erdmann was invited to take the post of Professor of Medicine
      at Kazan University in Russia. Erdmann accepted the invitation
      and as he had no knowledge of Russian, he delivered his lectures
      at Kazan University in Latin. In addition to his posts of professor
      and dean of the medical faculty (1814–1817), Erdmann was in charge
      of inspecting schools at the governorate of Saratov, Simbirsk, Astrakhan,
      Perm and Tobolsk. As a member of the school committee, he
      undertook long journeys to these governorates from 1815 to 1816,
      familiarising himself with the conditions of schools in Russia and the
      activities, habits and traditions of the local people. One of his interests
      were mineral springs.
      On the basis of his impressions of Russia Erdmann compiled a
      monograph in three volumes, the first part titled Medizinische Topographie
      des Gouvernements und der Stadt Kasan, nebst mehreren
      darauf Bezug habenden historischen, geographischen, statistischen
      und ethnographischen Notizen von Dr. Johann Friedrich Erdmann.
      Beiträge zur Kenntniss des Innern von Russland was printed in 1822
      in Tartu. It was meant for Germans to study the conditions in the
      heartland of Russia. The author wrote about different peoples living
      in Russia, including Finno-Ugric nations.
      In 1817 Erdmann was invited to the University of Tartu/Dorpat
      to take the position of Professor of Pathology, Semeiotics, Therapy
      and Clinics. He became head of the polyclinic as well. Erdmann's first
      period of activity in Tartu lasted from 1818 to 1823, after which he
      headed to Germany to improve his health. In 1828 he returned to
      Tartu and became Professor of Dietetics, Pharmaceutics, History of
      Medicine and Medical Literature. He was also Dean of the Faculty of
      Medicine and head of the Institute of Professors. Erdmann retired in
      1843 and returned to Germany, where he died in Wiesbaden in 1846.
      After Erdmann's first period of professorship, several medical topographical
      dissertations were written and defended at the University
      of Tartu from 1823 to 1848. Thus, in 1823 a medical topography
      was compiled about Tartu, followed by dissertations about Riga
      (1828), Archangelsk (1828), Tallinn (1836), Greece (1836), Courland
      (1838) and Orenburg (1848).
      Erdmann may have had an influence on the structure of these
      works, starting with the history, demographics and climate of the
      chosen location. The works frequently include interesting aspects
      about ethnographical details, as well as hints about the local languages.
      Erdmann’s monograph from 1822 was mostly quoted when the
      author of a dissertation described Russian people and their lifestyle.
      Erdmann's attitude towards different nations was rather liberal,
      whereas in the dissertations presented in Tartu local people were
      often criticised.
      Future research topics may include the further analysis of Erdmann's
      work and correspondence as well researching the medical
      topographies presented in Tartu from an ethnological point of view.
      PubDate: 2021-11-16
      DOI: 10.15157/tyak.vi49.18380
       
  • Arstide töölesuunamine Eesti NSVs

    • Authors: Ken Kalling, Lea Leppik
      Pages: 101 - 123
      Abstract: From 1930ies the graduates of Soviet facilities of higher education
      were appointed mandatorily for five years to employments prescribed
      by the state. In 1948 this period was diminished to three years.
      The process of distributing „young specialists“ was to be run by the
      universities and institutes themselves, an obligation demanding a lot
      of administrative energy. In 1946 the practice was introduced also in
      Estonia. Here under special scrutiny occurred the medical profession,
      as the Soviet state had grand plans concerning the rearrangement of
      the public health system of this recently annexed territory.
      The practice of mandatory appointment included controversies
      – on one hand there were positions and locations preferred by the
      graduates and on the other there were these preferred by the state.
      During the more than 40 years during which the system of mandatory
      appointments existed, the state practiced different methods
      to succumb the graduates under its will. These extended from the
      draconic measures taken during the Stalinist era to the rather loose
      atmosphere in the final years of the Soviet Empire. The practice ended
      in 1990 during the era of Perestroika.
      PubDate: 2021-11-16
      DOI: 10.15157/tyak.vi49.18381
       
