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Showing 801 - 354 of 354 Journals sorted alphabetically
Veredas do Direito : Direito Ambiental e Desenvolvimento Sustentável     Open Access  
Veritas et Justitia     Open Access  
Verstek     Open Access  
Vertentes do Direito     Open Access  
Via Inveniendi Et Iudicandi     Open Access  
Vianna Sapiens     Open Access  
Victoria University of Wellington Law Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Villanova Environmental Law Journal     Open Access  
Villanova Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Violence Against Women     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60)
VirtuaJus - Revista de Direito     Open Access  
Vniversitas     Open Access  
Vox Juris     Open Access  
Waikato Law Review: Taumauri     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Washington and Lee Journal of Energy, Climate, and the Environment     Open Access  
Washington and Lee Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Washington Law Review     Free   (Followers: 2)
Washington University Global Studies Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Washington University Journal of Law & Policy     Open Access  
Washington University Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Wayne Law Review     Free  
Western Journal of Legal Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Western New England Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
William & Mary Environmental Law and Policy Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
William & Mary Journal of Women and the Law     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
William and Mary Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Windsor Yearbook of Access to Justice / Recueil annuel de Windsor d'accès à la justice     Open Access  
Wirtschaftsrechtliche Blätter     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Wroclaw Review of Law, Administration & Economics     Open Access  
Yale Journal of Law & the Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Yale Journal of Law and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Yale Journal on Regulation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Yale Law Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 63)
Yearbook of European Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Yearbook of International Disaster Law Online     Full-text available via subscription  
Yuridika     Open Access  
Zuzenbidea ikasten : Irakaskuntzarako aldizkaria     Open Access  
交大法學評論     Open Access  

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Yale Journal of Law and Technology
Number of Followers: 12  

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Published by Yale University Homepage  [7 journals]
  • Arts, Vol. 10, Pages 68: The Colors of the Ineffable—Jerzy
           Nowosielski’s Monumental Works as a Contemporary Search for Sacred Space

    • Authors: Wojciech Stanisław Januszewski
      First page: 68
      Abstract: The subject of this work is the monumental art of Jerzy Nowosielski (1923–2011), one of the most outstanding contemporary Polish painters, who combined modernity with the orthodox icon aesthetics. This work discusses the monumental realizations of Nowosielski, especially the architectural polychromes made by the artist in Catholic and Orthodox churches in Poland in the years 1950–1999. The aim of the inquiry is to present his work theoretically and place it in a broader artistic context. The research shows that Nowosielski’s monumental works results from a strongly defined artistic concept aimed at ‘mystagogy of space’. Nowosielski’s work is an original synthesis of the modernist avant-garde and traditional canons of religious art. The analysis of the problem was carried out in two areas: (1) analysis of the artist’s theoretical statements; (2) analysis of the artistic form with particular emphasis on the color aspect, based on the example of selected churches in Wesoła, Tychy, and Biały Bór. The work uses comparative references to the ideas of Wassily Kandinsky, Kazimir Malevich, Piet Mondrian, and Le Corbusier.
      Citation: Arts
      PubDate: 2021-09-26
      DOI: 10.3390/arts10040068
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2021)
  • Arts, Vol. 10, Pages 69: “Pro Honore et Libertate Ecclesiae Invicta
           Fortitude Sustinuit”—The Oratory of St Thomas Becket in the Cathedral
           of Anagni

    • Authors: Claudia Quattrocchi
      First page: 69
      Abstract: On the 9th of October, 1170 Pope Alexander III resided in Anagni, which had been the ancient residence of the court of the Popes for at least two centuries. He wrote to two influential local archbishops for help in pacifying King Henry II and Archbishop Thomas Becket, who had been in dispute for six years. Sensing Becket’s looming tragic fate, Alexander III began slowly to encircle the archbishop with rhetoric of the new martyr of Libertas Ecclesiae. When he had to flee from Rome besieged by factions led by Frederick I, the pope found refuge in Segni, where he canonised Thomas Becket on 21 February 1173. However, it was in faithful Anagni that he settled on and off from March 1173 through the following years (November 1176; December 1177–March 1178; September 1179). It was here that he decided to elaborate a powerful speech in images. In an oratory in the crypt of the grandiose cathedral, Alexander III had the last painful moments of the Archbishop’s death painted in a program imitating that of St. Peter’s in the Vatican. Becket thus became the new imitator of Christ, the new Peter, the new martyr on the altar of the Church of Rome.
      Citation: Arts
      PubDate: 2021-10-12
      DOI: 10.3390/arts10040069
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2021)
  • Arts, Vol. 10, Pages 70: Branding Baldung

    • Authors: Larry Silver
      First page: 70
      Abstract: Hans Baldung (1484/85–1545) emerged as an artist under the shadow of Germany’s most famous contemporary artist, Albrecht Dürer (1471–1528), thus as a younger rival with considerable catching up to do. His time as a young artist with Dürer in Nuremberg (1503-ca. 1507) prompted Baldung to develop his own innovative imagery, even as it prepared him with the skills of later activity in drawings, woodcut prints, and, finally, paintings. Nuremberg also gave him his first contacts with prestigious patrons, local at first but also farther away, surely through Dürer’s well established network to nobility in Saxony. Afterward, once he was out on his own, Baldung quickly turned his acquired skills and recognizable style into his own definitive, deeply pessimistic imagery about human limitations and mortality, especially when measured against the awesome, holy magnitude of Christ and the saints.
      Citation: Arts
      PubDate: 2021-10-14
      DOI: 10.3390/arts10040070
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2021)
  • Arts, Vol. 10, Pages 71: Music, Migration, and Public Space: Syrian Street
           Music in the Political Context

    • Authors: Evrim Hikmet Öğüt
      First page: 71
      Abstract: Due to the lack of social systems supporting the cultural productions of migrant societies in Turkey, the venues and opportunities to which migrant musicians have access for the maintenance of their musical practices are limited. Under the given circumstances, especially in the first years after their arrival, street musicianship emerged as a new musical practice for Syrian musicians in Istanbul, and Beyoğlu District, the city’s cultural and political center, has become the venue for street musicians’ performances. Despite undergoing a rapid neoliberal transformation, Beyoğlu district, with Taksim Square and Istiklal Avenue, is a venue of interaction among locals, tourists, and various migrant groups from diverse social classes and identities. As such, it still possesses the potential to be the public sphere which can operate as the space of “a democratic ideal.” For migrant musicians, the street music practices, which fill the very heart of city with their voices and sounds, are means of claiming their existence in the city as potential actors of this public sphere. However, conducting the interaction with the other public space actors and the state officials through street music is not an easy task for Syrian musicians, and it requires the use of tactics from them. In this article, I summarize the given circumstances of Syrian street music performances and discuss the Beyoğlu district in the frame of being—or not being—a public space. I propose street music practice as political action, a “social non-movement”, as Asef Bayat calls it, and situate migrant musicians as political actors who are possible allies of other subaltern groups in Turkey.
      Citation: Arts
      PubDate: 2021-10-22
      DOI: 10.3390/arts10040071
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2021)
  • Arts, Vol. 10, Pages 72: From Canterbury to the Duero—An Early Example
           of Becket’s Martyrdom Iconography in the Kingdom of Castile

    • Authors: Marta Poza Yagüe
      First page: 72
      Abstract: The church of San Miguel of Almazán (Soria, Spain) houses a twelfth-century antependium ornamented with scenes of Thomas Becket’s martyrdom. Discovered during restoration works in 1936, its origin and its original location are unknown. The aim of this article is twofold—to frame its manufacture chronologically in light of recent research on late-Romanesque sculpture in Castile, and to use this information to discover who commissioned this work: The bishops of Sigüenza, whose diocese included Almazán' The canons of the monastery of Allende Duero built at the foot of Almazán’s town wall' Or, as has always been claimed, the Castilian Monarchs Alfonso VIII and Eleanor of England, who were the chief promoters of the Becket cult in their dominions' Whatever the answer, this relief is one of the earliest examples of Canterbury saint iconography in the Crown of Castile.
      Citation: Arts
      PubDate: 2021-10-26
      DOI: 10.3390/arts10040072
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2021)
  • Arts, Vol. 10, Pages 73: Victorian Artists’ Letters: Rhetoric,
           Networks, and Social Capital

    • Authors: Julie Codell
      First page: 73
      Abstract: Victorian artists were remarkably literate; they wrote autobiographies, diaries, and essays and befriended writers and journalists. Writing had become a way to present themselves on the open market and to generate a public image as individuals and collectively within the new professionalism emerging in the century. Letter writing was purposed to solidify and improve artists’ social capital, and their comments were always embedded in social relationships and practices. Thus, artists’ letters reveal much about the artworld structure; its players; and its overlapping spheres of social, economic, and professional identities. Their letters combined frankness with rhetorical pleading and contained their own press releases, studio invitations, and responses to criticism and were often intended for public consumption if used in critics’ reviews. Through letters, artists and critics revealed their reciprocal authority and agency and did not simply reflect the artworld but shaped that world. In their letters, economic gains were sublimated by artists’ desire for fame, Royal Academy acceptance, and a place in art history, then an emerging university discipline, seeking symbolic investments in their reputations and demonstrating that the market is cultural, not just economic. In their letters artists made clear that commodification does not destroy or pollute subjectivity.
      Citation: Arts
      PubDate: 2021-10-28
      DOI: 10.3390/arts10040073
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2021)
  • Arts, Vol. 10, Pages 74: How Has COVID-19 Affected the Public Auction

    • Authors: Christine Bourron
      First page: 74
      Abstract: The day of the last live auction at Sotheby’s in the spring of 2020 was on 19 March 2020 as multiple coronavirus lockdowns forced auction rooms to close worldwide. In the following months, hundreds of live auctions were cancelled or postponed, and combined revenue at Christie’s, Sotheby’s, and Phillips for the second Quarter 2020 plummeted 79% year on year from USD 4.4 bn in Q2 2019 to USD 0.9 bn in Q2 2020. This article focuses on public auctions at Christie’s, Sotheby’s, and Phillips and uses primary research to demonstrate how leading auction houses responded to the unprecedented challenges posed by the COVID-19 crisis. Leveraging Pi-eX’s public auction results database and its 12-month-rolling methodology, our analysis shows (1) the surge of online only auctions while the number of live auctions plummeted; (2) the limitations of online only auctions and the rise of new opportunities; and (3) a comparison of the COVID-19 crisis with previous art market crisis in the past 15 years.
      Citation: Arts
      PubDate: 2021-11-01
      DOI: 10.3390/arts10040074
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2021)
  • Arts, Vol. 10, Pages 75: Bidding Better Online in Belgium: The Value of
           Auction House Expertise during the COVID-19 Pandemic

    • Authors: Syra Kalbermatten, Christoph Rausch
      First page: 75
      Abstract: In this article, we present our analysis of how one of Belgium’s largest auction houses has creatively dealt with the forced transition to online auctions during the COVID-19 pandemic. Based on in-depth qualitative interviews and participant observation conducted at Bernaerts Auctioneers in Antwerp over a period of three months between February and April 2021, we show how the auction house has succeeded at maintaining relations with its clients and the public while exclusively moving its sales online. Our specific focus was on the mediation of expertise. Drawing on recent publications from the fields of economic sociology and anthropology, we analyzed how expert narratives of origin, authenticity, and uniqueness are communicated online to affect an object’s auction value. Based on our empirical research, which also includes narrative analyses of Bernaerts Auctioneers’ internet publication Prelude, as well as content shared online via social media, we argue that expert knowledge and practices of expertise are resilient and—contrary to what neoclassical economic theory might suggest—that they continue to be central to negotiations of value, as well as in online auctions.
      Citation: Arts
      PubDate: 2021-11-05
      DOI: 10.3390/arts10040075
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2021)
  • Arts, Vol. 10, Pages 76: Latin American Art, Visual and Material Culture
           in the Long Eighteenth Century: An Introduction

    • Authors: Lauren Beck, Alena Robin
      First page: 76
      Abstract: The temporal frame of this Special Issue of Arts—the long eighteenth century—comprises a complex period of development in the Spanish colonies of Latin America that reverberates throughout the region’s visual culture [...]
      Citation: Arts
      PubDate: 2021-11-12
      DOI: 10.3390/arts10040076
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2021)
  • Arts, Vol. 10, Pages 77: “As Long as There’s Me. As Long as
           There’s You”: Trauma and Migration in David Bowie’s
           Berlin Triptych

    • Authors: Ihor Junyk
      First page: 77
      Abstract: This essay explores David Bowie’s so-called “Berlin Triptych”: Low, “Heroes”, and Lodger. The essay takes issue with previous interpretations that have claimed that the albums do not form a “triptych” of any meaningful kind, and that this pretentious term was only applied ex post facto as a marketing strategy. At the heart of my argument is the concept and experience of migration. In the mid-1970s David Bowie was living in Los Angeles at a highpoint of fame and acclaim. His life, however, was also an increasingly hellish nightmare of delusion, paranoia, and cocaine psychosis. In order to save his music, and his life, the singer decamped to Europe. For the next several years he lived an itinerant life with Berlin at its centre. The experience of displacement, and a series of encounters that this displacement facilitated (with the European new wave and a longer tradition of avant-garde modernism), led to both a reshuffling of the self and a radical new sound. The “triptych” tells the story of this progression, both narratively and sonically.
      Citation: Arts
      PubDate: 2021-11-19
      DOI: 10.3390/arts10040077
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2021)
  • Arts, Vol. 10, Pages 78: Power of the Temporary: Social Art in Spaces of
           Transitional Living

