Subjects -> LAW (Total: 1397 journals)
    - CIVIL LAW (30 journals)
    - CONSTITUTIONAL LAW (52 journals)
    - CORPORATE LAW (65 journals)
    - CRIMINAL LAW (28 journals)
    - CRIMINOLOGY AND LAW ENFORCEMENT (161 journals)
    - FAMILY AND MATRIMONIAL LAW (23 journals)
    - INTERNATIONAL LAW (161 journals)
    - JUDICIAL SYSTEMS (23 journals)
    - LAW (843 journals)
    - LAW: GENERAL (11 journals)

LAW (843 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 5     

Showing 201 - 354 of 354 Journals sorted alphabetically
Evaluation Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Evidence & Policy : A Journal of Research, Debate and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Federal Law Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 48)
Feminist Legal Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
feminists@law     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Fiat Justisia     Open Access  
First Amendment Studies     Hybrid Journal  
Florida Bar News     Free  
Fordham Environmental Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Fordham Intellectual Property, Media and Entertainment Law Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Fordham Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Forensic Science International : Mind and Law     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
FORO. Revista de Ciencias Jurídicas y Sociales, Nueva Época     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Frónesis     Open Access  
Geoforum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
George Washington Law Review     Free   (Followers: 6)
Georgia State University Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
German Law Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Energy Law and Sustainability     Hybrid Journal  
Global Journal of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Global Labour Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Golden Gate University Environmental Law Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Golden Gate University Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Graduate Law Journal     Open Access  
Grey Room     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Griffith Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
GRUR International     Full-text available via subscription  
GSTF Journal of Law and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Hakam : Jurnal Kajian Hukum Islam dan Hukum Ekonomi Islam     Open Access  
Haramaya Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Harvard Environmental Law Review     Free   (Followers: 12)
Harvard Human Rights Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy     Free   (Followers: 34)
Harvard Journal of Law and Gender     Free   (Followers: 24)
Harvard Law Review     Free   (Followers: 93)
Hasanuddin Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Hastings Law Journal     Free   (Followers: 8)
Health Matrix : The Journal of Law-Medicine     Open Access  
Helsinki Law Review     Open Access  
High Court Quarterly Review, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Hofstra Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Horyzonty Polityki     Open Access  
Houston Law Review     Free   (Followers: 4)
Hukum Islam     Open Access  
IALS Student Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
IDÉIAS : Revista dos estudantes da Faculdade de Direito do Recife (UFPE)     Open Access  
IDP. Revista de Internet, Derecho y Politica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ihering : Cuadernos de Ciencias Jurídicas y Sociales     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Indian Law Review     Hybrid Journal  
Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies     Full-text available via subscription  
Indiana Law Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Indigenous Law Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Indigenous Peoples’ Journal of Law, Culture & Resistance     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indonesia Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indonesian Journal of Law and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Journal of Legal and Forensic Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Information & Communications Technology Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
InSURgência : revista de direitos e movimentos sociais     Open Access  
Inter: Revista de Direito Internacional e Direitos Humanos da UFRJ     Open Access  
Intergenerational Justice Review     Open Access  
International and Comparative Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Cybersecurity Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Data Privacy Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
International Free and Open Source Software Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Children's Rights     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
International Journal of Clinical Legal Education     Open Access  
International Journal of Culture and Modernity     Open Access  
International Journal of Disclosure and Governance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Healthcare Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Language & Law     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Law and Politics Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Law Reconstruction     Open Access  
International Journal of Legal Information     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 48)
International Journal of Legal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Liability and Scientific Enquiry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Marine and Coastal Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
International Journal of Mental Health and Capacity Law     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Public Legal Education     Open Access  
International Journal of Punishment and Sentencing, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Rural Law and Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Speech Language and the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Technology Policy and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of the Legal Profession     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Law Research     Open Access  
International Peacekeeping     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 249)
International Sports Law Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Theory: A Journal of International Politics, Law and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
IP Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Isonomía. Revista de Teoría y Filosofía del Derecho     Open Access  
Italian Review of Legal History     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Iter Ad Veritatem     Open Access  
Iuris Dictio     Open Access  
