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INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND AID (103 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 97 of 97 Journals sorted alphabetically
Africa Development     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
African Evaluation Journal     Open Access  
African Journal of Economic and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
African Journal of Sustainable Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Afrique contemporaine : La revue de l'Afrique et du développement     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Humanities and Development Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Asia Policy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Asian Education and Development Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Campbell Systematic Reviews     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Canadian Foreign Policy Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Canadian Journal of Development Studies / Revue canadienne d'études du développement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Capacity.org     Free   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de Trabajo Hegoa     Open Access  
Desarrollo y Sociedad     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Desenvolvimento em Questão     Open Access  
Developing Country Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Development Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Development Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Development Studies Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
DRd - Desenvolvimento Regional em debate     Open Access  
Economia & Região     Open Access  
Economic History of Developing Regions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Economic Journal of Development Issues     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Economic Journal of Emerging Markets     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Economics and Rural Development     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Economics Development Analysis Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Economics of Development     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Economies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Emerging Economy Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Environmental Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Finance & Development     Free   (Followers: 10)
Forum for Development Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Ghana Journal of Development Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Iberoamerican Journal of Development Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian Growth and Development Review     Hybrid Journal  
Indian Journal of Human Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Insight on Africa     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Affairs and Global Strategy     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
International Development Policy : Revue internationale de politique de développement     Open Access  
International Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Agricultural Management and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Developing Societies     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Development Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Peace and Development Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
International Journal of Regional Development     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International NGO Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Review of Environmental and Resource Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
IZA Journal of Labor & Development     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Accounting and Finance in Emerging Economies     Open Access  
Journal of African Studies and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Asian Development     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Business and Social Review in Emerging Economies     Open Access  
Journal of Contemporary Integrative Ideas     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Developing Economies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Development and Administrative Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Development Policy and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Economic Development Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Economic Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Environmental Economics and Policy     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Global Responsibility     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Humanitarian Logistics and Supply Chain Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Illicit Economies and Development     Open Access  
Journal of International Business Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49)
Journal of Management for Global Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Social and Economic Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Sustainable Development Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Sustainable Finance & Investment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of the Indian Ocean Region     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Jurnal Ekonomi dan Studi Pembangunan     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Markets, Globalization & Development Review : The Official Journal of the International Society of Markets and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
MediaTrend     Open Access  
Membership Management Report The     Hybrid Journal  
New African Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Organizations and Markets in Emerging Economies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
QA : Rivista dell’Associazione Rossi-Doria     Full-text available via subscription  
Regional Formation and Development Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Review of Development and Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Review of Economics and Development Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Internacional de Cooperación y Desarrollo     Open Access  
Revista Perspectivas do Desenvolvimento     Open Access  
Rozwój Regionalny i Polityka Regionalna     Open Access  
Scholedge International Journal of Management & Development     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Social Development Issues     Full-text available via subscription  
Special Events Galore     Hybrid Journal  
St Antony's International Review     Full-text available via subscription  
Stability : International Journal of Security and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Studies in Comparative International Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Successful Fundraising     Hybrid Journal  
Technological and Economic Development of Economy     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Tropicultura     Open Access  
Volunteer Management Report     Full-text available via subscription  
World Development Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
World Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
World Journal of Science, Technology and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)

           

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.465
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 14  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2146-4553
Published by EconJournals Homepage  [3 journals]
  • Green Trend in Global Energy Development: Tendencies and Opportunities

    • Authors: Larisa D. Petrenko
      Pages: 1 - 7
      Abstract: The actualization of global environmental problems necessitates transformational changes in the global energy sector. The intensification of global trends toward decarbonization leads to alteration in the energy sector. The sustainable development of the renewable energy sector is driven by the greening of global development and will be long-term in nature due to a progressive reduction in its cost and the achievement of stable energy efficiency indicators. The intensive growth of the renewable energy sector is primarily supported by government financial support as part of sustainable development strategies. Various forms of state support for projects for the development of alternative energy sources are used in achieving targets for the potential of renewable energy sources at the national level. Its role gradually decreases as the degree of maturity of alternative energy is reached. Further development of energy policies at the national level will take place in the increased use of market support instruments.Keywords: Global Energy; Sustainable Development; Renewable Energy Sources; Green Economy; Decarbonization; Energy PolicyJEL Classifications: O13; P28; Q42; Q56
      DOI : https://doi.org/10.32479/ijeep.11094
      PubDate: 2021-08-20
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2021)
       
  • The Behavior of the Annual Electricity Demand and the Role of Economic
           Growth in Colombia

    • Authors: John William Grimaldo-Guerrero, Jorge Ivan Silva-Ortega, John E. Candelo-Becerra, Bernardo Balceiro-Alvarez, Omar Cabrera-Anaya
      Pages: 8 - 12
      Abstract: The electricity demand forecast allows countries to establish long-term plans and objectives for identifying gaps, selecting strategies, and designing the electric power system's architecture. Traditional models use GDP as the primary variable to forecast the electricity demand. The work presents an analysis of the relationship between electricity demand and economic growth, using regression methods with one or more variables. The GDP and sectoral GDP data was provided by Banco de la República de Colombia. The results validate the traditional model and offer alternative models that can relate the economy's different sectors with the electricity demand.Keywords: Energy Forecasting; Electricity Demand; Macroeconomics Indicator; Backward, Forward, and Stepwise methods.JEL Classifications: Q41, Q43, Q47.
      DOI : https://doi.org/10.32479/ijeep.11386
      PubDate: 2021-08-20
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2021)
       
  • The Impact of the Business Environment on the Effectiveness of the
           Implementation of the Financial Strategy of the Oil and Gas Company

    • Authors: Alex Borodin, Natalia Natocheeva, Irina Khominich, Andrey Kulikov, Natalia Shchegolevatykh
      Pages: 13 - 21
      Abstract: The article develops a mechanism for ensuring the growth of the efficiency of the financial strategy for the development of energy holdings based on the integration of the latter into the structure of territorial economic clusters. Based on the results of three-stage modeling, including causal analysis (Granger test), VAR vector autoregression model, and GARCH modeling, both direct and indirect influence of business environment factors at the meso-level and macro-level with a deferred effect on the financial strategy of PJSC NOVATEK was proved. The model of the mechanism of interaction between the factors of the business environment of the energy holding is structured, which allows us to establish that the key elements and conditions of the business environment that affect and determine its financial strategy can be classified depending on the groups of influence with which the holding enters into relationships, namely: consumers, competitors, suppliers, intermediaries, contact audiences. The purpose of the article is to identify the main elements of the business environment and study their impact on the company's strategy, including the formation of methods for evaluating the effectiveness of the implementation of the financial strategy, taking into account such influence.Keywords: oil and gas company, business environment, financial strategy, industrial relations, macro-environment factors.JEL Classifications: O20; Q43; Q48
      DOI : https://doi.org/10.32479/ijeep.11374
      PubDate: 2021-08-20
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2021)
       
  • Crude Oil Resources, Tax Revenue and Sustainable Social Development in
           Nigeria

    • Authors: Cordelia Onyinyechi Omodero, Philip Olasupo Alege
      Pages: 22 - 27
      Abstract: The issue of social development has attracted global attention especially in countries that have huge resources without commensurate reflection on social welfare. Some developed countries levy heavy taxes on their citizens’ income but provide adequate social facilities to drive the economy. African countries especially the oil-producing ones, have long relied on crude oil revenue but recently realize the need to improve tax revenue collection. In view of the fact that crude oil revenue constitutes large proportion of government revenue, this study investigates the impact of crude oil resources and tax revenue on social development of Nigeria from 2003 – 2019. The study employs the multiple regression techniques of estimation. The findings reveal that crude oil revenue is insignificant in affecting social development in Nigeria. Equally, exchange and inflation rates are both having significant negative impact on social development of the country. Interestingly, tax revenue impacts positively and statistically on social development. The outcomes of this study are unique and show that crude oil resources may no longer drive social development programs in Nigeria. Rather, the government should improve tax revenue collection and administration. The study recommends efficient utilization of public revenue and involvement of citizens in all social development processes.Keywords: Crude oil resources, tax revenue, social developmentJEL Classifications:  H20, H27, H51, H52, H53
      DOI : https://doi.org/10.32479/ijeep.10974
      PubDate: 2021-08-20
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2021)
       
  • Analysis of Energy Efficiency on the Manufacturing Industry in Indonesia

    • Authors: Peggy Hariwan, Bambang Juanda, Sri Mulatsih, Himawan Hariyoga
      Pages: 28 - 36
      Abstract: The use of fossil energy in Indonesia has been constantly increasing, especially on the manufacturing industry, the largest contributor to Indonesia’s gross domestic product (GDP). Meanwhile, Indonesia’s fossil energy reserve has been declining. Energy efficiency is one of the solutions to maintaining the industry’s output. This research looks into the structures of Indonesia’s manufacturing industry based on its energy use and how the industry has been conducting energy efficiency policies from time to time.Keywords: Energy efficiency, decomposition analysis, Indonesia, manufacturing industryJEL Classifications: L60, Q28, Q4
      DOI : https://doi.org/10.32479/ijeep.11395
      PubDate: 2021-08-20
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2021)
       
  • Opportunities for Production and Utilization of Green Hydrogen in the
           Philippines

    • Authors: Angelie Azcuna Collera, Casper Boongaling Agaton
      Pages: 37 - 41
      Abstract: The Philippines is exploring different alternative sources of energy to become energy-independent while significantly reducing the country’s greenhouse gas emissions. Green hydrogen from renewable energy is one of the most sustainable alternatives with its application as an energy carrier and as a source of clean and sustainable energy as well as raw material for various industrial processes. As a preliminary study in the country, this paper aims to explore different production and utilization routes for a green hydrogen economy in the Philippines. Production from electrolysis includes various available renewable sources consisting of geothermal, hydropower, wind, solar, and biomass as well as ocean technology and nuclear energy when they become available in the future. Different utilization routes include the application of green hydrogen in the transportation, power generation, industry, and utility sectors. The results of this study can be incorporated in the development of the pathways for hydrogen economy in the Philippines and can be applied in other emerging economies.Keywords: green hydrogen, electrolysis, renewable energy, energy storage, sustainable energyJEL Classifications: O13, Q01, Q42, Q43, Q48
      DOI : https://doi.org/10.32479/ijeep.11383
      PubDate: 2021-08-20
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2021)
       
  • Selection of Large-scale Nuclear Power Plant Based on Economic and
           Reliability Aspects in Indonesian Power System

    • Authors: Rizki Firmansyah Setya Budi, Moch. Djoko Birmano, Elok Satiti Amitayani
      Pages: 42 - 51
      Abstract: Choosing the Indonesia’s power systems that are suitable with the large-scale nuclear power plant (NPP) and the NPP’s vendor country are crucial problems faced by Indonesian government. Therefore, this research analyzes the NPP impact on the power system reliability to choose the suitable power systems and the NPP economics of each possible vendor country to choose the optimal vendor that provides minimize cost. This research uses two electricity price scenarios: electricity production cost (scenario 1) and adjustment tariff (scenario 2). The results show that only Sumatra and Java-Bali system can be connected with the NPP. For both of these systems, Japanese NPP is not economical to be developed because it provides a levelized unit electricity cost (LUEC) of 0.116 USD/kWh, which is higher than the electricity prices. Meanwhile, Chinese and South Korean NPP is economical to be developed in both systems. For the Java-Bali system, Chinese NPP is the best choice in scenario 1 with a LUEC of 0.036 USD/kWh. In scenario 2, South Korean NPP that has a LUEC of 0.058 USD/kWh becomes the best choice because it has better public perception than Chinese. For the Sumatra system, South Korean NPP is the best choice in both scenarios.Keywords: Large-scale NPP selection, Indonesia power system, Reliability, Minimize cost, Electricity priceJEL Classifications: D21, D22, E39
      DOI : https://doi.org/10.32479/ijeep.11107
      PubDate: 2021-08-20
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2021)
       
  • An Optimum Financing Scheme for Baseload Thin-film and Monocrystalline PV
           Plants in Indonesia

    • Authors: Zainal Arifin, Ria Septiyanthy, Desti Alkano, Fauzan Hanif Jufri, Budi Sudiarto
      Pages: 52 - 58
      Abstract: This paper investigates the most optimum financing scheme for medium-scale grid-connected PV plant investments in Indonesia. Eleven (11) financing schemes, composed through the combination of Viability Gap Fund (VGF), international grant, tax incentives, and low loan interest, are studied. The electricity tariff resulted from each financing scheme is analyzed and compared to the applicable feed-in tariff to find the optimum financing scheme. Moreover, this paper also includes two types of PV modules, such as thin-film and monocrystalline. The result shows that the funding combination consists of 50% of capital expenditure (CAPEX) from VGF provided by the Government of Indonesia (GoI), 30% of CAPEX provided by the international grant, and 5% of loan interest results in the optimum financing scheme. The resulting electricity tariffs from this financing scheme are 571.04 IDR/kWh and 761.76 IDR/kWh for thin-film and monocrystalline PV plants, respectively, which is below the lowest existing feed-in tariff (985 IDR/kWh).Keywords: Thin-film PV, Monocrystalline PV, feed-in tariff, economic feasibility, financing schemeJEL Classifications: P41, P43, P49
      DOI : https://doi.org/10.32479/ijeep.11387
      PubDate: 2021-08-20
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2021)
       