    • Authors: Jody Wood
      First page: 78
      Abstract: This communication paper addresses the role of ephemeral and temporary artistic interventions into the systemic problem of homelessness and the question of sustainability in social art practice. I approach these issues through my work with homeless service agencies that are shaped by rules and procedures intended to increase predictability, whereas, as an artist, my work resists such rigidity by carving out space for spontaneity, vulnerability, and renewal. The dilemma of sustaining socially engaged art long-term raises particular questions within the context of institutions such as these. Can a project be successful as a temporary intervention within systems of predictability' If a project does become sustainable in the long-term, is there a way it can retain a level of energy incited by newness and unexpectedness' I discuss these issues in the context of two of my long-term projects, Beauty in Transition (2013–2016) and Choreographing Care (2016–2021), both working within homeless service agencies. Beauty in Transition was a pop-up mobile hair salon offering free haircare for transitional housing residents. Choreographing Care, a project supporting homeless service staff, started as a socially engaged art project and was adopted into an emergency shelter in Charlotte, North Carolina, U.S.A as an organizational initiative. The ideas I discuss in this paper are supported and inspired by disciplines of research including care ethics of Gilligan, social behavioral science of Goffman, and approaches to participation discussed by Helguera and Kaprow.
      Citation: Arts
      PubDate: 2021-11-25
      DOI: 10.3390/arts10040078
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2021)
  • Arts, Vol. 10, Pages 79: Color in Selected Artistic Glass Compositions by
           Tomasz Urbanowicz as an Element of Intervention in Historic Buildings and
           Contemporary Architecture

    • Authors: Barbara Ewa Gronostajska, Konrad Urbanowicz
      First page: 79
      Abstract: Colored glass in the form of stained-glass windows has been used to decorate buildings for over a thousand years. Due to various late-twentieth-century technological achievements, this material allows for a broad spectrum of design solutions. Glass can be used both in contemporary and historical buildings. This paper presents an analysis of the work of Tomasz Urbanowicz, an artist who works with glass, and its objective is to present not only the body of work of this artist but also the means of using colored glass in creating new values in architecture. The work is based on a study of the literature that covers the contemporary application of colored glass, on-site analysis of projects, and a series of interviews with the artist before, during, and after project completion, as well as the authors’ personal experience in the matter. One of the main research methods used was an analysis of the artist’s stance, as to him, the very process of pursuing creative inspiration is a fundamental procedure. Glassworks by Urbanowicz were displayed at the EXPO 2000 in Hanover (Germany), the EXPO 2005 in Aichi (Japan), and the EXPO 2008 in Saragossa (Spain). The United Earth glass sphere has been decorating the agora of the European Parliament building in Strasbourg (France) since 2004. In the paper, the artist’s projects are presented in two groups: The first includes solutions that employ monochromatic color schemes, whereas in the second, color has been used to create a strong contrast. The analysis presented includes interventions in historical buildings under heritage conservation, but also compositions from architectural glass in newly built buildings and that reference place-based history. Both the initial vision and the final effect of the glass architectural compositions are site-specific. The analysis of these differences and how the artist works allowed us to formulate a scheme of how he operates. Urbanowicz’s glass interventions affect the quality of the spaces they create and highlight their existing or expected features. The influence of the works can either play a primary and dominant role in relation with the surrounding space or be a secondary and delicate addition. Applied color may have different functions, from highlighting specific aspects of a building to introducing symbolic or direct reference. In many projects, color works as a source of a building interior’s atmosphere. The artistic interventions in historic spaces emphasize their features without disrupting pre-existing authenticity, whereas contemporary projects with no historic reference offer a wide variety of color applications that focus on the function and form of architecture, landscape, or surroundings.
      Citation: Arts
      PubDate: 2021-11-26
      DOI: 10.3390/arts10040079
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2021)
  • Arts, Vol. 10, Pages 80: Linen Boxes and Slices: Raoul De Keyser and
           American Modernism in Belgium in the 1960s and 1970s

    • Authors: Steven Jacobs
      First page: 80
      Abstract: Before his international breakthrough shortly before the turn of the century, Belgian painter Raoul De Keyser (1930–2012) had a long career that reaches back to the 1960s, when he was associated with Roger Raveel and the so-called Nieuwe Visie (New Vision in Dutch), Belgium’s variation on postwar figurative painting that also entails Anglo-Saxon Pop Art and French nouveau réalisme. Dealing with De Keyser’s works of the 1960s and 1970s, this article discusses the reception of American late-modernist art currents such as Color-Field Painting, Hard Edge, Pop Art, and Minimal Art in Belgium. Drawing on contemporaneous reflections (by, among others, poet and critic Roland Jooris) as well as on recently resurfaced materials from the artist’s personal archives, this essay focuses on the ways innovations associated with these American trends were appropriated by De Keyser, particularly in the production of his so-called Linen Boxes and Slices. Made between 1967 and 1971, Linen Boxes and Slices are paintings that evolved into three-dimensional objects, free-standing on the floor or leaning against the wall. Apart from situating these constructions in De Keyser’s oeuvre, this article interprets Linen Boxes and Slices as particular variations on Pop Art’s fascination for consumer items and on Minimalism’s interest in the spatial and material aspects of “specific objects”.
      Citation: Arts
      PubDate: 2021-11-29
      DOI: 10.3390/arts10040080
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2021)
  • Arts, Vol. 10, Pages 81: Giving Absurdity Form: The Place of Contemporary
           Art in the Environmental Crisis

    • Authors: Anne Elizabeth Douglas
      First page: 81
      Abstract: Absurdity in art creates bizarre juxtapositions that expose, and question conflicted, even dangerous, aspects of life which have become normalized. Absurd art appears in troubled times, subverting moments of extreme contradiction in which it appears impossible to think differently. For example, Dada (1917–1923) used nonsense to reflect the nonsensical brutality of WW1. The power to unsettle in this form of art rests in disrupting the world of the viewer and positioning them as interlocutors in a new framing. Absurdity in art reveals the absurdity that is inherent in life and its institutions, breaking the illusion of control. It can help us to comprehend the ‘incomprehensible’ in other species and spheres of life. In the challenge of anthropogenic climate change, how might the absurd capture the strangeness of current times in which a gap is widening between the earth we live ‘in’ and the earth we live ‘from’' This article explores qualities of the absurd in art as a possible way in which to grasp and reimagine ourselves beyond the anthropocentric, focusing on the work of the artists John Newling (b. 1952, UK) and Helen Mayer (1927–2018, US) and Newton Harrison (b. 1932, US), known as ‘The Harrisons’.
      Citation: Arts
      PubDate: 2021-11-30
      DOI: 10.3390/arts10040081
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2021)
  • Arts, Vol. 10, Pages 82: The Anglo-Catalan Connection: The Cult of Thomas
           Becket at Terrassa—New Approaches

    • Authors: Carles Sánchez Márquez, Joan Soler Jiménez
      First page: 82
      Abstract: The wall paintings adorning the south transept apse of Santa Maria at Terrassa are among the most notable surviving items pertaining to the iconography of St. Thomas Becket. Recently found documents in which diplomatic archives reveal English connections are essential for understanding the quick reception of the Becket cult in the Crown of Aragon. The presence of an Anglo-Norman canon—Arveus or Harveus (Harvey)—and his position of scribe during the second half of the twelfth century when Reginald, probably also of English origin, was prior there—seem to be the likely source of inspiration for this project. These English connections, which are essential for understanding the quick reception of the Becket cult in the Crown of Aragon, stemmed from the endeavours undertaken some years earlier south of the Pyrenees by the abbot of Saint-Ruf at Avignon, Nicholas Breakspear, who subsequently became Pope Adrian IV.
      Citation: Arts
      PubDate: 2021-11-30
      DOI: 10.3390/arts10040082
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2021)
  • Arts, Vol. 10, Pages 83: Learning Arts Organisations: Innovation through a
           Poetics of Relation

    • Authors: Melehat Nil Gulari, Chris Fremantle
      First page: 83
      Abstract: Arts organisations have had to reimagine their ways of working, as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. The pandemic has severely challenged the venue-based sectors and exposed the fragility of the existing business model of the ‘receiving house’. We use a specific example to address the following question: In what sense can artists lead organisational innovation, learning and change' We analyse Riffing the Archive: Building a Relation by MARIE ANTOINETTE (MA), an artist duo from Portugal, and their collaboration with the Barn, a multi-art centre in Banchory, Scotland, during the coronavirus pandemic in 2021. Édouard Glissant, a Martinique-born poet and philosopher, underpins both MA’s practice and our analysis. We draw on the key concepts of his relational philosophy, including archipelago, opacity, and disaffiliation, to clarify how MA work, what they have offered the Barn and what they can offer to other art organisations seeking innovation and organisational learning. MA’s nuanced approach, informed by Glissant, reconfigures the relationship between the artists and the art organisation and challenges existing assumptions through discontinuous and new thinking, while building a non-confrontational relationship with the Barn. It contributes to both organisational studies and arts research by highlighting the significance of MA’s approach to organisational innovation.
      Citation: Arts
      PubDate: 2021-12-02
      DOI: 10.3390/arts10040083
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2021)
  • Arts, Vol. 10, Pages 84: Nelson Goodman’s Aesthetics—A

    • Authors: Krzysztof Guczalski
      First page: 84
      Abstract: Nelson Goodman (1906–1998) is one of the leading American philosophers of the twentieth century. His well-known book Languages of Art is considered a major contribution to analytical aesthetics. While his views on particular issues have often been criticized, on the whole, he is considered to be a leading figure in twentieth-century aesthetics. Contrary to such a stance, I intend to argue that Goodman’s overall contribution to aesthetics is not as outstanding and valuable as is often maintained. Rather, I will try to show that his aesthetic views are grounded on a distorted representation of the earlier aesthetic tradition, without which they lose the novelty and originality ascribed to them. Once that representation is corrected, some of Goodman’s proposals turn out to be derivative and redundant. Additionally, where they do actually diverge from the earlier tradition and might stake a claim to originality, they turn out to be simply erroneous and misconceived, and sometimes even logically flawed. To conclude, Goodman’s lofty reputation as an aesthetician certainly requires major revision.
      Citation: Arts
      PubDate: 2021-12-14
      DOI: 10.3390/arts10040084
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2021)
  • Arts, Vol. 10, Pages 85: The Recipe for Success: Repin’s Painting
           Barge-Haulers on the Volga and Stasov’s Conception of Russian Art

    • Authors: Ariela Shimshon
      First page: 85
      Abstract: Barge-Haulers on the Volga is one of the most famous works of the Russian realist painter Ilya Repin. As I demonstrate in this article, on the one hand, it brought Repin resounding success and, on the other, it molded his creative conception. The Russian art critic Vladimir Stasov outlined the artist’s success. In March 1873, Stasov’s poetic depiction of Repin’s painting, where he expressed his admiration for Repin’s talent, focusing on specific aspects that he contended had to be included in a perfect work of Russian art, was published in the daily newspaper Sankt-Peterburgskie Vedomosti. I attempt to show that Stasov’s praise had a devastating effect on Repin’s creative process. By examining Repin’s post Barge-Haulers successful works for this pattern, I show how the painter tried to incorporate every one of the “ingredients” that Stasov outlined and ultimately created a typified group of paintings documenting life on the periphery of the Russian Empire with those features, which marked his entire career.
      Citation: Arts
      PubDate: 2021-12-14
      DOI: 10.3390/arts10040085
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2021)
  • Arts, Vol. 10, Pages 86: Silesian Painters and Sculptors at the Vienna
           Academy of Fine Arts in the Years 1726–1780. A Contribution to the
           History of Academism in the Early Modern Period

    • Authors: Artur Kolbiarz
      First page: 86
      Abstract: The Vienna Academy was the most important art academy for German-speaking artists in the Baroque period. It shaped the development of art in the capital of the Habsburg monarchy as well as on its periphery, including in Silesia, yet the relationships between Silesian sculptors and painters and the Vienna Academy have been overlooked by scholars. Research in the Academy archives sheds light on a number of important issues related to the social, economic, and artistic aspects of the education and the subsequent activities of Vienna Academy alumni. Surviving student registers record the names of Silesian painters and sculptors studying in Vienna and offer insights into other aspects of education at the Academy.
      Citation: Arts
      PubDate: 2021-12-15
      DOI: 10.3390/arts10040086
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2021)
  • Arts, Vol. 10, Pages 40: Animals in Human Situations in Ancient Egyptian
           Ostraca and Papyri