Iuris Tantum Revista Boliviana de Derecho     Open Access  
Ius Canonicum     Full-text available via subscription  
Ius et Praxis     Open Access  
IUS ET SCIENTIA     Open Access  
IUSTA : Derecho, investigación, conflicto, prácticas jurídicas     Open Access  
James Cook University Law Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Jeffrey S. Moorad Sports Law Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
JILS (Journal of Indonesian Legal Studies)     Open Access  
Jindal Global Law Review     Hybrid Journal  
John Marshall Law Review     Full-text available via subscription  
John Marshall Review of Intellectual Property Law     Free   (Followers: 8)
Journal for European Environmental & Planning Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of African Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Applied Law and Policy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Banking Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Journal of Business & Technology Law     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Commonwealth Law and Legal Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Conflict and Security Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Digital Forensics, Security and Law     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Dinamika Hukum     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Empirical Legal Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Energy & Natural Resources Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Environmental Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Environmental Policy & Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of European Consumer and Market Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Gender, Social Policy & the Law     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Human Security     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Information Rights, Policy and Practice     Open Access  
Journal of Intelligent Transportation Systems: Technology, Planning, and Operations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of International Peacekeeping     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 213)
Journal of Intervention and Statebuilding     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Islamic and Near Eastern Law     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Law and Conflict Resolution     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Law and Courts     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Law and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Law and Legal Reform     Open Access  
Journal of Law and Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Law and Regulation     Open Access  
Journal of Law and Religion     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Law and Social Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Law and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Journal of Law and the Biosciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Law, Policy and Globalization     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Law, Religion and State     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Legal Affairs and Dispute Resolution in Engineering and Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Legal Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Legal Anthropology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Legal Education     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Legal Pluralism and Unofficial Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Legal Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 46)
Journal of Legal Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Legal Studies Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Media Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of National Security Law & Policy     Free   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Nursing Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Penal Law & Criminology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Perpetrator Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Planning Education and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Police Crisis Negotiations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Politics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 53)
Journal of Politics and Law     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Property Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Property, Planning and Environmental Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Psychiatry & Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Supreme Court History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of the National Association of Administrative Law Judiciary     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Trafficking and Human Exploitation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Victimology and Victim Justice     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of World Energy Law & Business     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Judicial Officers Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Judicial Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Juridica International     Open Access  
Jurídicas CUC     Open Access  
Jurisdictie Jurnal Hukum dan Syariah     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Jurist-Diction     Open Access  
Jurnal Akta     Open Access  
Jurnal Bina Mulia Hukum     Open Access  
Jurnal Cakrawala Hukum     Open Access  
Jurnal Cita Hukum     Open Access  
Jurnal Daulat Hukum     Open Access  
Jurnal Hukum & Pembangunan     Open Access  
Jurnal Hukum dan Pembangunan Ekonomi     Open Access  
Jurnal Hukum dan Peradilan     Open Access  
Jurnal Hukum Magnum Opus     Open Access  
Jurnal hukum Prasada     Open Access  
Jurnal Hukum Respublica     Open Access  
Jurnal Idea Hukum     Open Access  
Jurnal Ilmiah Pendidikan Pancasila dan Kewarganegaraan     Open Access  
Jurnal Jurisprudence     Open Access  
Jurnal Justisia : Jurnal Ilmu Hukum, Perundang-undangan dan Pranata Sosial     Open Access  
Jurnal Magister Hukum Udayana (Udayana Master Law Journal)     Open Access  
Jurnal Mimbar Hukum Fakultas Hukum Universitas Gadjah Mada     Open Access  
Jurnal Notariil     Open Access  
Jurnal Pembaharuan Hukum     Open Access  
Jurnal Repertorium     Open Access  
Jurnal Suara Keadilan     Open Access  
Jus Cogens : A Critical Journal of Philosophy of Law and Politics     Hybrid Journal  
Jussens Venner     Full-text available via subscription  
Justiça do Direito     Open Access  
Justice Research and Policy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Justicia     Open Access  
Justicia Juris     Open Access  
Justitia et Pax     Open Access  
Kanun : Jurnal Ilmu Hukum     Open Access  
Kertha Patrika     Open Access  
Kertha Wicaksana     Open Access  