  • Fotograafi luulealbum: Gedichte von Charles Borchardt

    • Authors: Leili Kriis
      Pages: 124 - 142
      Abstract: The poetry album written by the well-known photographer Charles
      Borchardt is a remarkable historical source of Baltic German occasional
      poetry in terms of its content as well as design. The handwritten,
      beautifully bound album has 568 pages numbered by the author, plus
      a register. The titles of the chapters and poems are highlighted in calligraphy,
      and the poems often end with a vignette. The pages, partially
      written in gold, are artistically designed with thematic romantical
      (decal) pictures, printed lithographies and a few photos.
      The poetry album contains three chapters, it begins with a prologue
      and dedication (Prolog und Weihe), the first chapter is titled „The
      Soft, Gentle Period“, the most comprehensive chapter is „The Second
      Period“ (Zweite Period), and finally „The Third Period“ (Dritte Period),
      followed by the „Register“ (Inhalt) and „Annex“ (Anhang).
      The first part of the album, as the title highlights, consists mostly
      of the author’s romantic occasional poetry and love poems, titled as
      follows: „Ceremony of Youth“ (Jugend Feier), „Joy of Love“ (Freude an
      Liebe), „Bringer of Joy“ (Die Freundenspenderin), as well as descriptions
      of the beauty of nature: „Song of Spring“ (Frühlingslied), „Morning
      Song of the Wanderer“ (Wanderers Morgenlied) etc.
      The second period starts with poems dedicated to people and
      places encountered on the road. Romantic nationalism is evident in
      the poems „Greetings from Homeland“ (Heimatgruss), „Czar City“
      (Die Czarenstadt) etc. The poems dedicated to his kin deserve some
      attention as well: there are poems for his brothers, photographers
      Robert (Kunstgefühl) and Ferdinand (Epistel an Ferdinand B), his
      wife Olga (An Olga), and poems shedding light on the personal celebrations
      of the author’s life („On the Occasion of My 30th Birthday“
      [An meinem 30. Geburtstag], „25 March“ [Zum 25. Märtz]).
      Sonnets and epic ballades dominate in the third period: „Love and
      Grave“ 1–21 (Liebe und Grab), „Songs of Northern Lands“ 1–6 (Nordische
      Lieder). Many texts carry a note on when they were publicly
      performed, for example, the poem dedicated to the silver wedding anniversary
      of artists August Krüger and Caroline K. was „Performed
      on 30 August 1866“ (Zur Silber Hochzeit des Künstlerpaares August
      Krüger u. Caroline K. Angeführt am 30. August 1866), and the „Prologue
      to Silver Wedding Anniversary, „Party“. Performed on 14 March
      1868“ (Silberhochzeit “Fest” Prolog) etc.
      Borchardt’s poetry album contains pages upon pages of sentimental
      poems and cycles of poems driven by love, the beauty of nature
      and art. The motivation was often to amuse the public as well. The
      album contains salon poetry written for acquaintances or important
      people, as well as occasional poetry for performing at celebratory or
      community events.
      Borchardt’s activity as a photographer allowed him to meet many
      remarkable contemporaries. The ladies among them must have had
      a greater influence on the author, as is evident from the titles of numerous
      poems dedicated to them. The contents of the poetry album
      suggest that Charles Borchardt had the romantic „soul of an artist“,
      and he was an active member of the society, as well as a remarkable
      photographer.
      His main contribution to Estonian cultural history is his photo
      series Estonian Types (Eesti tüübid; 1867), but also images of Baltic
      German families, pastors, burghers, and views of Tallinn from the
      second half of the 19th century. As Borchardt and his direct offspring
      passed away young, his personal heritage was left to its fate. Hence, it
      is gratifying that his poetry album and photos are preserved in Estonian
      memory institutions and available to the public. This allows us
      to visually imagine the life, people, landscapes, and sights in the town
      of Tallinn in 19th century Estonia. We are also able read about the
      thoughts and feelings experienced by Charles Borchardt, the most
      well-known lensman in 19th century Estonia.
      PubDate: 2021-11-16
      DOI: 10.15157/tyak.vi49.18382
       
