Subjects -> BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS (Total: 3570 journals)
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    - BANKING AND FINANCE (306 journals)
    - BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS (1248 journals)
    - CONSUMER EDUCATION AND PROTECTION (20 journals)
    - COOPERATIVES (4 journals)
    - ECONOMIC SCIENCES: GENERAL (212 journals)
    - ECONOMIC SYSTEMS, THEORIES AND HISTORY (235 journals)
    - FASHION AND CONSUMER TRENDS (20 journals)
    - HUMAN RESOURCES (103 journals)
    - INSURANCE (26 journals)
    - INTERNATIONAL COMMERCE (145 journals)
    - INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND AID (103 journals)
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    - LABOR AND INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS (61 journals)
    - MACROECONOMICS (17 journals)
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    - PRODUCTION OF GOODS AND SERVICES (143 journals)
    - PUBLIC FINANCE, TAXATION (37 journals)
    - TRADE AND INDUSTRIAL DIRECTORIES (2 journals)

HUMAN RESOURCES (103 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 92 of 92 Journals sorted alphabetically
Accounting and Business Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Accounting and the Public Interest     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Accounting Auditing & Accountability Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Accounting Education: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Developing Human Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Afro-Asian Journal of Finance and Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Finance and Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 49)
Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 208)
Asian Review of Accounting     Hybrid Journal  
Attachment & Human Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Australian Accounting Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
British Accounting Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Coaching : Theorie & Praxis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Contemporary Accounting Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34)
Corporate Governance and Organizational Behavior Review     Open Access  
Critical Perspectives on Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
EURO Journal on Decision Processes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
European Accounting Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
European Journal of Training and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Evidence-based HRM     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
FOR Rivista per la formazione     Full-text available via subscription  
German Journal of Human Resource Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Human Relations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60)
Human Resource and Organization Development Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Human Resource Development International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Human Resource Development Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Human Resource Development Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Human Resource Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 73)
Human Resource Management Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 73)
Human Resource Management Research     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Human Resource Management Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59)
Human Resource Research     Open Access  
Intangible Capital     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Accounting and Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Accounting Information Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Accounting, Auditing and Performance Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Banking, Accounting and Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Behavioural Accounting and Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Critical Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Economics and Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Ethics and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Human Capital and Information Technology Professionals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Human Resource Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
International Journal of Human Resource Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Human Resources Development and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
International Journal of Management Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Management Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Accounting & Organizational Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Accounting and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Journal of Accounting and Public Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Accounting Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Accounting Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Journal of Advances in Management Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Chinese Human Resource Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Contemporary Accounting & Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Enterprising Communities People and Places in the Global Economy     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Global Responsibility     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of HR intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Human Capital     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Human Development and Capabilities : A Multi-Disciplinary Journal for People-Centered Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Human Resource and Sustainability Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Human Resource Costing & Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of International Accounting, Auditing and Taxation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Marketing and HR     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Organizational Effectiveness : People and Performance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Professions and Organization     Free   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Service Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Kelaniya Journal of Human Resource Management     Open Access  
New Horizons in Adult Education and Human Resource Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
NHRD Network Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Open Journal of Leadership     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 73)
Pacific Accounting Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Personality and Individual Differences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Personnel Assessment and Decisions     Open Access  
Personnel Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Psychologie du Travail et des Organisations     Hybrid Journal  
Public Personnel Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Qualitative Research in Accounting & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Research in Human Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Review of Accounting Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Review of Public Personnel Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Revista Gestión de las Personas y Tecnología     Open Access  
South Asian Journal of Human Resources Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Sri Lankan Journal of Human Resource Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Strategic HR Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)

           

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
European Journal of Training and Development
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.477
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 14  
 
Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal   * Containing 5 Open Access Open Access article(s) in this issue *
ISSN (Print) 2046-9012 - ISSN (Online) 2046-9020
Published by Emerald Homepage  [360 journals]
  • Artificial intelligence in learning and development: a systematic
           literature review

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      Authors: Parag Bhatt , Ashutosh Muduli
      Abstract: The presented research explored artificial intelligence (AI) application in the learning and development (L&D) function. Although a few studies reported AI and the people management processes, a systematic and structured study that evaluates the integration of AI with L&D focusing on scope, adoption and affecting factors is mainly absent. This study aims to explore L&D-related AI innovations, AI’s role in L&D processes, advantages of AI adoption and factors leading to effective AI-based learning following the analyse, design, develop, implement and evaluate approach. The presented research has adopted a systematic literature review method to critically analyse, synthesise and map the extant research by identifying the broad themes involved. The review approach includes determining a time horizon, database selection, article selection and article classification. Databases from Emerald, Sage, Francis and Taylor, etc. were used, and the 81 research articles published between 1996 and 2022 were identified for analysis. The result shows that AI innovations such as natural language processing, artificial neural networks, interactive voice response and text to speech, speech to text, technology-enhanced learning and robots can improve L&D process efficiency. One can achieve this by facilitating the articulation of learning module, identifying learners through face recognition and speech recognition systems, completing course work, etc. Further, the result also shows that AI can be adopted in evaluating learning aptitude, testing learners’ memory, tracking learning progress, measuring learning effectiveness, helping learners identify mistakes and suggesting corrections. Finally, L&D professionals can use AI to facilitate a quicker, more accurate and cheaper learning process, suitable for a large learning audience at a time, flexible, efficient, convenient and less expensive for learners. In the absence of any systematic research on AI in L&D function, the result of this study may provide useful insights to researchers and practitioners.
      Citation: European Journal of Training and Development
      PubDate: 2022-05-16
      DOI: 10.1108/EJTD-09-2021-0143
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Determinants of research performance of university academics and the
           

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      Authors: Roziah Mohd Rasdi , Siti Zainab Tauhed , Zeinab Zaremohzzabieh , Seyedali Ahrari
      Abstract: This paper aims to identify the role of organizational and individual factors in predicting the research performance of academics when job crafting is a mediator variable and organizational culture is a moderating variable. This study was conducted by collecting responses from academics at five Malaysian research-based universities. The sample size was 273. Standard questionnaires were used to collect the data. The data were analyzed using partial least squares structural equation modeling. The most significant predictors of research performance were organizational culture, individual effort and professional development, whereby job crafting was most optimally predicted by work engagement and transformational leadership. While organizational culture moderated the relationship between transformational leadership and research performance, the mediating role of job crafting was insignificant between work engagement and research performance. The findings have important implications for human resource development practitioners (HRD) in terms of improving overall academic research performance. Practical interventions are suggested to assist academics in enhancing their performance. This study highlights how academic performance can be managed more effectively. The findings extend the HRD literature in higher education and offer a framework that enhances the understanding of the organizational and individual factors that influence academics' research performance within a specific context of research universities in a non-Western context.
      Citation: European Journal of Training and Development
      PubDate: 2022-05-16
      DOI: 10.1108/EJTD-11-2021-0192
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • CSR, marketing capabilities and human resource development: the endogenous
           role of network capabilities

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      Authors: Tu Van Binh , Linh Nguyen Khanh Duong , Ngo Giang Thy , Huynh Dang Khoa
      Abstract: This study aims to examine the relationship between human resource development (HRD) and the interaction between corporate social responsibility (CSR) and marketing capabilities in small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in the food industry. This research uses the extended regression model on a sample of 2,649 food SMEs in Vietnam. This research found that CSR and marketing strategies positively influence HRD; the interaction of CSR and marketing capabilities has a negative effect on HRD; the endogenous role of network capabilities on the effects of CSR and marketing capabilities on HRD. This research helps food companies use their resources in allocating resources for CSR and conduct marketing reasonably and effectively. This study highlights that the impact of CSR and marketing on HRD is dominated by endogenous networking.
      Citation: European Journal of Training and Development
      PubDate: 2022-05-13
      DOI: 10.1108/EJTD-02-2022-0014
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Understanding the talent development of notable artists and scientists of
           color and women: Why contextual factors matter

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      Authors: Susan J. Paik , Lindsey T. Kunisaki , Vinh Q. Tran , Kenya R. Marshall-Harper
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to discuss the significance of “contextual factors” on the talent development of underserved populations. Understanding the “context” and background of an individual provides greater insight into their life experiences (Paik, 2013). Race, class and gender, in particular, play a role in one’s life, providing both barriers and opportunities. To examine contextual and other factors, in-depth biographical case studies were systematically studied across 10 diverse notable artists and scientists. Over 85 autobiographies, biographies and other sources were carefully content-analyzed for commonalities and differences in artists’ and scientists’ lives. Because of their ascribed statuses (e.g. race, class, gender), these individuals had to navigate their unique school and life circumstances. Within their sociocultural contexts, however, key relationships (e.g. parents, teachers, mentors and peers) helped mitigate the challenges. All artists and scientists had a “village” – key stakeholders who invested in them at every stage of their talent development. Parents, teachers, mentors and peers are not only critical, but they are lifelines for talent development. Key implications discuss the role of contextual factors and support networks for aspiring diverse artists and scientists. The theoretical framework for this study is based on the productive giftedness model (PGM) (Paik, 2013, 2015). PGM includes 10 key psychosocial and environmental factors and how they influence “productive giftedness” (e.g. achievements, accomplishments, leadership). Within the model, both “alterable” and “contextual factors” provide access to different opportunities, support and resources. The model is considered generalizable and applicable for diverse populations.
      Citation: European Journal of Training and Development
      PubDate: 2022-05-05
      DOI: 10.1108/EJTD-07-2021-0100
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Design thinking: a cognitive resource for improving workforce analytics
           and training evaluation

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      Authors: Natasha Zafar , Muhammad Ali Asadullah , Muhammad Zia Ul Haq , Ahmad Nabeel Siddiquei , Sajjad Nazir
      Abstract: The firms use training evaluation practices (TEPs) to determine the return of billions of dollars spent on employee training and development activities. The firms need to modernize the set of TEPs for evidence-based workforce management decisions. This study aims to examine a mediation mechanism to explain how human resource (HR) professionals’ design thinking (DT) mindset strengthens the set of TEPs using predictive workforce analytics (PWAs). The authors used SPSS computational named MLMED to test the proposed relationships by collecting data from 180 management professionals serving in subsidiaries of multinational corporations in Pakistan. The statistical results demonstrated that DT is not directly related to firms’ TEPs. However, the statistical results supported the mediating role of firms’ use of PWAs between DT and TEPs. The findings offer a new perspective for firms to use HR professionals’ DT mindset for modernizing the set of existing HR practices.
      Citation: European Journal of Training and Development
      PubDate: 2022-04-26
      DOI: 10.1108/EJTD-09-2021-0150
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • A study to explore the linkage between green training and sustainable
           organizational performance through emotional intelligence and green work
           life balance

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      Authors: Pallavi Deshpande , Anugamini Priya Srivastava
      Abstract: This study aims to review the role of green training and green work life balance (GWLB) on sustainable organizational performance (SOP) with a moderating variable “Emotional Intelligence” (EI). For the development of the construct of the present study, a Scopus database was selected and research papers published in indexed journals were considered. Relevant keywords were selected and literature was searched on green training, EI, SOP, GWLB. The literature was reviewed to find out the linkage and possibility of development of integrated model. The main focus was on highlighting the relevance of green training on GWLB and its influence on SOP. SOP can be achieved with the intervention of EI and GWLB; further green training is one of the influential practices of human resource development (HRD) which helps to develop the green behavior. It can give new insight to the organization for application of green human resource practices for SOP. Development and designing the cohesive environmental work culture and willingness to protect environment through green training can be implemented by HRD. Perhaps, the application of green training encourages GWLB. Quantitative research and cross sectional study is required to find out the intervening role of EI and work–life balance between green training and SOP across a broader range of sectors. This research extends the literature review and developed a new integrated model which shows the link between green training and SOP.
      Citation: European Journal of Training and Development
      PubDate: 2022-04-26
      DOI: 10.1108/EJTD-11-2021-0182
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Exploring learning outcomes for managers who coach