  First | 1 2 3 4 5     

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
International Journal of Legal Medicine
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.21
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 7  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1437-1596 - ISSN (Online) 0937-9827
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Altered DNA methylation at age-associated CpG sites in children with
           growth disorders: impact on age estimation'

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      Abstract: Age estimation based on DNA methylation (DNAm) can be applied to children, adolescents and adults, but many CG dinucleotides (CpGs) exhibit different kinetics of age-associated DNAm across these age ranges. Furthermore, it is still unclear how growth disorders impact epigenetic age predictions, and this may be particularly relevant for a forensic application. In this study, we analyzed buccal mucosa samples from 95 healthy children and 104 children with different growth disorders. DNAm was analysed by pyrosequencing for 22 CpGs in the genes PDE4C, ELOVL2, RPA2, EDARADD and DDO. The relationship between DNAm and age in healthy children was tested by Spearman’s rank correlation. Differences in DNAm between the groups “healthy children” and the (sub-)groups of children with growth disorders were tested by ANCOVA. Models for age estimation were trained (1) based on the data from 11 CpGs with a close correlation between DNAm and age (R ≥ 0.75) and (2) on five CpGs that also did not present significant differences in DNAm between healthy and diseased children. Statistical analysis revealed significant differences between the healthy group and the group with growth disorders (11 CpGs), the subgroup with a short stature (12 CpGs) and the non-short stature subgroup (three CpGs). The results are in line with the assumption of an epigenetic regulation of height-influencing genes. Age predictors trained on 11 CpGs with high correlations between DNAm and age revealed higher mean absolute errors (MAEs) in the group of growth disorders (mean MAE 2.21 years versus MAE 1.79 in the healthy group) as well as in the short stature (sub-)groups; furthermore, there was a clear tendency for overestimation of ages in all growth disorder groups (mean age deviations: total growth disorder group 1.85 years, short stature group 1.99 years). Age estimates on samples from children with growth disorders were more precise when using a model containing only the five CpGs that did not present significant differences in DNAm between healthy and diseased children (mean age deviations: total growth disorder group 1.45 years, short stature group 1.66 years). The results suggest that CpGs in genes involved in processes relevant for growth and development should be avoided in age prediction models for children since they may be sensitive for alterations in the DNAm pattern in cases of growth disorders.
      PubDate: 2022-05-12
       
  • Technical note: A comparison between rehydrating solutions in the
           pretreatment of mummified and corified skin for forensic microscopic
           examination

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      Abstract: Microscopic examination of mummified or corified skin may be of extreme importance for forensic purposes. However, standard histological samples in these cases are low-end, and preparation is burdened by several problems and so are diagnostic results: an improvement of these types of specimens is therefore advantageous. This study aims to identify the best performing rehydration solution among a fabric softener, a body lotion, and Sandison’s rehydrating solution. Samples of skin undergoing mummification or corification were collected from 25 corpses and each sample was divided into 4 fragments: one of these fragments was directly fixated in 4% formalin, one was previously treated with a tissue softener, another one was previously treated with a body lotion, and the last one was treated with Sandison’s solution. After 72 h, the pretreated samples were post-fixated in 4% formalin and then prepared for standard histological examination staining the histological slides with hematoxylin-eosin and Masson’s trichrome. At the microscopic examination, samples directly fixated in formalin were characterized by usual marked structural alterations and altered stainability, typical of such dry tissues. Vice versa, those previously treated appeared to be better-preserved even though with different improvement levels: body lotion made a medium–low-grade restoration of the tissues, and fabric softener a high-grade restoration, while Sandison’s rehydrating solution produced an optimal grade restoration. Sandison’s rehydrating solution was confirmed to be the best rehydrating substance for mummified and corified skin. Fabric softener could be, however, considered a valid substitute, being productive of high-grade microscopic yield.
      PubDate: 2022-05-11
       
  • Integrating the salivary microbiome in the forensic toolkit by 16S rRNA
           gene: potential application in body fluid identification and biogeographic
           inference