  • Oil Price Shocks and Oil Revenue: Investigating the Propositions for
           Well-Being in Nigeria

    • Authors: Abiodun Edward Adelegan, Emmanuel Otu, Michael Oguwuike Enyoghasim, Uwazie Iyke Uwazie, C. Paul Obidike, Nwanja Joseph Chukwu, Chibuzo Glory Agu, Clara Kelechi Anyanwu, Uche Sunday Aja, Adeola Sidikat Oyeleke
      Pages: 59 - 65
      Abstract: This paper analyzed and estimated the effects of oil price shock and oil revenue on well being in Nigeria for the sample period of 1980–2018. The Autoregressive Distributed Lag model (ARDL) estimated with the Ordinary Least Square technique was used to examine the relationship among the variables. Findings from the model revealed that there was a direct and significant relationship between oil revenue, private consumption, exchange rate, credit to the private sector and well being, however, credit to the private sector exhibited a positive and insignificant relationship on well being in the long run. There was a direct and significant relationship between the independent variables and well being in the short run; however, credit to the private sector indicated a negative but significant relationship. The study therefore recommended deepening savings during periods of increase in oil price for better economic outcomes.Keywords: Oil price shocks, oil revenue, exchange rate, private consumption, credit to the private sector.       JEL Classifications: E39, K131, Q40 
      DOI : https://doi.org/10.32479/ijeep.10022
      PubDate: 2021-08-20
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2021)
       
  • Electricity Price Fundamentals in Hydrothermal Power Generation Markets
           Using Machine Learning and Quantile Regression Analysis

    • Authors: Andrés Oviedo-Gómez, Sandra Milena Londoño-Hernández, Diego Fernando Manotas-Duque
      Pages: 66 - 77
      Abstract: A hydrothermal power generation market is characterized by a strong dependence on water reservoir capacity and fossil fuel sources, which causes differences in generation marginal costs and high variability of the electricity spot price. Therefore, this study proposes an empirical approach to identify the price determinants and their effects on price dynamics. This paper presents two methodologies: a machine learning approach and a quantile regression analysis. The first method is used to validate the price determinants through a prediction process, and the second, the quantile regression, to identify the non-linear effects. The most important factors observed are total market demand, water reservoirs capacity for generation, and fossil fuel consumption. The results offer a new perspective about the market structure and spot price volatility.Keywords: electricity prices; hydrothermal power generation markets; machine learning; quantile regression; Gaussian process regression.JEL Classifications: C22, Q41, Q43, Q47
      DOI : https://doi.org/10.32479/ijeep.11346
      PubDate: 2021-08-20
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2021)
       
  • Oil Prices Shocks and Government Expenditure

    • Authors: Engy Raouf
      Pages: 78 - 84
      Abstract: This study employs the vector autoregressive model (VAR), impulse response function and variance decomposition to study the impact of oil price shocks on components of government spending on both oil-exporting and oil importing countries over the period from 1980 to 2018. While the vast majority of previous studies focused on the impact of oil price shocks on government spending, this study emphasized the impact of these shocks on the current and capital government expenditure. It was found that oil price shocks affect government current expenditure positively in the two groups of countries. While it affects government capital expenditure positively in oil-exporting countries and negatively in oil-importing countries.Keywords: Oil-exporting countries, Oil-importing countries, Oil price, VAR model, government expenditures.JEL Classifications: H5, O13, Q43
      DOI : https://doi.org/10.32479/ijeep.11172
      PubDate: 2021-08-20
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2021)
       
  • Financial Stability of Electricity Companies in the Context of the
           Macroeconomic Instability and the COVID-19 Pandemic

    • Authors: Oksana V. Savchina, Dmitriy A. Pavlinov, Olga V. Savchina
      Pages: 85 - 98
      Abstract: The electricity sector is an important part of any country’s economy as it holds a cross-sectoral importance and produces a socially significant product for residents and industries. Economically, the sector is less vulnerable during world crises, receiving many variations of the state support. Both world electricity consumption and electricity generation have grown steadily over 2007-2019, with China, USA, India, Russia, Japan, Canada, South Korea, Germany, Brazil and France being world market leaders. This article analyzes the current state and the main trends of the development of the electricity industry as a whole and the financial stability of its companies. The United States and Russia, with similar functioning market models, were chosen to assess. The analysis of the financial stability of PJSC Inter RAO and Exelon Corp, two electricity giants in Russia and in the United States, has shown that they demonstrate stable results: Exelon Corp is more profitable while PJSC Inter RAO is less dependent on financing from creditors. Overall, electricity companies and the industry as a whole should not suffer much from the COVID-19 pandemic: many financial support measures have been developed in both countries, helping the sector to recover to 2019 levels by 2021.Keywords: energy sector, electricity industry, economic and financial crisis, coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19), low-carbon economy, financial stability.JEL Classifications: G30, L94, Q43, Q48
      DOI : https://doi.org/10.32479/ijeep.11575
      PubDate: 2021-08-20
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2021)
       
  • Development of Biofuels Research in South Africa

    • Authors: Donaji Jiménez-Islas, Miriam Edith Pérez-Romero, Ignacio Ventura Cruz, Martha Beatriz Flores-Romero
      Pages: 99 - 105
      Abstract: The global biofuels have attracted a lot of attention because of their potential as a clean and renewable source of energy. The bibliometric method has been used for providing quantitative assessment of the field of biofuels research in South Africa. Data used in this study were obtained from Scopus database. The research covers such topics as the publications and citations, the document type, journals, leading authors, institutions, subjects, areas and keywords. The publications and citations data fitted the Gompertz model to find out the growth rate. Two stages in the evolution of publications and citations were found and coincide with the exponential behaviour. Biofuels research was identified to have an exponential growth from 2011 with a growth rate of 0.2628 years-1 (R2=0.93). This study demonstrates that the most documents were published in high-impact journals. Researchers would benefit from the findings because they would be able to see a trend in biofuels research in South Africa.Keywords: Bioethanol, biogas, biofuel, biodieselJEL Classifications: Q16, Q20, Q42
      DOI : https://doi.org/10.32479/ijeep.11454
      PubDate: 2021-08-20
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2021)
       
  • Comparing “Carbon Tax” and “Cap and Trade” as Mechanism to Reduce
           Emission in Indonesia

    • Authors: Juris Justitio Hakim Putra, Nabilla Nabilla, Fidelia Yemima Jabanto
      Pages: 106 - 111
      Abstract: Due to the high utilization of carbon results to environmental problems in most provinces in Indonesia, it can be concluded that Indonesia in urgently requires mechanism to solve environmental issues. Many attempts have been conducted by Government of Indonesia to solve the issues such as ratification of Kyoto Protocol and Paris Agreement, further the proposal on Nusantara Carbon Scheme (Skema Karbon Nusantara abbreviated as “SKN”). Unfortunately, the proposal has not adopted yet up to 2021. Calculating based on current situation, Indonesia's greenhouse gas emissions are predicted to increase to 1.573 and 1.751 MtCO2e in 2030, which contrary to the commitment under Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC). There are several options of mechanism to be adopted, the most popular mechanism that deems highly effective are cap and trade as well as carbon tax. Many mechanisms adopted in different countries, it is important to assess which mechanism is more effective to be applied in Indonesia. Therefore, this research is conducted to assess difference on the effectiveness on carbon tax and cap and trade, examine current Indonesia’s stance towards the issue, and assess legal principle to be considered when applying the mechanism in Indonesia.Keywords: Carbon Tax, Cap and Trade, IndonesiaJEL Classifications: K32, K34
      DOI : https://doi.org/10.32479/ijeep.11375
      PubDate: 2021-08-20
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2021)
       
  • Investigating Growth-Energy-Emissions Trilemma in South Asia

    • Authors: Bosede Ngozi Adeleye, Darlington Akam, Nasiru Inuwa, Muftau Olarinde, Victoria Okafor, Ifeoluwa Ogunrinola, Paul Adekola
      Pages: 112 - 120
      Abstract: This paper situates the 2030 United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) 7, 8, and 13 to investigate the growth-energy-emissions trilemma. It uniquely contributes to the discourse by using carbon emissions per (emissions), GDP per capita (economic growth), energy use per capita (nonrenewable energy) and renewable energy from seven South Asian countries covering 1990 to 2019 to determine the effect of economic growth and energy use on emissions and if its interaction with either energy variant enhances or dims the effect of energy on emissions. Consistent findings from panel-corrected standard errors (PCSE), feasible generalized least squares (FGLS) and bootstrapping ordinary least squares (BOLS) reveal that: (1) economic growth intensifies emissions, (2) renewable energy exhibit emissions-reducing properties; (3) nonrenewable energy intensifies emissions, (4) economic growth sustains the emissions-reducing impact of renewable energy; and (5) economic growth diminishes the harmful effect of nonrenewable energy. Given these, we submit that the interaction of economic growth enables the "good" effect of renewable energy. At the same time, it reduces the "bad" effect nonrenewable energy on carbon emissions. These outcomes engender a new line of argument that the extent of economic growth cuts carbon emissions level. Therefore, economic growth is an essential determinant of carbon emissions. Policy implications discussed.Keywords: carbon emissions, economic growth, nonrenewable energy, renewable energy, South AsiaJEL Classifications: C52, O40, O55, Q40, Q50
      DOI : https://doi.org/10.32479/ijeep.11054
      PubDate: 2021-08-20
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2021)
       
  • Wastophobia: A Path Towards Sustainability in Responsible Behavior-A Case
           of Domestic Sector Electricity Waste Management

    • Authors: Muhammad Wasif Hanif, Shakir Hafeez
      Pages: 121 - 129
      Abstract: Electricity is indispensable for socio-economic developments. Its demand is dramatically increasing in the domestic sector at an incredible pace despite distressing electricity deficiency in most of the world's developing economies like Pakistan. The synthesis of the literature portrays that domestic consumers irresponsibly (consciously or unconsciously) waste a major portion of their electricity consumption that is detrimental to electricity security, climate, and sustainable developments. To effectively deal with the issue of electricity waste, this study is presenting a theoretical research framework containing a fear based promotional marketing strategy. The novelty of the model is to present an intriguing behavioral strategy for developing consumer sustainable responsible behavior. Confronting consumers with the awareness of wasteful consumption and its detrimental conditional impacts (financial, environmental, personal future & electricity security threats and religious punishments) can significantly create threats of electricity wastage (wastophobia) in the electricity consumers’ mind. Wastophobia strategy will set ground foundations for the researchers and policymakers to manage electricity waste as well as wastage of other goods & services. This strategy will significantly contribute to the theoretical knowledge of various disciplines, such as marketing, psychology, waste management and so on. Sustainable responsible behavior is categorically supporting consumers as well as holds huge potential in present policy guidelines under the arena of electrical purification and waste management. Moreover, such policy implications are viable, sensible, and supportive for national electrical transmission and production regulatory authorities at both public and public counterparts.Keywords: Energy Efficiency, Wasteful Consumption Awareness, Religious Sermons, Wastophobia, Sustainable Responsible BehaviorJEL Classifications: Q4, Q40, D1
      DOI : https://doi.org/10.32479/ijeep.11450
      PubDate: 2021-08-20
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2021)
       
  • Energy Market Risk Management under Uncertainty: A VaR Based on Wavelet
           Approach

    • Authors: Huthaifa Sameeh Alqaralleh, Ahmad Al-Saraireh, Alessandra Canepa
      Pages: 130 - 137
      Abstract: This study contributes to the literature on energy market risk management and portfolio management by examining co-movements between several energy commodities in a portfolio context in light of the impact of several types of uncertainty over time and under high, medium, and low frequencies. Using of wavelet decomposition analysis, we first investigate the lead-lag relationship together with the power of the correlation over time between major renewable and non-renewable energy indexes and uncertainty indexes. Second, we explore the contribution of uncertainty to the energy portfolio. Our procedure reveals that a dependent relationship generally exists between energy returns and changes in uncertainty. The risks of clean energy and crude oil returns are more sensitive to financial uncertainties, whereas investing in GAS markets offers market diversification opportunities during periods of energy uncertainty. Keywords: VaR Based on Wavelet Approach; Energy market, UncertaintyJEL Classifications: C580; G15; E440.
      DOI : https://doi.org/10.32479/ijeep.11404
      PubDate: 2021-08-20
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2021)
       
  • South African Attitudes About Nuclear Power: The Case of the Nuclear
           Energy Expansion