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      Authors: Beth Adele , Andrea D. Ellinger , Rochell R. McWhorter , Toby M. Egan
      Abstract: As a part of a larger study, the purpose of this study was to explore the learning outcomes for the “manager as coach” when exemplary managers are engaged in coaching their respective employees. A qualitative, multi-case study using an adaptation of the critical incident technique (CIT) and semistructured interviews was employed with 12 managers and their respective direct reports totaling 24 interviews. Content and constant comparative analyses were used to analyze the data. A total of five themes and 19 subthemes were identified regarding managers’ learning outcomes from managers’ perspectives. From the perspectives of their employees as coachees regarding their managers’ learning outcomes, one theme with three subthemes emerged. Limited empirical research has explored the developmental outcomes for managers who serve as coaches for their employees. This study examined the outcomes associated with managerial coaching from both the perspectives of the managers who coach and their direct reports. The findings of this research provide more insight into the benefits managers derive from coaching their employees.
      Citation: European Journal of Training and Development
      PubDate: 2022-04-26
      DOI: 10.1108/EJTD-12-2021-0198
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Further evolving the critical incident technique (CIT) by applying
           different contemporary approaches for analyzing qualitative data in CIT
           studies

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      Authors: Karen E. Watkins , Andrea D. Ellinger , Boyung Suh , Joseph C. Brenes-Dawsey , Lisa C. Oliver
      Abstract: The critical incident technique (CIT) is widely used in many disciplines; however, scholars have acknowledged challenges associated with analyzing qualitative data when using this technique. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to address the data analysis issues that have been raised by introducing some different contemporary ways of analyzing qualitative critical incident data drawn from recent dissertations conducted in the human resource development (HRD) field. This article describes and illustrates different contemporary qualitative re-storying and cross-incident analysis approaches with examples drawn from previously and recently conducted qualitative HRD dissertations that have used the CIT. Qualitative CIT analysis comprises two processes: re-storying and cross-incident analysis. The narrative inquiry–based re-storying approaches the authors illustrate include poetic narrative and dramatic emplotting. The analytical approaches we illustrate for cross-incident analysis include thematic assertion, grounded theory, and post-structural analysis/assemblages. The use of the aforementioned approaches offers researchers contemporary tools that can deepen meaning and understanding of qualitative CIT data, which address challenges that have been acknowledged regarding the difficulty of analyzing CIT data. The different contemporary qualitative approaches that we have introduced and illustrated in this study provide researchers using the CIT with additional tools to address the challenges of analyzing qualitative CIT data, specifically with regard to data reduction of lengthy narrative transcripts through re-storying as well as cross-incident analyses that can substantially deepen meaning, as well as build new theory and problematize the data through existing theory. A strength of the CIT is its focus on actual events that have occurred from which reasoning, behaviors, and decision-making can be examined to develop more informed practices. The CIT is a very popular and flexible method for collecting data that is widely used in many disciplines. However, data analysis can be especially difficult given the volume of narrative qualitative data that can result from data collection. This paper describes and illustrates different contemporary approaches analyzing qualitative CIT data, specifically the processes of re-storying and cross-incident analysis, to address these concerns in the literature as well as to enhance and further evolve the use of the CIT method.
      Citation: European Journal of Training and Development
      PubDate: 2022-04-11
      DOI: 10.1108/EJTD-07-2021-0107
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Winterizing the Egyptian spring: why might business schools fail to
           develop responsible leaders'

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      Authors: Mohamed Mousa
      Abstract: This paper aims to theoretically answer the question: why might business schools in Egypt fail to develop responsible leaders' The author starts by discussing modernization theory (Lipset, 1959) – which highlights the idea that the more educated people there are in a given society/nation, the more calls for democracy, social citizenship and social justice will be launched – to address the strong association between the quality of business learning and the development of responsible leadership norms. Moving forward by focusing on the theory of education (Dewey, 1916) and institutional theory (DiMaggio and Powell, 1983), the author finds the main conditions needed to develop responsible leadership norms among business school students. The author identified the following three necessary conditions: implementing responsible management education, sustaining management learning and ensuring that a purposive hidden curriculum is well-planned in business schools. The author sees these as the main priorities for developing responsible leadership skills among business school students in Egypt and similar post revolution countries. This paper contributes by filling a gap in responsible leadership, public administration and higher education literature, in which conceptual studies on the role of business schools in post-revolution periods and conflict zones has been limited until now.
      Citation: European Journal of Training and Development
      PubDate: 2022-04-11
      DOI: 10.1108/EJTD-11-2021-0194
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Forgetting to learn and learning to forget: the call for organizational
           unlearning

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      Authors: Mandolen Mull , Clayton Duffy , Dave Silberman
      Abstract: The purpose of this conceptual paper is to provide a foundation for human resource development (HRD) scholars in attempts to devise mechanisms for establishing and facilitating actionable pathways through which unlearning can be acknowledged and serve as a contributing agent for HRD interventions. This paper concludes with a call to action for our HRD colleagues to join us in further examination of unlearning interventions within the organizational context. This paper narratively details the literature associated with the myriad social science domains that have investigated the unlearning process. Additionally, a cross-disciplinary literature review provides the basis for an operational definition of unlearning provided herein. The field of HRD is devoted to creating learning organizations as well as utilizing change initiatives to develop organizations. However, unlearning has been largely ignored within the field of HRD. The first contribution is by answering the call of scholars across varied disciplines to further investigate unlearning within the organizational context (Bettis and Prahalad, 1995; Hedberg, 1981; Nystrom and Starbuck, 1984). Additionally, this paper seeks to specifically address the role that unlearning holds within the field of HRD as it builds upon the definition provided by Wang et al. (2017) and offers its own operational definition. Finally, this paper provides the only known review of cross-disciplinary research pertaining to unlearning.
      Citation: European Journal of Training and Development
      PubDate: 2022-03-30
      DOI: 10.1108/EJTD-10-2021-0162
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Skills mismatch and change confidence: the impact of training on change
           recipients’ self-efficacy

         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

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      Authors: Filippo Ferrari
      Abstract: Drawing on Bandura’s social learning theory (SLT), the purpose of this paper is to investigate, analytically, the impact that after-training skills level (i.e. perceived skill match) has on change self-efficacy. Moreover, this research also aims to identify which specific skills sets (if any) act as a protective factor during organizational change, supporting the change confidence (CC) level of the people involved. Quantitative research was carried out on a sample of 200 workers in the bank sector. Findings of this study suggest that skill match has a significant impact on the CC level. Furthermore, this study demonstrates that, even in front-office jobs, a perceived skill match of soft skills does not have a significant impact on staff CC, unlike that suggested by common sense and by literature. Future research should investigate if and how a training process enables change self-efficacy over time or instead shows its utility only when it is relating to a specific and limited period. This study suggests that in designing training, top and middle management should pay specific attention to change recipients’ needs by adopting a bottom-up approach. Moreover, to improve training effectiveness, it would be advisable to also train change recipients’ supervisors. This study has social implications in suggesting how to foster the adaptive capabilities of change recipients in current turbulent times. In doing so, it suggests how to prevent some undesirable change consequences such as anxiety, intention to quit, work-related stress and change cynicism. This paper shows that, from a methodological point of view, it is necessary to evaluate training effectiveness at the level of a specific skill area and not simply by comparing the trained/not trained people, as typically practiced until now.
      Citation: European Journal of Training and Development
      PubDate: 2022-03-23
      DOI: 10.1108/EJTD-06-2021-0072
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Multilevel and multisite leadership development from a
           leadership-as-practice perspective: an integrative literature review

         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

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      Authors: Salla Lehtonen , Hannele Seeck
      Abstract: This paper reviews what has been written on leadership development from the leadership-as-practice (L-A-P) perspective, which views leadership as emerging in everyday activities and interactions of a collective in a specific context. This paper aims to deepen the theoretical understanding of how leadership can be learned and developed from the L-A-P perspective. An integrative literature review was undertaken to review and synthesise what has been written on the topic in journal articles and scholarly books. The importance of the context and the practices that are embedded in it is the most central aspect affecting leadership development from the L-A-P perspective. This places workplace leadership development centre stage, but several papers also showed that leadership programmes have an important role. Not only collective capacity building is emphasised in the papers, but the importance of individual-level leader development is also recognised. The contribution of this study is twofold: First, it brings the currently fractured information on L-A-P development together to enhance theory building by providing a synthesis of the literature. Second, a conceptual framework is constructed to show how the L-A-P perspective on leadership development can take both leadership development at the collective and individual levels into account, as well as the learning that takes place either inside or outside the workplace. This study’s results and framework show that the development has its own specific purpose and suggested methods in both levels, in both learning sites.
      Citation: European Journal of Training and Development
      PubDate: 2022-03-18
      DOI: 10.1108/EJTD-09-2021-0135
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Participant photography for HRD: method, benefits, and ethics

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      Authors: Matthew W. Hurtienne , Jennifer Knowles , Laura E Hurtienne
      Abstract: This paper aims to look at how participant photography can be used in human resource development (HRD) as a research method that is innovative and inclusive. In published work on traditional photo elicitation methods, the participant is shown previously prepared visual images to create knowledge. This can provoke an inaccurate depiction due to the images being previously prepared. Participant photography differs greatly from the traditional photo-elicitation method. In participant photography, the participant is provided with the opportunity to capture their own visual images of the surrounding environment, allowing for data to be captured through their own eyes. More notably, participants voice their own experiences after taking the photographs as a means for providing rich data for researchers. Participant photography is an innovative qualitative research method where the research participant is encouraged to document their lived experiences through images taken by the participant. Additionally, the participants take part in individual interviews and group individual sessions to further explain the images. The research findings can lead to deeper insight into the research topic and even accommodate potential issues related to literacy and language barriers. By introducing a new qualitative research method to HRD, the lived experiences can be documented and examined in a new, different and arguably more accurate way. Literature discussing participant photography in HRD is limited. Although this limitation puts constraints on this study, it creates an opportunity to further define how participant photography can be used in HRD. This method offers a means for HRD researchers and practitioners to focus on the voices of participants to improve organizations. This study addresses how participant photography can be used in the field of HRD by describing the process of participant recruitment, implementation of the method, participant interviews, group discussion and analysis. Specifically, this study focused on the practical application, including the method’s strengths, potential weaknesses and ethical challenges. The method of participant photography has been commonly used in community-based studies, public health projects and medical research projects, yet in ever-changing HRD needs, there are many advantages for the field of HRD to implement this method. Although the concept of participant photography is still in its infancy in HRD, this study explains how participant photography can be used for both researchers and practitioners to gain a deeper understanding and knowledge of topics related to HRD.
      Citation: European Journal of Training and Development
      PubDate: 2022-03-17
      DOI: 10.1108/EJTD-07-2021-0116
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Integrative model of the leader competences

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      Authors: Paula Cristina Nunes Figueiredo , Maria José Sousa , Eduardo Tomé
      Abstract: The aim of the paper is to propose an integrative model of the leader competences through the analysis of the several models of competence found in the literature review. The methodology used was qualitative, based partially on an integrative literature review (Torraco 2016). This paper aims to review, update and criticize the literature related to the competences approach in the organizational context and, on the other hand, to review, criticize and synthesize the literature, namely, the models and competences. Difficulties in choosing and implementing a leader competency model led to the integration of competencies in a single model, seeking to simplify the choice and implementation process in organizations. The integrative model of leader competences arises from the literature review, more specifically from the analysis of the different approaches found. This model is grouped into four dimensions – intellectual competences, management competences, social competences and emotional competences. This research is a contribution to reduce the fragmentation of leadership and management theories and facilitates the choice and implementation of a leader competence model suited to the organization’s needs, contributing to the leadership effectiveness. The integrative model of the leader competences allows the choice and implementation of a competence model with a wide range of competences considered as essential in the organizational context by several researchers. This model simplifies the process of identifying the competences that need to be developed, feeding the human resources development process within the organization.
      Citation: European Journal of Training and Development
      PubDate: 2022-03-16
      DOI: 10.1108/EJTD-08-2021-0121
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Future direction in HRD: the potential of testimonio as an approach to
           perturb the dominant practices in the workplace