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      Abstract: Saliva is a common body fluid with significant forensic value used to investigate criminal cases such as murder and assault. In the past, saliva identification often relied on the α-amylase test; however, this method has low specificity and is prone to false positives. Accordingly, forensic researchers have been working to find new specific molecular markers to refine the current saliva identification approach. At present, research on immunological methods, mRNA, microRNA, circRNA, and DNA methylation is still in the exploratory stage, and the application of these markers still has various limitations. It has been established that salivary microorganisms exhibit good specificity and stability. In this study, 16S rDNA sequencing technology was used to sequence the V3-V4 hypervariable regions in saliva samples from five regions to reveal the role of regional location on the heterogeneity in microbial profile information in saliva. Although the relative abundance of salivary flora was affected to a certain extent by geographical factors, the salivary flora of each sample was still dominated by Streptococcus, Neisseria, and Rothia. In addition, the microbial community in the saliva samples in this study was significantly different from that in the vaginal secretions, semen, and skin samples reported in our previous studies. Accordingly, saliva can be distinguished from the other three body fluids and tissues. Moreover, we established a prediction model based on the random forest algorithm that could distinguish saliva between different regions at the genus level even though the model has a certain probability of misjudgment which needs more in-depth research. Overall, the microbial community information in saliva stains might have prospects for potential application in body fluid identification and biogeographic inference.
      PubDate: 2022-05-10
       
  • Forensic entomology in research and practice: an overview of forensic
           experts’ perceptions and scientific output in Brazil

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      Abstract: Given the growing demands for standardization of procedures for collection, preservation, and identification of insect specimens, this study aimed to identify how forensic entomology is used in Brazil and the perceptions of professionals involved in this process. We conducted: (1) bibliometric survey of the scientific production of forensic specialists from 2001 to 2020; (2) questionnaire applied to forensic professionals to verify their perceptions about the use of entomological evidence in practice. An increase in publications on Forensic Entomology was noticed in the last 5 years, mainly in the South and Northeast regions. Of the 82 respondents to the questionnaire, 62.8% deal with cadavers at least once a week, but 89.0% of the professionals who examine cadavers weekly find less than 10.0% colonized by insect larvae. Using entomological evidence to estimate PMI was mentioned by only 36.6% of the professionals. Most respondents stated no procedures related to collecting, handling, or identifying necrophagous insects in their daily practice. Regarding the chain of custody, 64.6% said they were aware of the changes in the regulations involving the collection and maintenance of forensic evidence. We emphasize the importance of collaboration between scientists at universities and crime scene examiners. Although the use of entomological evidence in criminal investigations in Brazil is still scarce, a growing interest in this area can be detected among forensic experts.
      PubDate: 2022-05-08
       
  • An experimental rat model of electric shock injury with isolated electric
           shock and water conduction: the histopathological changes on the skin and
           internal organs and the effect on biochemical parameters

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      Abstract: It is difficult to determine the cause of death in electric shock injuries when no trace can be determined on the skin, and this is accepted as a reason for negative autopsy. We aimed to determine useful parameters in the definition of the cause of deaths associated with electric shock and particularly those formed with water conduction. This study used a total of 42 rats, applied with fatal electric shock formed of isolated electric shock at 220 V and with water conduction. The serum NT-ProBNP and H-FABP levels were examined together with histopathological changes in the brain, cerebellum, brainstem, heart, liver and skin and the Bax, caspase-3 and HSP-60 antibody status in these tissues. A statistically significant difference was determined between the groups in respect of the serum H-FABP values and the immunohistochemical staining of the samples taken from the organs. In conclusion, this study is the first in literature with an experimental model of electric shock with water conduction. Using immunohistochemical and biochemical markers in deaths associated with isolated electric shock and electric shock with water conduction, the results of this study can contribute to the clarification of one of the reasons for negative autopsy in forensic medicine.
      PubDate: 2022-05-07
       
  • Caught in the act: impact of Crematogaster cf. liengmei (Hymenoptera:
           Formicidae) necrophagous behavior on neonate pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus
           L.) in the Western Cape Province of South Africa

