Subjects -> BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS (Total: 3541 journals)
    - ACCOUNTING (132 journals)
    - BANKING AND FINANCE (306 journals)
    - BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS (1229 journals)
    - CONSUMER EDUCATION AND PROTECTION (20 journals)
    - COOPERATIVES (4 journals)
    - ECONOMIC SCIENCES: GENERAL (212 journals)
    - ECONOMIC SYSTEMS, THEORIES AND HISTORY (235 journals)
    - FASHION AND CONSUMER TRENDS (20 journals)
    - HUMAN RESOURCES (103 journals)
    - INSURANCE (26 journals)
    - INTERNATIONAL COMMERCE (145 journals)
    - INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND AID (103 journals)
    - INVESTMENTS (22 journals)
    - LABOR AND INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS (61 journals)
    - MACROECONOMICS (17 journals)
    - MANAGEMENT (595 journals)
    - MARKETING AND PURCHASING (106 journals)
    - MICROECONOMICS (23 journals)
    - PRODUCTION OF GOODS AND SERVICES (143 journals)
    - PUBLIC FINANCE, TAXATION (37 journals)
    - TRADE AND INDUSTRIAL DIRECTORIES (2 journals)

ECONOMIC SCIENCES: GENERAL (212 journals)                  1 2     

Showing 1 - 200 of 200 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACM Transactions on Economics and Computation     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Universitatis Lodziensis : Folia Oeconomica     Open Access  
Acta Universitatis Sapientiae, Economics and Business     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Actualidad Económica     Open Access  
Advances in Management and Applied Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
AFFRIKA Journal of Politics, Economics and Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
African Journal of Economic and Management Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Agricultural and Food Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
AgriEngineering     Open Access  
Agrosearch     Open Access  
AL-Qadisiyah Journal For Administrative and Economic sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Economic Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 454)
American Journal of Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Análisis Economico     Open Access  
Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Skłodowska, sectio H – Oeconomia     Open Access  
Annals of Financial Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Spiru Haret University. Economic Series     Open Access  
Applied Economic Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Applied Economics and Finance     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Arthaniti : Journal of Economic Theory and Practice     Full-text available via subscription  
Asia-Pacific Journal of Accounting & Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Asian Journal of Economics and Empirical Research     Open Access  
Baltic Journal of Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BISE : Jurnal Pendidikan Bisnis dan Ekonomi     Open Access  
Botswana Journal of Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BRICS Journal of Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BRQ Business Review Quarterly     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Buletin Studi Ekonomi     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Business Strategy and Development     Hybrid Journal  
Central European Economic Journal     Open Access  
China Economic Quarterly International     Open Access  
China Finance and Economic Review     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ciencias Económicas     Open Access  
Cliodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cogent Economics & Finance     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Danube     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Desarrollo y Sociedad     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Divergencia     Open Access  
ECA Sinergia : Revista Especializada en Economía, Contabilidad y Administración     Open Access  
Economía     Open Access  
EconomiA     Open Access  
ECONOMÍA     Open Access  
Economia & Região     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Economic Analysis of Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Economic Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Económicas CUC     Open Access  
Economics : Journal for Economic Theory and Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Economics : The Open-Access, Open-Assessment Journal     Open Access  
Economics and Culture     Open Access  
Economics and Policy of Energy and the Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Economics of Transportation     Partially Free   (Followers: 16)
Economy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Economy and Sociology / Economie şi Sociologie     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Econosains : Jurnal Online Ekonomi Dan Pendidikan     Open Access  
Edunomic Jurnal Pendidikan Ekonomi     Open Access  
EFB Bioeconomy Journal     Open Access  
Ekonomi Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Ekonomia i Zarzadzanie. Economics and Management     Open Access  
Ekonomika (Economics)     Open Access  
Ekuilibrium : Jurnal Ilmiah Bidang Ilmu Ekonomi     Open Access  
Ekuitas : Jurnal Ekonomi dan Keuangan     Open Access  
El Trimestre Económico     Open Access  
Ensayos de Política Económica     Open Access  
Environmental & Socio-economic Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Environmental Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Equilibrium : Quarterly Journal of Economics and Economic Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Espacio Abierto     Open Access  
Estudios de Economia Aplicada / Studies of Applied Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Estudios Economicos     Open Access  
Expert Journal of Economics     Open Access  
Expresión Económica : Revista de Análisis     Open Access  
Global Business Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Health Economics Review     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
IMF Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Indian Growth and Development Review     Hybrid Journal  
Informe Econômico     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Insight on Africa     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Intellectual Economics     Open Access  
Interfaces Brasil/Canadá     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Applied Behavioral Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
International Journal of Ecological Economics and Statistics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Economics and Finance     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Management and Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Regional Development     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Quarterly for Asian Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Review of Economics Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