  • Karl Morgensterni aegne kunstimuuseum ülikooli peahoones

    • Authors: Jaanika Anderson
      Pages: 143 - 149
      Abstract: In 2020, the University of Tartu celebrated the 250th anniversary of
      the birth of Johann Karl Simon Karl Morgenstern, the first director
      of the University of Tartu/Dorpat Art Museum, which was founded
      in 1803. At first, the museum was housed in Morgenstern’s apartment
      at Town Hall Square, but in 1809 it was relocated to the newly
      erected main building of the university, to two rooms facing onto the
      street and next to the assembly hall. In 1839, Morgenstern drew up
      an inventory list for the museum. While the document adds little new
      knowledge about the history of the museum, it is important in helping
      us remember that the art museum has not always looked like
      it does today, complete with a colourful interior with Pompeii-style
      murals and white plaster copies of classical sculptures. Compared to
      the transforming and evolving museum spaces all over the world, the
      University of Tartu Art Museum has remained relatively unchanged
      over the past 150 years, but before that, the museum had a completely
      different appearance. The keywords describing the museum’s
      interior and collections in the first half of the 19th century are engravings
      and cabinets containing large prints as well as collections of
      coins and plaster casts of coins and gems packed in boxes, complemented
      by colourful ancient vases and Egyptian antiquities, as well
      as two mummies. The furniture from that time is still used in the museum.
      Some of the atmosphere of the Morgenstern-era art museum
      was brought back to life with the exhibition Morgenstern 250. The
      Enchanting Art of Glyptics, which was available to the public from
      June 2020 to March 2021.
      PubDate: 2021-11-16
      DOI: 10.15157/tyak.vi49.18383
       
  • Karl Morgensterni aegsete ülikooli kunstimuuseumi kogude saatusest 19.
           sajandi keskpaiga muudatustes

    • Authors: Kristiina Tiideberg
      Pages: 150 - 166
      Abstract: One of the central figures of the new permanent exhibition The University
      of Our Lives at the University of Tartu Museum is the erstwhile
      director of the library, Professor Karl Morgenstern (1770–1852).
      Searching for museum pieces related to him brought up the question:
      what has become of the art museum collections from Morgenstern’s
      time'
      The University of Tartu/Dorpat Art Museum was founded at the
      university in 1803 as the first Estonian art museum. Its first director
      was Karl Morgenstern, a young energetic scholar from Germany, who
      held the position in 1803–1837. Founding the museum was supposed
      to help achieve his goals as a professor, and aid students’ aesthetical
      education. The museum supported practical art studies at the university
      as well. The art museum of that time is primarily praised
      for the diversity of its collections. By the end of Morgenstern’s term,
      there were over 14,000 items in the museum: 2,684 prints, 707 books
      / albums of engravings, 94 drawings, 48 paintings, 5,067 gem casts,
      5,348 coins and medals, 95 original antiquities from Egypt, Greece
      etc., 63 ethnographic items and 22 plaster casts (sculptures).
      Upon reading what has been written about the history of the museum,
      and revising archive materials, it became apparent that a few
      claims made about the development of the collections in the mid-19th
      century must be clarified. While the fate of some collections (e.g., the
      painting collection evacuated to Voronezh) is well known, there are
      some collections the state of which the article will help to specify.
      1. Mapping the collections has revealed that Morgenstern’s successors
      in the position of the art museum’s director valued his collections
      significantly less than what has been thought until now;
      directors Ludwig Mercklin and Ludwig Schwabe removed many
      plaster casts obtained during Morgenstern’s era from the collections, although this was the period when the museum focussed on
      collecting more antique plaster casts. Hence, this shows the following
      directors’ critical stand towards Morgenstern’s collections.
      2. Although until now, ideological views related to the museum’s collection
      policy have been emphasised as the reason for giving away
      the art museum’s pieces, the motives could have been much more
      practical: lack of space and several location changes in 1858 and
      1868.
      3. The often-cited committee decisions from 1858 and the following
      processes do not have a linear cause-and-effect relation.
      4. Finally, we are glad to announce that several formerly unknown
      heritage pieces from Morgenstern’s era have been quite well
      preserved outside the university, namely pieces from the ethnographic
      collection, most of which were items brought in by Adam
      Johann von Krusenstern from the Russian Empire’s first voyage
      around the world (1803–1806). Many of those are now part of the
      collection of the Estonian National Museum, where they significantly
      supplement the rest of Krusenstern’s materials that we
      know to have survived in Estonia.
      PubDate: 2021-11-16
      DOI: 10.15157/tyak.vi49.18384
       
  • Tartu Ülikooli muuseumi 2020. aasta aruanne

    • Authors: Jaanika Anderson
      Pages: 167 - 180
      PubDate: 2021-11-16
      DOI: 10.15157/tyak.vi49.18385
       
 
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