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      Abstract: Ants have been documented as part of the entomo-sarcosaprophagous community. They have been known to alter the process of carcass decomposition due to their ability to feed on fly eggs/larvae and create post-mortem skin injuries. However, studies on the impact of ants on decomposing carcasses are scarce, especially within the Western Cape Province of South Africa. This study was part of a research project that utilized two (2) neonate pig carcasses in each month of the year to establish baseline data on the insect species associated with decomposing carcasses in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. In the early spring (September 2020), mid-autumn (May 2021), and mid-winter (July 2021) trials respectively, several individuals of Crematogaster cf. liengmei colonized the pig carcasses shortly after deployment. There, they fed on the flesh of the carcasses and further inflicted bite marks and conspicuous post-mortem skin lesions. Following the reduction in the presence of Crematogaster cf. liengmei specifically in the mid-winter trial, non-vital bleeding was observed as a consequence of the skin lesions. In the early spring, mid- and late autumn (May 2021), and early (June 2021) and mid-winter trials respectively, Crematogaster cf. liengmei prevented the formation of large maggot masses, principally through the predation of fly eggs, larvae, and adults. The observations recorded in this study are of considerable importance in forensic investigations as the effect of the necrophagous behavior of Crematogaster cf. liengmei on decomposing remains can be misinterpreted by inexperienced investigators during crime scene investigations and may alter post-mortem interval estimations.
      PubDate: 2022-05-07
       
  • Correction to: A guide to classify tattoo motives in Mexico as a tool to
           identify unknown bodies

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      PubDate: 2022-05-04
       
  • Reliability of aspartic acid racemization rate for chronological age
           estimation—a systematic review and meta-analysis

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      Abstract: Objective The biochemical approach of dental age using aspartic acid racemization has been widely reported. The aim of this systematic review was to determine the reliability and accuracy of dental age estimation using aspartic acid racemization rate analysis. Design Eight research databases (PubMed, Google Scholar, Embase, Cochrane, MEDLINE, TRIP, Web of Science, and Scopus) were utilised to gather and assess published literatures in compliance with the PRISMA 2020 guidelines and reported in PROSPERO (CRD42020208877). This systematic review and meta-analysis focused solely on cross-sectional studies. The quality evaluation was performed using the GRADE system. The standardized mean difference between estimated and chronological age was meta-analyzed using the random effects model. Result The literature review yielded 213 studies, of which 26 were considered acceptable for inclusion in this report. Out of 26 studies, 19 presented sufficient evidence for meta-analysis and the remaining 7 were used to construct a qualitative review. According to the meta-analysis, premolar-related studies had the least variability (Tau2 = 0.23; I2 = 72%) among other tooth groups. Conclusion A substantial degree of heterogeneity was found in every type of tooth. Only the premolar teeth had lower degree variability; thus, it is safe to believe that the premolar tooth is the best for this type of age estimation. It is recommended to develop population-specific mathematical equations to improve the accuracy of this age estimation approach.
      PubDate: 2022-05-03
       
  • Letter to the Editor regarding the article ‘ER stress-related protein,
           CHOP, may serve as a biomarker of mechanical asphyxia: a primary study’
           by Hu and colleagues

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      PubDate: 2022-05-01
       
  • Body-kun/body-chan style model figures for artists in forensic
           visualization applications

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      Abstract: Abstract Posture and body position are often in the focus of forensic medicine. Visualization for the purposes of documentation, teaching, scientific presentation or expert opinion in court is often desired. Plenty of possible tools to support visualization are available. However, there is a significant gap between quick drawings and more complex techniques. Body-chan (female) and body-kun (male) artist’s model figurines (genericized trademark) may provide a useful means to fill this gap. These models, about 12–15 cm in height, are multi-articulated humanoids of realistic proportions, intended to serve as models for manga (japanese comic) drawing. Plenty of different models are available in different quality which usually are equipped with interchangeable hand and feet attachments, a frame for ‘levitating’ positions as well as assorted objects to scale. These inexpensive models may be positioned quickly and intuitively. Photodocumentation from various angles can be performed using a mobile phone camera. Images may be further improved applying digital image manipulation software. Taken together, the process is quick and intuitive and the level of achievable complexity is sufficient for many forensic applications.
      PubDate: 2022-05-01
       
  • Creation of a Forensic Pathology Biobank in Switzerland: which issues and
           research opportunities'