IQTISHODUNA     Open Access  
Istanbul Journal of Economics     Open Access  
Italian Economic Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
JEJAK : Jurnal Ekonomi dan Kebijakan     Open Access  
JEKPEND : Jurnal Ekonomi dan Pendidikan     Open Access  
Journal for Labour Market Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Accounting and Finance in Emerging Economies     Open Access  
Journal of Advanced Research in Law and Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Advanced Studies in Finance     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Business Economics and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Business-to-Business Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Developing Economies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Development Policy and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Economic and Financial Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Economic Asymmetries     Open Access  
Journal of Economic Development Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Economics and International Finance     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Economics Bibliography     Open Access  
Journal of Economics Library     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Economics, Finance and Administrative Science     Open Access  
Journal of Economics, Race, and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Economy Culture and Society     Open Access  
Journal of Entrepreneurship and Public Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Finance and Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 55)
Journal of Financial Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Government and Economics     Open Access  
Journal of Interdisciplinary Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Life Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Management Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Management for Global Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Markets & Morality     Partially Free  
Journal of Poverty and Social Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Journal of Research in Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Reviews on Global Economics     Open Access  
Journal of the Economic Science Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Economics of Ageing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Ekonomi dan Studi Pembangunan     Open Access  
Jurnal Ekonomi KIAT     Open Access  
Jurnal Ekonomi Modernisasi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Ekonomi Pembangunan     Open Access  
Jurnal Manajemen dan Kewirausahaan     Open Access  
Jurnal Pendidikan Ekonomi     Open Access  
Klinik Einkauf     Hybrid Journal  
Korea : Politik, Wirtschaft, Gesellschaft     Open Access  
L'Actualité économique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Latin American Journal of Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Lecturas de Economía     Open Access  
Liberal Arts and Social Sciences International Journal (LASSIJ)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
List Forum für Wirtschafts- und Finanzpolitik     Hybrid Journal  
Local Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Low Carbon Economy     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Management Dynamics     Open Access  
Media Ekonomi dan Manajemen     Open Access  
MediaTrend     Open Access  
Modern Economy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Mondes en développement     Full-text available via subscription  
NBER Working Paper Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Nordic Journal of Health Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Open Pharmacoeconomics & Health Economics Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pensamiento Crítico     Open Access  
Proceedings of Voronezh State University. Series: Economics and Management     Open Access  
Quantitative Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Quantitative Economics Research     Open Access  
Quarterly Journal of Applied Theories of Economics     Open Access  
RDE : Revista de Desenvolvimento Econômico     Open Access  
Regards économiques     Open Access  
Regional Research of Russia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Regional Science Policy & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Research in World Economy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Review of Economics and Development Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Review of Economics and Institutions     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Review of Economics and Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 141)
Review of Market Integration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Revista Brasileira de Desenvolvimento Regional     Open Access  
Revista CIFE : Lecturas de Economía Social     Open Access  
Revista de Análisis Económico     Open Access  
Revista de Economía     Open Access  
Revista ECONO : Facultad de Ciencias Económicas. UNLP     Open Access  
Revista Economia & Gestão     Open Access  
Revista Facultad de Ciencias Económicas: Investigación y Reflexión     Open Access  
Revista Finanzas y Política Económica     Open Access  
Revista Icade. Revista de las Facultades de Derecho y Ciencias Económicas y Empresariales     Full-text available via subscription  
Revista Latinoamericana de Desarrollo Económico     Open Access  
Revista Panorama Económico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Sociedad y Economía     Open Access  
Revista Teoria e Evidência Econômica     Open Access  
Revista U.D.C.A Actualidad & Divulgación Científica     Open Access  
Revue économique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Ruch Prawniczy, Ekonomiczny i Socjologiczny     Open Access  
RUDN Journal of Economics     Open Access  
Russian Journal of Economics     Open Access  
Sdü Vizyoner Dergisi     Open Access  
Semestre Económico     Open Access  
Shanlax International Journal of Economics     Open Access  
Sosyoekonomi     Open Access  
Staff Studies : Central Bank of Sri Lanka     Open Access  
Statistics and Economics     Open Access  
Studia Universitatis ?Vasile Goldis? Arad ? Economics Series     Open Access  
Supreme Court Economic Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Swiss Journal of Economics and Statistics     Open Access  
Tahghighat-e-Eghtesadi     Open Access  
Textos de Economia     Open Access  
Theoretical Economics Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Torun International Studies     Open Access  
Turkish Economic Review     Open Access  
World Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Wroclaw Review of Law, Administration & Economics     Open Access  
Œconomia     Open Access  
Науковий вісник НУБіП України. Серія: Економіка, аграрний менеджмент, бізнес     Open Access  