    • Authors: Nomsa Phindile Nkosi, Johane Dikgang
      Pages: 138 - 146
      Abstract: Despite the risk associated with nuclear energy, it represents an attractive climate change mitigation option and energy supply security. We examined how South African households perceive nuclear energy in the context of climate change mitigation, risk and avoidance of power outages. The objective of this study is to investigate households’ willingness to pay (WTP) for the proposed second nuclear power. Traditional analysis of such data has tended to ignore zero WTP values. A spike model (i.e., ‘two-part model’) which explicitly accounts for zero WTP is employed. We also test for effect of distance on WTP. The Thyspunt dummy is negative and significant in the probit model, which implies that those who are closer to the plant are more likely to state a zero WTP. The second decision, WTP given positive WTP, modelled with a truncated regression model suggests that putting more distance between residences and the nuclear plant would have little effect on WTP. Therefore, distance is not a relevant predictor of WTP for solving the problem of nuclear-related risk. Higher dependence on electricity is most likely to lead people to be more supportive of the planned plant.Keywords: climate change, distance, electricity, nuclear, willingness to pay.JEL Classifications: Q42, Q48, Q51, Q54
      DOI : https://doi.org/10.32479/ijeep.11343
      PubDate: 2021-08-20
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2021)
       
  • Designing Institutional Models For Renewable Energy Project Sustainability

    • Authors: Lilies Setiartiti, Rahmat Adiprasetya Al-Hasibi
      Pages: 147 - 156
      Abstract: Access to adequate, affordable, and reliable energy is one of the first steps to poverty alleviation, especially in the remote areas, to increase productivity, employment, and social welfare of a community. For Yogyakarta, which have no an energy source, developing renewable energy project is a strategic step to make it happen. Many projects have been carried out both to increase the amounts of renewables in the energy mix as well as to electrify remote rural areas. Unfortunately, many of these projects have failed to meet the intended target. Some renewable energy projects experienced low efficiency rates, while other renewable energy systems completely broke down without perspective on repair within only a few years of operation. This study aims to identify the sectors core problems and evaluate various renewable energy projects in order to investigate why some projects prosper, while others fail to have the right effect. Furthermore, a proper institutional model to keep sustainable renewable energy projects will be conducted to increase the productivity of rural businesses. Data obtained by using in-depth observation and Focus Group Discussion to provide answers of the problems faced to explain the phenomenon. SWOT technique used to determine supporting and hindering factors, to formulate the development strategy in achieving the proper of renewable energy project institutional model. Overall, tis research provides some important insights for local government to develop a sustainable renewable energy project.Keywords: Institutional Model, Renewable Energy Project, FGD, SWOTJEL Classifications: Q2, Q3, Q4, Q5.
      DOI : https://doi.org/10.32479/ijeep.11391
      PubDate: 2021-08-20
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2021)
       
  • Review on Rural Energy Access Policies

    • Authors: Enrique Cabello-Vargas, Azucena Escobedo-Izquierdo, Arturo Morales-Acevedo
      Pages: 157 - 171
      Abstract: Rural energy in all their dimensions, not only access, but also sources, supply, consumption, program management, project maintenance, control and evaluation has been a neglected area in national energy planning in developing countries. As a result, nearly two billion people all around the world lack access to commercial energy, particularly to electricity and clean cooking appliances. Poor people still depend on traditional sources of energy that are used inefficiently. The unplanned exploitation of local biomass resources, mainly for basic needs such as cooking, generates serious environmental problems. In this sense, women face hardship in the collection of biomass and exposure to smoke that adversely affect their health. Therefore, this study aims to explore rural energy policies through a systematic literature review about rural energy access as a problem to be solved by means of an adequate rural energy policy. The study tries to raise the general settings of rural energy access, their challenges, barriers, and alternatives for solution, especially through the consideration of rural energy policy as an alternative to achieve a sustainable solution for rural poverty. Besides, by organizing and collecting concepts, this review contributes to a better understanding of these topics and their general issues, particularly in Latin America. Considering the general context as an initial condition, and the universal energy access as the perfect condition, rural energy policy becomes the central strategy to ensure universal energy access in all rural areas, trying to transit from an initial to a perfect condition.Keywords: Rural energy policy, Rural energy access, Rural energy poverty, Rural electrification, Clean cooking alternatives.JEL Classifications: Q40, Q43, Q48, Q49, R10, R58
      DOI : https://doi.org/10.32479/ijeep.11268
      PubDate: 2021-08-20
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2021)
       
  • Consumer Behavior in Using Prepaid Electricity Systems in the Covid-19
           Pandemic Period in Makassar City, Indonesia

    • Authors: Kasnaeny Karim, Muhammad Jibril Tajibu, Retno Fitrianti, Indraswati Tri Abdi Reviane, Sri Undai Nurbayani
      Pages: 172 - 177
      Abstract: The Covid-19 pandemic throughout 2020, made many community activities carried out at home. Thus, people are believed to use a lot of electrical energy for activities at home. The government has implemented various efforts in order to save energy by the community. . However, the visible phenomenon is that the use of electrical energy in households is still high. This study aims to determine the behavior of prepaid electricity consumption during the Covid-19 pandemic, which is carried out descriptively quantitatively, with a sample of 100 people through the snowball sampling technique. Collecting data through questionnaires and then tested using the Cochran Q-Test method. The results show that the behavior displayed by prepaid electricity consumers in consuming electricity during the Covid-19 pandemic is summarized as follows (1) Electricity is used to carry out activities at home, starting from gardening, in the kitchen, getting entertainment, studying, and working, 2) Electricity is used to support business opening shops during the Covid-19 pandemic, (3) The use of large electricity due to the large number of family members (4) The habit of forgetting to turn off electricity when leaving the house (5) Use of electricity to turn on the air conditioner all day longKeywords: consumer behavior, prepaid electricity, household sector, and the covid-19 pandemicJEL Classification: C42, D10, M00, O30
      DOI : https://doi.org/10.32479/ijeep.11403 
      PubDate: 2021-08-20
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2021)
       
  • Examining Power, GHG Emission and Financial Saving in Green Buildings: A
           Case Study of Jordan

    • Authors: Abdul Ghafoor Ahmad Saidi, Mohammed Issa Shahateet, Ghani Albaali, Adiy Tweissi, Mohammad Sumadi
      Pages: 178 - 190
      Abstract: The purpose of this research is to explore the effect of reducing Green House Gas (GHG) emissions in a case study of green buildings in Jordan through the use of photovoltaic solar panels to generate electricity. It also examines the use of photovoltaic solar cells to generate electricity and supplement Jordan's national grid. The emission analysis is used to determine the case framework and the project's GHG emissions, which is the CO2 project. The study's findings demonstrate that implementing photovoltaic (PV) plans is economically feasible for Jordan's electricity production. The annual energy savings are estimated to be 9315.61 kWh, which equates to a savings of over 3200 USD per year on the electricity bill. This is in addition to the annual reduction of GHG emissions by 920.7 tCO2, indicating that the case study initiated a beneficial event. The study contributes to filling a gap in the existing literature on the energy savings and environmental benefits of green buildings, which is deficient in developing countries due to a lack of applied research. The findings are not unique to Jordan; they could easily be applied to other developing countries as well.Keywords: CO2 emission, Green building, GHG, PV, solar thermal collectorJEL Classifications: Q40, Q43, Q48, Q56, Q57
      DOI : https://doi.org/10.32479/ijeep.11434
      PubDate: 2021-08-20
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2021)
       
  • Green Finance in Indonesia’s Low Carbon Sustainable Development

    • Authors: Sigit Setiawan, Poppy Ismalina, R Nurhidajat, Cornelius Tjahjaprijadi, Yusuf Munandar
      Pages: 191 - 203
      Abstract: This paper primarily discusses how Indonesia - as a developing country and one of the world’s top 10 greenhouse gas (GHG) contributors – has committed and struggled to attain low carbon development goals, which are crucial for its national development sustainability and the world campaign on climate change impact mitigation and adaptation. Indonesia's awareness of the impact of disasters due to climate change on the sustainability of its national development brings forth commitments at the international level and robust programs at the national level in reducing GHG emissions. These programs have delivered historical achievements, especially in the forestry sector and the energy sector, the two most critical sectors of national GHG emission. Discussions continue on the conceivable green finance support options varying from the banking sector until the facilitation of ASEAN regional cooperation on low carbon sustainable development. The awareness of stakeholders to prevent potentially excessive burdens on Indonesian public green finance has delivered continuing responses to stimulate private green finance to contribute more for low carbon sustainable development. The study concludes with the exploration of current challenges to address in order to boost the Indonesian dominant banking sector contribution up to the next level.Keywords: climate change, forestry, energy, public finance, private finance, ASEAN regional cooperationJEL Classifications: O13, O19, O23, O38, G21
      DOI : https://doi.org/10.32479/ijeep.11447
      PubDate: 2021-08-20
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2021)
       
  • Methodological Approach to Improve Energy Efficiency by Concentrating
           Operation Points an Electrical Transformer Maintenance Company

    • Authors: Andres Rodríguez Toscano, Aurora Patricia Piñeres Castillo, Julio Cesar Mojica Herazo, Rafael Ramirez Restrepo
      Pages: 204 - 210
      Abstract: In recent years, companies have developed strategies to improve the environment through the efficient use of their energy resources (Rodríguez Toscano et al., 2019). This practice has been widely used in the goods manufacturing and transformation industry, but many opportunities for improvement remain in the services sector. In this context, this study offers a methodological and analytical approach to improve energy efficiency at a company that provides electric transformer maintenance services, based on performance of energy planning, analysis of concentration of operation points, and the implementation of operational and technological improvements to the processes. The results display total energy savings of 7% after implementation of the operational and technological improvements on only 23% of the company’s energy-intensive equipment.Keywords: energy efficiency, technological improvement, electrical transformersJEL Classifications: I, L8
      DOI : https://doi.org/10.32479/ijeep.11333
      PubDate: 2021-08-20
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2021)
       
  • An AHP-GIS Based Approach for Site Suitability Analysis of Solar-Wind
           Projects in Santa Marta, Colombia

    • Authors: Víctor Olivero-Ortíz, Carlos Robles-Algarín, Julie Viloria-Porto
      Pages: 211 - 223
      Abstract: This paper presents an analysis to determine the suitable areas for the implementation of solar-wind projects in Santa Marta, Colombia. For this, an approach that integrates the decision-making tool of the Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP) with Geographic Information Systems (GIS) was used. To identify the selection criteria, the existing literature and the renewable resources available in the study area were considered. Seven sub-criteria were identified (solar irradiation, wind speed, protected areas, armed conflict, indigenous reservations, populated zones and roads), which were weighted with the AHP by 15 experts with experience in projects with renewable energies. After performing a consistency analysis, it was found that 5 experts were consistent, while another 5 were discarded for being highly inconsistent. A consistency correction method was implemented for the remaining 5 experts, in order to have 10 experts for the weighting process. Each sub-criterion represents a map of the study area, which were superimposed in a GIS environment to implement the weighting obtained with the experts. A global map for the implementation of renewable energy projects, considering environmental, social and local infrastructure criteria was obtained. The map was classified into five categories: not suitable, marginally suitable, moderately suitable, highly suitable and optimally areas.Keywords: Renewable Energy, Analytical Hierarchical Process, Energy Planning, Geographic Information SystemsJEL Classifications: Q20, D70, Q42, D81
      DOI : https://doi.org/10.32479/ijeep.11266
      PubDate: 2021-08-20
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2021)
       
  • An Analysis of the Impact of Rents from Non-renewable Natural Resources
           and Changes in Human Capital on Institutional Quality: A Case Study of
           Kuwait

    • Authors: Ruba Aljarallah
      Pages: 224 - 234
      Abstract: Non-renewable energy resources are considered to be an important input for industries that support local industrial production and employment. However, many researchers believe that such resources have a damaging effect on the institutional quality, because this quality has an effect on a country’s decision-making mechanisms, and on the human capital, which is usually described as the accumulation of education in a specified population.  This collective damage thus impedes economic growth and development. The present study analyses the impact of resource rents from non-renewable energy resources and the human capital on the institutional quality in Kuwait, using an autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) approach based on data for the period between 1984 to 2018. The results indicate that an increase in rents from non-renewable energy resources has decreased institutional quality, whereas human capital enhances the institutional quality both in the short and long-term. This study concludes that an investment in the human capital could help insulate Kuwait from the damaging effects of over-reliance on the non-renewable energy resource rents.Keywords: Non-renewable Energy Resources; Resource Rents; Institutional Quality; Human Capital; Kuwait; Resource CurseJEL Classifications: F62; O11; O38; O40
      DOI : https://doi.org/10.32479/ijeep.11370
      PubDate: 2021-08-20
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2021)
       