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      Abstract: Abstract A biobank is a collection of biological material associated with health database. The field of biobanking has significantly developed over the past 30 years. Research based on biobank material gives access to data of a large number of people and can often significantly accelerate the understanding of disease and improve the quality of care. In the University Center of Legal Medicine Lausanne-Geneva, samples collected during autopsies are used for forensic investigations. The legal and ethical framework to use these samples for research is often complex and confused, which is unfortunate given the potential of these biospecimens. Indeed, forensic samples are valuable for research because they originate in part from young (including pediatrics cases) and healthy people who are poorly represented in worldwide institutional biobanks. In this context at the beginning of the year 2019, the Forensic Pathology Biobank was created. Creation of a forensic pathology biobank is the best way to standardize local conservation practices and improve personal data management, thus providing a very valuable biological material for scientific projects. Its development gives rise to many questions about technical standards, ethical and legal issues but also many research opportunities.
      PubDate: 2022-05-01
       
  • About the influence of environmental factors on the persistence of DNA
           — a long-term study

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      Abstract: Abstract DNA persistence and DNA transfer are important features in the assessment of a crime scene. The question how long DNA may persist at a certain location is similarly important as the one how the DNA has been transferred to this location. Depending on the source of the DNA as well as the conditions at the crime scene, the answer to this question is quite difficult. In this study, persistence of DNA from epithelial abrasions, blood cells, and saliva cells in indoor and outdoor scenarios has been investigated with regard to exposure time and exposure conditions including sunlight, temperature, and humidity in summer and winter scenarios. Overall, we generated 338 epithelial samples, 572 blood samples, and 572 saliva samples. A complete profile of the cell/DNA donor after exposure could be obtained in 47%, 65%, and 58% of epithelial abrasions, blood samples, and saliva samples, respectively. Regarding blood samples, there were no differences between supporting materials cloth and plastic; however, the percentage of complete profiles was higher for saliva samples on plastic and for epithelial samples on cloth. In indoor scenarios, complete profiles could be recovered from nearly all blood and saliva samples up to 9 months, whereas the amount of epithelial complete profiles already started to decline after 3 months. In outdoor scenarios, we observed a tipping point at an exposure time of 3 months. Blood and saliva samples collected after this period displayed complete profiles in less than 25% of samples. After 12 months, no outdoor sample showed a complete profile. The results of this study facilitate decisions on the relevance of recovered DNA from crime scenes.
      PubDate: 2022-05-01
       
  • Third trimester intrauterine fetal death: proposal for the assessment of
           the chronology of umbilical cord and placental thrombosis

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      Abstract: The timing of umbilical cord and placental thrombosis in the third trimester intrauterine fetal death (TT-IUFD) may be fundamental for medico-legal purposes, when it undergoes medical litigation due to the absence of risk factors.
      Authors apply to human TT-IUFD cases a protocol, which includes histochemistry and immunohistochemistry (IHC) for the assessment of thrombi’s chronology. A total of 35 thrombi of umbilical cord and/or placenta were assessed: 2 in umbilical artery, 6 in umbilical vein, 15 in insertion, 10 in chorionic vessels, 1 in fetal renal vein, 1 in fetal brachiocephalic vein. Thrombi’s features were evaluated with hematoxylin–eosin, Picro-Mallory, Von Kossa, Perls, and immunohistochemistry for CD15, CD68, CD31, CD61, and Smooth Muscle Actin. The estimation of the age of the thrombi was established by applying neutrophils/macrophages ratio taking into consideration, according to literature, the presence of hemosiderophagi, calcium deposition, and angiogenesis. To estimate an approximate age of fresh thrombi (< 1 day), a non-linear regression model was tested. Results were compared to maternal risk factors, fetal time of death estimated at autopsy, mechanism, and cause of death. Our study confirms that the maternal risk factors for fetal intrauterine death and the pathologies of the cord, followed by those of the placental parenchyma, are the conditions that are most frequently associated with the presence of thrombi. Results obtained with histological stainings document that the neutrophile/macrophage ratio is a useful tool for determining placental thrombi’s age. Age estimation of thrombi on the first day is very challenging; therefore, the study presented suggests the N/M ratio as a parameter to be used, together with others, i.e., hemosiderophagi, calcium deposition, and angiogenesis, for thrombi’s age determination, and hypothesizes that its usefulness regards particularly the first days when all other parameters are negative.
      PubDate: 2022-05-01
       