    • Authors: Azza Ezzat
      First page: 40
      Abstract: It has been said that the ancient Egyptians were raised to tolerate all kinds of toil and hardship; they nevertheless also liked to amuse themselves with comic relief in their everyday life. For example, ancient Egyptian drawing can be quite accurate and at times even spirited. What scholars have described as caricatures are as informative and artistic as supposed serious works of art. Ancient Egyptians have left countless images representing religious, political, economic, and/or social aspects of their life. Scenes in Egyptian tombs could be imitated on ostraca (potsherds) that portray animals as characters performing what would normally be human roles, behaviors, or occupations. These scenes reveal the artists’ sense of comedy and humor and demonstrate their freedom of thought and expression to reproduce such lighthearted imitations of religious or funeral scenes. This paper will focus on a selection of drawings on ostraca as well as three papyri that show animals—often dressed in human garb and posing with human gestures—performing parodies of human pursuits (such as scribes, servants, musicians, dancers, leaders, and herdsmen).
      Citation: Arts
      PubDate: 2021-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/arts10030040
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2021)
  • Arts, Vol. 10, Pages 41: The Horse and the Lion in Achaemenid Persia:
           Representations of a Duality

    • Authors: Eran Almagor
      First page: 41
      Abstract: This paper explores the ambiguous Persian Achaemenid attitude towards the horse and the lion. It examines the way these animals appear in imperial official presentations, local artifacts throughout the empire and Greek textual representations. In the case of the stallion, it looks at the imagery of horse riding or the place of the horse in society and religion alongside the employment of steeds in chariots. Images of the lion are addressed in instances where it appears to be respected as having a significant protective power and as the prey of the chase. This paper attempts to show that this ambiguity corresponds roughly to the dual image of the Persians as both pre-imperial/nomad and imperial/sedentary (and hence allegedly luxurious), a schism that is manifest in both the self-presentation of the Achaemenids and in the Greek texts.
      Citation: Arts
      PubDate: 2021-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/arts10030041
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2021)
  • Arts, Vol. 10, Pages 42: From Novels to Video Games: Romantic Love and
           Narrative Form in Japanese Visual Novels and Romance Adventure Games

    • Authors: Kumiko Saito
      First page: 42
      Abstract: Video games are powerful narrative media that continue to evolve. Romance games in Japan, which began as text-based adventure games and are today known as bishōjo games and otome games, form a powerful textual corpus for literary and media studies. They adopt conventional literary narrative strategies and explore new narrative forms formulated by an interface with computer-generated texts and audiovisual fetishism, thereby challenging the assumptions about the modern textual values of storytelling. The article first examines differences between visual novels that feature female characters for a male audience and romance adventure games that feature male characters for a female audience. Through the comparison, the article investigates how notions of romantic love and relationship have transformed from the modern identity politics based on freedom and the autonomous self to the decentered model of mediation and interaction in the contemporary era.
      Citation: Arts
      PubDate: 2021-06-25
      DOI: 10.3390/arts10030042
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2021)
  • Arts, Vol. 10, Pages 43: Arts Special Issue “The Contemporary Art

    • Authors: John Zarobell
      First page: 43
      Abstract: When setting out to organize this Special Issue of Arts, I began with the goal to survey the emerging field of art market studies but also to expand the notion of the market to include alternatives, such as art collectives and festivals, that challenge the dominance of the market as the pre-eminent arbiter of cultural value [...]
      Citation: Arts
      PubDate: 2021-06-30
      DOI: 10.3390/arts10030043
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2021)
  • Arts, Vol. 10, Pages 44: A ‘Lost’ Panel and a Missing Link: Angelos
           Bitzamanos and the Case of the Scottivoli Altarpiece for the Church of San
           Francesco Delle Scale in Ancona

    • Authors: Margarita Voulgaropoulou
      First page: 44
      Abstract: In his will, dating from 1490, the nobleman Francesco Scottivoli from Ancona ordered his heirs to erect a chapel in his memory at the church of San Francesco delle Scale, and have it adorned with a painted altarpiece, executed in 1508 by a painter of Greek origin residing in Ancona. In the late 18th-century a full-scale renovation of the church resulted to the dissolution of the Scottivoli chapel and the removal of the painted altarpiece, which was subsequently lost and has been considered missing ever since. This article aims to identify the long-missing Scottivoli altarpiece and determine the identity of its creator based on the re-evaluation of previously published sources and the discovery of unpublished archival and visual material. In light of this new information, this study interprets the Scottivoli altarpiece within the context of the intense cross-cultural transfer that took place in the multicultural contact zone of the early modern Eastern Mediterranean and Adriatic Seas.
      Citation: Arts
      PubDate: 2021-07-01
      DOI: 10.3390/arts10030044
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2021)
  • Arts, Vol. 10, Pages 45: A Spatial History of Independent Art Spaces in
           Krakow from the 1970s to 2019

    • Authors: Jarosław Działek
      First page: 45
      Abstract: Independent art spaces not only play an important role in exploring frontiers in the visual arts but are often also pioneers discovering new artistic territories within cities. Due to their subordinate position in the field of art, they often occupy marginal spaces in terms of their location within the urban structure and/or in terms of their physical visibility within the built environment. Their location outside the established artistic cores reflects, at the same time, their weaker economic standing and wish to distinguish themselves from previous generations of cultural producers. Post-socialist cities offer the opportunity to study the spatial history of independent art spaces under different political and economic systems. In this paper, I have used a detailed database of private art galleries in the period from the 1970s to 2019 and content analysis of press and internet texts about them to uncover the stages of development of independent art venues in Krakow, Poland, an example of a post-socialist city with a rich cultural heritage. They included periods of dispersion within the wider inner-city followed by cycles of concentration in rather neglected quarters that were emerging as epicentres of alternative artistic life only to dissipate due to unfavourable economic conditions and the appearance of the next generations of artists who wanted to mark their distinctive presence both in the art world and in the urban space. I also discuss how independent art spaces were using their usually marginal, temporary and fluid sites in their artistic practices and the accumulation of symbolic capital in the field of art.
      Citation: Arts
      PubDate: 2021-07-06
      DOI: 10.3390/arts10030045
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2021)
  • Arts, Vol. 10, Pages 46: Interview: Acclaimed Game Designer Ryan Kaufman
           Discusses Telltale Games, Star Wars, Harry Potter, and How Video Games Can
           Transform Us

    • Authors: Christian Thomas
      First page: 46
      Abstract: Ryan Kaufman—whose rich body of work often centers on video games adapted from movies or TV shows—has had a profound impact on video game designers, writers, and players alike [...]
      Citation: Arts
      PubDate: 2021-07-08
      DOI: 10.3390/arts10030046
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2021)
  • Arts, Vol. 10, Pages 47: External Shocks in the Art Markets: How Did the
           Portuguese, the Spanish and the Brazilian Art Markets React to COVID-19
           Global Pandemic' Data Analysis and Strategies to Overcome the Crisis

    • Authors: Adelaide Duarte, Ana Letícia Fialho, Marta Pérez-Ibáñez
      First page: 47
      Abstract: The spread of the COVID-19 pandemic worldwide, and the restrictions imposed by the social distance and the enforced confinement, are having an impact on the art markets globally. The aim of this article is to evaluate the impact of an external shock in the primary art market, using three countries as a case study: Portugal, Spain, and Brazil. These geographies have in common being at the margins in the art market’s main art hubs. It is intended to analyze how agents are responding to the new context, according to the data gathered within the gallery sector. The methods applied in the research are a combination of surveys carried out by the authors, field-based observation, along with an academic literature review, complemented by international and national reports analysis. The study’s main findings allow us to characterize the art market as a very resilient sector that energetically responded to the crisis, able to adapt and overcome challenges imposed by the new pandemic situation. Contemporary art galleries expanded digital activities, kept participating in art fairs hybrid models, continued to focus on internationalization, and pointed to the strengthening of public policies towards the sector and partnerships as key strategies to overcome the crisis.
      Citation: Arts
      PubDate: 2021-07-15
      DOI: 10.3390/arts10030047
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2021)
  • Arts, Vol. 10, Pages 48: Art Galleries in Transformation: Is COVID-19
           Driving Digitisation'

    • Authors: Beatrix E. M. Habelsberger, Pawan V. Bhansing
      First page: 48
      Abstract: Compared to other consumer goods markets, art galleries have long been reluctant to innovate through digitisation. However, the global outbreak of COVID-19 forces art galleries to reconsider the role of digital channels. This study aims to provide a better understanding of the art gallery business model and its related difficulties of integrating digital channels into marketing, communication, and sales. Twenty interviews with gallery owners and managers in Vienna and Salzburg were conducted. They were asked about their attitudes towards, opinions on, and experiences with digital channels, and how they reacted to the restrictions caused by COVID-19. The findings verify that COVID-19 has led galleries of any type to reconsider their digital strategy. We identified limitations with respect to digital channels: plain presentation of information online; lacking or distanced personal interaction; online anonymity that disconnects from the social art environment; increased information and price transparency; a more commercial appearance; limited resources for digital adaptations. Galleries striving to integrate digital channels into their business model should pay attention to ensuring that analogue, as well as digital, channels are integrated into a coherent system where personal contact and the physical location remain the core of the business.
      Citation: Arts
      PubDate: 2021-07-23
      DOI: 10.3390/arts10030048
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2021)
  • Arts, Vol. 10, Pages 49: A Barber-Surgeon’s Instrument Case: Seeing the
           Iconography of Thomas Becket through a Netherlandish Lens

    • Authors: Louise Hampson, John Jenkins
      First page: 49
      Abstract: The triple anniversary in 2020 of Thomas Becket’s birth, death and translation has been an occasion to review and revisit many of the artefacts associated with the saint and his cult in England and across Europe. Many of these are items directly associated with his veneration in churches or in private devotions, but one object which served in neither capacity is an instrument case currently in the collection of the Worshipful Company of Barbers in London. This unusual object has been studied for its fine silver work, and possible royal associations, but little academic attention has so far been paid to the some of the iconography, particularly that of the scene of the murder of Thomas Becket depicted on the back of the box, the side to be worn against the body. In this article, we show how seemingly unusual elements in the iconography draw on particularly Flemish representations of Becket’s murder that, to date, have received little attention in Anglophone scholarship. From this, we discuss this scene and its significance in understanding the role the iconography may have been intended to serve, and the interplay between the decorative schema and what the surgeon thought about his own role with regard to the use of the case and its tools.
      Citation: Arts
      PubDate: 2021-07-26
      DOI: 10.3390/arts10030049
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2021)
  • Arts, Vol. 10, Pages 50: Why COVID-19 Will Not Change the Global Art

    • Authors: Feliks Tuszko
      First page: 50
      Abstract: This article investigates the valuation of artworks during the COVID-19 pandemic. It examines how art market participants employ fictional expectations of the future to stabilize valuations during uncertain times. A total of 86 forecasts originating from both the center and periphery of the global art market were analyzed. Taking a meta-analytic approach, focus was placed on what each analysis predicts, how it constructs the future it purports to know, and how the expected value of artworks and methods for their purchase are justified. This uncovered the paradoxical reality of art market forecasts—their authors are convinced that the power of crisis could reformulate the art market, but their conclusions do not assume the possibility of real change. Further, the argument is made that speculation about the future is at the core of today’s art economy. Therefore, in a crisis, market participants conservatively orient themselves toward artworks that already have established value.
      Citation: Arts
      PubDate: 2021-07-27
      DOI: 10.3390/arts10030050
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2021)
  • Arts, Vol. 10, Pages 51: Portable Prototypes: Canterbury Badges and the
           Thomasaltar in Hamburg

    • Authors: Jennifer Lee
      First page: 51
      Abstract: Pilgrims’ badges often depicted works of art located at a cult center, and these cheap, small images frequently imitated monumental works. Was this relationship ever reversed' In late medieval Hamburg, a painted altarpiece from a Hanseatic guild narrates the life of Thomas Becket in four scenes, two of which survive. In 1932, Tancred Borenius declared this altarpiece to be the first monumental expression of Becket’s narrative in northern Germany. Since then, little scholarship has investigated the links between this work and the Becket cult elsewhere. With so much visual art from the medieval period lost, it is impossible to trace the transmission of imagery with any certainty. Nevertheless, this discussion considers badges as a means of disseminating imagery for subsequent copying. This altarpiece and the pilgrims’ badges that it closely resembles may provide an example of a major work of art borrowing a composition from an inexpensive pilgrim’s badge and of the monumental imitating the miniature.
      Citation: Arts
      PubDate: 2021-07-27
      DOI: 10.3390/arts10030051
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2021)
  • Arts, Vol. 10, Pages 52: TikTok as a New Player in the Contemporary Arts
           Market: A Study with Special Consideration of Feminist Artists and a New
           Generation of Art Collectors

    • Authors: Anne Gerlieb
      First page: 52
      Abstract: How do social-media platforms such as TikTok function as a neutralising factor in the gatekeeping process in times of COVID-19 restrictions' How does TikTok change the experience culture in arts, and how does this impact how artists frame their working process alongside primary gatekeepers' During the COVID-19 pandemic, TikTok attracted many artists, who used the platform to take their practice, and thereby their self-marketing, into their own hands. At the same time, a new generation of collectors use TikTok to discover art under popular hashtag #feministartists. When artists label their work with #feministartists, they insert themselves into the gatekeeping process, and use opportunities and restrictions bounded to that specific hashtag. The study examines this process of professional self-positioning by using interviews with contemporary artists, curators, and observations on TikTok, artist talks, and secondary interviews with artists on online platforms. The findings suggest a variation in how one trades in or trades on “feminist artist”, accessing resources, and gaining exposure. A focus on “feminist artists” is restrictive for consolidating artists’ efforts to pursue specific professional, social, political, and economic agendas through art.
      Citation: Arts
      PubDate: 2021-07-30
      DOI: 10.3390/arts10030052
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2021)
  • Arts, Vol. 10, Pages 53: “The Show Must Go On”. Ethnography of the Art
           Market Facing the COVID-19 Pandemic