  • The Direct Rebound Effect and Energy Efficiency Policy: An Econometric
           Estimation in the case of Tunisian Transport Sector

    • Authors: Daldoul Manel, Dakhlaoui Ahlem
      Pages: 235 - 243
      Abstract: In this paper, we estimate the sensitivity of the fuel and travel demand with respect to the fuel price and the income variation, in the case of the road transport in Tunisia, during the 1987-2016 period, resorting to two different econometric approaches: the error correction model (ECM) and the dynamic model. The price and income elasticity estimation, in the long term and the short term, allow the assessment of the direct rebound effects. We shall show that (1) the dynamic model is considered to be the most appropriate approach for our database; (2) the fuel price increase, in both the short term and long the long term, has a negative impact on the energy consumption. Hence, we recommend the public decision-maker to review his/her energy subsidies, in order to improve the energy efficiency in the road transport sector and to control the CO2 emissions; (3) an increase of the income entails an increase of the energy consumption and, hence, the travel demand; (4) the rebound effects from the fuel price increase will be compensated in the form of a more significant fuel use indicate that if the energy efficiency increases by 1%, 0.21% and 0.29% of the savings resulting.Keywords: Fuel and travel demand elasticities; the rebound effect; the error correction model; the dynamic model. JEL Classifications: L91, Q43, Q54, R48
      DOI : https://doi.org/10.32479/ijeep.11456

      PubDate: 2021-08-20
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2021)
       
  • Improving Energy Efficiency of Multi-Family Apartment Buildings Case of
           Jordan

    • Authors: Asma' M. Bataineh, Hikmat H. Ali
      Pages: 244 - 254
      Abstract: Saving energy is a high priority in developing countries and several energy-efficient initiatives are being introduced for that purpose. The residential sector is responsible for a big part of the world's energy usage; most of this energy is used in heating, cooling, and artificial ventilation systems. The residential sector in Amman consumes more than 21% of the annual energy consumption, meanwhile multi-family residential apartments occupy more than 60% of that sector.  With a view on developing energy-efficient structures, this study provides an overview of building design criteria that can reduce the energy demand for heating and cooling of multi-family apartment residential buildings. These criteria are based on the adoption of suitable parameters for the orientation of the building, shape, envelope system, use of insulation materials, passive heating and cooling mechanisms, setting of cooling and heating thermostat, lighting, and window's ratio and glazing. This experiment measures the effect of these criteria on overall energy demand that reviewed and recommended the best design choices. This is beneficial for professionals in the design phase of energy-efficient multi-family residential buildings and decisions makers. The methodology that is used in the study was represented in field observation and surveys, besides, to use design-builder as a simulation tool to test the assumptions and the design strategies, the results indicate that a 6cm polystyrene insulated walls and roof for a north/west middle floor apartment and WWR ranges from 25 to 30% of double bronze glass will affect greatly in the energy demand.Keywords: energy-efficiency, multi-family residential apartment, design strategiesJEL Classification: Q2
      DOI : https://doi.org/10.32479/ijeep.11394
      PubDate: 2021-08-20
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2021)
       
  • Economic Growth and Development of a Minapolitan Area Based on the
           Utilization of Renewable Energy, Takalar Regency, South Sulawesi,
           Indonesia

    • Authors: Batara Surya, Agus Salim, Seri Suriani, Firman Menne, Emil Salim Rasyidi
      Pages: 255 - 274
      Abstract: Accelerated development of the Takalar Regency area towards economic growth has an impact on the productivity of the community's economic enterprises. Furthermore, the increase in the productivity of economic enterprises coupled with the development of the Minapolitan area will contribute positively to meeting renewable energy needs and improving environmental quality towards sustainable development. This study aims to analyze: (1) Economic growth and work productivity as determinants of increasing energy demand for the Minapolitan area; (2) The effect of economic growth, utilization of renewable energy, and strengthening of institutional capacity on improving environmental quality and sustainable development of Minapolitan areas. This study uses a qualitative-quantitative approach sequentially. Data obtained through observation, in-depth interviews, surveys, and documentation. The results of the study indicate that economic growth coupled with the preparation of energy infrastructure in the development of the Minapolitan area has a positive contribution to increasing the productivity of community economic enterprises. The effect of total economic growth, utilization of renewable energy, and strengthening of institutional capacity on environmental quality improvement is 63.36%. Furthermore, the residual effect or residue that was not examined on the improvement of environmental quality was 36.64%. The direct effect of increasing the quality of the environment on the sustainability of the development of the Minapolitan area is 67.73%. The remaining effect or residue is 32.27%. Thus, economic growth, renewable energy utilization, and strengthening of institutional capacity together have an effect, on improving environmental quality with a determination coefficient of 46.65%, and an increase in environmental quality affects the sustainability of the Minapolitan area development with a determination coefficient of 39.56%. This study recommends that the direction of the sustainable development of the Minapolitan area is very important to optimize the use of renewable energy towards environmental, economic, and social sustainability, followed by strengthening the institutional capacity of the government and society in ensuring a balanced development in the future.Keywords: economic growth; Minapolitan area; economic productivity; renewable energy; sustainable development.JEL Classification: Q5
      DOI : https://doi.org/10.32479/ijeep.11502
      PubDate: 2021-08-20
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2021)
       
  • A Model Suggestion for Determining the Values of Firms the Energy Sector:
           An Application in BIST Electricity Index

    • Authors: Ayten Turan Kurtaran, Burhan Günay, Ahmet Kurtaran
      Pages: 275 - 280
      Abstract: Investors in financial markets have recently sought rational investment decisions with advanced technology and information obtained from various sources. Therefore, investors need to accurately determine the value of the firm. The value of companies in the energy sector contains different dynamics than companies in other sectors. The aim of this study is to develop models that best represent the values of companies in the energy sector and make them available to shareholders. For this purpose, OLS regression and Panel Data Analysis were used in the study. The data of the models to be tested in the study were obtained from the data of 11 companies traded in the Borsa Istanbul (BIST) Electricity Index between 2009-2018. In the analysis of the study, 3 models, namely Market to Book Value, Standardized Economic Value Added and Standardized Market Value Added, were created to represent the company value, and the model that best represents the company value for the shareholder was presented.Keywords: Panel Data Analysis, Economic Value Added, Market Value, Market Value Added, Energy SectorJEL Classifications: G20, G32, M41, Q43
      DOI : https://doi.org/10.32479/ijeep.11520
      PubDate: 2021-08-20
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2021)
       
  • The Linear Programming Problem of Regional Energy System Optimization

    • Authors: Iosifov Valeriy Victorovich, Evgenii Yu. Khrustalev, Sergey N. Larin, Oleg E. Khrustalev
      Pages: 281 - 288
      Abstract: The paper contributes to the literature by developing a linear programming (LP) model for optimization of the development of the regional energy system according to environmental and economic criteria by involving various types of renewable energy sources in the energy balance. The environmental criteria are taken into account throughout the entire life cycle of each energy product. Validation of the model was carried out on the example of a large southern region of Russia - Krasnodar Territory. This region was chosen for testing for several reasons: firstly, the region has significant potential for the development of various types of renewable energy sources, including solar and wind energy, hydro- and geothermal energy, rich biological resources, as well as a large number of bio-waste that can be considered as resources for bioenergy. Secondly, the Krasnodar Territory is currently one of the most densely populated and dynamically developing regions of Russia, experiencing a serious energy shortage and problems with air quality in large cities. The solution of the LP problem shows that when optimizing the development of the regional energy system of the Krasnodar Territory in terms of economic parameters, it is advisable to include bio-waste and municipal solid waste as priority energy sources. Solar power generation is involved in development on a leftover basis in order to make up the difference between the already used renewable energy sources and the required heat and electricity demand. When optimizing the energy balance according to environmental criteria, the involvement of biogas in the energy balance becomes impractical, therefore, after the complete use of the potential for processing solid waste and wind energy, the gap between the used potential of renewable energy sources and the required volume of generation can be replenished through the development of photovoltaics. Keywords: regional energy system, energy balance, environmental footprint, product life cycle analysis, linear programming, simplex method, shadow pricesJEL Classifications: O44, Q01
      DOI : https://doi.org/10.32479/ijeep.11377
      PubDate: 2021-08-20
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2021)
       
  • Do Energy Consumption and Environmental Degradation (CO2 Emissions) Matter
           for Economic Growth' Fresh Evidence from a Developing Economy

    • Authors: Md. Nazmus Sadekin, Md. Mahbub Alam, Syed Moudud-Ul-Huq, Mohammad Ghozali Hassan, Tarequl Islam
      Pages: 289 - 297
      Abstract: The main objective of this study is to examine the impact of energy consumption and environmental degradation (CO2 emissions) on economic growth in Bangladesh covering the periods of 1972 to 2018 by employing the Johansen cointegration test, VECM approach, and Granger causality test. The Johansen cointegration result indicates that gross capital formation (GCF), labor, Electricity power consumption (EPC), energy consumption (EC) has a positive and statistically significant effect on economic growth (RGDP) while environmental degradation (carbon dioxide emissions) has an inverse effect on it. The results of VECM show that there exists a long-run causal nexus among the variables and there is short-run causality running from the capital formation and electricity power consumption to the economic growth while there is no short-run causality from the labor, energy consumption, carbon emission to the economic growth. The causality test shows that there exist a unidirectional causal relationship from economic growth to labor, EPC to RGDP, GCF to labor, EC to GCF, carbon emissions (CO2) to GCF, labor to EPC, EC to labor, CO2 to labor, and carbon emissions to EPC and a bi-directional causal nexus between GCF and RGDP; GCF and labor; EPC and carbon emission in Bangladesh. However, the study suggests that a huge change of low carbon advancements like renewable energy and energy sufficiency may contribute to decrease emissions and thus support the long-run economy.Keywords: Economic Growth; Electricity; Energy Consumption; Environmental Degradation; Vector Error Correction ModelJEL Classifications: E31; K32; Q53
      DOI : https://doi.org/10.32479/ijeep.11381
      PubDate: 2021-08-20
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2021)
       
  • EU Electricity Policy (Im)balance: A Quantitative Analysis of Policy
           Priorities Since 1986

    • Authors: Mircea (Mike) Bostan
      Pages: 298 - 309
      Abstract: The European Union has produced hundreds of laws in the field of electricity policy in the last three decades, on issues ranging from nuclear disposal to renewable energy generation support. Is the EU electricity policy of the last 30 years balanced, according to the classical energy trilemma framework' An all-inclusive, quantitative, multi-decade examination of the EU energy policy is still lacking. Besides the traditional policy perspectives, policy density and intensity, this paper proposes a novel method to measure policy outcomes: policy importance. The results show that EU energy legislation is indeed imbalanced. Environmental concerns rank first among EU electricity policy priorities; however, since 2003, the creation of an internal market has started to challenge environment as the top priority. Furthermore, internal market policies tend to have a higher trend of adoption than environment. Security of supply is at the bottom of EU policymakers’ attention. The EU energy policy is becoming more intricate, but not more revolutionary. Meaningful policy changes occur at a stagnating yearly rate, despite the increasing power of the EU institutions.Keywords: electricity policy; quantitative; policy density; policy intensity; European UnionJEL Classifications: F530, Q480
      DOI : https://doi.org/10.32479/ijeep.11461
      PubDate: 2021-08-20
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2021)
       
  • Strategy in Energy Efficiency Management: University Campus

    • Authors: S. M. Shafie, A. H. Nu’man, N. N. A. N. Yusuf
      Pages: 310 - 313
      Abstract: Concerns on the effects of climate change have encouraged efforts to lowering energy consumption and implementing energy management. With the application of energy management, it could help in reducing energy consumption and conserving depleting energy resources categorized as non-renewable energy that humans greatly depend on. The aims of the study are: (i) to analyze the main elements that contribute toward the increasing pattern of energy consumption in Universiti Utara Malaysia, and (ii) to determine the energy efficiency strategies that are suitable to reduce electricity consumption in Universiti Utara Malaysia. The data used for this research consisted of primary and secondary data. Primary data was collected from expert interviews, while secondary data derived from electronic sources and books. Findings of this research pointed out that by implementing sustainable strategies and policy, it could help Universiti Utara Malaysia undergo energy management and aim to reduce overall energy consumption in the campus.Keywords: Energy efficiency, energy management, sustainable, university buildingJEL Classifications: Q43, Q48
      DOI : https://doi.org/10.32479/ijeep.11265
      PubDate: 2021-08-20
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2021)
       
  • Promoting Economic Growth and Environmental Sustainability through Energy
           Efficiency: Evidence from Indonesia

