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Showing 1 - 97 of 97 Journals sorted alphabetically
Africa Development     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
African Evaluation Journal     Open Access  
African Journal of Economic and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
African Journal of Sustainable Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Afrique contemporaine : La revue de l'Afrique et du développement     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Humanities and Development Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Asia Policy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Asian Education and Development Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Campbell Systematic Reviews     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Canadian Foreign Policy Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Canadian Journal of Development Studies / Revue canadienne d'études du développement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Capacity.org     Free   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de Trabajo Hegoa     Open Access  
Desarrollo y Sociedad     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Desenvolvimento em Questão     Open Access  
Developing Country Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Development Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Development Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Development Studies Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
DRd - Desenvolvimento Regional em debate     Open Access  
Economia & Região     Open Access  
Economic History of Developing Regions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Economic Journal of Development Issues     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Economic Journal of Emerging Markets     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Economics and Rural Development     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Economics Development Analysis Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Economics of Development     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Economies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Emerging Economy Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Environmental Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Finance & Development     Free   (Followers: 10)
Forum for Development Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Ghana Journal of Development Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Iberoamerican Journal of Development Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian Growth and Development Review     Hybrid Journal  
Indian Journal of Human Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Insight on Africa     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Affairs and Global Strategy     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
International Development Policy : Revue internationale de politique de développement     Open Access  
International Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Agricultural Management and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Developing Societies     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Development Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Peace and Development Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
International Journal of Regional Development     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International NGO Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Review of Environmental and Resource Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
IZA Journal of Labor & Development     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Accounting and Finance in Emerging Economies     Open Access  
Journal of African Studies and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Asian Development     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Business and Social Review in Emerging Economies     Open Access  
Journal of Contemporary Integrative Ideas     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Developing Economies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Development and Administrative Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Development Policy and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Economic Development Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Economic Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Environmental Economics and Policy     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Global Responsibility     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Humanitarian Logistics and Supply Chain Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Illicit Economies and Development     Open Access  
Journal of International Business Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49)
Journal of Management for Global Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Social and Economic Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Sustainable Development Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Sustainable Finance & Investment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of the Indian Ocean Region     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Jurnal Ekonomi dan Studi Pembangunan     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Markets, Globalization & Development Review : The Official Journal of the International Society of Markets and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
MediaTrend     Open Access  
Membership Management Report The     Hybrid Journal  
New African Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Organizations and Markets in Emerging Economies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
QA : Rivista dell’Associazione Rossi-Doria     Full-text available via subscription  
Regional Formation and Development Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Review of Development and Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Review of Economics and Development Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Internacional de Cooperación y Desarrollo     Open Access  
Revista Perspectivas do Desenvolvimento     Open Access  
Rozwój Regionalny i Polityka Regionalna     Open Access  
Scholedge International Journal of Management & Development     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Social Development Issues     Full-text available via subscription  
Special Events Galore     Hybrid Journal  
St Antony's International Review     Full-text available via subscription  
Stability : International Journal of Security and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Studies in Comparative International Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Successful Fundraising     Hybrid Journal  
Technological and Economic Development of Economy     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Tropicultura     Open Access  
Volunteer Management Report     Full-text available via subscription  
World Development Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
World Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
World Journal of Science, Technology and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)

           

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
International Journal of Agricultural Management and Development
Number of Followers: 2  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2159-5852 - ISSN (Online) 2159-5860
Published by Islamic Azad University Homepage  [19 journals]
  • Farmers’ Decision-Making Process under Climate Change: Developing a
           Conceptual Framework

    • Abstract: In recent decades, climate change and frequent droughts have had great impacts on farming systems and have led farmers to become accustomed to these conditions, which are causing problems, especially, for smallholder farmers. With the severe weather events and their adverse effects, especially in arid regions, farmers' adaptation to these changes is indisputable and critical strategy. Thus, farmers need to make complex decisions about mitigating the adverse effects of climate change to take advantage of newer opportunities as possible. The understanding of the process by which farmers decide to stand facing climate changes and probing into the determinants of the process provide research evidence for policy makers to assist farmers to adapt to climate change effects. This article would establish a conceptual framework, inclusive of factors influencing farmers’ decision-making to adapt to climate change, and would clarify causal relations among these factors. According to the results, household characteristics, economic factors, knowledge, motives and goals, perceived outcomes of adaptation, social, personal norms, perception of climate change, perceived risk and obstacles, attitude towards climate change, prospective perception of climate change, the evaluation of climate change, and adaptation initiatives could influence farmers’ decisions to adapt to climate change.
       