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      Authors: Abbie Salcedo , Peter Williams , Simone Elias , Maxine Valencia , Jonathan Perez
      Abstract: Marginalization exists in many organizations, despite a zero-tolerance stance on discrimination, abuse and harassment. Human resource development (HRD) professionals are increasingly asked to respond to the calls for crucial conversations on race and diversity. However, traditional HRD methods and tools may not be sufficient to address and eradicate racism in the workplace. The usage of testimonio could enable oppressed groups to communicate their narratives to counter stereotypes. This paper aims to describe testimonio and the various ways it can be used as a research methodology and to perturb the dominant practices in the workplace. This conceptual paper uses testimonio, a narrative methodology with Latin American roots in indigenous oral storytelling, to expand beyond Eurocentric qualitative approaches to capture the voices of marginalized groups. This study gives examples and theorizes how leaders, including human resource professionals, may use this approach to give voice to underrepresented stakeholders in the margins of organizations. Testimonio serves as a non-Eurocentric framework and venue to legitimize their stories. Their voices are assets, enriching while transforming and perturbing and so are needed for communities and organizations to foster a just and sustainable culture and climate. The use of testimonio as an HRD approach to amplify unrepresented voices in the workplace may be an asset to HRD professionals. However, to realize the full potential of this research tradition in HRD, researchers and practitioners must create more space where trust is present for these groups to tell stories that matter most to them. This study on the testimonio approach provides a view into organizational power dynamics and voices from the margins. It serves as a means to acknowledge the voices of underrepresented stakeholders in the workplace. HRD scholars should contribute to organizational effectiveness and inclusive workplace climate by using scholarship to highlight the harm of marginalizing policies and behaviors. Testimonio implies that HRD practitioners in positions of privilege should use their authority to foreground the voices of marginalized individuals who are typically silenced. This can be accomplished by prioritizing unheard voices in the work of HRD professionals. Testimonio as a methodological approach and workplace tool highlights the personal experiences of oppressed groups who experience social injustice, particularly racism. This method encourages organizations that do not operate in a culturally sensitive and inclusive environment to reconsider the discourse that influences their social position. While there is a clear need to address inequities, few practical inquiry tools are presented. Moreover, through their epistemologies and research procedures, scholars and practitioners may unintentionally maintain and reinforce existing inequitable structures and processes. This paper presents testimonio as a non-Western alternative to Eurocentric qualitative research methodologies to perturb dominant practices in HRD.
      Citation: European Journal of Training and Development
      PubDate: 2022-03-15
      DOI: 10.1108/EJTD-07-2021-0109
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Academic supports, motivation to learn, motivation to transfer and
           transfer of training: a comparative analysis of public and private
           universities

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      Authors: Shahbaz Sharif , Mary Braimah , Alice Emmanuela Dogbey
      Abstract: Public and private universities keep facilitating knowledge transfer and sharing within academic institutions. Multiple factors have been investigated to strengthen the infrastructure of these universities; however, the researchers have always been trying to explore the best one. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of academic supports on motivation to learn (MTL) and transfer, in turn, influence transfer of training (TOT). Interestingly, the sector (i.e. public or private universities) unveils TOT to see whether the public sector has best practices or private. This study adopts valid measurement instruments from the literature studies. This study pretests the validity and reliability of the instruments. This study administers the designed survey questionnaire among the faculty members of both public and private universities. This study uses a convenient sampling approach using a quantitative research method. By applying Smart partial least square (PLS) 3.3.3, this study uses structural equation modeling. This study supports that organization, supervisor and peer support significantly and positively influence TOT. Additionally, MTL and motivation to transfer (MTT) significantly and positively mediate the link between TOT and organizational, supervisor and peer support. MTL also significantly and positively influences MTT. Most interestingly, the sector significantly and positively moderates the link between TOT and organizational, supervisor and peer support, MTL and transfer. The results support the public and private universities that they should develop the infrastructure containing learning motivation and transfer for easy TOT. This would be more effective if the in higher educational institutions (HEIs) follow research findings. This study empirically tests the impacts of academic supports on MTL and transfer, which boosts the TOT. The novelty of the research can be implemented in HEIs’ rules and regulations.
      Citation: European Journal of Training and Development
      PubDate: 2022-03-14
      DOI: 10.1108/EJTD-05-2021-0068
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Principal self-efficacy, mindset and performance outcomes: exploring the
           connection

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      Authors: Kristen Justus , Vishal Arghode , David Barker
      Abstract: This study aims to explore the relationship between principals’ performance on the Pennsylvania Framework for Leadership evaluation tool and the corresponding self-reported degree of self-efficacy and growth mindset. The data analysis involved linear regression of principal performance on principals’ mindset, moral leadership self-efficacy and instructional self-efficacy scores. Additionally, correlation matrices identified the presence and direction of relationships between self-efficacy levels and the degree of growth mindset reported by principals. The results demonstrated a positive association between principals’ instructional self-efficacy reports and their overall performance evaluation. Alternatively, both growth mindset and moral leadership self-efficacy evidenced a negative association. There was no association reflected between growth mindset and either the overall self-efficacy measure or the sub-scale self-efficacy measures. A secondary relationship revealed a negative association between school performance profile and growth mindset. This relationship held true in subsequent regression analyses. The study adds to the limited research available on examining the relationship between principals’ self-efficacy levels and their performance ratings on a common tool.
      Citation: European Journal of Training and Development
      PubDate: 2022-03-10
      DOI: 10.1108/EJTD-07-2021-0092
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • A proposed research agenda concerning supervisor training for newcomer
           organizational socialization

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      Authors: Andrew Sanghyun Lee
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to identify extant training needs for preparing supervisors to support newcomers’ organizational socialization and to develop a research agenda concerning aspects that conduce to making supervisors efficacious in the process of organizational socialization. A review of the literature on the development of socialization agents for organizational socialization generally indicates that relatively minimal research has been undertaken on this topic. Most articles have focused on the effects of organizational socialization on other variables – such as newcomers’ work outcomes, turnover intention and organizational commitment. The review was conducted in light of this phenomenon. It is based on the structured literature review method, per Rocco, Stein and Lee (2003). Supervisor training is suggested as a means for enhancing organizational socialization. However, supervisor training is not often studied in organizational socialization research. Therefore, the verification of the impact of supervisor training on organizational socialization is required. Given the proposed research agenda, identifying the impact of supervisor training on different areas of organizational socialization domains and inspiring increased interest on supervisor training as an effective program for organizational socialization are logical outcomes. The concept of socialization is used in broad areas of research, such as education, military and engineering. However, it was reviewed here vis-à-vis human resource development (HRD). Therefore, the focus was on the notion of organizational socialization, which is appropriate for employee training development. The concept of organizational socialization in this paper, therefore, was delimited, as it failed to include all meanings of socialization. This paper sought to review all studies related to organizational socialization. However, some research was not considered and, thus, not discussed in this paper. This was because of time and resource constraints. The author sorted previous studies by personal standards and, thus, may have inadvertently included non-germane or excluded relevant citations. Supervisory training for organizational socialization can be proposed as a potential area for leading to an effective organizational socialization program. So HRD professionals should study further about the topic and develop such programs. Increased attention on supervisor training for organizational socialization may increase the number and quality of supervisor training programs. Such studies would augment HRD professionals’ knowledge about organizational socialization and eventually enhance performance in organizations. This paper can expand the area in which social learning theory can be applied. According to Bandura and Walters (1977), the social learning theory posits that learning new behaviors can usually be acquired by observing and imitating others. This implies that newcomers emulate other organizational members to adapt to the organization and their assigned roles. In this process, supervisors can play a key role through showing them the appropriate behaviors, supporting their learning and providing appropriate feedback. Presumably, then, new employees may perform better if supervisors receive training on crucial socialization efforts. Significantly, socialization agents are uniquely situated to greatly impact the organizational socialization process of newcomers. Among the socialization agents, supervisors garner enormous influence on newcomers’ organizational socialization. However, relatively few studies investigated the training of supervisors for organizational socialization.
      Citation: European Journal of Training and Development
      PubDate: 2022-03-08
      DOI: 10.1108/EJTD-06-2021-0082
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Comparative study of the perceptions of Mexican and Colombian employees
           about managerial and leadership behavioural effectiveness

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      Authors: Carlos Enrique Ruiz , Robert Hamlin , Luis Eduardo Torres
      Abstract: The purpose of this qualitative study is to compare the perceptions of employed people in Mexico and Colombia about managerial and leadership behavioural effectiveness. A qualitative multiple cross-case and cross-nation comparative analysis of findings obtained from the two past emic replication (Mexico and Colombia) studies was conducted. The study suggests that people within Mexican and Colombian organizations perceive “managerial and leadership behavioural effectiveness” in very similar ways. The findings support those researchers whose studies indicate that culture may not, as previously thought, play a significant role in the way managers should manage and lead their subordinates. The authors acknowledge two main limitations related to the sample size and scope of the two compared sets of empirical source data. The number of critical incidents about perceived managerial behavioural effectiveness obtained from the two compared studies was unbalanced (318 from the Mexican study and 267 from the Colombian study). Thus, the authors suggest more indigenous replication managerial behaviour studies be carried out in both Mexico and Colombia with the objective of identifying (if possible) the existence of critical incidents that could lead to different findings. Furthermore, the authors suggest conducting replica studies focused on specific industries rather than a diverse range of organizations to test the generalizability of the findings. The findings of the comparative study are relevant to those human resource development professionals in international companies with operations in Mexico and/or Colombia when preparing their executives for international assignments in these Latin American countries. The comparative study attempts to generate new insights and better understanding within the context of “managerial and leadership behavioural effectiveness” research, which the authors hope will make a useful contribution to the existing small body of knowledge regarding similarities and differences in managerial practices across culturally diverse Latin American countries.
      Citation: European Journal of Training and Development
      PubDate: 2022-02-22
      DOI: 10.1108/EJTD-06-2021-0076
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Co-created employer brands: the interplay of strategy and identity
         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

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      Authors: Anna Näppä
      Abstract: The study aims to explore strategic employer brand management by combining experiences of multiple organizations. In particular, the purpose is to identify what strategic management processes managers consider relevant to employer brand management for small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). This study took an inductive approach, observing a practitioner project in Sweden. The data were gathered during four full-day workshops, where 14 SMEs from different industries were chosen to participate and to actively work their employer brand(ing) activities. The results show that organizations have difficulty understanding and comparing employer branding practices, and thus, evaluating their own brand. The major themes show that organizations have two focus points for their employer branding work: building strategic structures (processes) on one hand, and a collective identity that aligns with the brand values, on the other. However, organizations differ in these dimensions, affecting what needs to be done to become successful. This contributes to the limited knowledge about employer branding, human resources development (HRD) and SMEs. In addition, most of the previous studies have neglected to take into account the differences between organizations, approaching employer branding as a universal process. This paper summarizes different positions for employer brands that affect strategy: the unmanaged, the non-strategic, the impersonal and finally, the co-created. Co-creation can be facilitated with the help of constructive and collaborative HRD. Then, it can be turned into a dynamic capability that builds competitive advantage.
      Citation: European Journal of Training and Development
      PubDate: 2022-02-15
      DOI: 10.1108/EJTD-05-2021-0065
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Case study research in HRD: a review of trends and call for advancement

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      Authors: Oleksandr Tkachenko , Jaekyo Seo , Alexandre Ardichvili
      Abstract: This study aims to examine how case study research has been applied in the field of human resource development (HRD). The authors examined HRD case study research by analyzing 118 refereed, empirical case study articles published between 2000 and 2020 in three Academy of HRD-sponsored journals. Findings suggest that case studies have an established place in HRD research. The disciplinary convention has been exploratory case studies, which, to a greater extent, draw on single-case research designs. When examining the proportion of case study articles in relation to all empirical, peer-refereed publications in the journals, the authors found a slight decline in case study research publications in recent years. The results of our post hoc exploratory analysis indicate that HRD case study research that contributes to theory development by eliciting concepts and their relationships is likely to receive more scholarly attention than case studies that provide rich descriptions of the phenomenon. The results also suggest that it is rather case study’s contribution to theory than selected features of case study that attracts scholars’ attention. The study identified several approaches to conducting case study research that have received less attention by HRD researchers. The authors encourage HRD researchers to expand their repertoire of case study approaches. The authors also provide recommendations addressing the issues of methodological self-awareness, rigor and transparency in case study research.
      Citation: European Journal of Training and Development
      PubDate: 2022-02-15
      DOI: 10.1108/EJTD-10-2021-0160
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Manager-as-coach and use of scenistic tools for instruction