    • Authors: Rita Helbra Tenrini, Sofia Arie Damayanty, Dhani Setyawan, Hadi Setiawan, Rakhmindyarto Rakhmindyarto
      Pages: 314 - 320
      Abstract: Indonesia has set a unilateral greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) reduction target by 29% and conditional targets with international support of up to 41%, compared to the business as usual by 2030. This paper aims to formulate energy conservation policies to increase productivity and promote economic growth in Indonesia. Indonesia's energy conservation policy has multiple aspects: supporting energy security, commitment to GHG emission reduction, state budget efficiency, and improving productivity and competitiveness. Using Social Accounting Matrix (SAM), this study found evidence that energy efficiency saving will positively affect ecological sustainability and economic agents in the five targeted sectors: energy, waste, industrial processes, and production use, agriculture, and forestry. Furthermore, the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) policy provides positive effects in increasing economic growth and reducing income disparities.Keywords: Energy Conservation, Energy Efficiency, Economic Growth, Environmental Sustainability.JEL Classifications: Q40, O40, Q56
      DOI : https://doi.org/10.32479/ijeep.11463
      PubDate: 2021-08-20
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2021)
       
  • Optimization of Energy-Efficient Functioning of the Oil and Gas Sector of
           the Economy through Digitalization and Resource Conservation

    • Authors: Alexey I. Shinkevich, Yuri Yu. Kostyukhin, Diana Yu. Savon, Andrey E. Safronov, Alexander V. Aleksakhin
      Pages: 321 - 330
      Abstract: This study is aimed at identifying the best values for the parameters of energy efficient digital development of the petroleum and gas sector. Research methods - construction of a production function, regression analysis and linear programming. Based on the production function of Cobb-Douglas, the dependence of the sales volumes of the petroleum and gas sector of the economy on the costs of digitalization and labor costs was revealed; the regression analysis method provided the construction of a set of equations describing the impact of the costs of energy resources of petroleum and gas enterprises and the costs of digitalization on the total costs of enterprises for production and sales, the efficiency of using by-products from petroleum production and labor capital; the optimal values of energy-efficient digital resource-saving development of the petroleum and gas sector of the economy have been determined, the achievement of which will ensure a decrease in the energy consumption of processes at the enterprises of the petroleum and gas complex. Thus, connections have been established and the trajectories of energy efficient functioning of the petroleum and gas sector of the economy have been determined. The research results can be applied within the framework of strategies for socio-economic development, sustainable development, as well as digitalization of the petroleum and gas complex and industrial enterprises.Keywords: regression analysis, digitalization, resource conservation, energy efficiency, petroleum and gas sector, JEL Classifications: О14, D24, С41
      DOI : https://doi.org/10.32479/ijeep.11695
      PubDate: 2021-08-20
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2021)
       
  • Power Quality Considerations for Distributed Generation Integration in the
           Nigerian Distribution Network Using NEPLAN Software

    • Authors: Akintunde S. Alayande, O. D. Owoicho, Tobiloba Emmanuel Somefun, Joseph Olowoleni, Ignatius K. Okakwu, Ademola Abdulkareem
      Pages: 331 - 342
      Abstract: Power quality studies are increasingly becoming a toast of major researchers as it is now a major factor utilized in determining the overall efficiency of an electrical power system. Voltage profile and power loss are significant pointers to the quality of power and as such, distributed generation comes into play since it offers competitive advantages over the traditional grid interconnected system. In this study, therefore, an attempt is made in comparing the voltage profile of the traditional grid system of a typical distribution network and with that incorporated with the distributed generation, using real data of a practical system of the Nigeria distribution company. The conceptual framework as well as the mathematical formulations required for the study are presented. The data are, then, simulated using a NEPLAN software. The results obtained from the simulations for power losses in both scenarios are examined. The results obtained clearly showed that there is a significant reduction in power losses and a substantial improvement in the voltage profile of an embedded generation in-feed scheme in comparison with the conventional grid in-feed.Keywords: Distributed Generation, Power Quality, Voltage Profile, Grid in-feed, Transmission LossesJEL Classifications: C63, L94, L98, Q48
      DOI : https://doi.org/10.32479/ijeep.11145
      PubDate: 2021-08-20
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2021)
       
  • Dynamic Effects of Malaysia's Government Spending on Environment
           Quality: Bridging STIRPAT and EKC Hypothesis

    • Authors: Nor Salwati Othman, Hussain Ali Bekhet
      Pages: 343 - 355
      Abstract: This paper investigates how government spending (GSE) affects the environmental quality proxy by CO2 emissions in Malaysia over the 1978–2020 period. For that purpose, the STIRPAT model in the EKC framework are applied. The F-bounds test is applied to assess the cointegration relationship's existence. The ARDL model is used to measure the short-run and long-run environmental elasticities, and the VECM Granger causality is used to estimate the direction of the causality relationship. Empirical results show a cointegration relationship among environmental quality, GDP, population, and Malaysia's GSE. The findings provide strong support for Malaysia's EKC presence, and the GSE significantly contributes to reducing environmental sustainability. The results show the short-run unidirectional Granger causality running from CO2 emissions, GDP, and population to GSE at the 1 percent significance levels. Also, this study reveals the long-run unidirectional Granger causality running from CO2 emissions and population to GSE and GDP at least at 10 percent significance level; and the bidirectional causality between GSE and GDP at least at 10 percent significance level as well. The result implies that the increasing demand for regulatory and protective functions represented by GSE are needed to sustain the increasing level of economic wealth, environment, and communities.Keywords: Environmental Sustainability, EKC, Government Spending, Dynamic Relationship, Causality, MalaysiaJEL Classifications: O1, O2, Q5
      DOI : https://doi.org/10.32479/ijeep.11273
      PubDate: 2021-08-20
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2021)
       
  • Dynamic Model for the Consumption of Electrical Energy in Indonesia

    • Authors: Sudati Nur Safiah, Rr. Retno Sugiharti, Rian Destiningsih, Putra Arif Budiman
      Pages: 356 - 362
      Abstract: This study aims to find the existence of a long-term relationship between subsidized energy, population, inflation, economic growth, and consumption of electrical energy in Indonesia for the period of 1987-2018. In order to analyse the existence of long run relationship, this research was conducted using the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) model. This research focused on the energy subsidy, considering that Indonesia is one of the four countries that still apply subsidized energy. The findings suggest that that there is a long-term cointegration between electricity consumption with regressor variables. The result of Estimation Result of ARDL also confirms the existence of long-term relationships on variables in the model.Keywords: energy consumption, electricity, economic growth, IndonesiaJEL Classifications: Q01, L94, C38
      DOI : https://doi.org/10.32479/ijeep.11376
      PubDate: 2021-08-20
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2021)
       
  • Coal Price and Profitability: Evidence of Coal Mining Companies in
           Indonesia

    • Authors: Endri Endri, Andyan Pradipta Utama, Aminudin Aminudin, Maya Syafriana Effendi, Bambang Santoso, Achmad Bahiramsyah
      Pages: 363 - 368
      Abstract: The study examines the influence of certain industrial factors, namely the reference price for Indonesian coal (HBA), and internal factors, namely; debt to equity ratio (DER), growth, current asset (CR), and company size (size) to profitability (ROA) of coal companies Indonesia during 2015-2019. The study population was all coal companies listed on the IDX before 2015. By using a purposive sampling technique, 13 companies were obtained. The research variable data was estimated using the Panel data method. The results show that DER adversely affects ROA, and company growth is in line with the increase in ROA. HBA and CR variables do not affect ROA. The implication of the research results is to increase profitability, the company to increase sales through business diversification other than coal products, and reduce the total debt held so that it does not become a heavy payment burden.Keywords: Coal Price, Profitability, Coal Mining Companies, IndonesiaJEL Classifications: G11, G30, G32, Q31
      DOI : https://doi.org/10.32479/ijeep.11503
      PubDate: 2021-08-20
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2021)
       
  • The Effect of World Oil Prices, Gold Prices, and Other Energy Prices on
           the Indonesian Mining Sector with Exchange Rate of Indonesian Rupiah as
           the Moderating Effect

    • Authors: Sri Utami Ady
      Pages: 369 - 376
      Abstract: The paper aimed to determine the effect of world oil prices, gold prices, and other energy prices on the Indonesian mining sector with the moderating influence of the exchange rate of the Indonesian Rupiah. This study is quantitative in which the data gathered from Investing.com from 2016 to 2020. The variables considered in the survey include exchange rate, Indonesian stock returns of mining companies, gold prices, oil prices, and gasoline prices. Concerning the analysis, the vector autoregression, Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF), and adopt the granger causality test. The results of this study identified no effect of oil price, gasoline price, and gold price on the Indonesian stock exchange of mining companies. On the other hand, there is no moderation of foreign exchange of Indonesian Rupiah among the relationship of oil price, gasoline price, and gold price with stock returns of Indonesian mining companies. This study's results are restricted to the Indonesian context, and the data considered from 2016 to 2019.Keywords: Exchange rate, Oil price, Gold price, Gasoline price, Indonesian Mining Sector Stock Returns.JEL Classifications: Q41, Q47.
      DOI : https://doi.org/10.32479/ijeep.11351
      PubDate: 2021-08-20
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2021)
       
  • Is the Transition to Renewable Energy Consumption Hampered by High Oil
           Prices'

    • Authors: Shahriyar Mukhtarov, Sugra Humbatova, Natig Gadim-Oglu Hajiyev
      Pages: 377 - 380
      Abstract: The article examines the impact of oil price, income and CO2 emissions on renewable energy consumption in the case of Kazakhstan for the data period from 1992 to 2015, employing FMOLS and CCR methods. Empirical results reached that there is a long-run positive and statistically significant impact of income on the renewable energy consumption whereas a negative effect of oil price and CO2 emissions in Azerbaijan, for the investigated period. The results of this article might be beneficial for the policymakers and support the current literature for next researches for oil-rich developing countries.Keywords: Renewable energy consumption; Income; Oil price; FMOLS; CCR; KazakhstanJEL Classifications: 013, P28, Q42, Q43
      DOI : https://doi.org/10.32479/ijeep.11345
      PubDate: 2021-08-20
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2021)
       
  • Importance of Environmentally Managerial Accounting to Environmental and
           Economic Performance

    • Authors: Quang Linh Huynh, Tran Thi Ngoc Lan
      Pages: 381 - 388
      Abstract: The role of environmentally managerial accounting between environmental performance and economic performance has been investigated in the current project. On the one hand, this project tried to re-examine the causal links among environmentally managerial accounting, environmental performance and economic performance that have been discussed in previous research; on the other hand, it also explored the moderation of environmentally managerial accounting between environmental performance and economic performance that has been overlooked. The data was collected from 298 publicly listed enterprises in Vietnam’s three main stock exchanges. To test the causal linkages, multiple regression analyses were employed; whereas to test the moderating effect, hierarchical regression analyses with the interaction were undertaken. The results indicate positive influences of environmentally managerial accounting on economic performance and environmental performance that in turn puts a positive impact on economic performance. The adoption of environmentally managerial accounting in business is revealed as a moderator between economic performance and environmental performance. The causal link from environmental performance to economic performance becomes tougher when enterprises take more environmentally managerial accounting into consideration in business.Keywords: Environmentally Managerial Accounting, Environmental Performance, Economic Performance, VietnamJEL Classifications: Q01, Q51, E01
      DOI : https://doi.org/10.32479/ijeep.11511
      PubDate: 2021-08-20
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2021)
       
  • Linking Protective Strategies Effects to Manage the COVID-19 Risk on
           Global Environment: Fresh Evidence from the Best Responsive Approach

    • Authors: Kashif Raza Abbasi, Khadim Hussain, Rani Saima Noureen, Uzma Bashir
      Pages: 389 - 401
      Abstract: The coronavirus pandemic appeared as the most critical global health disaster of this century to date, which caused environmental, health, and energy crises worldwide. Humanity has encountered the most challenging health emergency since the earlier calamity of World War-II, which posed economic crisis, social, and environmental challenges to entire communities. It severely disrupted the global economy, international relations, and social interactions. Global efforts initiated to mitigate the COVID-19’s rapid spread by launching testing facilities, quarantining suspected cases, treating affected patients, restricting large social gatherings, and imposing full or smart lockdown measures. This research evaluated the strengths and weaknesses of twenty selected countries' best responsive model in overcoming the global crisis and environmental effects and 20 chosen countries responsive strategies. Findings suggest eight crucial strategies/core recommendations to minimize environmental effects, air quality and rivers water quality, reflected better for the short-term, and biodiversity thrived after the COVID-19 outbreak. The study suggests self-produced medical equipment and consolidated supply chain operations to avoid relying on other countries. This article suggests empowering companies to practice social responsibility policies to provide resources for producing environmentally friendly products.Keywords: COVID-19; Novel Coronavirus; learning lessons; overcome crisis; environmental effectJEL Classifications: H51, H52, H53
      DOI : https://doi.org/10.32479/ijeep.11393
      PubDate: 2021-08-20
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2021)
       
  • Incentives for Green Consumers on the Liberalised Energy Market of Romania
           in the Context of the Transition to Green Economy