  • Impact Assessment of Self-directness and Meta-cognitive Skills on
           Agricultural Students’ Academic Achievement in Iran

    • Abstract: Students' academic achievement is one of main indicators in evaluating higher agricultural education. One of the most effective strategies in terms of academic achievement is to reinforce self-directness and meta-cognitive skills. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of elf-directness and meta-cognitive skills on the academic achievement of agriculture students in Iran. This research was a descriptive-correlational study using a survey technique. The instrument adopted in this study was a questionnaire which validity was confirmed by a group of curriculum developers and educational planning specialists in the higher agricultural education system. Cronbach's alpha coefficients were used to determine the reliability of this scale. Cronbach's alpha values ​​for different variables showed the acceptable reliability of this instrument (0.74≤α≤0.96). The statistical population of the study consisted of the agriculture students in Iran (N=236973). The sample size was estimated to be 150 persons by using Cochran statistics and two-stage sampling method (cluster sampling and proportional stratified random sampling). The results showed that the variables self-directness, metacognitive skills, and social conditions had a positive and significant effect on the academic achievement among these students. In total, they could predict a significant percentage (68.1%) of variance for the variables academic achievement.
       
  • Comparative Advantage of Production and Measuring the Competitiveness of
           Major Crops of Urmia County by the Policy Analysis Matrix (PAM)

    • Abstract:  The purpose of this study was to investigate the comparative advantage of production and measuring the competitiveness of major crops of Urmia County by the policy analysis matrix (PAM) in 2016-2017. The results of the comparative advantage indicators indicated that Urmia has a comparative advantage in the production of irrigated wheat, rain-fed wheat, rain-fed barley, sunflower, tomato, chickpeas, and red beans, but it has no comparative advantage in the production of irrigated barley and sugar beet among the major crops of the region. The three indicators of comparative advantage applied in this study include net social profit (NSP), domestic resource cost (DRC), and social cost-benefit index (SCB). According to the NSP index, tomato production has a higher comparative advantage over other crops, and red beans, peas, sunflowers, buckwheat, buckwheat, and barley are in the next ranks, respectively. According to the cost competitiveness index, all surveyed crops had cost competitiveness. The results of reviewing the protection indicators, including net protection coefficient input (NPCI), revealed that indirect subsidies were paid to tradable inputs for all studied crops. The nominal protection coefficient output (NPCO) index for irrigated wheat, rain-fed wheat, sunflower, rain-fed pea, and red bean indicates an indirect tax on the production of these crops by the government.
       
  • Presenting a New Technique to Assess the Efficiency of Farms with
           Window-DEA and Malmquist Productivity Index: The Case of Barley Farms In
           Khash County, Iran

    • Abstract: As a major source of income in most countries, the agricultural sector is of a key importance among all economic activities. The improvement in productivity and efficiency is one of the main goals to accomplish economic growth and prosperity. Productivity enhancement has always been a major concern for all economic enterprises that produce commodities and services, and it is imperative to consider all of its aspects when planning for development. The present study aims at analyzing the variations of the productivity of production factors and measuring technical efficiency and productivity of farmers in Khash County, Iran using window data envelopment analysis (WDEA) method. So, the technical efficiency and productivity of the farmers were examined over the 2013-2016 period. The results show that the studied farmers have an average technical efficiency of 0.99, which is relatively high and indicates that the barley farmers are efficient. Indeed, the Malmquist productivity index reveals that the average variation of total productivity in the studied county was 1.95 over the studied period. One of the most effective factors influencing total productivity variations in agriculture is technological change. It is suggested that the new technology of agricultural technology (field integration and use of new irrigation) be used to increase the productivity and productivity of barley crops in the region.
       
  • Investigating Challenges of agricultural knowledge and information systems
           (AKIS) in Iran with Delphi technique

    • Abstract: Sustainable agricultural and rural development requires knowledge and information, skills, attitudes and technologies, which run through a network of actors to produce, distribute and use it in a particular place. The model of the Agriculture Knowledge and Information Systems (AKIS) is designed based on this recognition. In Iran, There are about decades of experience in the development of this system. The purpose of this Delphi study was to develop a listing of those challenges facing Iran's Agricultural Knowledge and Information System (AKIS). Panel of experts consisted of extension offices, natural-level researchers, faculty members of Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), and university faculty in agricultural extension and education. The panel identified 86 challenges of AKIS in Iran that were classified into 8 categories consisting of Participatory-institutional, Policy-legal, Information broadcasting-communicational, Monitoring and evaluation, Actors competency, supportive-motivational, management-structural and infrastructure-environmental.
       