    • Authors: Léa Saint-Raymond
      First page: 53
      Abstract: This paper aims at understanding, from the inside, the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and the accompanying restrictive administrative measures on the art market. It is based on the interviews and ethnographic surveys made by graduate students from the Ecole du Louvre, from September 2020 to May 2021. This methodology makes it possible to demonstrate that, during the crisis, art market professionals were driven by the motto “the show must go on”. On the one hand, they wished to keep a straight face and remain silent on their individual difficulties, preferring to talk about their vocation and the positive effects of the crisis. On the other hand, the commercial activity continued despite everything; if the pandemic accelerated the digital turn of the art market, the physical contact with the works and the collectors remained primordial. The art market thus remained physical but accelerated its digital turn. The proportion of each interactional framework—physical and digital—is still uncertain, difficult to measure today and to predict in the long run.
      Citation: Arts
      PubDate: 2021-08-03
      DOI: 10.3390/arts10030053
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2021)
  • Arts, Vol. 10, Pages 54: Thomas Becket: Murder and the Making of a Saint,
           British Museum, 20 May–22 August 2021

    • Authors: Tom Nickson
      First page: 54
      Abstract: This review considers the British Museum’s exhibition, Thomas Becket: Murder and the Making of a Saint, curated by Lloyd de Beer and Naomi Speakman. Following a brief description of the show and its relationship to current art-historical scholarship, I offer a detailed study of one exhibit, a late-twelfth-century font from Lyngsjö in Sweden, and briefly sketch the significance of Becket for the historiography of medieval art in Britain.
      Citation: Arts
      PubDate: 2021-08-10
      DOI: 10.3390/arts10030054
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2021)
  • Arts, Vol. 10, Pages 55: Marketing and Self-Promotion in Early Modern
           Painting: The Case of Guercino

    • Authors: Daniel M. Unger
      First page: 55
      Abstract: This article focuses on Guercino’s Return of the Prodigal Son, commissioned in the name of Cardinal Alessandro Ludovisi and on his marketing choices. This is a case study in terms of self-promotion tactics employed by an ambitious artist. My argument is that one finds in the painting a secondary and more sophisticated level of interpretation, which relates to the relationship between the painter and his patron. To the most traditional iconography of the scene, Guercino added musicians and spectators, thus positioning the entire composition in the theatre. One of the musicians is depicted in a way that casts him as a representative of the painter. The patron understood Guercino’s intentions and commissioned what became Guercino’s most important artworks. It was Guercino’s ability of shifting the attention of a given iconography and deliver current political meaning that is discernible in his Roman works commissioned by the same Cardinal Ludovisi who was elected Pope Gregory XV.
      Citation: Arts
      PubDate: 2021-08-18
      DOI: 10.3390/arts10030055
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2021)
  • Arts, Vol. 10, Pages 56: The Threshold between the Material and Immaterial
           Light. Notes on Luminescence and Dark Environments

    • Authors: Ana Margarida Rocha, Teresa Almeida, Graciela Machado
      First page: 56
      Abstract: This article discusses the phenomenon of luminescence in the production and visualization of images from an art-practice standpoint. The theoretical argument is developed through an analysis of artistic work that explores, inserts, expands, articulates, and interrogates the internal contradictions of UV light and the transitivity of light-sensitive materials in installation contexts. This investigation explores complexities in the encounter of antagonistic concepts: the threshold phenomena between materiality and immateriality, visibility and invisibility, light and darkness, disclosure and concealment. It aims to articulate a new perspective on contemporary debates on physiological, psychological, and environmental effects of light and darkness, articulated through aesthetic experience and artistic practice. Methods for engaging in the sensation of light and darkness will be introduced and how it unfolds as experiential qualities within installation projects will be considered.
      Citation: Arts
      PubDate: 2021-08-20
      DOI: 10.3390/arts10030056
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2021)
  • Arts, Vol. 10, Pages 57: Materializing the Invisible: Landscape Painting
           in Viceregal Peru as Visionary Painting

    • Authors: Sebastian Ferrero
      First page: 57
      Abstract: Landscape painting in Peru typically does not receive much attention from critical dis-course, even though the adoption of the Flemish landscape by Andean viceregal painters became a distinctive feature of Peruvian painting of the second half of the 17th century. Considered a consequence of a change in the artistic taste of viceregal society, the landscape was perceived as a secondary element of the composition. In this article, we will analyze the inclusion of the Flemish landscape in Andean religious painting from another critical perspective that takes into account different spiritual processes that colonial religiosity goes through. We analyze how the influence of the Franciscan and Jesuit mysticism created a fertile ground where landscape painting could develop in Peru. The Andean viceregal painters found in the landscape an effective way to visualize suprasensible spiritual experiences and an important device for the development in Peru of a painting with visionary characteristics.
      Citation: Arts
      PubDate: 2021-08-26
      DOI: 10.3390/arts10030057
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2021)
  • Arts, Vol. 10, Pages 58: The Lunette with St. Thomas Becket at the Sacro
           Speco in Subiaco: An Unexpected Presence'

    • Authors: Roberta Cerone
      First page: 58
      Abstract: The painting with St. Thomas Becket, St. Stephen and St. Nicholas of Bari that decorates one of the lunettes in the so-called lower church at the Sacro Speco in Subiaco is an enigma from an art-historical point of view, for two reasons. First, on an iconographical level, the lunette interrupts the flow of the story of Benedict’s life unfolding systematically on all the walls of the lower church. Second, from the formal point of view, the fresco clearly presents more archaic features than the surrounding Stories of St. Benedict, dating to the end of the thirteenth/beginning of the fourteenth century, and was therefore probably executed in a phase prior to the cycle of Benedict. In the paper, therefore, I will analyse the motivations that led to the preservation of this painting when the hall was renovated and later redecorated in the late thirteenth century, and discuss the hypotheses surrounding patronage. Both aspects will help to better contextualize the reasons for the presence of the image of St. Thomas Becket in a pre-eminent position in the sanctuary of Benedict in Subiaco, a papal bulwark on the borders of the Kingdom.
      Citation: Arts
      PubDate: 2021-08-30
      DOI: 10.3390/arts10030058
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2021)
  • Arts, Vol. 10, Pages 59: Global Art Market in the Aftermath of COVID-19: A
           Case Study on the United Arab Emirates

    • Authors: Eve Grinstead
      First page: 59
      Abstract: How has COVID-19 affected the global art market' This virus interrupted 2020 in unforeseen ways globally, including the cancellation of the most important art events of the year. Through a close chronological study of the Emirati art scene’s response, both in commercial and noncommercial venues, this essay explains how, and why, the UAE’s art scene was able to react quickly and perhaps more effectively than that of other nations, and what that means for its future. Based on fieldwork and press articles, this article posits that the Emirati art scene evolved from being virtually non-existent to a thriving contemporary art hub in a matter of decades because it has always had to adapt to challenges such as nonexistent art infrastructure or the 2008 financial crisis. By studying the UAE, we find examples of exhibitions that quickly moved from being in situ to online, a rare instance of galleries and art auction house collaborating, government and institutional structures stepping up to support artists and galleries, and the renaissance of Art Dubai taking place in person in 2021 after being abruptly cancelled in 2020. This knowledge provides insight into how the global art market is changing to face the consequences of COVID-19.
      Citation: Arts
      PubDate: 2021-08-30
      DOI: 10.3390/arts10030059
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2021)
  • Arts, Vol. 10, Pages 60: Colors Inspired by Nature Analyzed in Two
           Residential Buildings Designed by Victor Horta

    • Authors: Barbara Widera
      First page: 60
      Abstract: The aim of the article is to present the results of research on colors carried out in two residential buildings in Brussels, designed by Victor Horta: The Tassel House (1893–1894) and The Horta House (1898–1901), representing the Art Nouveau style for which the main source of inspiration was nature. The purpose of the research was to check whether the selection of colors in the buildings was also inspired by nature. The investigation applied methods of archive studies, literature review, field survey and comparative analysis of 251 color samples taken in the interiors and façades of the two houses, compared to the 307 color samples collected in the natural environment within the radius of 700 m from the two locations. The samples were described using the Natural Colour System® chart. The research results revealed that the value of the color-matching indicator for the comparison of the color samples collected in the two examined buildings and the samples of predominant colors observed in the natural environment was determined at the average level of 92.5%. The conclusions from the study confirmed the significance of drawing inspiration from nature in the field of colors selection in the two analyzed buildings designed by Victor Horta.
      Citation: Arts
      PubDate: 2021-08-31
      DOI: 10.3390/arts10030060
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2021)
  • Arts, Vol. 10, Pages 61: Facing the Pandemic: A Perspective on Patachitra
           Artists of West Bengal

    • Authors: Maura Zanatta, Anjali Gera Roy
      First page: 61
      Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has intensely impacted art production and the art market all around the world. This is dramatically visible inside the Patua or Patachitra communities in Medinipur, West Bengal, where Patachitras’ scrolls characterise the economy of folk-art communities in the so-called villages of painters. Patachitras’ singing pictures belong to an ancestral tradition of storytelling and performing art. For centuries, new themes have been embodied inside the Patuas’ repertoire, creating a living heritage that has always reflected the political, religious, cultural, and social main events and, ultimately, COVID-19. Resilience has always been an important component of this heritage, as social changes and new kinds of entertainment have changed the audience addressed and the performances’ function. In the last few decades, the role of travelling artists has resisted and been readapted to the global art market by approaching art fairs and festivals both inside and outside the villages. Now, the impact of COVID-19 on the economy of these artists has been severe, as art fairs and exhibitions have been cancelled, and lockdown orders have stopped tourism and travels, significantly reducing their income. Thus, new approaches and virtual spaces of exhibiting are being experimented with to support the survival of these artists and keep the performances’ essence alive. This article aims to address how the pandemic has affected Patuas’ art market and production both from an economic and social perspective. The difficulties encountered due to the restrictive measures and the impossibility of performing will be analysed through an empirical approach. Based on telephonic interviews conducted with 30 hereditary Patuas from Naya between April 2020 to April 2021 as part of the project “Folk Artists in the Time of Coronavirus”, the article hopes to shed light on the impact of the pandemic on hereditary, performing castes in India, which might mirror the experiences of similar groups in the rest of South Asia. The article will also try to outline the future perspectives for the art market of these folk artists. The article consists of two parts: the first traces the transformative journey of Patachitra and Patachitrakars, and the second focuses on the impact of the pandemic through deploying the concepts of precarity, precariousness, and resilience.
      Citation: Arts
      PubDate: 2021-08-31
      DOI: 10.3390/arts10030061
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2021)
  • Arts, Vol. 10, Pages 62: Visualizing Superman: Artistic Strategizing in
           Early Representations of the Archetypal Man in Comic Books

    • Authors: Bar Leshem
      First page: 62
      Abstract: In 1933, Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster, two Jewish teenagers from Ohio, fashioned an ideal personality called Superman and a narrative of his marvelous deeds. Little did they suspect that several years after conceptualizing the figure and their many vain attempts to sell the story to various comic book publishers, their creation would give rise to the iconic genre of comic book superheroes. There is no doubt that the Superman character and the accompanying narrative led to Siegel and Shuster, the writer and artist, respectively, becoming famous. However, was it only the appealing character and compelling narrative that accounted for the story’s enormous popularity, which turned its creators into such a celebrated pair, or did the visual design play a major part in that phenomenal success' Recent years have seen a burgeoning interest in the comic book medium in several disciplines, including history, philosophy, and literature. However, little has been written about its visual aspect, and comic book art has not yet been accorded much recognition among art historians. Since the integration of storyline and art is what allow the comic book medium to be unique and interesting, I contend that there should be a focus on the art as well as on the narrative of works in comic books. In the present study, I explore the significance of the visual image in the prototype of the Superman figure that Siegel and Schuster sold to DC Comics and its first appearance in the series American Comic Books. I argue that although the popularity of Superman’s first appearance was due to the conceptual ideals that the character embodied, the visual design of the ideal man was also an essential factor in its success. Accordingly, through a discussion of the first published Superman storyline, I emphasize the artistic-visual value of the figure of this protagonist in particular and the comic book medium in general.
      Citation: Arts
      PubDate: 2021-08-31
      DOI: 10.3390/arts10030062
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2021)
  • Arts, Vol. 10, Pages 63: The Last Mosque in Tel Aviv, and Other Stories of