    • Authors: Ana Șerbănescu
      Pages: 402 - 408
      Abstract: The liberalisation process of energy markets has been progressing since 1990 and starting 2012 it has also begun in Romania, being finalised in January 2021 and granting the household consumers the possibility to choose an energy supply company. Together with the context of an ongoing transition towards a green economy, it is important to analyse and understand the criteria of consumers when choosing their energy supplier in order to design appropriate policies which will ensure the success and efficiency of the transition. This research targets the household consumers of Romania and the methodology consists of a questionnaire, whereas the data gathered was analysed using SPSS. The first hypothesis, of a correlation between the income of the consumer and the willingness to pay additionally for renewable energy, was not validated. Therefore, an increased standard of living does not translate to the willingness of consumers to invest in green energy. However, the second hypothesis, of an association between the level of education and the criteria of the consumers when they choose an energy supplier, was validated, indicating that the incentive in changing the criteria of consumers is to work together for the green economy transition and to develop a stronger educational background.Keywords: household consumers, greeen economy, energy market, liberalisation, consumer behaviour, education levelJEL Classifications: A19, P18, O44
      DOI : https://doi.org/10.32479/ijeep.11720
      PubDate: 2021-08-20
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2021)
       
  • Does the Clean Development Mechanism Exist in Developing Countries After
           an International Agreement'

    • Authors: Dyah Maya Nihayah, Evi Gravitiani, Siti Aisyah Tri Rahayu
      Pages: 409 - 417
      Abstract: The Kyoto Protocol is a key document on climate change agreements by the United Nations Framework on Climate Change. The latest commitments agreed in 2012. Its agreed to reduce CO2 emissions by about 20% or less of all global carbon emissions. A strong commitment is needed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by governments from various countries. This study aims to figure out the progress of clean development mechanism of reducing CO2 emissions in the Asia and Middle East Region countries after the Kyoto Protocol Commitment. Variable CO2 emissions, economic growth, foreign direct investment, trade activities which covered from 2013 to 2017 were analysed using a panel data model. The alteration after agreement were evaluated using a Klassen Typology. The results show that economic growth and trading activities have a significant effect on clean development mechanism in Asia and the Middle East, but still have differences in the patterns and behavior of each country in implementing commitments to reduce CO2 emissions. Overall, attempts are needed to align economic growth with efforts to reduce emissions so that prudent policies are needed in forming realistic and sustainable mitigation and adaptation steps to address the problem of climate change.Keywords: CO2 emission, clean development mechanism, agreement, Klassen Typology, mitigationJEL Classifications: Q5, Q28, Q54, Q540
      DOI : https://doi.org/10.32479/ijeep.11514
      PubDate: 2021-08-20
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2021)
       
  • The Impact of Oil Price and Other Macroeconomic Variables on The Islamic
           and Conventional Stock Index in Indonesia

    • Authors: Muhammad Syafii Antonio, Aam S. Rusydiana, Wahyu Sugeng Imam Soeparno, Lina Nugraha Rani, Wahyu Ario Pratomo, Abdillah Arif Nasution
      Pages: 418 - 424
      Abstract: The Islamic capital market plays an important role in the growth of the economy in Indonesia. During its development, the performance of the stock index in a country is often influenced by other stock indices in other countries. This study tries to analyze dependance of macroeconomic variable towards JII and IHSG price, using Autoregression Distributed Lag (ARDL). The results show that the Consumer Price Index (CPI) and exchange rate (EXC) significantly affect the movement of the JII and IHSG price index. This indicates that the movement of the JII and IHSG index in the short term is influenced by domestic production and exchange rate. Furthermore, the results of the research show a little uniqueness in the crude oil price (COP) variable.Keywords: ARDL, Macroeconomic, Oil price, Islamic stockJEL Classifications: E44, F41, Q43
      DOI : https://doi.org/10.32479/ijeep.10911
      PubDate: 2021-08-20
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2021)
       
  • Attention of Economic Growth and Oil Prices: Evidence from Indonesia

    • Authors: Yijo Syaharuddin, Purwadi Purwadi, Alexander Sampeliling
      Pages: 425 - 433
      Abstract: Oil is a commodity that can cause turmoil for the global economy. This study attempts to examine the relationship between oil prices and economic growth together with the exchange rate and inflation rate in Indonesia. The time span covered by this series is from 2000 (Q1) to 2019 (Q4), providing 80 observations. Tests carried out in this study included unit root testing through Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) testing, Phillips-Perron (PP) testing, Kwiatkowski-Phillips-Schmidt-Shin (KPSS) testing, Johansen and Juselius cointegration test, Granger-based causality test. Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) to determine long-term and short-term relationships, and Variance Decomposition and Impulse Response Function to investigate relationships outside the sample. The empirical findings show that there is a relationship between variables, oil prices not only affect economic growth but also have an impact on the exchange rate and inflation rate. Furthermore, the results of the short-run Granger causality for the tested variables indicate a unidirectional causality that runs from all independent variables, namely oil prices, exchange rates, and the rate of inflation on GDP. In addition, there is a causal relationship between GDP and other determinants outside the sample. The addition of time-frames and variables can add to the variance of the sustainability of these findings in the future.Keywords: Oil price shocks, Economic growth, Panel data, Regression method, Indonesia.JEL Classification: D24, A1, C23
      DOI : https://doi.org/10.32479/ijeep.11538
      PubDate: 2021-08-20
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2021)
       
  • Indonesia’s Incentive Policies on Electric Vehicles: The Questionable
           Effort from the Government

    • Authors: Mailinda Eka Yuniza, I Wayan Bhayu Eka Pratama, Rahmah Candrika Ramadhaniati
      Pages: 434 - 440
      Abstract: This study seeks to solve the problems in the development of electric vehicles in Indonesia and focuses on incentive policies with related theories compared with other countries. As an effort to realize an environmentally friendly industry, electric vehicles have become a global trend for states to develop, including in Indonesia. Electric vehicles as new discourse in Indonesia needs great support from the Government. In 2022, Indonesia itself targets the first production of domestic electric cars. In 2025, electric cars in Indonesia are targeted to reach 20% of the market. In this case, the Indonesian Government has sought to provide incentives for accelerating the development of electric vehicles through President Regulation Number 55 of 2019 regarding the Acceleration of the Battery Electric Vehicle Program for Road Transportation. However, this policy has not yet become a trigger mechanism for the public to switch to electric vehicles. The determinant factor for this adversity would be; there is a lack of incentives offered by the Government that can be obtained by the consumers. The author finds that the incentive policy provided through Government Regulation is still questionable because it has not been able to trigger the public to switch to electric vehicles.Keywords: Energy; Electric Vehicle; Incentives; Transportation; Indonesia.JEL Classifications: K4, R5
      DOI : https://doi.org/10.32479/ijeep.11453
      PubDate: 2021-08-20
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2021)
       
  • The Role of ICT and Energy Consumption on Carbon Emissions: An Australian
           Evidence Using Cointegration Test and ARDL Long-run and Short-run
           Methodology

    • Authors: Avishek Khanal
      Pages: 441 - 449
      Abstract: Information and communication technology (ICT) and energy consumption have substantially increased use over the last decade. It has become one of the essential aspects for improving the standard of life for many people. This study investigates the impact of internet use and energy consumption on the carbon emissions (CO2 emissions) using annual data from 1990 to 2019. For this investigation, ADF and PP unit root tests were applied with the Zivot-Andrews structural break for the unit root test. The paper implements the ARDL cointegration test, JJ cointegration test, and Bayer-Hanck test to check the long-run relationship between carbon dioxide emissions (CO2), internet use, and energy consumption with GDP and total population. The cointegration test results show that there exists a long-run relationship between the variables. The long-run findings reveal a negative impact of ICT on the environment, whereas energy consumption has a positive and significant impact on the environment. According to the short-run dynamics results, both internet usage and energy consumption have a positive and statistically significant impact. Thus, the government should increase subsidies and boost the adoption of high-efficiency appliances to lower energy usage.Keywords: ICT, Energy consumption, CO2, Cointegration tests, ARDL, AustraliaJEL Classifications: O30, Q43, Q54, Q56
      DOI : https://doi.org/10.32479/ijeep.11419
      PubDate: 2021-08-20
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2021)
       
  • Renewable Energy Consumption, Poverty Alleviation and Economic Growth
           Nexus in South Africa: ARDL Bounds Test Approach

    • Authors: Hlalefang Khobai
      Pages: 450 - 459
      Abstract: This study examines the relationship between renewable energy consumption, poverty alleviation and economic growth in South Africa. The paper applies the Autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) model to examine the long run relationship and the Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) to determine the direction of causality between the variables. Quarterly data is used for the period 1990 – 2018. The findings of the paper established a presence of a long run relationship between renewable energy consumption, poverty, economic growth, financial development and government expenditure. Specifically, renewable energy consumption and economic growth have a negative and significant impact on poverty in both long run and short run. The VECM suggest that renewable energy consumption Granger-causes both economic growth and poverty in the long. Moreover, there is a bidirectional causality flowing between poverty and economic growth. The results have important implication for renewable energy policy makers as it can be realised that policies that promote adoption of clean technology will alleviate poverty in South Africa.Keywords: Renewable energy consumption, poverty alleviation, economic growth, South AfricaJEL Classifications: C32, D04, Q47, Q42, Q01
      DOI : https://doi.org/10.32479/ijeep.7215
      PubDate: 2021-08-20
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2021)
       
  • Determinants of Biofuels Production and Consumption, Green Economic Growth
           and Environmental Degradation in 6 Asia Pacific Countries: A Simultaneous
           Panel Model Approach

    • Authors: Anggi Putri Kurniadi, Hasdi Aimon, Syamsul Amar
      Pages: 460 - 471
      Abstract: This study aims to fill the gaps in previous research in the form of development studies between production and consumption biofuels, green economic growth and environmental degradation in 6 selected Asia Pacific countries (Australia, China, India, Indonesia, South Korea and Thailand) by considering the determinants during the period 2007-2020. This study used a simultaneous panel model approach. The important findings of this study are grouped into 4 analysis models. First, biofuels consumption, capital formation, labor and foreign direct investment have a positive effect on biofuels production. Second, biofuels production, foreign direct investment, GDP per capita and trade openness have a positive effect on biofuels consumption. Third, biofuels production, biofuels consumption and technological innovation have a positive effect on green economic growth, while militarization has a negative effect. Fourth, biofuels production, biofuels consumption, green economic growth and cleaner energy have a negative effect on environmental degradation, while population and poverty have a positive effect. The development of biofuels oil is aimed at realizing the transition from fossil-based energy to biomass-based energy which is expected to be environmentally friendly and sustainable. Biofuels oil has great potential in supporting renewable energy development to increase green economic growth and reduce environmental degradation.Keywords: Biofuels Production, Biofuels Consumption, Green Economic Growth, Environmental Degradation, Simultaneous Panel Model, Asia PacificJEL Classification: C33, C51, Q21, Q43
      DOI : https://doi.org/10.32479/ijeep.11563
      PubDate: 2021-08-20
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2021)
       
  • The Management Efficiency of the Sustainable Development Policy under
           Thailand’s Energy Law: Enriching the SEM-based on the ARIMAXi model

    • Authors: Pruethsan Sutthichaimethee, Danupon Ariyasajjakorn
      Pages: 472 - 482
      Abstract: The purpose of this research is to analyze the relationship of causal factors and the error correction ability of these factors, including economic growth, government policy, and environmental growth, under the energy law of Thailand. This research proposes a novel structural equation model called the “Structural Equation Model based on Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average with Observed Variables (SEM-based on the ARIMAXi model)”. The validity of this proposed model is confirmed upon testing the goodness of fit and white noise property. Upon analysis, this research reveals that the SEM-based on the ARIMAXi (1,1,1) model is composed of causal factors, where economic growth was found to be related to environmental growth with an influential impact rate of 0.76 per cent at a confidence interval of 99 per cent. The relationship between economic growth and government policy was also detected to have a 0.51 per cent impact at a confidence interval of 99 per cent. Furthermore, this research identifies government policy as being related to environmental growth with an impact of 0.19 per cent at a confidence interval of 99 per cent. In addition, this research indicates that economic growth is the strongest factor with an error correction ability of -0.74, followed by government policy and environmental growth factors with an error correction ability of -0.45 and -0.06, respectively. With the weakest error correction ability in environmental growth, this suggests that the government must intervene in taking action to preserve the environment.Keywords: Structural Equation Model, greenhouse gases, carrying capacity, energy consumption, Error Correction Mechanism, causal factors.JEL Classifications: P28, Q42, Q43, Q47, Q48
      DOI : https://doi.org/10.32479/ijeep.9995
      PubDate: 2021-08-20
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2021)
       
  • Russia’s Petroleum Industry in the Period of Sanctions and COVID-19
           Pandemic: A Review and Analysis