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      Authors: Paul Lyons , Randall P. Bandura
      Abstract: The purpose of this essay is the provision of a conceptual approach for a manager-as-coach to use for instructional purposes with an employee. Using scenistic materials (cases, incidents, stories), the aim of the essay is to assist the practitioner apply a practical and relatively adaptable instructional approach. While it is intended for application with a single employee, the approach, with modifications, may be used in a small group environment. The methodology was directed to the study of manager-as-coach, application of a class of instructional tools, theories of constructivism and situated cognition and the joint (manager–employee) implementation of an action guide aimed at learning and performance improvement. Review and coordination of these areas resulted in a detailed guide for action. Use of scenistic materials for instructional purposes adds to the repertoire of tools for a manager desiring to act in a coaching capacity. A step-by-step program of activities is offered for practical application. Created for experimentation and use is a research result-driven practical guide/action plan. The design of the approach expressed requires the manager-as-coach to prepare for instruction and participate in it to the extent that the manager likely contributes to her/his own knowledge and skills in the areas under study. The step-by-step design not only guides the instructional process, it demands that the participants are fully engaged in creating new knowledge, assumptions and examples of practical implementation of what has been learned. Currently, there is little information or research available to guide a manager in a coaching capacity in the use of situation-based (scenistic) instructional materials. The approach offered in this essay not only considers employee knowledge apprehension but also aims at performance3 improvement in a particular context. Additionally, the approach presented requires dialog, negotiation and focused application, all of which may help the participants improve the quality of their relationship.
      Citation: European Journal of Training and Development
      PubDate: 2022-02-14
      DOI: 10.1108/EJTD-07-2021-0114
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Emotional intelligence, intercultural competence and online instruction:
           Review and reflection

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      Authors: Vishal Arghode , Gandhi Lakshmanan , Fredrick Muyia Nafukho
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to explain how emotional intelligence (EI) influences intercultural competence (IC), which in turn may influence online instruction. The authors further explored the varying attributes of EI and the extent to which it intersects with IC in the workplace. Literature on EI and IC from the fields of education, business and leadership was reviewed. The search entailed articles related to EI and IC using the following databases: Business Search Premier, ERIC, JSTOR and ProQuest. The authors used the following key search terms in researching the articles: EI, IC, learning and online instruction. Title and abstract analyses judged each article’s suitability for the study. To better perceive, understand and appreciate others and their cultures, we need to understand our own emotions and the way we interact with others. EI is thus the foundation on which IC can be built. It takes a higher level of EI to develop higher IC quotient. An online instructor should be cognizant about the emotional issues involved in the online learning and suitably modify the instruction to improve learner engagement to ensure better and improved student learning. Findings of this study should provide useful information for theory building and practice. Further, it is hoped the findings of this study will stimulate more scholarly interest in this relatively untapped research area exploring how EI can influence IC and ultimately influence online instruction and improve student learning. The findings will serve as useful pointers for instructors and scholars who strive to improve ICs and appreciate the nuances that enable an emotionally intelligent instructor to perform better and connect with learners from a different culture. Based on empirical literature reviewed, EI is the ability to perceive, understand and control our own emotions to better connect and relate with other individuals. It is the ability to recognize the emotional cues and change our behavior accordingly. IC is the ability to understand and appreciate the cultural differences to better function in a culture different from our own. The two constructs are therefore interrelated and have a significant overlap. However, while EI has been studied exclusively in different contexts, surprisingly, the researchers have not given adequate attention to the important theme of using EI in improving IC or even the role EI can play in improving instructors’ IC. Moreover, the interrelationship between EI, IC and online learning has not been explored previously. This paper seeks to address this gap.
      Citation: European Journal of Training and Development
      PubDate: 2022-01-25
      DOI: 10.1108/EJTD-05-2021-0064
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • The link between HRD professionals’ social capital and career
           adaptability: a moderated mediation analysis of social network

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      Authors: Jihye Oh , Shinhee Jeong , Seung Won Yoon , Daeyeon Cho
      Abstract: From a social capital perspective, this study aims to shed light on the link between social capital and career adaptability by focusing on how social connections and interactions shape and nurture career adaptability. Drawing on socioemotional selectivity theory, the authors further examined the critical moderating role of age on the above relationship. Survey responses from 208 HRD professionals were analyzed via a moderated mediation analysis. The results showed that there is a positive relationship between social capital (network size and intimate network) and career adaptability; frequent interaction increases intimacy, in turn enhancing career adaptability; and the indirect effect of social capital on career adaptability (via intimate network) is stronger when the employee is younger. The most novel theoretical contribution of this study is that the authors lend empirical support to the connection between social capital and career adaptability moderated by age. The study also contributes to understanding how core aspects of social capital are inter-related each other and have directional relationships.
      Citation: European Journal of Training and Development
      PubDate: 2022-01-18
      DOI: 10.1108/EJTD-09-2021-0134
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • The multiple mediating effects of Korean workers’ perception of the
           

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      Authors: Hanna Moon , Sungpyo Hong
      Abstract: This study aims at analyzing the impact of perceptions of the fourth industrial revolution (crisis and opportunity) in the relationship between workers’ career attitudes and future learning intentions. This study analyzed the multiple mediating effect of the perception of the fourth industrial revolution in the relationship between career attitudes and future learning intention using data of 305 Korean workers. As career attitude variables, boundaryless and protean career orientation variables were used, and perception of the fourth industrial revolution was analyzed (opportunity and crisis perception). Both workers’ boundaryless career orientation and protean career orientation influenced future learning intention through the perception of opportunity for the fourth industrial revolution. This result suggested that flexible career attitudes positively recognized the changes of the fourth industrial revolution and had an effect on promoting attitude toward future learning. The study confirmed that workers’ flexible career attitudes could promote perception of opportunity rather than crisis in changing situation and strengthen their intention to prepare for the future by mediating this perception. These results suggest that lifelong learning and competency development can be reinforced by facilitating perception of an opportunities for external change for individual career development. Insights for personal career development were provided by analyzing the relationship between flexible career attitudes, which are increasing in importance in the modern society, and perceptions of changes in external environment.
      Citation: European Journal of Training and Development
      PubDate: 2022-01-11
      DOI: 10.1108/EJTD-06-2021-0073
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • The moderating effect of coworkers’ training participation on the
           influence of peer support in the transfer process

         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

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      Authors: Janos Salamon , Brian D. Blume , Gábor Orosz , Tamás Nagy
      Abstract: The impact of the number of coworkers participating in training on transfer outcomes has largely been overlooked. This paper aims to examine whether the number of coworkers participating in training interacts with peer support (PS) to influence training motivation and transfer. Data were collected using a cross-sectional survey from a sample of 688 employees working in 14 midsize and large companies. All participants were recent trainees in various open skill (e.g. leadership) training programs. Moderated mediation was used to test the hypotheses. Motivation to transfer (MTT) mediated the relationship between PS and perceived training transfer. When more coworkers participated in the training, PS had a stronger influence on trainee MTT. Organizations should consider training coworker cohorts at the same time to influence MTT and training transfer. Generally, whole-team training programs could be used to boost training transfer outcomes, although it could potentially have a negative impact on transfer if PS is low. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this was the first study to demonstrate that the number of coworkers participating in training can moderate the effect of PS on MTT and training transfer.
      Citation: European Journal of Training and Development
      PubDate: 2022-01-03
      DOI: 10.1108/EJTD-07-2021-0102
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Introduction to the special issue

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      Authors: Roziah Mohd Rasdi , Steven Eric Krauss , Abu Bakr Mohamed Razali
      Abstract: Introduction to the special issue
      Citation: European Journal of Training and Development
      PubDate: 2022-05-13
      DOI: 10.1108/EJTD-05-2022-201
      Issue No: Vol. 46 , No. 3/4 (2022)
       
  • Ethics, corporate social responsibility and the role of human resource
           development: the academic experts’ view

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      Authors: Amin Alizadeh , Deepu Kurian , Shaoping Qiu , Khalil M. Dirani
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to get the perspectives of human resource development (HRD) scholars about connections among HRD, corporate social responsibility and ethics. The authors also sought to discover if HRD academic programs need to have ethics-related courses for their graduate students. In this paper, the authors reviewed the literature and interviewed ten HRD scholars who substantially contributed to the field of HRD and have influential publications related to ethics or corporate social responsibility to find out the relationship between HRD, ethics and corporate social responsibility. A semi-structured interview method was adopted to collect data and purposeful sampling technique was used for analyzing data into identified themes. The results from the interviews were categorized into seven different themes. While some scholars argued that ethics-related discussion needs to be integrated within every course, most scholars stated that ethics can be a required standalone course for HRD graduate programs. Despite ongoing consideration of the ethical nature of HRD, little research has been conducted on how ethics and corporate social responsibility are represented in the field of study and practice. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is the first empirical paper in HRD that collected and analyzed experts’ perspectives in this topic.
      Citation: European Journal of Training and Development
      PubDate: 2021-12-31
      DOI: 10.1108/EJTD-07-2021-0087
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • The paradoxical consequences of leader feedback seeking for subordinates:
           a theoretical framework

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      Authors: Sheldon Carvalho , Fallan Kirby Carvalho , Charles Carvalho
      Abstract: Scholars in the feedback seeking domain have predominantly focused on subordinate feedback seeking. The authors still know very little about feedback seeking when the leader is the “seeker” and subordinates are the “targets” of such seeking. This paper aims to develop a theoretical framework that explores the potential benefits and costs of leader feedback seeking, specifically, leader feedback inquiry for subordinates. The authors draw upon the transactional theory of stress to propose a framework in which leader feedback inquiry influences two subordinate behaviors (in-role and proactive skill development behaviors) via appraisal processes (challenge and threat appraisals). With insights from regulatory focus theory, the authors propose that individual characteristics, namely, the regulatory focus of subordinates (promotion and prevention focus), determine the appraisals of leader feedback inquiry, subsequently influencing subordinate behavioral outcomes. The authors contend that leader feedback inquiry can be appraised as a challenge which then produces beneficial subordinate behaviors (i.e. higher in-role and proactive skill development behaviors). However, leader feedback inquiry can also be appraised as a threat which then elicits detrimental subordinate behaviors (i.e. lower in-role and proactive skill development behaviors). The authors then argue that subordinates with a high promotion focus appraise leader feedback inquiry as challenging, thereby enabling beneficial behaviors. Subordinates with a high prevention focus, by contrast, appraise leader feedback inquiry as threatening, thereby prompting detrimental behaviors. The authors shed light on the benefits and costs of leader feedback seeking for subordinates. The resulting framework underlines the importance of including individual characteristics and cognitive appraisal processes in research investigating the effects of leader feedback inquiry on subordinate outcomes.
      Citation: European Journal of Training and Development
      PubDate: 2021-12-14
      DOI: 10.1108/EJTD-07-2021-0101
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • National human resource development in China:
           government–industry–university relations and roles

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      Authors: Bo Fang , Panpan Zhang , Sehoon Kim
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to explore recent national human resource development (NHRD) practices in China through a literature review focusing on programs and activities that represent the roles and interactions among the government, industry and universities. To effectively consolidate previous work and conceptualize the recent development of the NHRD practices in China, a semi-narrative literature review was used to explore and analyze NHRD-related functions and activities. Findings from the literature review showed that although the central government still plays a predominant role in China, universities and corporations are increasingly playing a critical role in developing an innovative and skilled workforce. At the regional level, NHRD initiatives in China have been increasingly undertaken by universities, industry and government–industry–university collaborations. The authors also found a disparity between developed and underdeveloped regions in terms of NHRD in China. This study used the triple helix model as a framework that provides an insightful lens for researchers to examine how various social entities interact with each other and jointly contribute to NHRD. Further case studies are needed to generate evidence-based knowledge to the NHRD literature. A more systematic NHRD leadership structure at both the national and local level is desired to unleash the potential of bottom-up development and active government–industry–university collaboration. To counter regional divergence in NHRD in China, intra- and cross-regional collaborations are helpful in improving resources distribution and workforce development. Based on open system theory, this study focused on programs and activities that represent the roles and interactions among the government, industry and university in Chinese NHRD through the lens of the triple helix model. In addition, this study offers a conceptual model of Chinese NHRD to help scholars and practitioners understand the transitional efforts in NHRD.
      Citation: European Journal of Training and Development
      PubDate: 2021-11-17
      DOI: 10.1108/EJTD-07-2021-0110
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Career indecision: an integrative review and research agenda