  • Potato growers' attitudes and perceptions towards precision irrigation
           technologies in Ardabil County, Iran

    • Abstract: This study aimed to investigate potato growers’ attitudes towards and perceptions of the drivers and barriers of precision irrigation technologies (PIT). A survey research method was employed for data collection from a sample of 240 potato growers of Ardabil County. A questionnaire was used as the research instrument. It was validated by a panel of experts. Cronbach’s alpha was calculated to be 0.813, 0.870, and 0.766, implying the high reliability of the instrument for attitudes, drivers, and barriers, respectively. Results showed that the respondents were in middle age with good farming experiences. The majority of them were lowly literate. Their knowledge was low on working with PIT. More than half of them had moderate to high negative attitudes, while the attitudes of the rest were somewhat very positive. Attitudes showed a significant and positive correlation with level of education, income, and knowledge of PIT. However, age, farming experience, and cultivated areas showed a negative correlation with attitudes. Based on regression analysis, the variables of level of education, knowledge of PIT, and information sources accounted for 46.5 percent of the variance in farmers’ attitudes. The sample was divided into two subgroups of 120 farmers, one for responding to the items of drivers and the other for responding to the items of the barriers. Factor analysis extracted three factors with eigenvalues of greater than one, namely water efficiency, easy farming practices, and financial benefit, which accounted for 63.18 percent of the variance in drivers, and the five factors of knowledge, technical, skill, managerial, and logistic barriers accounted for 63.12percent of the variance in barriers.
       
  • The impacts of educational and extensional methods on using renewable
           energy by Semnan poultry farmers

    • Abstract: This paper aims at studying the role of agricultural education and extension methods on the use of renewable energy by farmers in Semnan Province. The research was a practical study in terms of goal and was a descriptive-correlation study in terms of methodology. The population of the study was composed of Semnan Province poultry farmers that used any type of renewable energy. In total, 89 people were analyzed. Data collection tool was questionnaire (composed of 29 main questions and 108 minor questions in a Likert scale). The questionnaire was designed after consultations with university professors and research literature. The validity of the questionnaire was measured in terms of the form and content and its reliability was tested with Cronbach's alpha which ranged from 0.801 to 0.925. It was found that there was a strong significant relationship (r = 0.773) between education and extension methods (participation in the extension and educational courses, visits to farms using solar power, holding workshops on agricultural extension centers, experts’ visiting of poultry, watching videos of farms that use solar energy, production and distribution of educational brochures among farmers, designing related programs at universities, watching videos of the construction of solar power farms, broadcasting radio programs and educational broadcasting from local TV channels) and the use of solar energy by farmers. Based on the farmer’s view, participation in the extension and educational courses was the main source for obtaining the needed information. Also according to stepwise regression, 78.5% of the change in the dependent variable was explained by the variables of “visiting farms using solar power”, “participation in the extension and educational courses”, “production and distribution of educational brochures among farmers”, “holding workshops on agricultural extension centers” and “experts’ visiting of poultry”.
       
  • Designing a Model for Internship Course in Higher Agricultural Education
           System Using the Delphi Technique: Combining Academicians and Practitioner
           Viewpoints

    • Abstract: Experts believe that a solution to avoid the inefficiency of university graduates, especially graduates in Agriculture, is to revise the practical courses, especially internships, and transform and amend them. Taking this point into account, this study aimed to design a model for the internship course in the Iranian Agriculture Higher Education using the Delphi technique. The mental basis of this study was Akker’s ten-phase model. The panel was composed of the university professors supervising agriculture internship courses (N=34) and the employers to whom the students referred for passing the course (N=63). The results from the perspective of employers and the university professors, after three Delphi rounds, determined items for ten components of internship courses, i.e., logic, objectives and goals, content, learning activities, the role of trainer, materials, and resources, classification, location, time, evaluation and appraisal, which were used as the basis for the development of an internship model.
       