    • Authors: Ilana Webster-Kogen
      First page: 63
      Abstract: Ruins serve as a poignant reminder of loss and destruction. Yet, ruins are not always physical, and they are not always best understood through visual language—the sense memory of loss extends for displaced people far beyond crumbling monuments. Exploring the sonic element of loss and displacement is key to understanding the way people relate to the spaces they have to leave. This article explores the particular disjuncture of staging and commemorating Arabness in Tel Aviv, the “Hebrew City.” The disjuncture of being Arab in Tel Aviv is apparent to any visitor who walks down the beach promenade, and this article examines the main sites of Arab contestation on the border with Jaffa. Most apparent to a visitor is the Hassan Bek Mosque, the most visible Islamic symbol in Tel Aviv; I describe the process of gaining admission as a non-Muslim, and of discussing the painful and indelible memory of 1948 with worshipers. Delving deeper into the affective staging of ruin, I trace Umm Kulthum’s famous concert in Jaffa (officially Palestine at the time), and examine the way her imprint has moved across the troubled urban border of Tel Aviv-Jaffa. A ruins-based analysis of the urban sites of disjuncture in Tel Aviv, therefore, offers a glimpse into underground sonic subcultures that hide in plain sight.
      Citation: Arts
      PubDate: 2021-08-31
      DOI: 10.3390/arts10030063
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2021)
  • Arts, Vol. 10, Pages 64: Innovative Carpentry and Hybrid Joints in
           Contemporary Wooden Architecture

    • Authors: Joanna Ludmiła Arlet
      First page: 64
      Abstract: Timber frame structures have a long and rich tradition. In addition to their functional and structural value, they are important elements of the cultural landscape. At the turn of the 21st century, concern for nature, resulting from the threat of environmental degradation, contributed to a growing interest in wooden constructions. For these reasons, we have observed the erection of buildings with wooden frame structures in many countries around the world. This trend contributed to the rapid development of wooden structures, new technologies, and innovative architectural solutions. The conducted research mainly focused on the joints used in their construction, as well as their perception. From among many examples, some original and innovative solutions were selected and analyzed. Their creators are famous architects: Renzo Piano, Imre Makovecz, Jürgen Meyer, Kengo Kuma, and Shigeru Ban. The objects presented in this article are distinguished by the originality of their form and by the fact that they are clearly inspired by vernacular architecture. Crucial elements of these objects, such as wooden, steel, and hybrid connections, are analyzed in this article. Because they are intentionally exposed, they play an important aesthetic role in addition to a structural one.
      Citation: Arts
      PubDate: 2021-09-07
      DOI: 10.3390/arts10030064
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2021)
  • Arts, Vol. 10, Pages 65: A Hundred Years of Yiddish Song Mobility

    • Authors: Mark Slobin
      First page: 65
      Abstract: The article surveys continuities in the Yiddish song world from 1920–2020 despite the radical disjunctures of eastern European Ashkenazic Jewish life, profiling singers born nearly 100 years apart. The approach is synchronic, a useful method for music and mobility studies.
      Citation: Arts
      PubDate: 2021-09-10
      DOI: 10.3390/arts10030065
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2021)
  • Arts, Vol. 10, Pages 66: Cutting Edges: Professional Hierarchy vs.
           Creative Identity in Nicolas de Launay’s Fine Art Prints

    • Authors: Tamara Abramovitch
      First page: 66
      Abstract: In 1783, Nicolas De Launay copied Les Baignets by Jean-Honoré Fragonard, stating it was made “by his very humble and very obedient servant”, an evidence of the hierarchical tensions between painters and printmakers during the eighteenth-century. However, De Launay’s loyalty is not absolute, since a critical artistic statement is found at the edge: an illusory oval frame heavily adorned with leaves and fruits of Squash, Hazelnuts, and Oak. This paper wishes to acknowledge this meticulously engraved frame, and many more added to copies throughout De Launay’s successful career, as highly relevant in examining his ‘obedience’ and ‘humbleness’. With regard to eighteenth-century writings on botany and authenticity, and to current studies on the print market, I offer a new perspective in which engravers are appreciated as active commercial artists establishing an individual signature style. In their conceptual and physical marginality these decorations allow creative freedom which challenges concepts of art appropriation and reproduction, highly relevant then and today.
      Citation: Arts
      PubDate: 2021-09-13
      DOI: 10.3390/arts10030066
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2021)
  • Arts, Vol. 10, Pages 67: Remembering Thomas Becket in Saint-Lô

    • Authors: Alyce A. Jordan
      First page: 67
      Abstract: France numbered second only to England in its veneration of the martyred archbishop of Canterbury. Nowhere in France was that veneration more widespread than Normandy, where churches and chapels devoted to Saint Thomas, many embellished with sculptures, paintings, and stained-glass windows, appeared throughout the Middle Ages. A nineteenth-century resurgence of interest in the martyred archbishop of Canterbury gave rise to a new wave of artistic production dedicated to him. A number of these modern commissions appear in the same sites and thus in direct visual dialogue with their medieval counterparts. This essay examines the long legacy of artistic dedications to Saint-Thomas in the town of Saint-Lô. It considers the medieval and modern contexts underpinning the creation of these works and what they reveal about Thomas Becket’s enduring import across nine centuries of Saint-Lô’s history.
      Citation: Arts
      PubDate: 2021-09-14
      DOI: 10.3390/arts10030067
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2021)
  • Arts, Vol. 10, Pages 20: Writing for Emotional Impact in Film and Video
           Games: Lessons in Character Development, Realism, and Interactivity from
           the Alien Media Franchise

    • Authors: Christian Thomas
      First page: 20
      Abstract: This article compares Ridley Scott’s film Alien (1979) with Creative Assembly’s video game Alien: Isolation (2014), which is based on Scott’s film. Guidance for academics who teach creative writing—as well as for working screenwriters and video game narrative designers—emerges in the comparison, particularly with regard to the importance of developing strong yet vulnerable main characters who put themselves in danger in order to protect other characters with whom they have meaningful relationships. Examples from other media, including Ira Levin’s Rosemary’s Baby (1967), James Cameron’s Aliens (1986), Telltale Games’ The Walking Dead (2012), and Naughty Dog’s The Last of Us (2013), are also discussed as they relate to larger principles involved in crafting sympathetic characters, realistic settings, and compelling gameplay for media within the horror and sci-fi genres.
      Citation: Arts
      PubDate: 2021-03-24
      DOI: 10.3390/arts10020020
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2021)
  • Arts, Vol. 10, Pages 21: The Castle in Prószków as an Example of the
           Palazzo in Fortezza Architecture Trend in Poland

    • Authors: Andrzej Legendziewicz, Aleksandra Marcinów
      First page: 21
      Abstract: This paper presents the results of a research that was carried out in a castle in Prószków, a town near Opole, Poland. The investigations were based on the conducted architectural research, including iconographic studies and the analysis of the technology, building materials, and architectural details. The conducted research demonstrated that the Renaissance structure in question was built by Baron Jerzy Prószkowski as a palazzo in fortezza, most likely in the years 1563–1571. The residence is planned around a rectangular courtyard with four bastion towers. The scope of the architectural transformations of the complex during the baroque period and the 19th century was also presented. In the summary, it was highlighted that the castle is one of the first buildings located north of the Alps that refers to the designs of Villa Farnese in Caprarolli, which was designed by Giacomo Barozzi da Vignioli. It is in the style of palazzo in Fortezza, similar to residences in Czechia, Silesia, and Poland. Here, we emphasized the uniqueness of the complex, which stands out from other residences in Silesia and areas of the former Republic of Poland due its original form and innovative solutions.
      Citation: Arts
      PubDate: 2021-03-31
      DOI: 10.3390/arts10020021
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2021)
  • Arts, Vol. 10, Pages 22: Picturing the River’s Racial Ecologies in
           Colonial Panamá

    • Authors: Bart Pushaw
      First page: 22
      Abstract: This article explores the local histories and ecological knowledge embedded within a Spanish print of enslaved, Afro-descendant boatmen charting a wooden vessel up the Chagres River across the Isthmus of Panamá. Produced for a 1748 travelogue by the Spanish scientists Antonio de Ulloa and Jorge Juan, the image reflects a preoccupation with tropical ecologies, where enslaved persons are incidental. Drawing from recent scholarship by Marixa Lasso, Tiffany Lethabo King, Katherine McKittrick, and Kevin Dawson, I argue that the image makes visible how enslaved and free Afro-descendants developed a distinct cosmopolitan culture connected to intimate ecological knowledge of the river. By focusing critical attention away from the print’s Spanish manufacture to the racial ecologies of the Chagres, I aim to restore art historical visibility to eighteenth-century Panamá and Central America, a region routinely excised from studies of colonial Latin American art.
      Citation: Arts
      PubDate: 2021-04-01
      DOI: 10.3390/arts10020022
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2021)
  • Arts, Vol. 10, Pages 23: The Retablos of Teabo and Mani: The Evolution of
           Renaissance Altars in Colonial Yucatán

    • Authors: C. Cody Barteet
      First page: 23
      Abstract: From the turn to seventeenth through the early eighteenth century, three retablos (altarpieces) were created in Yucatán that relied on a similar Renaissance design. The retablos located in the ex-convents of Mani and Teabo all adopt the Spanish sixteenth-century Renaissance style of the Plateresque. Further, the retablos are connected by the inclusion of caryatid framing devices that establishes a strong affinity among the works. Two of the retablos are located in Mani: the Retablo of San Antonio de Padua and the Retablo of Nuestra Señora de Soledad (or sometimes called the Dolores Retablo). At Teabo is the Retablo de Santa Teresita del Niño Jesús (or Las Ánimas). This paper explores the relationships among the retablos by considering their iconography and their styles to address the retablos’ dates and their current locations. While offering insights about these retablos, this contribution also provides a rich discussion of the thriving artistic industry that was present in Yucatán.
      Citation: Arts
      PubDate: 2021-04-06
      DOI: 10.3390/arts10020023
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2021)
  • Arts, Vol. 10, Pages 24: What Is a Videogame Movie'

    • Authors: Mike Sell
      First page: 24
      Abstract: Cinematic adaptations of videogames are an increasingly common feature of film culture, and the adaptive relationship between these mediums is an increasingly common subject of film and videogame studies. However, our ability to historicize and theorize that relationship is hampered by a failure to fully define the generic character of our object of study. This essay asks, what is a videogame movie' It argues that film scholars (1) have not considered the full range of ways videogames have been represented in film; (2) have not attended fully to the historical, technological, figurative, and social dimensions of videogames; and therefore (3) have limited the set of possible texts that comprise the genre “videogame cinema.” The essay recommends a tropological approach to the problem, defining six tropes that comprise the “videogame movie” as a genre, and applying them to two films, Her and 1917, neither of them a direct adaptation of a videogame, the latter not “about” or referencing videogames in any way, yet both exemplary of a broadened concept of “videogame cinema”.
      Citation: Arts
      PubDate: 2021-04-12
      DOI: 10.3390/arts10020024
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2021)
  • Arts, Vol. 10, Pages 25: At the Core of the Workshop: Novel Aspects of the
           Use of Blue Smalt in Two Paintings by Cristóbal de Villalpando

    • Authors: Mirta Insaurralde Caballero, María Castañeda-Delgado
      First page: 25
      Abstract: During the seventeenth century, the use of smalt and indigo became increasingly common among painters’ workshops in New Spain. The unprecedented importance of these two blue pigments in oil painting may be explained by artistic and geopolitical circumstances. This article expands on the use of blue smalt—a byproduct of glass production and a material that lacks in-depth study in viceregal painting—by focusing on the technical analysis of El Triunfo de la Eucaristía and La Asunción painted by Cristóbal de Villalpando (ca. 1649–1714), which are part of the collection of the Museo Regional de Guadalajara (Mexico). The technological and material study of both paintings, situated within the trade and circulation of painting materials at the turn of the eighteenth century, shows how the painter deployed techniques rooted in his predecessors while incorporating particular technical adaptations. The authors examine cross-section samples of Villalpando’s paintings with optical microscopy, Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX), and Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and were able to identify different qualities of smalt as well to suggest a possible provenance. These analyses evidence novel aspects in the painting tradition of workshops in New Spain that ultimately reverberated in practices of the long eighteenth century.
      Citation: Arts
      PubDate: 2021-04-14
      DOI: 10.3390/arts10020025
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2021)
  • Arts, Vol. 10, Pages 26: Transparent Substance in a Transnational
           Existence: Materiality, Migration, Memory, and Gender—The Case of
           Israeli Artist Alina Rom Cohen

    • Authors: Tal Dekel
      First page: 26
      Abstract: This article discusses the art of Alina Rome Cohen, a woman artist from the former Soviet Union who immigrated to Israel. Her glass sculptures highlight her hyphenated, multilayered, and dynamic identity, illustrating identity construction processes of migrant women under conditions of uprooting and re-grounding in the globalized era of transnationalism. The discussion feeds from theories influenced by “the material turn”, suggesting that artifacts “speak”. I will therefore argue that the material—glass—is involved in the active discussion and negotiation of power relations within society. Framed through Alfred Gell’s anthropological theory of art, first introduced in his book titled Art and Agency from 1998, this approach proposes a horizon of agency for the artworks themselves, which function in the world alongside other actants operating in the field, such as human beings. This article will analyze Rom Chohen’s artworks and will be informed by cultural theories from migration studies and gender studies, in order to ask new questions about the dynamics of the exclusion and inclusion of migrants under the ethno-national state of Israel, while offering alternative ways by which to think of concepts such as memory and time, as past and present are brought to a simultaneity.
      Citation: Arts
      PubDate: 2021-04-19
      DOI: 10.3390/arts10020026
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2021)
  • Arts, Vol. 10, Pages 27: Twelve Insights into the Afghanistan War through
           the Photographs from the Basetrack Project: Rita Leistner’s iProbes and
           Marshall McLuhan’s Theory of Media