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      Authors: Xinyi Bian
      Abstract: The current review sought to bring light to the issue of an underexplored career phenomenon – career indecision. Career indecision is a significant developmental stage in one’s career life and has been a prominent topic in vocational psychology research in the past decades. However, it has received scant scholarly attention in the human resource development (HRD) field. Besides, the career indecision literature, in general, is lacking theoretical refinement and analytical review. The present study aims to stimulate HRD scholars’ interests by providing an introductory context for understanding the richness and potentialities of researching career indecision in the HRD area. To address the gap, the author conducted an integrative review (Torraco, 2005, 2016) of 60 peer-reviewed articles and synthesized the existing knowledge of career indecision. More importantly, antecedent and outcome factors associated with career indecision were identified and analyzed. A nomological network about career indecision was provided. Besides, the results of the integrative review revealed several omissions in the career indecision literature. Building upon that, implications for HRD research and practice are presented and discussed. As an initial attempt to synthesize career indecision literature, this study sought to stimulate HRD professionals’ interest in examining this underexplored career phenomenon.
      Citation: European Journal of Training and Development
      PubDate: 2021-11-15
      DOI: 10.1108/EJTD-06-2021-0084
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Contextual antecedents of job crafting: review and future research agenda

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      Authors: Sunyoung Park , Sohee Park
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to critically review current studies on job crafting to identify contextual factors related to employees’ job crafting and to integrate the findings to help organizations improve employees’ job crafting. Based on the guidelines provided by Torraco (2016), the authors reviewed 44 quantitative studies on job crafting published between 2001and 2020. The authors identified 35 contextual antecedents of job crafting at the job (11), group (6), leadership (12) and organizational (6) levels. The findings reveal that a significant number of studies have focused on contextual aspects related to employees’ job crafting. In particular, multiple studies discussed the important role of empowering leadership, servant leadership, transformational leadership, leader-member exchange in job crafting. The authors emphasize contextual factors influencing job crafting including job, group, leadership and organizational levels. Based on the review, the authors suggest a future research agenda on job crafting in terms of job, group, leadership and organizational antecedents.
      Citation: European Journal of Training and Development
      PubDate: 2021-10-22
      DOI: 10.1108/EJTD-06-2021-0071
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • How the validation of prior learning can be used to assess entrepreneurial
           human capital investments and outcomes

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      Authors: Florian Fahrenbach
      Abstract: This paper aims to depart from the premise that human capital investments and human capital outcomes are often tacit – an aspect, which is often neglected in the current literature on entrepreneurial human capital. The idea of this conceptual paper is to shed light on the social process of how human capital investments and human capital outcomes can be valued and made visible through the validation of prior learning. Thus, this study conceptualises the validation of prior learning as a post hoc, the reflective process through which an aspiring entrepreneur is guided. This paper is conceptual and introduces a process model. Findings indicate that the process of the validation of prior learning is well-suitable to inform aspiring entrepreneurs of their investments into human capital and their human capital outcomes. The process results in a (partial) certified qualification that provides entrepreneurial legitimacy. Thus far, the model is conceptual and should be validated via interviews and further empirical studies in the field. Literature in the field of entrepreneurial human capital suggests that human capital outcomes are more important for success than inputs. Furthermore, context-specific knowledge, skills and abilities are more important than generalised outcomes. These findings have implications for the design of validation procedures. Human capital has only been recently conceptualised as consisting of human capital investments and outcomes of human capital investment. However, thus far the literature falls short in acknowledging the tacit nature of human capital investments and human capital outcomes. This paper contributes a structured process of how human capital investments and human capital outcomes are linked and assessed. In so doing, this study extends a recent model of human capital investments and outputs (Marvel et al., 2016, p. 616).
      Citation: European Journal of Training and Development
      PubDate: 2021-10-21
      DOI: 10.1108/EJTD-09-2019-0168
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Motivation to learn, mobile learning and online learning climate:
           moderating role of learner interaction

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      Authors: Deepika Swain , Lalatendu Kesari Jena , Sanket Sunand Dash , Rama Shankar Yadav
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to empirically exhibit the moderating effect of learner interaction (LI) on motivation to learn (MTL), mobile learning (ML) and online learning climate (OLC), so as to bring in enhanced rigour to the virtual knowledge dissemination during the times of crisis. A total of 784 valid responses were considered for the confirmatory factor analysis to test the proposed hypotheses. The study found that MTL and ML contributed to improved OLC and high LI moderated the positive relationship between MTL, ML and OLC. LI also directly contributed to an improved OLC. Measures need to be designed to crowbar motivation to ensure heightened interaction of learners, to gear up the ML reach soaring heights achieving a dynamic OLC. Acclimatization of the OLC will be the visionary solution to tackle learning disruption during today’s pandemic times and also many other challenges to come in near-far future. The current study established the moderating role of LI in influencing OLC, and also motivating facilitator’s for designing upgraded content, and thereby fuelling the intention to learn.
      Citation: European Journal of Training and Development
      PubDate: 2021-09-30
      DOI: 10.1108/EJTD-06-2021-0077
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Should I Go or Should I Stay: job hopping in Malaysia small medium
           enterprise (SME) service sectors

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      Authors: Jia Fang Siew , Siew Chin Wong , Chui Seong Lim
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to determine the relationships between learning opportunities, person-organization fit, self-directedness career attitude and job hopping among generation Y employees in Malaysian small medium enterprise (SME) service sectors. Research data was gathered from a sample of 203 generation Y employees from SME service sectors in Malaysia. Partial least squares structural equation modelling is used to perform the data analysis in the present study. The results demonstrated that person-organization fit and self-directedness career attitude correlates significantly with job hopping among generation Y employees. However, there is no significant relationship between learning opportunities and job hopping. This study provides an empirical framework for explaining the job hopping among generation Y employees in SME service based on the review of related careers. This study offers new insights into the predicting factors of job hopping among generation Y employees in the Malaysian context specifically.
      Citation: European Journal of Training and Development
      PubDate: 2021-09-22
      DOI: 10.1108/EJTD-05-2021-0054
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Examining the relationships among managerial coaching, perceived
           organizational support, and job engagement in the US higher education
           context

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      Authors: William S. Carrell , Andrea D. Ellinger , Kim F. Nimon , Sewon Kim
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to apply social exchange and organizational support theories to examine the relationship between mid-level strategic enrollment managers’ perceptions of managerial coaching behaviors enacted by their senior managers and their own reported job engagement, as mediated by perceived organizational support (POS) within the US higher education context. A quantitative survey-based half-longitudinal design, which used the latent marker variable technique, was conducted with a sponsoring professional organization in the strategic enrollment management (SEM) field in the USA. A total of 310 usable surveys were analyzed using structural equation modeling. The results of this study indicate that SEM managers’ job engagement and the perceived managerial coaching behaviors provided to them by their senior managers were positively correlated, and that POS fully mediated this relationship. These findings highlight how coaching behaviors may allow managers to elicit positive emotional responses and, by fostering enhanced POS, ultimately enhance job engagement among their team members. This study addresses several calls for research on managerial coaching, job engagement and POS in an under-examined higher education context within the human resource development field.
      Citation: European Journal of Training and Development
      PubDate: 2021-09-13
      DOI: 10.1108/EJTD-10-2020-0145
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Performance appraisal justice and work attitudes of health-care workers in
           Ghana

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      Authors: Adwoa Benewaa Brefo-Manuh , Alex Anlesinya
      Abstract: While the extant literature has mainly examined either organisational justice or performance appraisal on employee attitudes, studies assessing the effect of performance appraisal justice (PAJ) on employee work attitudes are very limited. Hence, this study aims to investigate the effects of PAJ on employee work attitudes (job satisfaction and employee commitment) using empirical insights from health-care workers in Ghana. The study collected data from 302 workers in six selected health-care institutions and used multiple regression and bootstrapping mediation methods for the analyses. This study found that interpersonal and procedural PAJ has significant positive effects on job satisfaction, but distributive PAJ showed an insignificant positive outcome. Then, while distributive and procedural PAJ has significant positive effects on employee commitment, interpersonal PAJ was insignificant. Moreover, job satisfaction significantly mediated the relationship between employee commitment and the three dimensions of PAJ. This implies that PAJ can trigger positive employee work attitudes such as job satisfaction and commitment to facilitate the realisation of positive health-care outcomes if fairness and justice are effectively integrated into performance appraisal practices in health-care institutions. The study contributes to extending organisation and human resource theories in the context of health-care services by applying the organisational justice theory to understand the job attitudes of workers in the health-care sector and institutions: a highly under-research context with respect to the topic.
      Citation: European Journal of Training and Development
      PubDate: 2021-09-09
      DOI: 10.1108/EJTD-02-2021-0027
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Enhancing critical thinking and media literacy in the context of IVET: a
           systematic scoping review

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      Authors: Francesco Tommasi , Andrea Ceschi , Riccardo Sartori , Marija Gostimir , Giulia Passaia , Silvia Genero , Silvia Belotto
      Abstract: The alignment between the labour market and initial vocational education and training (IVET) is placing always more importance on technical knowledge and skills, whilst metacognitive competences such as critical thinking and media literacy are increasingly neglected. In the context of IVET, this results in authors and practitioners paying always more attention to how to devise possible training interventions, with the double aim of implementing their educational pathways and enhancing students’ critical thinking and media literacy. This paper aims to report the state of the art concerning such processes of enhancement in IVET students. The study adopted the method of systematic scoping review to address the research questions on how to enhance critical thinking and media literacy in the context of IVET. The paper presents the analyses of the n = 19 contributions collected. Then, it proposes an initial conceptualization of the dimensions of critical thinking and media literacy. Moreover, by combining evidence from various contributions, the review proposes implications for educational practices and strategies. Around these pieces of knowledge, further avenues of research and practice are proposed. This study contributes to the literature on critical thinking and media literacy in the context of IVET by advancing initial comprehensive conceptualizations of the two dimensions. Moreover, the study advances initial practical implications for teachers and trainers for the development of training interventions. The originality of the present review rests in its proposal of definitions of critical thinking and media literacy; moreover, it widens the discussion of practices on how to enhance such metacognitive competences. Indeed, the study identifies the teaching and training practices meant to enhance critical thinking and media literacy and proposes applied implications in the context of IVET.
      Citation: European Journal of Training and Development
      PubDate: 2021-09-02
      DOI: 10.1108/EJTD-06-2021-0074
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Strategic human resource development in times of business and economic
           uncertainty: the case of Greek banks

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      Authors: Fotios Mitsakis
      Abstract: This paper aims to operationalise a modified strategic human resource development (SHRD) framework to examine managerial perceptions of the strategic embeddedness of human resource development (HRD) in organisations in times of business and economic uncertainty. The paper draws on qualitative research data, following a case-study research design and semi-structured interviews with 44 participants to enable an in-depth investigation of managerial perspectives. Research findings outline complexities in both understanding and operationalising SHRD in times of crisis which flow from managerial differing viewpoints. Research findings and conclusions are subject to “respondent bias” as events occurred several years ago, thus participants may not fully recall how SHRD has changed over time. Focussing on a unique industrial sector, as well as to a specific national context, limits the generalisation of the findings in comparative contexts. Owing to the ongoing business and economic uncertainty, this study could serve as a powerful tool at the hands of HRD professionals to effectively assess the nature of their HRD interventions in their organisations. Having a modified SHRD framework assessed in volatile, uncertain, complex and ambiguous contexts, the reality of SHRD in organisations is examined. In addition, focussing on a single sector overcomes the “one-size fits all” proposition of prominent SHRD models. Finally, the paper expands SHRD literature by examining managerial perspectives on SHRD into understudied national and industrial contexts.
      Citation: European Journal of Training and Development
      PubDate: 2021-08-24
      DOI: 10.1108/EJTD-03-2021-0038
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Validation study of the Korean version of decent work scale