  • Exploring the strategy of Reducing Water Consumption Expenditure and its
           Role in Farmers' Satisfaction

    • Abstract: The purpose of the present research is to examine the effect of coating the tertiary irrigation canals on farmers’ satisfaction in Sowme’eh Sara, Guilan. The study was conducted using a survey research methodology. The statistical population included 14 tertiary canalized schemes in Sowme’eh Sara up to the end of 2013, Including totally 2434 hectares .The share of each beneficiary was 0.7 hectare according to the extant statistics and documents in water and soil management of Agricultural Jihad Organization of Guilan. Based on Morgan and Krejcie’s Table, 340 beneficiaries were chosen by stratified random sampling. The main data collection tool was a self-made questionnaire whose face and content validity was improved and finally accepted by water and soil experts and professors. In order to determine the reliability of the research, the questionnaires were answered by 30 members of the statistical population. Afterwards, using SPSS software and Cronbach’s alpha test, the questionnaire’s sustainability was assessed and 78% was computed and confirmed. The independent variables under study were age, literacy, the number of individuals under guardianship, workload, product performance, costs, securing agricultural goals etc. and the dependent variable was farmers’ satisfaction of coating the streams. Each of the variables was categorized and assessed based on Likert Scale. The effect of each independent variable on farmers’ satisfaction was evaluated through SPSS software and Spearman’s rank correlation. The results showed that there is a semantic relationship between literacy, workload, product performance, costs and securing agricultural goals variables and farmers’ satisfaction.
       
  • Identification of Appropriate Strategies to Improve and Develop Private
           Agricultural Extension System: A Study in Mazandaran Province, Iran

    • Abstract: In many countries, private sector provision of agricultural extension services is recognized as a key factor in the process of agricultural development. Insufficient attention to the private agricultural extension system in Iran, despite its relative success, has made it imperative to explore and identify appropriate strategies to improve and develop its activities. The statistical population of the present study consisted of 40 knowledgeable and experienced experts of agricultural consultation and technical service firms as a sample of private extension systems in Iran. The research used the SWOT and TOWS methods as the basis for the AHP technique known as the hybrid A’WOT method. In the first step of the research, the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of these firms were evaluated. The results of the first step were used to extract 11 strategies by the TOWS diagram. In the second step, to identify the most appropriate strategies to improve the performance of private extension firms, 12 experienced experts were sampled from the research population by the snowball technique. The research instrument was two questionnaires whose validity were determined by face and content validation methods and whose reliability were estimated by Cronbach’s alpha and inconsistency ratio strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats were assessed  in the first step. Then, TOWS was employed to develop 11 strategies. In the second step of the research, the AHP technique was used to identify the most appropriate strategies. The ranking of the strategies revealed that the strategies “financial support of firms and farmers in order to lay the ground for the privatization of agricultural activities” and “orienting the attitudes of the policymakers and managers of the public sector towards the role of private extension activities” were the most important strategies to improve and develop these firms in Mazandaran province, so they should be considered by the officials.
       
  • A Framework for Assessing the Sustainability in Agricultural Enterprises
           in Rural Areas (the case study of Kurdistan Province in Iran)

    • Abstract: Nowadays, the sustainability evaluation concept of agricultural entrepreneurship has become as one of the most prominent subjects among the researchers and policymakers. Despite the existence of numerous frameworks for assessment, there is no common agreement on selecting sufficient indicators for assessing the sustainability of agricultural enterprises. This goal was pursued with an emphasis on applicability by adopting a descriptive-analytical approach based on a survey with the Delphi technique. For this purpose, first, a conceptual framework for the identification of components, criteria, and indicators of sustainable agricultural entrepreneurship was determined, and then the set of indices that could signify the status of sustainability in agrarian entrepreneurship activities in rural areas of Kurdistan province in Iran were extracted with the help of a panel of experts consisting of 30 entrepreneurs, university instructors, and experts on agriculture in Kurdistan. The data collected from the panel was analyzed by multi-criteria decision-making method, namely Fuzzy Topsis. The results suggested a framework of indicators for the assessment of the sustainability of agricultural enterprises in the study area. The ultimate objective of this study was to discuss and test a suggested framework to improve for broader use in similar regions.
       