    • Authors: Meiramkul Saiymova, Nurken Baikadamov, Yuliya Tyurina, Georgiy Kutsuri, Lola Sanginova, Marija Troyanskaya
      Pages: 483 - 489
      Abstract: Russia’s four largest petroleum companies, Rosneft, Surgutneftegaz, Gazprom Neft, and Lukoil, account for more than 50% of petroleum production and 70% of the demand in Russia’s drilling market. All these four petroleum companies are profoundly relaying on Foreign Direct Investments (FDI) and import of equipment and technologies. FDI have been mostly received from European Union (EU) countries and United States (U.S.) and also these countries have been major providers of equipment and technologies including technologies for offshore development, horizontal, controlled-angle, and directional drilling, hydraulic fracturing, catalysts for oil processing and petrochemicals, and geological and seismic exploration. However, since applying economic sanctions against Russia by EU and U.S. in 2014 due to Crimea annexation and Ukrainian crisis, the situation with FDI and access to technologies has been dramatically changed. Keeping with the analytical separation between economic and non-economic sanctions and using concept of political economy of energy, this paper focuses on economic energy sanctions, and for brevity refer to them as energy sanctions with emphasizes on technology export ban, foreign capital ban, state support of petroleum industry and in addition, because of the crucial role that petroleum industry plays in the Russian economy, the paper discusses the impact of both energy sanctions and COVID-19 pandemic on national economy.Keywords: Petroleum industry, Covid-19, Russia, Energy SanctionsJEL Classifications: P4, P48; Q4, Q43; K3, K32
      DOI : https://doi.org/10.32479/ijeep.11385
      PubDate: 2021-08-20
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2021)
       
  • Improve the Incremental Block Tariffs of Electricity: To Harmonize Pricing
           Policy Targets in the New Context of Power Supply and Demand in Vietnam

    • Authors: Xuan Hoi Bui
      Pages: 490 - 498
      Abstract: The existing retail electricity tariff for households in Vietnam is the incremental block structure. However, the most recent revision of the electricity tariff structure was in 2014 which it was 7 years - a long period of change in conditions of electricity supply and consumption leading to the need to adjust this structural price appropriately. This article provides an in-depth analysis of the current residential block tariff of residential electricity use to identify shortcomings, thereby, for building options to improve this incremental block tariff structure to ensure the harmonization of different pricing targets especially the equity, efficiency and promote the electricity saving, in the new context of electricity supply and demand in Vietnam.Keywords: Electricity pricing policy, incremental block tariff, Electricity of VietnamJEL Classifications : D4, Q31, Q41, Q43. Q48
      DOI : https://doi.org/10.32479/ijeep.11534
      PubDate: 2021-08-20
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2021)
       
  • Investigating the N-Shaped Energy-Environmental Kuznets Curve Hypothesis
           in Saudi Arabia

    • Authors: Haider Mahmood, Muhammad Tanveer, Maham Furqan
      Pages: 499 - 503
      Abstract: The Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) is extensively investigated in the literature, but testing of energy-EKC is scarce in the literature. The testing of energy-EKC is very important for extensive nonrenewable energy users. This research investigated the energy and growth cubic relationship in Saudi Arabia to verify the N-shaped energy EKC from 1970-2019. The estimated long-run parameters of linear, quadratic, and cubic terms of economic growth are found positive, negative, and positive, respectively. Hence, energy-EKC is corroborated in Saudi Arabia in the long run with the first turning point of N-curve at Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita of 19277 constant US dollar and the second point at 30880. Hence, the increasing GDP per capita before 19277 and after 30880 would increase energy use and have environmental consequences. The increasing GDP per capita between 19277 and 30880 would decrease energy consumption and is pleasant for the environment. The same behavior of energy usage is found in the short run. Hence, the energy-EKC is also validated in the short run.  Keywords: The energy EKC, energy consumption, economic growth, cointegrationJEL Classifications: Q42, O44, C22 
      DOI : https://doi.org/10.32479/ijeep.11573
      PubDate: 2021-08-20
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2021)
       
  • Renewable Energy and Economic Growth Nexus: A Case of United Arab
           Emirates.

    • Authors: Farrukh Nawaz Kayani
      Pages: 504 - 509
      Abstract: The study empirically examined the relationship between renewable energy consumption and economic growth in case of United Arab Emirates (UAE).  We took annual time series data for the variables that include renewable energy consumption, GDP per capita, capital formation, employment, and trade openness for the time period ranging from 1996 to 2018. Initially, we applied the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) model for assessing the long-run relationship among the variables. We got confronted with the issue of Multicollinearity as we found the intercorrelations among the independent variables. Therefore, we adopted the alternative approach of Oridnary Least Square technique (OLS) for guaging the relationship between renewable energy and economic growth. We ran two different OLS equations, in the first equation we took renewable energy as dependent and economic growth as independent varibiable. In the second equation, we took economic growth as dependent and renewable energy as independent variable. In both of the cases, the results confirm that there is insignficnat realtionship between renewable energy consumption and economic growth. The reason could be that UAE is primarly dependent upon avaiation, tourism, hotelling, construction and real estate industries for revenues generation.Keywords: Renewable Energy, Sustainable Development, Economic Growth, Fossil Fuels, United Arab Emirates.JEL Classifications:Q01, Q4, Q42
      DOI : https://doi.org/10.32479/ijeep.11559
      PubDate: 2021-08-20
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2021)
       
  • Modelling Five Variables BVAR for Economic Policies and Growth in
           Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan and Russia: 2005–2020

    • Authors: Ivan Aleksandrovich Kopytin, Nikolay Petrovich Pilnik, Ivan Pavlovich Stankevich
      Pages: 510 - 518
      Abstract: The paper applies the Bayesian Vector Auto Regression (BVAR) framework to analysis of the influence of world oil price and exchange rate and interest rate policies on economic growth and consumer inflation in three post-Soviet oil exporters: Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan and Russia. It is shown that transition to inflation targeting regime with floating exchange rate in 2014 – 2015 weakened the link between economic growth and world oil price in Russia and Kazakhstan. In Azerbaijan previously nonexistent systemic link between GDP growth and world oil price has emerged. It is also shown that all three countries de facto diverted from free floating exchange rate regime after 2017.Keywords: Brent Oil Price, Nominal Exchange Rate, Economic growth, Interest Rate, Inflation.JEL Classifications: С11, C32, E37, E61, F43
      DOI : https://doi.org/10.32479/ijeep.11324
      PubDate: 2021-08-20
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2021)
       
  • Assessment of the Impact of Managing Large Energy-Using Users on National
           Energy Efficiency of Vietnam

    • Authors: Nguyen Dat Minh, Duong Trung Kien
      Pages: 519 - 530
      Abstract: Viet Nam continues to experience high economic growth compared to regional and global economies. The average gross domestic product (GDP) growth rate reached approximately 6.8 % from 2016 to present. This economic growth, in combination with urbanization and rapid population growth, has boosted demand for energy in general and electricity in particular. The Government of Viet Nam is well aware that it needs to balance the need for increasing energy supply for socio-economic growth with ensuring energy security and environmental protection. This paper reviews the assessment of the impact of managing the large-energy-users on national energy efficiency and more coherent and consistent national-level regulatory framework contributing to low carbon policy for the Vietnam industry. From the scenario assessment, this paper indicated significant potential for improving the scope of managing the large-scale enterprises on improved compliance for energy efficiency to achieve the target of energy security and sustainable development for Vietnam.Keywords: Energy Efficiency, Energy Policy, Large Energy User, Vietnam Industry.JEL Classifications: L5, P18, Q43, Q47, Q48
      DOI : https://doi.org/10.32479/ijeep.11356
      PubDate: 2021-08-20
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2021)
       
  • Renewable Energies and their Advantages for the Sustainability of
           Companies in the Health Sector

    • Authors: Evaristo Navarro Manotas, Remedios Pitre Redondo, Janeka López Contreras, Meredith Jiménez Cardenas, Hugo Hernandez Palma
      Pages: 531 - 537
      Abstract: The main purpose of the article is to analyze from an integral perspective the main contributions that this technology has in the health sector, as an initiative to adapt its management to the moment of ecological need that is lived all over the world. A descriptive qualitative approach is proposed, using documentary analysis techniques. To this end, an exhaustive review of the recent literature on renewable energies and their potential application in the health sector is carried out.  As part of the results, the dramatic situation of the generation of hazardous and non-hazardous waste from operations in the health sector is highlighted, as well as some viable initiatives that can be implemented in order to reduce these effects. The revised literature constitutes a good part of the recent publications on the subject, however, it did not cover all the scientific articles, therefore, it does not constitute a unique vision of the current situation of the management of renewable energies in the health sector. The article is aimed at responding to a globally recognized problem that is affecting not only human life, but also the various ecosystems that cohabit on the planet.Keywords: Renewable energy, health sector, environmental management, hazardous waste, green hospitals.JEL Classifications: Q42, Q48, G17 
      DOI : https://doi.org/10.32479/ijeep.9975
      PubDate: 2021-08-20
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2021)
       
  • The Influence of Oil Price Volatility and Price Limit in Indonesia Energy
           Sub-Sector for the Period Before and After Covid-19

    • Authors: Mohammad Benny Alexandri, Supriyanto Supriyanto
      Pages: 538 - 544
      Abstract: This study aims to analyze the determinants of the influence of oil price volatility and price limits on Energy sub-sector companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange in 2018-2021 before and after Covid-19. This study uses the Eviews 10 program as information preparation and the results of irregular influence are selected to see the relationship between the dependent and independent variables which calculates oil price volatility (WTI), price limit (PL), return on assets (ROA), earnings per share (EPS) , and exchange rate (FOREX). The result is that the current proportion, the ratio of Return on Resources (ROA), and Trade Rate (FOREX) do not affect stock returns. Price limit (PL), Earning Per Share (EPS), and World Oil Cost (WTI) affect the return of shares of energy sub-sector companies, namely oil and coal which are listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange in 2018-2021 period before and after Covid-19.Keywords: Oil Price, Price Limit, Probability, Forex, Covid-19JEL Classifications: E22, E44, G11, O42, Q47
      DOI : https://doi.org/10.32479/ijeep.11557
      PubDate: 2021-08-20
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2021)
       
  • Modelling the Environmental Kuznets Curve of Water Pollution Impact on
           Economic Growth in Developing Country

    • Authors: Halimahton Borhan, Abdul Rahim Ridzuan, Geetha Subramaniam, Suhaida Mohd Amin, Rosfadzimi Mat Saad
      Pages: 545 - 552
      Abstract: This study attempts to examine the water pollution-economic growth relationship by using the environmental Kuznets curve analysis for the situation in Malaysia. This study estimates a simultaneous equation that is related to the level of pollution, the Gross Domestic Product per capita, and other covariates. Water pollution is measured in terms of Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), Cadmium (CD) and Arsenic (AS). The per capita Gross Domestic Product was measured quarterly for the period 1996 to 2018. The study output supports the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis for all measures of water pollutants examined here. The income equation revealed the negative significant impact of pollution, BOD and physical capital’s favorable influence on income. From these expected outcomes it is clear that Malaysia’s relevant policies should aim primarily to overcome the pollution problems but should not neglect economic growth sustainability. This would include the implementation of policies that do not disregard the needs of economic growth and development; execute strategies that will contribute to a decrease in greenhouse gas emissions; improve public awareness on environmental issues in Malaysia; give additional incentives to industries that comply with policy requirements; implement advanced and tertiary pollution control measures to decrease pollution; implementation of financial incentives to encourage invest in appropriate technology especially sewerage systems; and development of a solid monitoring and inventory system to be implemented by the relevant government authorities.Keywords: Environmental Kuznets Curve, pollution, Gross Domestic ProductJEL Classifications: O11, Q53, Q54, Q56
      DOI : https://doi.org/10.32479/ijeep.11571
      PubDate: 2021-08-20
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2021)
       
  • The Impacts of Rural Population Growth, Energy use and Economic Growth on
           CO2 Emissions

    • Authors: Mohd Shahidan Shaari, Noorazeela Zainol Abidin, Abdul Rahim Ridzuan, Muhammad Saeed Meo
      Pages: 553 - 561
      Abstract: Air pollution can have a repercussion on human health. Economic activity and non-renewable use can lead to pollution. CO2 emissions are widely used by previous studies as a proxy for environmental degradation. CO2 emissions exhibit upward trends in most countries including developing countries. The environmental issue has set alarm bells ringing; thus, this study embarks on an investigation into the impacts of energy use, economic growth and rural population growth on CO2 emissions. The novelty of this study is to explore the impact of rural population growth on CO2 emissions. The panel ARDL method is employed to analyze data from 1990 to 2015 in 9 selected developing countries with different geographical regions. The results disclose that in the long run, higher energy use and economic growth can increase CO2 emissions while rural population growth does not cause any change in CO2 emissions. Rural population growth does not also influence CO2 emissions in the short run. However, energy consumption and economic growth can be detrimental to the environment in the short run. Therefore, these findings are important for policymakers to formulate policies. More renewable energy sources, such as hydro and biofuel, should be used instead of non-renewable energy sources, such as oil and coal. This can reduce CO2 emissions.Keywords: Energy use, Population, Economic Growth, CO2 emissionsJEL Classifications: O11, Q43, Q53, Q56
      DOI : https://doi.org/10.32479/ijeep.11566
      PubDate: 2021-08-20
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2021)
       