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      Authors: Yunsoo Lee , Ji Hoon Song , Soo Jung Kim
      Abstract: This paper aims to validate the Korean version of the decent work scale and examine the relationship between decent work and work engagement. After completing translation and back translation, the authors surveyed 266 Korean employees from various organizations via network sampling. They assessed Rasch’s model based on item response theory. In addition, they used classical test theory to evaluate the decent work scale’s validity and reliability. The authors found that the current version of the decent work scale has good validity, reliability and item difficulty, and decent work has a positive relationship with work engagement. However, based on item response theory, the assessment showed that three of the items are extremely similar to another item within the same dimension, implying that the items are unable to discriminate among individual traits. This study validated the decent work scale in a Korean work environment using Rasch’s (1960) model from the perspective of item response theory.
      Citation: European Journal of Training and Development
      PubDate: 2021-08-16
      DOI: 10.1108/EJTD-03-2021-0040
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Why trainees evaluate the same trainer differently' Examining a
           dual-process model of training effectiveness

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      Authors: Muhammad Usman Anwar Baig , Sayyed Muhammad Mehdi Raza Naqvi
      Abstract: It is commonly observed in trainings that all trainees do not get satisfied with the performance of the trainer. The usual way to increase the satisfaction of trainees is a stress on improving task communication of the trainer. It is based on the assumption that effective task communication essentially fosters training effectiveness. This study aims to provide preliminary evidence that effective task communication can also obstruct training effectiveness besides promoting it. To achieve this objective, the authors hypothesized a dual-process model of training effectiveness based on uncertainty reduction theory. This was a field study in which the authors collected time-lagged data from seven trainings. The trainings were designed to impart technical knowledge of multilevel analyses to professional social science researchers. Confirmatory factor analysis for ordinal indicators was used to test the measurement properties of the model and scales. Structural equation modeling for ordinal indicators was used to test hypotheses. This study provided evidence of an overall positive effect of the trainer’s task communication on the trainee’s communication satisfaction. A complex mediation analysis also revealed the existence of two opposite psychological processes. While the first process transmitted the positive effect of task communication to communication satisfaction, the other process diminished this positive effect. Implications for the theory and practice of training are discussed. Training scholars and practitioners universally believe that an effective task communication of trainers essentially promotes training effectiveness. This study has provided empirical evidence that this assumption is an incomplete picture of a complex reality that requires further investigation.
      Citation: European Journal of Training and Development
      PubDate: 2021-08-16
      DOI: 10.1108/EJTD-04-2021-0047
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • The development and practice of authentic leadership: a cultural lens

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      Authors: Elizabeth Nutt Williams , Steven Grande , Yoshie Tomozumi Nakamura , Lori Pyle , Gary Shaw
      Abstract: Despite increasing interest and scholarship on authentic leadership, definitions of the construct remain contested. In addition, limited research exists on its enactment in practice and its sustainability in a global context. The purpose of this study was to explore the practice of authentic leadership and understand more about how it is cultivated and sustained. To address these issues, an international sample of leaders nominated by peers as exemplifying authenticity in their leadership was interviewed. This study used consensual qualitative research (CQR; Hill, 2012; Hill et al., 1997), a team-based, exploratory methodology, to conduct data analysis. This study describes the results of the analysis, highlighting leaders’ beliefs, values and behaviors; their leadership development and the barriers and supportive factors they experienced as leaders. The findings from this exploratory analysis across all cases, including subgroups, may help contextualize the complexity of authentic and sustainable leadership and provide better understanding of authentic leadership development. Additional research on social identities and training in leadership are critical. The results of this study suggest new directions in studying the development of authentic leaders as well as in researching the experiences of organizations and team members. This study provides insight and direction for individuals and organizations seeking to better understand the practice of authentic leadership, its development and how it can be sustained over time and across contexts and social identities. This exploratory approach involving interviews with leaders around the globe provides information about the direct lived experiences of leaders identified as authentic by their peers. This study further highlights the leaders’ critical leadership beliefs and practices, as well as ways in which they cultivated and learned to sustain their leadership practices. This study also sheds light on ways in which experiences might differ across gendered and cultural contexts.
      Citation: European Journal of Training and Development
      PubDate: 2021-08-14
      DOI: 10.1108/EJTD-03-2021-0039
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Changes in the approach to employee development in organisations as a
           result of the COVID-19 pandemic

         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

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      Authors: Katarzyna Mikołajczyk
      Abstract: This paper aims to explore the direction and extent of changes in the approach of organisations to employee development that have occurred as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. This research is of a qualitative nature. The thematic exploration uses the analysis of findings from 19 in-depth interviews with experienced HR managers and is preceded by desk research. The findings advance our understanding of how the COVID-19 pandemic has affected developmental processes in organisations. The results indicate, apart from the change in the form and methodology of employee trainings due to the pandemic, that employees also desire new subjects to aid their development. One also noticed decreased employee engagement and increased fatigue with the use of multiple, online development initiatives. For learning and development (L&D) practitioners, there are implications in relation to tailoring developmental offerings to fit the needs of employees to help them to progress more in the course of their work. In this new reality, an agile approach to employee development can work much better. The activities of the L&D departments should also take into greater account the changing and unpredictable reality as well as the evolving nature of information and communication technologies (ICT). The COVID-19 pandemic may contribute to the analysis and modernisation of existing offerings for development in organisations and foster a culture of lifelong learning. This research makes an important contribution to the literature by examining the impact of situational context on modifications in development activities undertaken in organisations. The results indicate the need to change the existing role of L&D teams in organisations, taking into account the maximum use of e-learning potential, while understanding its limitations. It can be assumed that while the pandemic develops, designing hybrid learning will become even more important and L&D professionals will focus on combining the flexibility of self-training and available online resources with highly engaging real-world experiences.
      Citation: European Journal of Training and Development
      PubDate: 2021-08-14
      DOI: 10.1108/EJTD-12-2020-0171
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Evaluation and assessment of virtual reality-based simulated training:
           exploring the human–technology frontier

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      Authors: Mesut Akdere , Yeling Jiang , Flavio Destri Lobo
      Abstract: As new technologies such as immersive and augmented platforms emerge, training approaches are also transforming. The virtual reality (VR) platform provides a completely immersive learning experience for simulated training. Despite increased prevalence of these technologies, the extent literature is lagging behind in terms of evaluating and assessing such innovative training models. The purpose of this paper is to address this gap through exploring the traditional approaches of quantitative, qualitative and mixed methods as well as the cutting-edge biometric approach in the evaluation and assessment of the VR-based simulated training and discuss implications for simulated training based on immersive technologies. Evaluation and assessment is one of the most critical components of training and development. Inaccurate or ineffective approaches to evaluate and assess training programs not only risk the successful attainment of training goals and outcomes, but they also harm trainees by misleading them about their training performances and experiences. This paper uses a review of existing literature to explore effective approaches for the evaluation and assessment of VR-based simulated training and conceptually discusses new capacities in capturing involuntary trainee reaction toward stimuli, in addition to traditional evaluation and assessment methods. Immersive VR-based simulated training is uncharted territory for trainers and human resource development professionals. The findings indicate that existing approaches are still viable options for the evaluation and assessment of this new training technology. However, biometrics presents new frontiers in this arena through its capacity for obtaining trainee emotional responses to stimuli during training, as well as providing a venue free of personal bias and external influences in determining trainee perceptions. This paper addresses an important gap in the field of training and development by studying the affordances of the latest biometric technology for evaluation and assessment in VR-based simulated training. The existing literature is very limited in its focus on immersive training technologies such as VR in general and evaluation and assessment in particular. The paper presents new insights to both researchers and practitioners in the field of training and development.
      Citation: European Journal of Training and Development
      PubDate: 2021-08-12
      DOI: 10.1108/EJTD-12-2020-0178
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • The relationship between work engagement and workaholism: a systematic
           review and meta-analysis

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      Authors: Yunsoo Lee , Jae Young Lee , Jin Lee
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to clarify the relationship between two sub-constructs of heavy work investment: work engagement and workaholism. The authors conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to synthesize and critically assess existing research on the relationship between these concepts. The review revealed three major shortcomings of the extant literature: a dichotomous perspective, variations in measurements and the unaddressed complexity of the relationship. Based on these findings, this study provides a discussion on the limitations and suggestions for future research on work engagement and workaholism, including using a person-centered approach.
      Citation: European Journal of Training and Development
      PubDate: 2021-08-09
      DOI: 10.1108/EJTD-03-2021-0036
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • The virtual human resource development (VHRD) approach: an integrative
           literature review

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      Authors: Somaye Rahimi , Abasalt Khorasani , Morteza Rezaeizadeh , John Waterworth
      Abstract: Given the growing popularity of virtual human resources development (VHRD) in organizations and among human resource development (HRD) professionals, it is highly essential to deeply examine the nature and scope of the affective dimensions of the VHRD approach. Over the past decade, VHRD has become an important part of the HRD process. The present study used an integrative literature review to investigate the nature of VHRD in the literature, present a descriptive analysis of the literature and categorize the existing VHRD research. The results indicated three major themes, namely, VHRD and socialization, VHRD and learning and VHRD and the psychological characteristics of the work environment. In addition, a new conceptual model was developed based on the findings. This study has reviewed the main concepts of VHRD. The potential actions which HRD researchers can take to address the identified challenges are discussed. This integrative literature review could provide a roadmap for future research. Based on this model, the VHRD position is within the organizational context and different tools and processes in constant interaction are introduced. Finally, a general view of the VHRD approach was provided, which can help human resources experts deal with a wide range of technologies in the organization.
      Citation: European Journal of Training and Development
      PubDate: 2021-08-04
      DOI: 10.1108/EJTD-08-2020-0131
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • The effect of the employee perceived training on job satisfaction: the
           mediating role of workplace stress

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      Authors: Harun Sesen , Senay Sahil Ertan
      Abstract: This study aims to mediate the impact of workplace stress and job satisfaction on nurses’ perception of training. It sheds light on the links between job satisfaction, Certified Nursing Assistants’ perception of training and workplace stress in nursing homes. A cross-sectional questionnaire was distributed in 12 different elderly home care centres in Northern Cyprus during September to October 2017. The sampling frame consists of 317 full-time Certified Nursing Assistants who completed measures of perception of training, job satisfaction and workplace stress. This paper used structural equation modelling to test a theoretical model and hypothesis. The findings emphasize that Certified Nursing Assistants’ perception of training has a positive impact on their job satisfaction and negative impact on workplace stress while workplace stress mediates the relationship between their perception of training and job satisfaction. The results indicate that while the motivation for training and support for training have an effect on job satisfaction, access to training and benefits for training do not yield any significant impact on it and workplace stress plays a mediating role. This study confirms that the CNAs’ perception of training and job stress affect the emergence of job satisfaction, and workplace stress mediated the relation between training and satisfaction posited by social exchange theory.
      Citation: European Journal of Training and Development
      PubDate: 2021-07-26
      DOI: 10.1108/EJTD-01-2021-0014
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Group behaviour process and learning: a review and assessment of emerging
           online technologies in executive education