    • Authors: Kalina Kukielko-Rogozinska
      First page: 27
      Abstract: This article presents the iProbe concept developed by the Canadian photographer Rita Leistner. This analytical tool is one of the ways to present the image of modern warfare that emerges from messages in social media and photographs taken using smartphones. Utilized to understand the approach are photographs Leistner took at the American military base in Musa Qala (Helmand province, Afghanistan) during the implementation of the “Basetrack” media project in 2011. The theoretical basis for this study is Marshall McLuhan’s media theory, which was used by the photographer to interpret her works from Afghanistan. Leistner is the first to apply the various concepts shaped by McLuhan in the second half of 20th century, such as “probe”, “extension of man”, and the “figure/ground” dichotomy, to analyze war photography. Her blog and book entitled Looking for Marshall McLuhan in Afghanistan shows the potential of using McLuhan’s concepts to interpret the image of modern warfare presented in the contemporary media. The application of McLuhan’s theory to this type of photographic analysis provides the opportunity to focus on the technological dimension of modern war and to look at warfare from a technical perspective such as what devices and communication solutions are used to solve armed conflicts as efficiently and bloodlessly as possible. Therefore, this article briefly presents twelve iProbes that Leistner created based on her experiences from working in Afghanistan concerning photography, military equipment, interpersonal relations, and various types of communication.
      Citation: Arts
      PubDate: 2021-04-22
      DOI: 10.3390/arts10020027
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2021)
  • Arts, Vol. 10, Pages 28: Becoming Asia’s Art Market Hub: Comparing
           Singapore and Hong Kong

    • Authors: Jeremie Molho
      First page: 28
      Abstract: The recent emergence of new regions in the global art market has been structured by hub cities that concentrate key actors, such as global auction houses, influential art fairs, and galleries. Both Singapore and Hong Kong have developed explicit strategies aimed at positioning themselves as Asia’s art market hub. This followed the steep rise of the Chinese art market, but also the general perception of Asia as the world’s most dynamic art market. While Hong Kong’s emergence derives from its status as gateway to the Chinese market, and has been driven by key global players, such as the auction houses Christies’ and Sotheby’s, the Art Basel fair, and mega-galleries, Singapore’s strategy has been driven by the state. At the end of the 2000s, the city identified the art market as a new growth sector, and proactively invested, by creating a cluster concentrating international galleries and supporting art fairs, art weeks, and new world-class cultural institutions. Based on comparative fieldwork, and interviews with actors of the Singapore and Hong Kong art markets, this article shows that the two cities’ distinct strategies have generated contrasted models of “cultural hubs”, and that they play complementary roles in the structuration of the region’s art market.
      Citation: Arts
      PubDate: 2021-04-27
      DOI: 10.3390/arts10020028
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2021)
  • Arts, Vol. 10, Pages 29: Street Photography Reframed

    • Authors: Stephanie Schwartz
      First page: 29
      Abstract: Afraid of contagion [...]
      Citation: Arts
      PubDate: 2021-04-28
      DOI: 10.3390/arts10020029
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2021)
  • Arts, Vol. 10, Pages 30: Served on a Plate: Engraved Sources of San Diego
           de Alcalá’s ‘Miraculous Meal’ for the Franciscans of Santiago,
           Chile (ca. 1710)

    • Authors: Catherine Burdick
      First page: 30
      Abstract: There exists a consensus in academic literature regarding the centrality of engraved prototypes for the production of colonial paintings in the Spanish Americas. In Peru, these artistic models were written into legal contracts between painters and clients. An examination of the notarial contracts produced in Cusco from 1650 to 1700 suggests that prototypes in a variety of formats were not only central to artistic professional practice, but that adherence to their images may have provided one motive for entering into such agreements. This study leans upon the centrality of Flemish print sources to confirm the attribution of a partial canvas at the Pinacoteca Universidad de Concepción, Chile as an episode of the series on the life of Diego de Alcalá (c. 1710) in Santiago, Chile. Commissioned from Cusco by the Franciscans of Santiago, the status of the hagiographic cycle as the most extensive ever produced on the subject of this missionary saint dictates that a multiplicity of sources was necessary for its creation. By identifying two engravings that served as its models, this study recovers the subject of this painting as a miracle that sustained Diego during an arduous journey.
      Citation: Arts
      PubDate: 2021-04-29
      DOI: 10.3390/arts10020030
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2021)
  • Arts, Vol. 10, Pages 31: Investigating Theatricality in Trisha Brown’s
           Work: Five Unstudied Dances, 1966–1969

    • Authors: Susan Rosenberg
      First page: 31
      Abstract: Trisha Brown (1936–2017) forged her artistic identity as part of Judson Dance Theater, which embraced everyday pedestrian movement as dance. Between 1966 and 1969, Brown’s work took a surprisingly theatrical turn. Five unstudied dances from this period reflect concerns with autobiography, psychology, and catharsis, influences of her exposure to trends in Gestalt therapy and dance therapy during a sojourn in California (1963–1965). Brown let these works fall from her repertory because she did not consider them to qualify as ‘art’. Close readings of these works shed light on a period in Brown’s career before she rejected subjectivity as the basis for her creative process prior to her consolidation of her identity as an abstract choreographer in the 1970s and 1980s, while raising intriguing questions as to Brown’s late-career devotion to exploring emotion, drama and empathy in the operas and song cycle that she directed between 1998 and 2003.
      Citation: Arts
      PubDate: 2021-05-06
      DOI: 10.3390/arts10020031
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2021)
  • Arts, Vol. 10, Pages 32: Contemporary Indigenous Australian Art and Native
           Title Land Claim

    • Authors: Marie Geissler
      First page: 32
      Abstract: This paper investigates a select number of examples in which largely non-literate First Nation peoples of Australia, like some First Nations peoples around the world, when faced with a judicial challenge to present evidence in court to support their land title claim, have drawn on their cultural materials as supporting evidence. Specifically, the text highlights the effective agency of indigenous visual expression as a communication tool within the Australian legal system. Further, it evaluates this history within an indigenous Australian art context, instancing where of visual art, including drawings and paintings, has been successfully used to support the main evidence in native title land claims. The focus is on three case studies, each differentiated by its distinct medium, commonly used in indigenous contemporary art—namely, ink/watercolours on paper, (Case study 1—the Mabo drawings of 1992), acrylics on canvas (Case study 2—the Ngurrara 11 canvas 1997) and ochre on bark, (Case study 3—The Saltwater Bark Collection 1997 (onwards)). The differentiation in the stylistic character of these visual presentations is evaluated within the context of being either a non-indigenous tradition (e.g., represented as European-like diagrams or sketches to detail areas and boundaries of the claim sites in question) or by an indigenous expressive context (e.g., the evidence of the claim is presented using traditionally inspired indigenous symbols relating to the claimant’s lands. These latter images are adaptations of the secret sacred symbols used in ceremonies and painting, but expressed in a form that complies with traditional protocols protecting secret, sacred knowledge). The following text details how such visual presentations in the aforementioned cases were used and accepted as legitimate legal instruments, on which Australian courts based their legal determinations of the native land title.
      Citation: Arts
      PubDate: 2021-05-11
      DOI: 10.3390/arts10020032
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2021)
  • Arts, Vol. 10, Pages 33: The Rediscovered Watermark in the Drawing Leda
           and the Swan by Raphael Kept at Windsor Castle

    • Authors: Claudio Calì
      First page: 33
      Abstract: This article presents an in-depth study of Raphael’s drawing of Leda and the Swan (RCIN 912759), preserved at Windsor Castle. The research aims to make the paper’s physical properties accessible and extend the information on the watermark. The methodology follows an artistic–design-oriented approach. The data extraction process uses a back-lighting photographic technique combined with image post-processing operations. The work catalogues in scientific terms the complete paper mould lines of the Windsor sheet according to the International Standard of Paper Classification (IPH). Based on comparisons with a series of drawings by Leonardo da Vinci, the contribution suggests a chronological and provenance estimate of the paper used by Raphael.
      Citation: Arts
      PubDate: 2021-05-24
      DOI: 10.3390/arts10020033
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2021)
  • Arts, Vol. 10, Pages 34: Traditional Conservation and Storage Methods for
           Ancient Chinese Painting and Calligraphy on Silk Manuscripts

    • Authors: Wei Ren, Na Cao
      First page: 34
      Abstract: This study investigated traditional conservation and storage methods for Chinese silk manuscripts containing painting and calligraphy from the Warring States period (475–221 BC), the Qin dynasty (221–207 BC), the Han dynasty (202–8 BC; AD 25–220), and from the end of the Han to the present. At present, there is gap in the literature regarding the application of such methods to these works. The study methods include a literature review (classical and contemporary sources), expert interviews, and observation of traditional masters. The findings provide an improved understanding of the development of traditional technologies used for painting and calligraphy conservation since 475 BC. In this way, this work contributes to the body of knowledge regarding traditional conservation and storage methods, including mounting practices, scroll unfolding, and box storage.
      Citation: Arts
      PubDate: 2021-05-26
      DOI: 10.3390/arts10020034
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2021)
  • Arts, Vol. 10, Pages 35: The Emergence of an Auction Category: Iranian Art
           at Christie’s Dubai, 2006–2016

    • Authors: Leili Sreberny-Mohammadi
      First page: 35
      Abstract: The expansion of the British auction houses Christie’s, Sotheby’s and Bonhams to markets in the Middle East has played a crucial role in building an international market for art from the region. They have also been essential in providing an international platform for the sale of art from Iran, a country whose economy is otherwise isolated from global markets. In this paper, I address the growth of the market for Iranian art specifically via Christie’s auctions in Dubai. Through close analysis of auction catalogs, ethnographic data drawn from live auctions and interviews with key staff members, I document the emergence of Iranian art into the international arena and the solidification of both Iranian and Middle Eastern art as a distinct category of sales. In particular, I explore the notion of “seeing with the other eye”, a way that auction specialists nudge local collectors into the arena of “international” taste. Through analysis of the particular tropes used to narrate artist biographies in auction catalogs, I demonstrate how artists are painted as interpreters and translators of “local” and “global” aesthetic registers.
      Citation: Arts
      PubDate: 2021-05-27
      DOI: 10.3390/arts10020035
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2021)
  • Arts, Vol. 10, Pages 36: Images and Landscape: The (Dis)ordering of
           Colonial Territory (Quito in the Eighteenth Century)

    • Authors: Carmen Fernández-Salvador
      First page: 36
      Abstract: This article explores the role played by images of the Virgin Mary in the ordering of space during the colonial period, as well as in the disruption of such order as a gesture of resistance by subordinate groups. In the Real Audiencia de Quito of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, civil and religious authorities used miraculous images of the Virgin Mary as aids in the founding of reducciones, which assured the imposition of Christian civility upon the Native population. Legal records suggest that in the second half of the eighteenth century Indigenous communities deployed similar strategies as a means of asserting their own concerns. Native actors physically manipulated Marian images in times of conflict, moving them around or apprehending them either to legitimize their desertion of colonial settlements or to resist forced relocation. In both the early colonial period and in the eighteenth century, the key strategy of shaping sacred landscapes was implemented in both Andean and Christian traditions.
      Citation: Arts
      PubDate: 2021-06-10
      DOI: 10.3390/arts10020036
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2021)
  • Arts, Vol. 10, Pages 37: Modeling Black Piety and Community Membership in
           the Virgin of Altagracia Medallions

    • Authors: Jennifer Baez
      First page: 37
      Abstract: In the third quarter of the eighteenth century, Santo Domingo archbishop Isidoro Rodríguez Lorenzo (s. 1767–1788) issued a decree officializing the day of the cult for the Virgin of Altagracia as January 21 and made it a feast of three crosses for the villa of Salvaleón de Higüey and its jurisdiction, meaning all races (free and enslaved) were allowed to join the celebrations in church. Unrelated to the issuance of this decree and approximately during this time (c. 1760–1778), a series of painted panels depicting miracles performed by the Virgin of Altagracia was produced for her sanctuary of San Dionisio in Higüey, in all likelihood commissioned by a close succession of parish priests to the maestro painter Diego José Hilaris Holt. Painted in the coarse style of popular votive panels, they gave the cult a unifying core foundation of miracles. This essay discusses the significance of the black bodies pictured in four of the panels within the project’s implicit effort to institutionalize the regional cult and vis-à-vis the archbishop’s encouragement of non-segregated celebrations for her feast day. As January 21 was associated with a renowned Spanish creole battle against the French, this essay locates these black bodies within the cult’s newfound patriotic charisma. I examine the process by which people of color were incorporated into this community of faith as part of a two-step ritual that involved seeing images while performing difference. Through contrapuntal analysis of the archbishop’s decree, I argue the images helped model black piety and community membership within a hierarchical socioracial order.
      Citation: Arts
      PubDate: 2021-06-17
      DOI: 10.3390/arts10020037
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2021)
  • Arts, Vol. 10, Pages 38: Special Issue: ‘Reconsidering the State(s)
           of Criticism’

