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American Journal of Trade and Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
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American Journal of Trade and Policy
Number of Followers: 3  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2313-4747 - ISSN (Online) 2313-4755
Published by Asian Business Consortium Homepage  [5 journals]
  • China Collective Negotiation in COVID-19: What We learn from a Comparative
           Analysis of China, the United States and Germany

    • Authors: Xiaohan Sun
      Abstract: Labor conflicts can be solved by an efficient collective bargaining system with consensus-based. Since the economic uncertainty caused by COVID-19, employers have been shut down or have had to reduce operations drastically and many employers want to furlough or dismiss employees under certain circumstances in China. Meanwhile, many workers have lost income. Since workers have gone back to the worksite in March 2020, labor unrest has spread out in order to ask for wage arrears in the manufactory, construction, and service sectors in terms of strikes map from China Labor Bulletin. The paper targets on three different countries with top economies, and examines its bargaining models to keep industrial peace. The paper argues that China bargaining model under state-control strongly depends on government intention for intervention where there is labor unrest, and the system less focuses on self-governance which may result in a hard time to maintain industrial resources, even though the state issued the related policies to highly encouraged companies to hold a negotiation before the lay off workers, reduce wages or work time in order to be employed. While fewer polices and China traditional command-and-control regulation models could not provide an efficient approach to relief labor unrest in the pandemic, Germany's bargaining model is more flexible to provide an example for new governance and co-determination. Also, the bargaining model with sector-level reforms could do more for the United States private sectors in order to the corporation instead of adversarialism. From a comparison among three collective bargaining models, the paper concludes the approaches to protect workers’ rights from global perspectives.
      PubDate: Sun, 20 Sep 2020 00:00:00 -060
  • Living Links Connecting the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals:
           Small-scale Farmers and Agricultural Biodiversity

    • Authors: Susan H. Bragdon
      Abstract: The 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and Agenda 2030 adopted by the global community in September 2015 are applicable to all countries with the commitment “that no one is left behind.” As an agenda for “people, planet, prosperity, peace and partnership”, Agenda 2030 provides a vision for people and planet-centered, human rights-based, and gender-sensitive sustainable development. It promises “more peaceful and inclusive societies” which are free from fear and violence. Small scale farmers and agricultural biodiversity are critical to the achievement of aspects of most of the SDGs. In addition to being essential for the resilience and stability of agricultural production systems and our ability to adapt to climate change and other stressors; agricultural biodiversity is fundamental to the livelihoods, health and nutrition of billions Despite its importance to the health of both people and the planet, this broad understanding of what agricultural biological diversity is and the critical role played by its custodians, gets no explicit mention in the SDGs. In fact, awareness of this is low outside specialized institutions and agreements and explicit mention of both is rare in the context of sustainable development This paper uses the example of small-scale farmers and agricultural biodiversity to illustrate how they are the living links amongst the SDGs as well as being critical components in their achievement and to the vision of Agenda 2030.  
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Apr 2020 00:00:00 -060
  • Institutional Leadership or Institutional Overreach'

    • Authors: Daniel LING Tien Chong
      Abstract: The institutions of international arbitration have played an increasingly active role in arbitral governance. The claim that they merely provide administrative services no longer holds water. With the ability to amend institutional rules, update practice guidelines, and revise institutional practices, they wield the power to efficiently effect change – a power that no other actor in international arbitration comes close to having. However, it has been said that in their quest to lead change, some institutions have overstepped their mandate and overreached their powers. Based on a variety of primary and secondary sources, this article examines the situations in which institutions have overridden the parties’ agreement for the number of arbitrators appointed in cases of expedited proceedings. Thereafter, it seeks to analyze whether institutions, in a bid to push progress have overstepped their authority.  
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Apr 2020 00:00:00 -060
  • Data Profiteering: Corporate Social Responsibility and Privacy Law Lost in
           Data Monetization and National Security

    • Authors: John B. Taschner
      Abstract: Data mining and collecting is increasingly becoming a common practice, in the name of monetization of personal data, progression of national security measures, and politically fueled democratic interferences. Millions of users’ data is constantly being sorted, manipulated, and sold, often without conscientious consent of the consumer. While this practice can result in greater convenience from an innocent consumer level, the vulnerabilities to national privacy and the cyberspace create dangerous territory. The article entitled describes the triangulation of security, monetization, and politicizing in terms of data collection through three primary case studies: Cambridge Analytica and the Facebook scandal during the 2016 United States presidential election, Apple v. FBI, and Edward Snowden and the NSA surveillance activities. It explores how data harvesting and subsequent monetization is embedded in virtually every aspect of our culture and develops understanding of how corporate social responsibility calls for companies to respect and maintain transparency with consumer interests. Current technology policies leaves open spaces for violation both internally and internationally, and why this constitutes certain offensive measures. Future data and privacy legislation, with strong consideration to the varying social contexts, resources, and current international relations. This is done under the underlying assumption that data is an irreplaceable factor in our global progression and is irrevocably embedded into our society. Over-regulation or under-regulation of big tech may lead to negative repercussions to our security or individual privacy rights. These ideas are becoming increasingly understood by the general public and are considered worthy of concern after seeing glimpses of the depth of surveillance and information held by either the government or corporations. While there are intense emotions and opinions on the matter, my article takes an objective and well-rounded perspective to address the interlocking complexities of individual freedoms, need for international cyberspace protection, and continued profitability of data. The idea of personal data and information being manipulated and used against citizens for financial or political agendas is rightfully horrifying the public; my article therefore takes into account these concerns while suggesting further navigating the political, legal, and social process in alignment with the ever-growing power of big data.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Apr 2020 00:00:00 -060
  • Telecom Industry Brand Image and the Extended Service Marketing Ps: A
           Study on Private University Students of Rajshahi

    • Authors: Md. Omar Faruk Sarker
      Abstract: Marketing always looks forward to making consumers delighted. Mobile telecom service provided a pace in daily life in Bangladesh. It plays a vital role in all the dimensions of our life. The prime objective of the study is to measure the influence of people, process, and physical evidence on brand image in the mobile telecom industry at Rajshahi metropolitan area in Bangladesh. One hundred fifty samples drawn from the students of two private universities using a convenient sampling technique. A structured questionnaire used for the survey. The findings of this study represent that all the null hypotheses rejected; there is a significant relationship between three extended service marketing and brand image in the mobile telecom industry. The researcher believes that this study would help strategy planners of mobile telecom service operators in Bangladesh to study people, process, and physical evidence with keen interest to blend service marketing mix and create and increase brand image as well as open more research relating to this ground. This finding may help different mobile telecom operators in Bangladesh to improve their focus regarding the efficient use of service marketing mix.  
      PubDate: Tue, 31 Dec 2019 00:00:00 -070
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