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      Authors: Arthur Kearney , Denis Harrington , Tazeeb Rajwani
      Abstract: This paper aims to investigate the interaction of the relationships between group behaviour, group process and learning outcomes in online executive education. A systematic review of literature in the relevant conceptual domains is performed. A framework is proposed from the systematic review and proposes a dynamic classroom environment where instructor capability interacts with group process and behaviour to generate new learning outcomes. The impact of institutional context and technology infrastructure are highlighted as drivers of both the classroom and instructor effectiveness. The systematic review highlights several future research trajectories posing the questions: How disruptive innovation impacts on instructor capability development' How alternative theories explain the routines underpinning instructor capability' What is the role of external partners in the development of learning in context' What is the nature of instructor innovation capability' and How does instructor technology capability impact on learning outcomes' Human resource development practitioners are presented with insights as to their existing and potential future roles in enhancing group behaviour, process and learning outcomes in executive classrooms impacted by technological change. The subsequent potential for practitioner enabled learning innovation is highlighted. This paper contributes to contemporary debates regarding the interaction of emerging technologies and the executive online classroom, specifically focusing on the area of group behaviour process and learning.
      Citation: European Journal of Training and Development
      PubDate: 2021-07-26
      DOI: 10.1108/EJTD-03-2021-0044
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Developing a measurement scale for employee engagement: a validation study
           in a South Korean context

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      Authors: Byung Han So , Ji Hyun Kim , Yun Jeong Ro , Ji Hoon Song
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to develop a reliable and valid measurement scale of employee engagement that can be used in human resources departments in any industry field. This study used the measurement development process with three steps. The first step was to generate items for measuring employee engagement. For this reason, the authors proposed an integrated conceptual model based on the results of a literature review and justify the concepts from self-determination theory and person-environment fit theory as the theoretical foundation. The second step was to determine the types of questions suitable for measurement, examining the content validity. Content validity was conducted two times by the group, academic experts and business practitioners. The last step was to examine the exploratory factor analysis (EFA), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), multi-group analysis and reliability with 352 survey responses from the South Korean business context. Findings of the measurement scale development procedure, i.e. employee engagement, should be managed in a balanced manner in all dimensions, as it is composed of four dimensions (person engagement, work engagement, organization engagement and relation engagement) and 16 sub-factors. Additionally, organization engagement was the major factor among the four dimensions of employee engagement with the highest variance explanation. From the statistical standpoint, the employee engagement scale (EES) is possible to use in any industry field because it demonstrated not only content validity and internal consistency reliability but also the three steps of factor analysis (EFA, CFA and multi-group analysis). This survey was conducted with an assistant manager located in Korea. Therefore, it will be necessary to analyze both leader and employee engagement for those who live in foreign countries. The EES is useful to leaders and human resource managers because it is applicable to managing engagement levels of employees and fosters customized training programs. This is the first study to develop measurement tools for employee engagement in South Korea. In addition, most studies demonstrated that individual feeling was valued to drive employee engagement. This research, however, proposes an extended concept of employee engagement for four dimensions (person, work, relation and organization) and emphasizes the important relationship between individuals and colleagues in an organization. Based on these results, a theoretically integrated model of employee engagement was developed and a practically valid measurement tool for capturing comprehensive domains of employee engagement was proposed.
      Citation: European Journal of Training and Development
      PubDate: 2021-07-14
      DOI: 10.1108/EJTD-11-2020-0155
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Cross-cultural training: a study of European expatriates in New Zealand

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      Authors: Rizwan Tahir
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to investigate the cross-cultural training (CCT) provided to European expatriate executives in New Zealand, and consequently add to the knowledge for human resource management in the Australasian region. The present qualitative research study is based on open-ended and in-depth interviews with 30 European expatriate executives who had been residing in New Zealand for the past year or more. The results indicate that at least some CCT was provided to all interviewees; however, the training content seemed to be strongly centered around professional work, with little focus on the culture of the host country. Moreover, there was no follow-up to the pre-departure CCT and very few expatriates in the sample received any training in New Zealand. Similarly, the family is considered a fundamental factor for the success of expatriates; however, in the sample, neither spouses nor children received any training before or after their arrival in New Zealand. The research is limited by the sample small size. The study’s inconclusive highlights the need for further research to explore the influences of local residents, colleagues and neighbors on expatriates’ adjustment. Similarly, further studies are also required to ascertain the effectiveness of CCT in helping support expatriates’ performance and adjustment in New Zealand. The present study suggests that opportunities do exist for multinational companies (MNCs) to better prepare their expatriates for assignments by integrating more effectively issues related to cultural awareness into their CCT. Specifically, experimental CCT methods that emphasize the host country’s culture are most valuable. The CCT technique should be tailored to the cultural distance between the host nation and expatriates’ country of origin and to the nature of their assignment. Given the existence of many MNCs in New Zealand, it is surprising that the issue of CCT in this context has received little research attention. The current study endeavors to address this gap. This paper hopes that the findings may also be useful for consultants and human resource managers in MNCs who are involved in preparing expatriates for foreign assignments in Australasia, especially New Zealand.
      Citation: European Journal of Training and Development
      PubDate: 2021-07-10
      DOI: 10.1108/EJTD-01-2021-0013
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Towards an analysis of the transfer of training: empirical evidence from
           schools in Spain

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      Authors: Alfonso J. Gil , Mara Mataveli , Jorge L. Garcia-Alcaraz
      Abstract: The transfer of training has been identified with the effectiveness of training. The purpose of this work is to analyse the impact of training stages (training needs analysis, application and evaluation) as they relate to training transfer. The study participants correspond to a sample of 116 teachers with managerial responsibilities (management teams and department heads) from 17 secondary schools in Spain. This work hypothesises five significant relationships: needs analysis and application of training, application and transfer of training, evaluation and analysis of training needs, evaluation and application of training and evaluation and transfer of training. The hypotheses were tested using structural equations, namely, the partial least squares–structural equation modelling technique and SmartPLS version 3.2.9. The relationships between application and transfer of training, between evaluation of training and needs analysis, application and transfer of training are positively contrasted. The relationship between the analysis and application of training is not contrasted. This work analyses the relationship between the training process’s different phases (analysis, application and evaluation) in the training output (training transfer) and emphasises the role of evaluation in the training process.
      Citation: European Journal of Training and Development
      PubDate: 2021-07-05
      DOI: 10.1108/EJTD-01-2021-0008
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Structural relationships among transformational leadership, affective
           organizational commitment, and job performance: the mediating role of
           employee engagement

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      Authors: Jiwon Park , Soo Jeoung Han , Jiyoung Kim , Woocheol Kim
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the structural relationships among transformational leadership, affective organizational commitment and job performance, as well as the mediating effect of employee engagement on their relationships. To examine the structural relationships among the research variables, structural equation modeling analysis and bootstrap estimates were performed using the data of 600 full-time employees working in Korean private organizations. The results of the data analysis suggest that transformational leadership had a significant impact on employee affective organizational commitment and job performance through employee engagement as a mediator. Specifically, employee engagement partially mediated the mechanism in which transformational leadership affects employee affective organizational commitment, whereas there existed a full mediation of the association between transformational leadership and job performance. The study finding suggested that transformational leadership was the key catalyst in both encouraging affective organizational commitment and task performance of employees throughout the mediator, employee engagement. Thus, organizations need to create a safe and positive environment that promotes employee engagement and should offer interventions for leaders to build skill sets of transformational leadership. Because previous studies had explored the impacts of transformational leadership on employee positive attitude and job performance separately, there is little known about how these three constructs correlate. By investigating the impacts of transformational leadership on attitude and performance simultaneously in this study, this study expanded to the extant literature by providing better understanding of transformational leadership. Moreover, given that articles on transformational leadership have been limited in the HRD literature, findings of this study can offer trustworthy information for HRD practice and encourage HRD scholars to explore transformational leadership-related research.
      Citation: European Journal of Training and Development
      PubDate: 2021-07-05
      DOI: 10.1108/EJTD-10-2020-0149
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Pandemonium, panic and the pandemic: implications for human resource
           development from an unplanned shift to online learning

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      Authors: Petra A. Robinson , Maja Stojanović , Zachary Z. Robinson , Renata Russo Lyons
      Abstract: This paper aims to explore the experiences of a high school senior, a doctoral student, a university professor and an online academic coach with a rapid, unplanned shift to online learning in the USA during the COVID-19 pandemic to understand the challenges and distinct skills they identify as essential for success in a 100% virtual learning environment. Through scholarly personal narratives (SPNs), the researchers shared details and authentic knowledge regarding their experiences and perceptions of successful teaching and learning in a 100% online learning environment. The main goal was to identify necessary skills for success in a 100% virtual learning environment resulting from an unplanned shift. The findings show a need for learner and teacher self-directedness in developing a variety of nontraditional, critical literacies. In light of the imposed and unplanned educational shifts in teaching and learning, this study has strong practical implications for human resource development offered through an analysis of multiple perspectives. This research may lead to a better understanding of how, in a period of rapid, unexpected shifts, individuals need to use self-directedness to leverage personal and professional development opportunities to adapt and succeed in the new environment. Additionally, the authors use an innovative critical theoretical framework to outline the skills the participants report as useful for success in an online classroom during a period of rapid, unexpected shifting.
      Citation: European Journal of Training and Development
      PubDate: 2021-07-03
      DOI: 10.1108/EJTD-01-2021-0015
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Brain-based learning research for adult education and human resource
           development

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      Authors: Chang Sung Jang , Doo Hun Lim , Jieun You , Sungbum Cho
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to reveal how research on brain-based learning (BBL) addressing adult learners’ education and training issues has contributed to the overall knowledge base linking neuroscience, adult education and human resource development (HRD) research and practices. Through this comprehensive review of the BBL studies, this paper aims to expand the landscape of understanding educational phenomenon in adult education and organizational settings using the lens of neuroscience. Using the content analysis method, this study extracts key research themes and methodological choices from the body of BBL studies. In addition, this paper explores the relationships and proximity among key concepts of BBL research using keyword network analysis. For data analysis, this study reviews the current literature on BBL addressing both adult education and HRD topics from 1985 to 2019. The findings of this study provide a clearer picture of the potential mechanisms of BBL approaches observed in the literature of adult education and HRD. What has been found from the thematic analysis is that addressing misconceptions about the neuroscience of learning is regarded as an important topic. In terms of the methodological approaches, the literature review was a dominantly used method, whereas experimental or quantitative research has yet to be fully performed. Influential keywords and topics obtained from the keyword network analysis reveal the primary foci and structural patterns of current BBL research. This study makes a significant contribution to theories and research in adult education and HRD scholarship as it provides an integrative view of key research themes and major issues about BBL. Additionally, our findings offer practical insights for adult educators and HR professionals to successfully apply neuroscientific approaches.
      Citation: European Journal of Training and Development
      PubDate: 2021-06-22
      DOI: 10.1108/EJTD-02-2021-0029
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Addressing the problem of global leadership theory: proposing a cognitive
           process model for leadership training and development

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      Authors: Jeffrey McClellan
      Abstract: The application of leadership theory to training and development in international leadership contexts is burdened by the idealistic, western-centric, prescriptive nature of many leadership theories. Consequently, theories are needed that are culturally neutral, descriptive and practically applicable to the culturally diverse contexts in which leadership interaction takes place. To this end, the cognitive process model of (Denis et al., 2012) leadership was developed to facilitate leadership development study in a variety of cultural contexts. The model is based on how the human brain functions at its most basic level in leadership situations across cultures and outlines basic principles of leadership associated with these functions. These principles include awareness, decision-making, attention, relationship building, communication and action. This study aims to discuss this model and how it can be used as a framework for doing leadership training and development study in international settings. This paper is conceptual in nature and uses psychological studies on brain function as a foundation for developing a process model of leadership. In contrast the cognitive process model of leadership provides a foundation for understanding what is truly universal when it comes to leadership activities by examining what happens in the brain in any given leadership moment. It then provides a framework for promoting the development of leadership competencies that are essential to practicing the principles and competencies and applying them as one takes action in specific leadership moments at the self, interpersonal, group and team, organizational and social and political community levels. The paper has implications for the content, structure and process of leadership development study in relation to training and coaching. This model makes it possible to identify how to provide training and education in relation to leadership competencies by identifying which aspects of the competencies are universal and which are situational or culture dependent. This study is an original paper exploring the application of this model in the context of global leadership training and development.
      Citation: European Journal of Training and Development
      PubDate: 2021-06-19
      DOI: 10.1108/EJTD-03-2021-0041
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • The impact of learning in a diversified environment: social and cognitive
           development of international students for global mind-set