  • Performance of three mathematical models for estimating age-at-death from
           multiple indicators of the adult skeleton

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      Abstract: Abstract The mathematical method which will achieve the most accurate and precise age-at-death estimate from the adult skeleton is often debated. Some research promotes Bayesian analysis, which is widely considered better suited to the data construct of adult age-at-death distributions. Other research indicates that methods with less mathematical complexity produce equally accurate and precise age-at-death estimates. One of the advantages of Bayesian analysis is the ability to systematically combine multiple indicators, which is reported to improve the age-at-death estimate. Few comparisons exist between Bayesian analysis and less complex mathematical models when considering multiple skeletal indicators. This study aims to evaluate the performance of a Bayesian approach compared to a phase-based averaging method and linear regression analysis using multiple skeletal indicators. The three combination methods were constructed from age-at-death data collected from 330 adult skeletons contained in the Raymond A Dart and Pretoria Bone Collections in South Africa. These methods were tested and compared using a hold-out sample of 30 skeletons. As is frequently reported in literature, a balance between accuracy and precision was difficult to obtain from the three selected methods. However, the averaging and regression analysis methods outperformed the Bayesian approach in both accuracy and precision. Nevertheless, each method may be suited to its own unique situation—averaging to inform first impressions, multiple linear regression to achieve statistically defensible accuracies and precisions and Bayesian analysis to allow for cases where category adjustments or missing indicators are necessary.
      PubDate: 2022-05-01
       
  • Forensic bone age estimation of adolescent pelvis X-rays based on
           two-stage convolutional neural network

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      Abstract: Abstract In the forensic estimation of bone age, the pelvis is important for identifying the bone age of teenagers. However, studies on this topic remain insufficient as a result of lower accuracy due to the overlapping of pelvic organs in X-ray images. Segmentation networks have been used to automate the location of key pelvic areas and minimize restrictions like doubling images of pelvic organs to increase the accuracy of estimation. This study conducted a retrospective analysis of 2164 pelvis X-ray images of Chinese Han teenagers ranging from 11 to 21 years old. Key areas of the pelvis were detected with a U-Net segmentation network, and the findings were combined with the original X-ray image for regional augmentation. Bone age estimation was conducted with the enhanced and not enhanced pelvis X-ray images by separately using three convolutional neural networks (CNNs). The root mean square errors (RMSE) of the Inception-V3, Inception-ResNet-V2, and VGG19 convolutional neural networks were 0.93 years, 1.12 years, and 1.14 years, respectively, and the mean absolute errors (MAE) of these networks were 0.67 years, 0.77 years, and 0.88 years, respectively. For comparison, a network without segmentation was employed to conduct the estimation, and it was found that the RMSE of the three CNNs above became 1.22 years, 1.25 years, and 1.63 years, respectively, and the MAE became 0.93 years, 0.96 years, and 1.23 years. Bland–Altman plots and attention maps were also generated to provide a visual comparison. The proposed segmentation network can be used to reduce the influence of restrictions like image overlapping of organs and can thus increase the accuracy of pelvic bone age estimation.
      PubDate: 2022-05-01
       
  • Repeated poisoning of the life partner by thallium — a case of
           questionable Munchausen by adult proxy syndrome with ensuing attempted
           murder