  • Oil Price, Gold Price, Exchange Rate and Stock Market in Iraq Pre-During
           COVID19 Outbreak: An ARDL Approach

    • Authors: Zeravan Abdulmuhsen Asaad
      Pages: 562 - 571
      Abstract: This study used the econometrics methods to identify the interactions among oil price, gold price, exchange rate, and stock price which represented by the (ISX60) index under the Iraq stock exchange pre-during global pandemic of COVID19. The analysis employed daily data which categorized into three time periods: full sample pre-during COVID19 from 24 December 2018 to 3 September 2020, the pre-COVID19 period from 31 December 2018 to 30 December 2019, as well as during-COVID19 from 27 December 2019 to 3 September 2020 in order to measure the interactions between the variables for each period. To accomplish that the study used the correlation matrix, unit root test to assure the stationary for the ARDL model and the granger causality test. The correlation output showed different results between the variables based on the period division. Furthermore, the study results accepted the null hypothesis of no cointegration exists between the variables respectively for the (Full sample Pre-during and pre-COVID19) period, and no decision could be made about the long-run relationship amongst the variables for the (during-COVID19) period, while the results of the causal short-run model showed that effect of oil price, gold price and exchange rate insignificant with Iraq stock exchange.Keywords: COVID19 Outbreak, Oil Price, Gold Price, Exchange Rate, Stock MarketJEL Classifications: F31, C01, G12, G15
      DOI : https://doi.org/10.32479/ijeep.11552
      PubDate: 2021-08-20
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2021)
       
  • Convergence CO2 Emission in ASEAN Countries: Augmented Green Solow Model
           Approach

    • Authors: Edy Yusuf Agung Gunanto, Tri Wahyu, Jaka Aminata, Banatul Hayati
      Pages: 572 - 578
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to analyze convergence and factors that affect CO2 growth in ASEAN countries. The model used is the Augmented Green Solow Model developed by Rios & Gianmoena (a2018) based on Brock & Taylor (2004, 2010) which takes into account spatial effects. This study found that during the period 1971-2019, ASEAN countries experienced convergence which was shown to be a significant and negative coefficient of initial CO2, but was fairly slow compared to other studies or regions. Significant variables affect CO2/capita growth in ASEAN countries, namely physical capital investment and trade openness that increases emissions, while human capital significantly reduces emissions. Significant spatial effects occur in initial CO2/capita, physical capital investment, and human capital. The Kyoto Protocol was found to be insignificant in CO2/capita growth in ASEAN countries.Keywords: CO2, Convergence, Green Solow ModelJEL Classifications: C23, O13, O44, Q53, Q56
      DOI : https://doi.org/10.32479/ijeep.11582
      PubDate: 2021-08-20
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2021)
       
  • Impact of Oil Price Fluctuations on Economic Growth in Saudi Arabia:
           Evidence from a Nonlinear ARDL Approach

    • Authors: Tomader Elhassan
      Pages: 579 - 585
      Abstract: This study examined the asymmetric impact of oil price on economic growth in Saudi Arabia in 1970–2020 using annual data from the Saudi Central Bank and the World Bank. Applying a nonlinear autoregressive distributed lag model, this research focuses on the impact of oil price fluctuations, separating oil prices into negative and positive shocks. The results revealed the statistical significance of positive shocks on the partial sum of oil prices in both the short- and long term, whereas negative shocks had long term, but not short term, statistical significance on economic growth. The effect of positive shocks in oil price was greater than the effect of negative shocks in the long- and short term, and negative shocks were not an area of concern for the Saudi economy. Moreover, the coefficient of error correction terms (−1) had a negative and statistically significant value, indicating that any shock in the past years was corrected within one year at a rate of 54%. This study provides practical insights supporting policymakers’ development of sound policies and useful findings and approaches for economists and energy researchers. The promotion of advanced technology policies to reduce the economic risks of oil price fluctuations is essential.Keywords: Asymmetric, Oil Price Fluctuations, Economic Growth, NARDL, Saudi ArabiaJEL Classifications: C32, E32, E32, F43, O47, Q43
      DOI : https://doi.org/10.32479/ijeep.11574
      PubDate: 2021-08-20
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2021)
       
  • Impact of Photovoltaic Microgrid System on Renewable Energy Building

    • Authors: Hussain Attia
      Pages: 586 - 592
      Abstract: This paper analyzes the supportive function of the photovoltaic PV system in integrating the microgrid role to deliver the necessarily clean electricity to the individual dwellings. The study focuses on the merit of the flexibility in designing a renewable energy PV system in terms of power quality and quantity, in addition to reducing the air pollution by reducing the dependency on the conventional power generation station. A comparison between a direct current DC microgrid and an alternating current AC microgrid is shown in terms of system’s components and requirements. The process of an algorithm for the Maximum Power Point Tracking MPPT to guarantee a higher level of harvested energy is also shown. A PV system design is introduced in this study for a desired power level generating to satisfy the electricity requirements of a small scale dwelling with a maximum power delivering capability of 9 kW. MATLAB/Simulink is adopted to investigate and evaluate the PV system performance in guaranteeing the MPPT functioning.Keywords: Renewable energy sources, Microgrid system, traditional power station, Photovoltaic PV panel, MPPT algorithm, MATLAB/Simulink.JEL Classifications: C3689, D4, Q24
      DOI : https://doi.org/10.32479/ijeep.11603
      PubDate: 2021-08-20
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2021)
       
  • Energy Tax and the Downstream Palm Oil Trade Competitiveness Nexus in
           Malaysia: An Application of GMM Approach

    • Authors: Norashida Othman, Zulkornain Yusop, Mohd Mansor Ismail, Syamsul Herman Mohammad Afandi
      Pages: 593 - 599
      Abstract: This paper analyses the impact of energy tax imposed in European Union countries on Malaysia’s downstream palm oil trade competitiveness. The competitiveness factors consist four major attributes adopted from Porter Diamond Model (PDM) framework introduced by Porter (1990) that determine the national competitiveness and analyses using the dynamic generalized method of moments (GMM) proposed by Arellano and Bond (1991). The study utilizes yearly data spanning from 2009 until 2016. The results indicate that energy taxes have positive and significant influence on Malaysia’s trade competitiveness of palm oil downstream products (oleochemicals, biodiesel and palm-based finished products) and the result also suggests that all the main factors of PDM (i.e factor condition; demand condition; firm strategy and rivalry; and related supporting industry) significantly influence the competitiveness of the industry. The policy recommendation remains that, in order for Malaysia to improve the competitiveness of palm oil downstream industries, producers need to ensure that the country's palm oil production is sustainable, which is stipulated by international agreements, especially in EU countries, where environmental sustainability is their main concern.Keywords: Competitiveness, Palm Oil Downstream, Energy tax, Porter Hypothesis, DGMMJEL Classifications: A11, Q02, R11
      DOI : https://doi.org/10.32479/ijeep.11558
      PubDate: 2021-08-20
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2021)
       
  • Indicators of Environmental and Economic Problems Priority Arising from
           Energy Use in Food Manufacturing Sector in Realizing Sustainable
           Development Policy under Thai Environmental Law Framework

    • Authors: Pruethsan Sutthichaimethee, Danupon Ariyasajjakorn, Apinyar Chatchorfa, Boonton Dockthaisong, Sthianrapab Naluang, Sirapatsorn Wongthongdee, Nachatchaya Thongjan
      Pages: 600 - 608
      Abstract: This research was conducted to examine the true benefit of energy consumption within the scope of energy cost, as well as model a forecasting tool for energy cost in food manufacturing industry. It was limited to the analysis of true benefit of the consumption, energy cost, forward-and-backward relationship, and prediction of future energy cost during the next 10 years ranging from 2021 to 2030, and 20 years ranging from 2021 to 2040. The analysis was made possible via an application of ARIMAX model optimizing the input-output table of Thailand. As for the result, it reveals that the product of tobacco is found with the highest true value of benefit. While candy and sweets, sugar, breweries, corn, distilled spirit, slaughtering, milled rice, coffee and tea, and canned meat are respectively detected. In taking forward-and-backward relationship into account, a close monitoring is required for the sector of canned meat and milled rice, respectively. Since the developed model is confirmed for its validity, an optimization of RMSE, MAE, and MAPE measurement for 10 years (2021-2030) and 20 years (2021-2040) prediction of energy cost would result in the following outcomes; 1) a gradual increase of 41.86 percent is estimated for the energy cost by 2030 compared to 2021 per illustration in Model 1, and 2) energy cost is calculated at a steadily increased 70.79% by 2040 in comparison with 2021 per presentation in Model 2.Keywords: economic problem, environmental law, sustainability, Food Manufacturing sector, energy costJEL Classifications: P28, Q42, Q43, Q47, Q48
      DOI : https://doi.org/10.32479/ijeep.11515
      PubDate: 2021-08-20
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2021)
       
  • Public Sector Policy of Estimating Model for Renewable Energy

    • Authors: Saring Suhendro, Mega Matalia, Sari Indah Oktanti Sembiring
      Pages: 609 - 613
      Abstract: Renewable energies are crucially needed right now. One of the them is ethanol as a non-fossil energy source. Data time-series of world demand for ethanol are very interesting to find its forecasting models, so that the production targets can be more accurate. Generalised auto-regressive conditional heteroscedasticity is one of the best models we use. Our findings AR(1) - Generalised Auto-Regressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity (GARCH) (1,1) modelsare considered as a good-fit measurement in predicting ethanol demand. Increasing the number of demand should be considered with the number of its processes. In this paper, we combine an analysis of economic considerations (predicting demand levels) with a political analysis of policies (describing renewable energy policy options).Keywords: Renewable energies, Ethanol, GARCH model, Forecasting, Energy policyJEL Classifications: C5, C53, H2, H25, Q4, Q47
      DOI : https://doi.org/10.32479/ijeep.11323
      PubDate: 2021-08-20
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2021)
       
  • What Drives Public Debt Growth' A Focus on Natural Resources,
           Sustainability and Development

    • Authors: Mubariz Mammadli, Elkhan Richard Sadik-Zada, Andrea Gatto, Rana Huseynova
      Pages: 614 - 621
      Abstract: Public debt is a notable measure of economic and financial sustainability which encountered policy and scholarly interest in the international development ambients. This paper investigates the major drivers of public debt growth in 184 countries. The underlying cross-country survey is conducted on the basis of the improved compilation of datasets on the central government debt for 2013. The study finds that oil abundance, economic growth rate, the share of mineral rent in the total revenue, interest rate payments for foreign borrowings, and being a developing country have a statistically significant impact on the growth of the public debt. In contrast, defence spending, unemployment rate, and inflation rate do not have a statistically significant positive impact on the public debt rate.Keywords: Public Debt, Natural Resources, Sustainability, Oil Rent, Mineral Rent, Defence Spending, Developing CountriesJEL Classifications: F21, F34, F36, G15, H6, N1, F3
      DOI : https://doi.org/10.32479/ijeep.10901
      PubDate: 2021-08-21
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2021)
       
  • Environmental Kuznets Curve: Economic Growth with Environmental
           Degradation In Indonesia

    • Authors: Panji Kusuma Prasetyanto, Farmila Sari
      Pages: 622 - 628
      Abstract: Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) is a hypothesis of the influence of the relationship between environmental degradation and economic growth (GDP per capita) in the perspective of economic development. The purpose of this research is to prove that there is an economic growth influence on environmental degradation in the U-shaped EKC hypothesis and to determine the influence of primary energy consumption, income inequality, education level and Environmental degradation in the Sustainable development of Indonesia. The study used the Error Correction Model (ECM) Engel and Granger estimation techniques to determine the short-term and long-term impact of the 1994-2018 period in Indonesia. The results showed that the EKC was proven in the short term as well as in the long term. Economic growth variables and primary energy consumption have a positive and significant effect on environmental degradation. Income inequality is negatively influential but not significant in the short or long term, the level of education in the short term is insignificant but positive and significant in the long term. For the export variables in the short term, the effect is positive and significant but not with long term against environmental degradation.Keywords: Carbondioxide emissions, Environment Kuznets Curve, Error Correction Model, economic growth, Sustainable DevelopmentJEL Classifications: O44, Q56
      DOI : https://doi.org/10.32479/ijeep.11609
      PubDate: 2021-08-22
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 5 (2021)
       
 
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