    • Authors: Stephen Moonie
      First page: 38
      Abstract: The ‘crisis’ of criticism has recurred intermittently since the late 1960s, in which we encounter challenges to supposed authority—or, even, to its very credibility [...]
      Citation: Arts
      PubDate: 2021-06-18
      DOI: 10.3390/arts10020038
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2021)
  • Arts, Vol. 10, Pages 39: Deflationist Caprice: “Imperfections” in the
           Sculpture of Leon Podsiadły

    • Authors: Karolina Tomczak
      First page: 39
      Abstract: This article is an attempt to define the ambiguous specificity of artistic deflation in the sculpture of the Wroclavian artist Leon Podsiadły. At the outset, the author describes the principle of deflationist art and proposes a method of approach. She then discusses the “imperfections” within Podsiadły’s sculpture, the main manifestations of which include the use of common materials and mundane objects, secondary anti-mastery, and dememorization. These features coexist with well-thought-out composition, the inventiveness of the choice-making artist, and the creative fascination of unconventional artistic qualities, to which deflationist unlearning adds a unique slant. Seen from this perspective, Podsiadły’s deflationist caprice persuasively affirms the elasticity of the oscillation between the optics of modernism and postmodernism that defines his art. This oscillation can be seen, for instance, in those among his sculptures that were inspired by his stay in Africa in 1960s; in his “erotic” compositions; and in his installations of the 2010s in which he used the ready made. His “reductive” artistic experiments testify to a need for ironic distance; they individually gravitate toward the transgressive avant-garde and at the same time respond to the current trend of deskilling in art.
      Citation: Arts
      PubDate: 2021-06-18
      DOI: 10.3390/arts10020039
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2021)
  • Arts, Vol. 10, Pages 4: Art Funds in China: Developments and Limitations

    • Authors: Linli Li
      First page: 4
      Abstract: This paper focuses on a type of worldwide art investment vehicle in an unexplored yet significant area: the Chinese art fund. It seeks to understand why art funds exploded in China after the 2008 financial crisis and how they have developed new features in the Chinese context. Further, it discusses the relationship between Chinese art funds and the Chinese art world. While these two groups tend to be what sociologists call “hostile worlds” in the West, my study shows that actors in the Chinese art world tend to take a pragmatic attitude toward capital. Thus, art funds face fewer social limitations in the Chinese art world than their Western counterparts. However, Chinese art funds face limitations in terms of accessibility, credibility, and liquidity. These limitations have been caused mainly by a series of regulations launched since 2013, which has primarily resulted in a decline of art funds in China.
      Citation: Arts
      PubDate: 2021-01-09
      DOI: 10.3390/arts10010004
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2021)
  • Arts, Vol. 10, Pages 5: Entrapment within Inner Space: The Development and
           Review of Other Materials as Intentional Inclusions within Glass as a
           Creative Artistic Practice

    • Authors: Jessamy Kelly, Goshka Bialek
      First page: 5
      Abstract: This paper will introduce the use of intentional inclusions and inner space within glass as a means of creative expression, as an emerging area of practice-based research within the field of art glass. This includes the definition of key concepts, a short history of inclusions in glass, the development of technologies used by material scientists working with inclusions and the industrial applications of inclusions in glass will be discussed. This paper will discuss the completed doctoral research of Jessamy Kelly who explored ceramic inclusions within glass and Goshka Bialek who explored metal inclusions within glass. Both glass artists explored the use of foreign, intentional inclusions which have been entrapped within glass within their doctoral research. Glass artists that use a variety of metal, ceramic and other inclusions to penetrate the internal space of their objects will also be introduced. This paper will set the parameters of the field providing an in-depth study into the concept and use of inclusions which plays an important part in understanding why some glass artists use inclusions within their glass. It is significant to recognise a collective response, from many artists detailed in this paper and their exploration of the internal space within art glass objects, to create an inner space or world within their artworks. This paper will define and explore the variety of ways, both from a historical and contemporary perspective, that inclusions in glass, have been combined together over many years.
      Citation: Arts
      PubDate: 2021-01-15
      DOI: 10.3390/arts10010005
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2021)
  • Arts, Vol. 10, Pages 6: The Space for Preservation and Dilapidation of
           Historical Houses in Modlimowo Village in the Light of Post-Dependence
           Studies and Historical Politics after 1945

    • Authors: Agnieszka Rek-Lipczyńska
      First page: 6
      Abstract: The main purpose of this article is to present the results of the research on spatial degradation of Modlimowo village. Modlimowo is an example of a settlement form typical of the Western Pomerania region. Until 1945, half-timbered buildings of Modlimowo village constituted a well-preserved architectural and cultural heritage of this region. Over the past 25 years, changes in the spatial layout of Modlimowo Village irreversibly destroyed the architectural layout of the village, its cultural landscape, and affected its spatial character. The process involved the demolition of around 70% of its historical buildings. The residents, the descendants of post-war settlers, also acted in favor of the rapid degradation. This was typical in the Polish western lands, the area of so-called “Recovered Territories.” The historical memory encapsulated in the village’s spatial structure has been successfully decoded. Spatial degradation of the village of Modlimowo is an example that proves a certain regularity. The processes and mechanisms that govern the devastation taking place in Polish villages of the region of the “Recovered Territories” are subject to extensive analysis in terms of social, economic, cultural, historical, and architectural aspects. There is an ongoing discussion about the reasons for this situation. The political reality of post-war Poland and the persistent traumas of that period have had a significant impact on the actual situation of the Polish countryside. The described research may offer a contribution to the ongoing discussion regarding post-dependence, as it extends the research field typical of architecture to include aspects of the importance of collective memory as well as historical politics. The theoretical model of the conducted research was based on the grounded theory. The author chose this form due to the specific flexibility it offers. An important aspect analyzed in the research was the ability to adapt to the existing conditions. Supplementing the collected data with historical and ethnographic materials proved to be very helpful. The open interview method enabled the collection of the required, standardized data. The conducted research allows to conclude that the language of the historical architectural forms typical for the region was not understood by its new inhabitants. Therefore, newcomers felt free to thoughtlessly demolish whatever previous occupants had left. The analysis of the political context, the trauma of the post-war regime, and post-memory mechanisms can help to diagnose the reality of those times.
      Citation: Arts
      PubDate: 2021-01-21
      DOI: 10.3390/arts10010006
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2021)
  • Arts, Vol. 10, Pages 7: Towards an Embodied Abstraction: An Historical
           Perspective on Lucinda Childs’ Calico Mingling (1973)

    • Authors: Lou Forster
      First page: 7
      Abstract: In the 1970s, choreographer Lucinda Childs developed a reductive form of abstraction based on graphic representations of her dance material, walking, and a specific approach towards its embodiment. If her work has been described through the prism of minimalism, this case study on Calico Mingling (1973) proposes a different perspective. Based on newly available archival documents in Lucinda Childs’s papers, it traces how track drawing, the planimetric representation of path across the floor, intersected with minimalist aesthetics. On the other hand, it elucidates Childs’s distinctive use of literacy in order to embody abstraction. In this respect, the choreographer’s approach to both dance company and dance technique converge at different influences, in particular modernism and minimalism, two parallel histories which have been typically separated or opposed.
      Citation: Arts
      PubDate: 2021-01-21
      DOI: 10.3390/arts10010007
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2021)
  • Arts, Vol. 10, Pages 8: A Relic of Communism, an Architectural Nightmare
           or a Determinant of the City’s Brand' Media, Political and
           Architectural Dispute over the Monument to the Revolutionary Act in
           Rzeszów (Poland)

    • Authors: Sławomir Gawroński, Dariusz Tworzydło, Kinga Bajorek, Łukasz Bis
      First page: 8
      Abstract: This article deals with the issues of architectural elements of public space, treated as components of art and visual communication, and at the same time determinants of the emotional aspects of political conflicts, social disputes, and media discourse. The aim of the considerations is to show, with the usage of the principles of critical analysis of media discourse, the impact of social events, political communication, and the activity of mass communicators on the perception of the monument of historical memory and the changes that take place within its public evaluation. The authors chose the method of critical analysis of the media discourse due to its compliance with the planned purpose of the analyses, thus, providing the opportunity to perform qualitative research, enabling the creation of possibly up-to-date conclusions regarding both the studied thread, and allowing the extrapolation of certain conclusions to other examples. The media material relating to the controversial Monument to the Revolutionary Act, located in the city of Rzeszów (Poland), was selected for the analysis. On this example, an attempt was made to evaluate the mutual relations between politically engaged architecture and art, and the contemporary consequences of this involvement in the social and political dimension.
      Citation: Arts
      PubDate: 2021-01-26
      DOI: 10.3390/arts10010008
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2021)
  • Arts, Vol. 10, Pages 9: Found in Translation: Evolving Approaches for the
           Localization of Japanese Video Games

    • Authors: Carme Mangiron
      First page: 9
      Abstract: Japanese video games have entertained players around the world and played an important role in the video game industry since its origins. In order to export Japanese games overseas, they need to be localized, i.e., they need to be technically, linguistically, and culturally adapted for the territories where they will be sold. This article hopes to shed light onto the current localization practices for Japanese games, their reception in North America, and how users’ feedback can contribute to fine-tuning localization strategies. After briefly defining what game localization entails, an overview of the localization practices followed by Japanese developers and publishers is provided. Next, the paper presents three brief case studies of the strategies applied to the localization into English of three renowned Japanese video game sagas set in Japan: Persona (1996–present), Phoenix Wright: Ace Attorney (2005–present), and Yakuza (2005–present). The objective of the paper is to analyze how localization practices for these series have evolved over time by looking at industry perspectives on localization, as well as the target market expectations, in order to examine how the dialogue between industry and consumers occurs. Special attention is given to how players’ feedback impacted on localization practices. A descriptive, participant-oriented, and documentary approach was used to collect information from specialized websites, blogs, and forums regarding localization strategies and the reception of the localized English versions. The analysis indicates that localization strategies for Japanese games have evolved over time from a higher to a lower degree of cultural adaptation in order to meet target markets’ expectations. However, it was also noted that despite the increasing tendency to preserve the sociocultural content of the original, the language used in the translations needs to be vivid and idiomatic in order to reach a wider audience and provide an enjoyable gameplay experience.
      Citation: Arts
      PubDate: 2021-01-26
      DOI: 10.3390/arts10010009
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2021)
  • Arts, Vol. 10, Pages 10: The Old Testament Prophecy of the Resurrection of
           the Dry Bones between the West and Byzantium

    • Authors: Yoanna Planchette
      First page: 10
      Abstract: The imagery of the vision of the valley of dry bones (Ezek 37. 1–14) still fascinates theologians and historians of religion with its exegetical and liturgical significance. Rarely represented in medieval art, the iconography of this singular topic related to the Last Judgment deserves closer attention on the part of art historians. The aim of the present contribution is to remedy this situation by offering an analysis of the main pictorial representations of Ezekiel’s prophecy within the medieval East and West. This paper examines the evolution of the theme from the first pictorial evidence from Mesopotamia through the Roman late antique funerary sculpture into the Catalan and Germanic illuminated manuscript production from 11th and 12th centuries. Then, the field of the investigation broadens by taking into consideration the Byzantine artistic patterns of Ezekiel’s vision of the resurrection of the dead. Finally, this paper accents the multilayered contribution of the mural paintings from the Balkan cultural field. In order to reconsider this subject through the prism of the artistic interactions between East and West, the continuity of an ancient pictorial tradition that seems to have been previously neglected is highlighted.
      Citation: Arts
      PubDate: 2021-02-01
      DOI: 10.3390/arts10010010
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2021)
  • Arts, Vol. 10, Pages 11: Art as Critique under Neoliberalism: Negativity
           Undoing Economic Naturalism

    • Authors: Alexander Gawronski
      First page: 11
      Abstract: This essay considers the possibilities of contemporary art as a viable medium of socio-political critique within a cultural terrain dominated by naturalised neoliberal economics. It begins by considering the centrality of negativity to the historical project of critical theory most forcefully pursued by Adorno as ‘negative dialectics.’ Subsequent varieties of postmodern critique fairly dispensed with dialectics variously favouring complexity and an overriding emphasis on textuality. With the birth of neoliberalism and its burgeoning emphasis on ‘the contemporary’, economic values begin to penetrate every aspect of contemporary life and experience, including art and culture. Contemporary capitalism dematerialised as financialisation now comprises a naturalised ambience that is both everywhere and nowhere. Capitalist ambience is echoed in contemporary art that suggests criticality and yet seems to side with the imagery, values and logics of the prevailing financial order. The naturalisation of the neoliberal order is further internalised by artists online. Exacerbated contemporary emphasis on the ‘self as entrepreneur’ coincides with the biopolitical transformation of the contemporary artist into an individual ‘enterprise unit’. This is particularly observable online on social media where an artist’s whole life is simultaneously the subject and object of art. Criticality in art does not disappear but becomes ‘self-annulling’: it acts as a conduit questioning the commodity-identity of art while pointing to phenomena and affects outside the art world. With the recent appearance of the COVID-19 virus, added to the unignorable impact of global climate change, ‘real nature’ assumes a critical role, undermining neoliberalism’s ideological naturalisation while laying-bare the extent of its structural contradictions. Art criticality is revivified by divesting from art contexts saturated with neoliberal imperatives. Criticality is negatively practiced as an ‘un-’ or ‘not-doing’, defining modes of exodus while, crucially, not abandoning art’s institutional definition altogether.
      Citation: Arts
      PubDate: 2021-02-04
      DOI: 10.3390/arts10010011
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2021)
  • Arts, Vol. 10, Pages 12: Lady of the House: Augustina Meza (ca.
           1758–1819), Print Publishing, and the Women of Mexican Late Colonial Art