  • Solutions to Reduce the Vulnerability of Farmers and Beneficiaries of
           Agricultural Sector To Climate Change (Region Under Study: Farmers of
           Khuzestan Province)

    • Abstract: Objective: Solutions to reduce the vulnerability of farmers and beneficiaries to climate change in Khuzestan province will be discussed. Methods: The present study was performed in three stages of qualitative study and one stage of quantitative study. The statistical population of the qualitative section consisted of 83 highly experienced farmers and those suffering from climate change, 18exemplary farmers introduced by the Jihad Agricultural Organization of Khuzestan province, 33PhDand237M.A. students in agriculture from various universities in the province as well as100agricultural experts from the Agricultural Jihad Organization. The research variables were also categorized into six solutions and three barriers (challenges) in the third stage of the qualitative investigation, and introduced for a quantitative stage. The fourth stage of the study was a quantitative stage in which the statistical population consisted of 384 farmers and farming beneficiaries in Khuzestan province. The tool for data collection in the quantitative stage of the questionnaire was based on a Likert scale. As well, the sample in the quantitative and qualitative stages was selected via convenience method. Findings: Economic losses has been affected by various such solutions as economic-financial-support by the government, as well as training-promotional, technical-agricultural and social issues. Also, environmental damages have been affected by economic-financial as well as supportive solutions by the government, training- promotional and institutional-infrastructure issues, and finally psychological-social ills and technical-agricultural damages have been affected by managerial and technical-agricultural solutions, respectively. The solutions stated in the practical dimension face barriers or challenges. Suggestions have been made to address these barriers.
       
  • Designing an Information Management Model for Entrepreneurship Education
           in Rural Areas of Ilam Province

    • Abstract: The purpose of this study was to designing an Information Management Model for Entrepreneurship Education in Rural Areas of Ilam Province The methodology of the study was descriptive using Delphi technique. Purposive sampling was used in this study and 15 experts including faculty members, managers and experts were selected and participated in three stages of Delphi research. In the third round of Delphi, the final model consisted of seven components (data collection, data storage, data quality control, data analysis, information dissemination, documentation and information sharing and utilization) and 22 sub-components were approved by experts. The results showed that in order to apply the entrepreneurial education information management system, it is necessary to identify the required information (economic, social, cultural, infrastructure, ecological, etc.) in rural areas. To store information, data should be entered into a system designed to manage the entrepreneurship education information system. Also, according to the results of this study, quality control, analysis, dissemination, documentation and exchange of entrepreneurship education system data will be done by the Office of Coordination of Economic Affairs of the Governor.
       
  • Presenting the behavioral model of real buyers of organic products in
           Gilan province

    • Abstract: Organic products with a positive impact on health and the environment in the future would establish a new way of thinking about the relationship between food, health, and nature in human life. Therefore, it is important to examine the key factors that may affect the consumer’s mind to purchase organic food products. The objective of this study is to investigate the factors affecting the actual behavior of buyers of organic products. This study is applied research in terms of objective and is a descriptive-survey in terms of implementation. The method used for data collection was field, and questionnaire was considered as a tool for data collection. The statistical population of this study included the consumers of organic products in Gilan province (Iran). Due to the unlimited sampling, 384 samples were obtained. The convenience random sampling method was used to distribute the questionnaires. Model evaluation and testing of hypotheses were performed by structural equation modeling using Smart PLS software. The research findings demonstrated that perceived price, health consciousness, availability, organic knowledge, and subjective norms were the key determinants of organic buying behavior and showed a significant positive impact with consumer attitudes. Consumer attitudes also influenced purchase intention and purchase intention on actual buying behavior. In addition, the results showed that preparing a brochure introducing organic products and providing the results of studies on organic products to buyers and forming environmentally friendly groups and associations can change the attitude of buyers.
       
  • A Critical Review of Sustainable Pro-Environmental Behavior Theories

    • Abstract: Agricultural production decision-making is becoming more complicated due to the inherent complexity of the interaction between natural and human processes as the heart of agricultural systems. Predicting the behavior of agricultural systems is critically important for sustainability issues. Since agriculture is a human activity that is dependent on its main actors, farmers’ behavior needs to be investigated in terms of the extent to which their activities are consistent with sustainable agriculture initiatives. This study is based on the documentary research method conducted by a systematic literature review. The main goal was to review and analyze pro-environmental behavior theories in terms of their strengths and weaknesses during the time period of 1975-2016. The strengths and weaknesses of each theory were described after the introduction of each theory. On the other hand, a comparison of the theories based on seven indicators is presented too. About 14 theories were reviewed to reach agent-based theories of decision-making, in which feedback is provided on the system. Based on the results, the agent-based integrated theories are diagnosed to be the most suitable and comprehensive for the study and prediction of farmers’ behaviors among the studied theories.
       
 
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