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      Authors: Muhammad Saifullah Khalid , Qi Zhanyong , Jannat Bibi
      Abstract: This study aims to assess the socio-cognitive transformation and subject knowledge development of international students studying in China's universities with diverse learning environment. The data was collected through on-line survey and quantitative approach was adopted on a Likert scale to assess students' cognitive and social development as a responsible mind-set, ethical awareness, understanding cultural diversity and subject knowledge development. The assessment scale consisted of 25 statements to cover the foundational indicators that represent socio-cognitive transformation. The questionnaire was pilot tested for internal consistency by calculating Cronbach’s alpha. Furthermore, exploratory factor analysis was applied to ensure the traits of the construct intended to measure. A total of 316 participants responded to the survey. With descriptive statistics, X2 of association and Friedman’s two-way analysis of variance by rank was applied to test the hypothesis. This study argues that diverse learning environment has positive impact on learners’ socio-cognitive transformation. It enhances students' capability to understand cultural values to accept diversity and awareness about global community issues and also subject knowledge skill development. In the current century, study abroad programs have increased the mobility of international students, and the role of higher education institutions has become immense, multifaceted and dynamic. Universities are taking a position to play a considerable role in creating learning opportunities for awareness of societal issues and transform social behavior. Studying abroad programs is a growing concept in response to learners' cogitative and socialized transformation. There is an absence of research conducted to explore the impact of a diverse cultural environment on the socio-cognitive transformation of international students. Therefore, the current study focused on exploring the cognitive and societal development of international students studying in China.
      Citation: European Journal of Training and Development
      PubDate: 2021-06-15
      DOI: 10.1108/EJTD-12-2020-0175
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Developing a measurement of employee learning agility

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      Authors: Jinju Lee , Ji Hoon Song
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to develop a reliable and valid measurement of employee learning agility for use in human resources development. This paper analyzed a total of 365 cases collected from Korean organizations. This paper conducted exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis and Rasch analysis to validate the measurement. This paper conducted a measurement invariance (MI) test to confirm the generalizability of the measurement and used Harman’s single factor test to assess the common method variance (CMV). This paper derived a learning agility measurement with six subfactors (Cronbach’s α = 0.893). This paper verified that it could be applied equally to supervisors and subordinates using an MI test. Factor analysis confirmed the feasibility of CMV. Based on I-ADAPT theory, the learning agility measurement can be applied to assess not only leader competency but also general employee competency. Practitioners may use this model of learning agility for developing competency-based training programs and evaluations. This study is meaningful because it extends the concept of learning agility. In particular, the MI test indicated that there are no differences between supervisors and employees regarding the utility of the concept. This study is meaningful because it extends the concept of learning agility. In particular, the MI test indicated that there are no differences between supervisors and employees regarding the utility of the concept. The concept in this paper is distinguished from other studies by applying the Rasch model from an item response theory perspective.
      Citation: European Journal of Training and Development
      PubDate: 2021-06-08
      DOI: 10.1108/EJTD-01-2021-0018
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • A systematic review of human capital and employee well-being: putting
           human capital back on the track

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      Authors: Md Shamirul Islam , Muslim Amin
      Abstract: The review aims to demonstrate a broader perspective of human capital and employee well-being concept. Moreover, the study attempts to analyse theoretical notions underlying human capital and well-being relationship and thus to guide the integration of two distinct concepts. This review followed the systematic literature search protocols from the Academic Journal Guide 2018 generated by the Chartered Association of Business Schools. Sixty-nine quantitative research papers were selected for the review. Human capital is not only about individual competence but includes acquisition, utilization and development of competence in a broader sense. Employee well-being has been discussed from subjective and objective viewpoints and categorized into happiness, health and financial aspects. The review results suggest that various organizational theories, workplace learning and learning organization perspectives underlie human capital and well-being relationship. The review guides that the high involvement working model encapsulates well-being as part of human capital development. This review discusses practical implications for human resource management practitioners. This review is a unique attempt to assess the human capital and well-being literature systematically.
      Citation: European Journal of Training and Development
      PubDate: 2021-06-07
      DOI: 10.1108/EJTD-12-2020-0177
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Engagement, inclusion, knowledge sharing, and talent development: is
           reverse mentoring a panacea to all' Findings from literature review

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      Authors: Sanghamitra Chaudhuri , Sunyoung Park , Karen R. Johnson
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to systematically review the practice of reverse mentoring and draw a timeline of the research over the past two decades. Considering the novelty of this intervention, this paper proposed an agenda for future research on this burgeoning topic. By adopting narrative literature review and Gregory and Denniss’ (2018) four-step process, this paper reviewed 54 studies grounded in conceptual, literature review and empirical research published between 1998 and 2020. The articles included in the literature review on reverse mentoring research were summarized according to journal publications, research methodologies, contextual settings, theoretical framework, purpose and outcomes. Reverse mentoring studies are dominantly published in educational journals using primarily qualitative and conceptual approaches to explore both academic and business contexts within the USA and Europe. Theories frequently used to frame and examine the need of reverse mentoring included social exchange theory and leader-member exchange theory. The fundamental purpose of reverse mentoring research is to transfer knowledge and to bridge the technology divide between intergenerational groups. Reverse mentoring has been used to promote inclusivity between multiple generations in relation to gender, ethnicity and culture. As per the knowledge, this is the first-ever comprehensive English summary of reverse mentoring research done in the past two decades. Findings from this research can be used to better understand reverse mentoring research trends and directions.
      Citation: European Journal of Training and Development
      PubDate: 2021-06-01
      DOI: 10.1108/EJTD-01-2021-0005
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Gender in vocational education and training: an integrative review

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      Authors: Sarah Ray , Jill Zarestky
      Abstract: Vocational education and training (VET) programmes are key contributors to skill and talent development for nations worldwide, as aligned with the UN’s sustainable development goals (SDGs). The purpose of this paper is to explore gender inclusion in VET programmes from an economic feminist (EF) theoretical perspective. This integrative literature review identified and analysed relevant empirical studies to create a more comprehensive representation of supports for global gender equity and economic growth through VET. A gap exists between EF theory, human resource development and VET practices. Consequently, instructor preparation and practice do not adequately contribute to equitable workplaces beyond VET programmes. VET programmes continually struggle to create inclusive environments that support women and challenge masculinized fields and workplace norms. This paper limits empirical studies addressing gender in VET. Future empirical work should investigate the value to students, instructors and communities when masculine industry norms are reconstructed and redesigned for gender inclusivity. VET advisors and instructors are influential in contextualizing vocational fields for students and influencing students’ career trajectories. Women need more accessible training and employment in traditional masculine industries. This comprehensive review of gender in VET can aid in inclusivity efforts of programmes and employers and support nations’ efforts to achieve the UN’s SDGs.
      Citation: European Journal of Training and Development
      PubDate: 2021-05-26
      DOI: 10.1108/EJTD-12-2019-0196
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Disruption of qualifications in manufacturing: challenges and prospects

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      Authors: Vidmantas Tūtlys , Georg Spöttl
      Abstract: This paper aims to disclose the implications of the 4th Industrial Revolution for vocational and professional qualifications and their systems. It also seeks to enhance more active discussion of experts and researchers about the change of vocational and professional qualifications created by the advent of the 4th Industrial Revolution. Research is based on the case studies of the design and development of vocational and professional qualifications focused on the skills requirements of the 4th Industrial Revolution. There are analyzed and compared two cases of the international (EU) projects aiming to design and implement new qualifications in the metalworking industry and the case of introduction of additional qualifications in Germany. The main research methods include content analysis of the qualifications descriptors and vocational education and training (VET) curricula, a meta-analysis of the research on the implications of Industry 4.0 for VET. The choices of the structure and contents of qualifications and VET curricula in the context of the 4th Industrial Revolution are defined by the specific state of technologies and work organizations in the enterprises, limitations of VET providers, individual skills needs of learners, national and sectoral policies in the field of qualifications and curricula. It requires compromises between the concept of solid qualifications based on the holistic orientation to work processes and the trends toward flexible curriculum; between the design of new qualifications and adjustment of the existing ones, as well as between the individualistic and collective approaches to qualifications. The research is focused on the development of qualifications in the manufacturing sector (metalworking and engineering industry). The paper contributes to the theoretical discussions and research of qualifications, competence, VET and human resource development by suggesting a theoretical framework for the analysis of the development of qualifications in the context of the 4th Industrial Revolution, as well as by stressing the importance of holistic view to this development which should comprise both policies and practices of the design of qualifications, curriculum design, education and training and assessment of learning outcomes. The paper provides insight into the implications of the 4th Industrial Revolution to the key processes of the national systems of qualifications by referring to the cases of current efforts to adjust qualifications in the metalworking sector and engineering industry. It also suggests possible scenarios for the future development of vocational and professional qualifications in the context of the 4th Industrial Revolution.
      Citation: European Journal of Training and Development
      PubDate: 2021-04-11
      DOI: 10.1108/EJTD-07-2020-0121
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Engaging Gen Z in professional selling: a systematic literature review

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      Authors: Andrew Loring , Jia Wang
      Abstract: Employee engagement literature pertaining to professional salespeople has revealed several antecedents and consequences that lead to greater performance and turnover reduction. However, engagement literature in the field of human resource development (HRD) does not account for Generation Z (Gen Z), the latest in the workforce who has been noted to be vastly different from previous generations. This study aims to explore how to engage Gen Z in the context of professional selling by identifying the antecedents and consequences of employee engagement based on individual characteristics and organizational needs of this group. A systematic literature review was conducted. In total, 21 papers relevant to employee engagement, professional selling and Gen Z were critically analyzed. Findings indicate that Gen Z’s organizational need for mentoring and their individual characteristic of wanting job control and ownership are vital antecedents that could increase employee engagement. In addition, competitive rewards are important consequences that could improve individual sales performance. HRD practitioners and organizational leaders must understand the unique characteristics of Gen Z to effectively engage them in the workplace. For sales organizations, there is a critical need to offer mentoring opportunities and competitive rewards from the start of Gen Z salespeople’s employment. This research expands current engagement literature by addressing an emerging, under-explored issue – how to engage the newest workforce, Gen Z, in the context of professional selling.
      Citation: European Journal of Training and Development
      PubDate: 2021-04-09
      DOI: 10.1108/EJTD-07-2020-0120
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Challenges faced by youth social entrepreneurs in Malaysia: career
           transition to become a social entrepreneur

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      Authors: Nur Raihan Che Nawi , Mohd Mursyid Arshad , Steven Eric Krauss , Ismi Arif Ismail
      Abstract: The practice of social entrepreneurship has grown rapidly around the world, including in Malaysia where it is still considered to be at an early stage. Nevertheless, little is known about the career transition among youth who choose careers as social entrepreneurs. The purpose of this study is to explore the challenges faced by youth social entrepreneurs who run social enterprises in Malaysia. This study used a qualitative approach to collect and analyse data to answer the research questions. Seven youth social entrepreneurs were interviewed until data saturation was met. An interview guide was created for the purposes of conducting the interviews. The interviews were recorded using a voice recorder. Data were transcribed verbatim and grouped in order to identify the codings, categories and themes. The findings show the career transition to become a social entrepreneur, as well as the major challenges that youth social entrepreneurs face, which include acclimatising to the life and career of a social entrepreneur and not getting support from family. The study findings are also significant for presenting valuable data on the experience of the developing social entrepreneur. The qualitative nature of the study provides valuable experiential insight into the lives and struggles of young social entrepreneurs in Malaysia. The findings will allow local authorities and social entrepreneurship regulatory agencies to design initiatives and plan actions intended to overcome the challenges. This study makes an original contribution by showing that the process of career development as a social entrepreneur has given meaning to the informants. Despite presenting many challenges, social entrepreneurship has reinforced the role of youth social entrepreneurs, especially in relation to social responsibility.
      Citation: European Journal of Training and Development
      PubDate: 2021-06-28
      DOI: 10.1108/EJTD-02-2020-0021
      Issue No: Vol. 46 , No. 3/4 (2021)
       
  • European Journal of Training and Development

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