    • Authors: Kelly Donahue-Wallace
      First page: 12
      Abstract: Using archival records of the Sagrario Metropolitano and material analysis of extant prints, the paper presents the life and work of the only known woman printmaker in viceregal New Spain, María Augustina Meza. It traces Meza and her work through two marriages to fellow engravers and a 50-year career as owner of an independent print publishing shop in Mexico City. In doing so, the paper places Meza’s print publishing business and its practices within the context of artists’ shops run by women in the mid- to late-eighteenth century. The article simultaneously extends the recognized role of women in printing and broadens our understanding of women within the business of both printmaking and painting in late colonial Mexico City. It furthermore joins the scholarship demonstrating with new empirical research that the lived realities of women in viceregal New Spain were more complex than traditional, stereotypical visions of women’s lives have previously allowed.
      Citation: Arts
      PubDate: 2021-02-05
      DOI: 10.3390/arts10010012
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2021)
  • Arts, Vol. 10, Pages 13: Fit for the Job: Proportion and the Portrayal of
           Cattle in Egyptian Old and Middle Kingdom Elite Tomb Imagery

    • Authors: Nicolle Leary
      First page: 13
      Abstract: Depictions of the natural world are an intrinsic feature of Egyptian visual culture, with the vast array of imagery documenting animals a testimony to the fundamental role they played. Despite the significance of animals in Egypt, an anthropocentric bias still exists in research on the methods used by practitioners during initial scene composition. To help bridge the divide, the author herein undertook an investigation to determine if proportional guides were in place when rendering animal figures in ancient Egyptian elite tomb imagery of the Old and Middle Kingdoms. A notable outcome of the proportional analysis was the identification of two distinct body-types for domestic cattle (Bos taurus taurus). The aim of the current paper is to further examine these proportional differences to explore if variations in physique (namely the distance between the chest floor and withers) were rendered by Egyptian practitioners to reflect the conditions in which they appeared by considering two overarching factors: (1) biological factors and (2) contextual factors. As such, the study will employ proportional analysis to challenge the prevailing perspective of a deregulated approach when illustrating fauna in elite tomb imagery, highlighting the significance of animals within ancient Egypt.
      Citation: Arts
      PubDate: 2021-02-07
      DOI: 10.3390/arts10010013
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2021)
  • Arts, Vol. 10, Pages 14: Exhibitions in France as Symbolic Domination:
           Images of Postmodernism and Cultural Field in the 1980s

    • Authors: Marianna Charitonidou
      First page: 14
      Abstract: The article examines a group of exhibitions that took place in the late seventies and early eighties and are useful for grasping what was at stake regarding the debates on the tensions between modernist and post-modernist architecture. Among the exhibitions that are examined are Europa-America: Architettura urbana, alternative suburbane, curated by Vittorio Gregotti for the Biennale di Venezia in 1976; La Presenza del passato, curated by Paolo Portoghesi for the Biennale di Venezia in 1980; the French version of La presenza del passato—Présence de l’histoire, l’après modernisme—held in the framework of the Festival d’Automne de Paris in 1981; Architectures en France: Modernité/post-modernité, curated by Chantal Béret and held at the Institut Français d’Architecture (18 November 1981–6 February 1982); La modernité, un projet inachevé: 40 architectures, curated by Paul Chemetov and Jean-Claude Garcias for the Festival d’Automne de Paris in 1982; La modernité ou l’esprit du temps, curated by Jean Nouvel, Patrice Goulet, and François Barré and held at the Centre Pompidou in 1982; and Nouveaux plaisirs d’architecture, curated by Jean Dethier for the Centre Pompidou in 1985, among other exhibitions. Analysing certain important texts published in the catalogues of the aforementioned exhibitions, the debates that accompanied the exhibitions and an ensemble of articles in French architectural magazines such as L’Architecture d’aujourd’hui and the Techniques & Architecture, the article aims to present the questions that were at the centre of the debates regarding the opposition or osmosis between the modernist and postmodernist ideals. Some figures, such as Jean Nouvel, were more in favour of the cross-fertilisation between modernity and postmodernity, while others, such as Paul Chemetov, believed that architects should rediscover modernity in order to enhance the civic dimension of architecture. Following Pierre Bourdieu’s approach, the article argues that the tension between the ways in which each of these exhibitions treats the role of the image within architectural design and the role of architecture for the construction of a vision regarding progress is the expression of two divergent positions in social space.
      Citation: Arts
      PubDate: 2021-02-12
      DOI: 10.3390/arts10010014
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2021)
  • Arts, Vol. 10, Pages 15: Impossible Origins: Trauma Narrative and
           Cinematic Adaptation

    • Authors: Linda Belau
      First page: 15
      Abstract: In this essay, I explore the cinematic adaptation and the representation of trauma, while I further consider the role and significance of the notion of the origin in both trauma and in cinematic adaptation. Through an initial consideration of the relationship between the theory of the impossible origin, particularly as it is articulated by Walter Benjamin, the essay goes on to analyze the significance and role of an impossible origin in the elemental form of adaptation. To this end, the essay considers the movement of adaptation from an autobiographical trauma memoir to a feature film, considering the success or failure of adaptation in situations where the original literary work concerns an experience of extremity. As I consider the vicissitudes of trauma and its grounding in a repetitious structure that leaves the survivor suspended in a kind of missed experience (or missed origin), I further explore how this missing origin (or original text in the case of adaptation) can be represented at all.
      Citation: Arts
      PubDate: 2021-02-22
      DOI: 10.3390/arts10010015
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2021)
  • Arts, Vol. 10, Pages 16: Frank Gehry’s Self-Twisting Uninterrupted Line:
           Gesture-Drawings as Indexes

    • Authors: Marianna Charitonidou
      First page: 16
      Abstract: The article analyses Frank Gehry’s insistence on the use of self-twisting uninterrupted line in his sketches. Its main objectives are first, to render explicit how this tendency of Gehry is related to how the architect conceives form-making, and second, to explain how Gehry reinvents the tension between graphic composition and the translation of spatial relations into built form. A key reference for the article is Marco Frascari’s ‘Lines as Architectural Thinking’ and, more specifically, his conceptualisation of Leon Battista Alberti’s term lineamenta in order to illuminate in which sense architectural drawings should be understood as essential architectural factures and not merely as visualisations. Frascari, in Eleven Exercises in the Art of Architectural Drawing: Slow Food for the Architects’s Imagination, after having drawn a distinction between what he calls ‘trivial’ and ‘non-trivial’ drawings—that is to say between communication drawings and conceptual drawings, or drawings serving to transmit ideas and drawings serving to their own designer to grasp ideas during the process of their genesis—unfolds his thoughts regarding the latter. The article focuses on how the ‘non-trivial’ drawings of Frank Gehry enhance a kinaesthetic relationship between action and thought. It pays special attention to the ways in which Frank Gehrys’ sketches function as instantaneous concretisations of a continuous process of transformation. Its main argument is that the affective capacity of Gehry’s ‘drawdlings’ lies in their interpretation as successive concretisations of a reiterative process. The affectivity of their abstract and single-gesture pictoriality is closely connected to their interpretation as components of a single dynamic system. As key issues of Frank Gehry’s use of uninterrupted line, the article identifies: the enhancement of a straightforward relationship between the gesture and the decision-making regarding the form of the building; its capacity to render possible the perception of the evolution of the process of form-making; and the way the use of uninterrupted line is related to the function of Gehry’s sketches as indexes referring to Charles Sanders Peirce’s conception of the notion of ‘index’.
      Citation: Arts
      PubDate: 2021-02-22
      DOI: 10.3390/arts10010016
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2021)
  • Arts, Vol. 10, Pages 17: In a Time Loop: Politics and the Ideological
           Significance of Monuments to Those Who Perished on Saint Anne Mountain
           (1934–1955, Germany/Poland)

    • Authors: Agnieszka Tomaszewicz, Joanna Majczyk
      First page: 17
      Abstract: Polish Góra św. Anny (Saint Anne Mountain), previously German Annaberg, is one of the few places in the world where art was utilized to promote two regimes—fascist and communist. With the use of art, the refuge of pagan gods and then, Christian Saint John’s Mountain with Saint Ann’s church and a calvary site were transformed into a mausoleum of the victims of uprisings and wars—those placed by politics on opposite sides of the barricade. The “sacred” character of the mountain was appropriated in the 1930s by the fascist Thingstätte under the form of an open-air theatre with a mausoleum, erected to commemorate fallen German soldiers in the Third Silesian Uprising. After the Second World War, the same place was “sacralized” by the Monument of the Insurgents’ Deed, which replaced the German object. The aim of both of them was to commemorate those who had perished in the same armed conflicts—uprisings from the years 1919–1921, when the Poles opposed German administration of Upper Silesia. According to the assumptions of both national socialism as well as communism, the commemorative significance of both monuments was subjected to ideological messages. Both monuments were supposed to constitute not only the most important element of the place where patriotic manifestations were intended to be held, but also a kind of counterbalance for the local pilgrims’ center dedicated to the cult of Saint Anne. The aim of the paper is to present the process of transforming a Nazi monument into its communist counterpart, at the same time explaining the significance of both monuments in the context of changing political reality. This paper has not been based on one exclusive research method—historical and field studies have been conducted, together with iconographical and iconological analyses of the monuments viewed from their comparative perspective. The text relies on archive materials—documents, press releases, and projects, including architectural drawings of the monument staffage—discovered by the authors and never published before. They would connect the structure not only to the surrounding landscape but, paradoxically, to the fascist Thingstätte.
      Citation: Arts
      PubDate: 2021-03-01
      DOI: 10.3390/arts10010017
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2021)
  • Arts, Vol. 10, Pages 18: National, Regional, or Just
           Catholic'—Dilemmas of Church Art in a German–Polish Borderland.
           Upper Silesia, 1903–1953

    • Authors: Jerzy Gorzelik
      First page: 18
      Abstract: The rise of nationalism threatened the integrity of the Catholic milieu in borderlands such as Prussian Upper Silesia. Facing this challenge, the ecclesiastical elite developed various strategies. This article presents interpretations of sacred art works from the first half of the 20th century, which reveal different approaches to national discourses expressed in iconographic programs. The spectrum of attitudes includes indifference, active counteraction to the progress of nationalism by promoting a different paradigm of building temporal imagined communities, acceptance of nationalistic metaphysics, which assumes the division of humanity into nations endowed with a unique personality, and a synthesis of Catholicism and nationalism, in which national loyalties are considered a Christian duty. The last position proved particularly expansive. Based on the primordialist concept of the nation and the historiosophical concept of Poland as a bulwark of Christianity, the Catholic-national ideology gained popularity among the pro-Polish clergy in the inter-war period. This was reflected in Church art works, which were to present Catholicism as the unchanging essence of the nation and the destiny of the latter resulting from God’s will. This strategy was designed to incorporate Catholic Slavophones into the national community. The adoption of a different concept of the nation by the pro-German priests associated with the Centre Party—with a stronger emphasis on the subjective criteria of national belonging—resulted in greater restraint in expressing national contents in sacred spaces.
      Citation: Arts
      PubDate: 2021-03-05
      DOI: 10.3390/arts10010018
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2021)
  • Arts, Vol. 10, Pages 19: Spaces of Dependence and Emancipation in
           Architectural and Urban Narration, a Case Study: Plac Żołnierza
           Polskiego and Plac Solidarności in Szczecin

    • Authors: Izabela Kozłowska, Eryk Krasucki
      First page: 19
      Abstract: Central and Eastern European countries were subjugated to the Soviet Union in the second half of the 20th century. In this new political environment, defined as the period of dependency, the concept of space gained a new denotation as a space of dependence, in both social and physical terms. The political changes that took place after 1989 enabled these spaces to be emancipated. In this work, we aim to delineate the complex relationship between architecture and politics from the perspective of spaces of dependence and their emancipation. Through a case study of two squares, plac Żołnierza Polskiego (the Square of the Polish Soldier) and plac Solidarności (Solidarity Square) in Szczecin, we gained insights into the processes and strategies that promoted their evolution into spaces of emancipation within architectural and urban narratives. Szczecin’s space of dependence was created by an authoritarian state that had a monopoly on defining architecture and urban planning in the country and the state as a whole. In a process orchestrated by economic factors, as well as the scale of architectural and urban degradation, the squares under discussion have transitioned from spaces of dependency to spaces of emancipation. As a result, an architectural-urban structure characterized by new cultural and identity values has been created.
      Citation: Arts
      PubDate: 2021-03-05
      DOI: 10.3390/arts10010019
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2021)
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