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      Abstract: Abstract After the use of thallium as rat poison was banned, the knowledge about the severe and treacherous course of poisonings with this toxic metal has widely been lost. In the present case, the male victim sustained two insidious poisoning attacks in 2017 and 2020 by the perpetrator, his female life partner. In the first poisoning episode, he suffered from increasing heavy pain of the abdomen, stinging pain of both legs, persistent obstipation, hyperesthesia, and, after about 2 weeks, tuft-wise loss of hair as typical symptoms of the thallium poisoning. Within 7 weeks, he was successively examined in six hospitals with a wide variety of diagnostic methods, but a conclusive explanation of the complaints was not found. The possibility of a metal intoxication was then suggested by the perpetrator who privately arranged the analysis of a blood sample with the result of 175 µg/l thallium. Although a criminal poisoning was assumed, the perpetrator was not identified. After the victim left the perpetrator, she subtly executed a second poisoning attack with thallium sulfate (blood level 1230 µg/l after 1 day, urine level 4760 µg/l after 10 days, and hair concentrations 3.26–0.49 from proximal to distal in 9 segments). The perpetrator was sentenced to 10.5 years imprisonment for grievous bodily harm and attempted murder. Because of the behavior of the perpetrator, a Munchausen by proxy syndrome was discussed as a motivation of the first poisoning but was excluded by the psychiatric expert because of a missing antisocial personality disorder.
      PubDate: 2022-05-01
       
  • SARS-CoV-2 viral load and replication in postmortem examinations

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      Abstract: Abstract We examined 29 autopsy cases (investigated between October 2020 and February 2021) whose postmortem swabs tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. Twenty-two of 29 cases died while hospitalized (H), while the remaining 7 cases were not hospitalized (NH). Since we included only cases in which the time since death was known (excluding unwitnessed NH deaths), the interval between death and postmortem swab(s) was registered, with a mean NH value of 5.50 days and a mean H value of 3.98 days. The mean age of NH was 65 years, while H were older (mean age: 73 years). Twenty-eight nasopharyngeal and 27 lungs postmortem swabs were obtained and real-time reverse transcriptase‒polymerase chain reaction assay for total and replicative SARS-CoV-2 RNA and mRNA detection was performed. Although the mean death-postmortem swabs interval was higher in NH than in H, the mean viral load of NH was higher than that of H (2.53 × 1011 copies/mL vs 9.31 × 108 copies/mL). In 13/29 cases (6 NH and 7 H), indicators of active replication were found. The relationship between the presence of replicative mRNA and death without hospitalization and that between the minimum cycle threshold value of SARS-CoV-2 RNA and the cycle threshold value of replicative SARS-CoV-2 mRNA were found to be statistically significant (with respective P values of 0.013 and 0.000). Therefore, especially in NH, full compliance with guidelines on biological safety in the autopsy room is essential, and no autopsy can be performed on infected cases in a structure that does not meet the established safety criteria.
      PubDate: 2022-05-01
       
  • With or without human interference for precise age estimation based on
           machine learning'

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      Abstract: Abstract Age estimation can aid in forensic medicine applications, diagnosis, and treatment planning for orthodontics and pediatrics. Existing dental age estimation methods rely heavily on specialized knowledge and are highly subjective, wasting time, and energy, which can be perfectly solved by machine learning techniques. As the key factor affecting the performance of machine learning models, there are usually two methods for feature extraction: human interference and autonomous extraction without human interference. However, previous studies have rarely applied these two methods for feature extraction in the same image analysis task. Herein, we present two types of convolutional neural networks (CNNs) for dental age estimation. One is an automated dental stage evaluation model (ADSE model) based on specified manually defined features, and the other is an automated end-to-end dental age estimation model (ADAE model), which autonomously extracts potential features for dental age estimation. Although the mean absolute error (MAE) of the ADSE model for stage classification is 0.17 stages, its accuracy in dental age estimation is unsatisfactory, with the MAE (1.63 years) being only 0.04 years lower than the manual dental age estimation method (MDAE model). However, the MAE of the ADAE model is 0.83 years, being reduced by half that of the MDAE model. The results show that fully automated feature extraction in a deep learning model without human interference performs better in dental age estimation, prominently increasing the accuracy and objectivity. This indicates that without human interference, machine learning may perform better in the application of medical imaging.
      PubDate: 2022-05-01
       
  • Correction to: Repeated poisoning of the life partner by thallium — a
           case of questionable Munchausen by adult proxy syndrome with ensuing
           attempted murder

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      PubDate: 2022-03-09
       
  • Correction to: A stepwise strategy to distinguish menstrual blood from
           peripheral blood by Fisher’s discriminant function

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      PubDate: 2022-03-07
       
 
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