        1 2     

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NBER Working Paper Series
Number of Followers: 22  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 0898-2937
Published by National Bureau of Economic Research Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Microgiving with Digital Platforms -- by Xiheng Jiang, Jianwei Xing,
           Jintao Xu, Eric Zou

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      Abstract: Microgiving, a new form of digital fundraising, operates by soliciting minuscule, recurring donations from large numbers of potential donors. We evaluate a charity subscription program operated by Alibaba, China’s largest retail platform, which allows sellers to pledge a tiny portion of a product’s revenue (2 cents per order) to charity, with donations made automatically as transactions occur. We present three sets of descriptive findings. First, sellers tend to pick their best-selling products for charity subscription, and many did so right before sales promotion of the associated products. This suggests revenue-maximizing motives. Second, charity subscriptions are almost never canceled, despite limited evidence that they increase revenues; interview evidence suggests that sellers’ decision to keep donating is sustained by joys of giving that worth the tiny monetary sacrifices; we also observe sellers to purchase more charity-linked products themselves after they become charity subscribers. This suggests warm-glow utilities. Third, between 2018 and 2020, the program attracted more than 2 million Alibaba sellers and generated 1.2 billion yuan of charitable funds, representing one of China’s largest online fundraisers and accounts for 12% of the country’s overall online charitable sector. We conclude that digital platforms can create an incentive-compatible environment to scale up microgiving.
       
  • Mothers as Insurance: Family Spillovers in WIC -- by Marianne Bitler,
           Janet Currie, Hilary W. Hoynes, Krista J. Ruffini, Lisa Schulkind, Barton
           Willage

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      Abstract: The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) is a widely used program. Previous research shows that WIC improves birth outcomes, but evidence about impacts on children and families is limited. We use a regression discontinuity leveraging an age five when children become ineligible for WIC and examine nutritional and laboratory outcomes for adults and children. We find little impact on children who aged out of the program. But among adult women caloric intake falls and food insecurity increases, suggesting that mothers protect children by consuming less themselves. We find no effect on others in the household.
       
  • Unemployment Insurance, Starting Salaries, and Jobs -- by Gordon Dahl,
           Matthew M. Knepper

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      Abstract: We study the labor market effects of permanent 23-50% reductions in unemployment insurance benefits available in seven states. Leveraging linked firm-establishment data, we find that establishments based in reform states experience 1.5-2.4% faster employment growth relative to the same firm's establishments in other states. Using a similar multi-state firm design, starting salaries are 1.8-7.2% lower in reform states and posted salaries for the same job fall by 1.4-5.5%. These labor supply shocks yield an average labor demand elasticity of -1.0. Our results reveal a substantial decline in match quality and worker bargaining power as UI benefits become less generous.
       
  • Climate Change and Downstream Water Quality in Agricultural Production:
           The Case of Nutrient Runoff to the Gulf of Mexico -- by Levan Elbakidze,
           Yuelu Xu, Philip W. Gassman, Jeffrey G. Arnold, Haw Yen

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      Abstract: Nitrogen (N) fertilizer use in agricultural production is a significant determinant of surface water quality. As climate changes, agricultural producers are likely to adapt at extensive and intensive margins in terms of land and per acre input use, including fertilizers. These changes can affect downstream water quality. We investigate the effect of climate-driven productivity changes on water quality in the Gulf of Mexico using an integrated hydro-economic agricultural land use (IHEAL) model. Our results indicate that land and N use adaptation in agricultural production to climate change increases N delivery to the Gulf of Mexico by 0.4%-1.58% relative to the baseline scenario with no climate change.
       
  • Inefficient Automation -- by Martin Beraja, Nathan Zorzi

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      Abstract: How should the government respond to automation' We study this question in a heterogeneous agent model that takes worker displacement seriously. We recognize that displaced workers face two frictions in practice: reallocation is slow and borrowing is limited. We first show that these frictions result in inefficient automation. Firms fail to internalize that displaced workers have a limited ability to smooth consumption while they reallocate. We then analyze a second best problem where the government can tax automation but lacks redistributive tools to fully overcome borrowing frictions. The equilibrium is (constrained) inefficient. The government finds it optimal to slow down automation on efficiency grounds, even when it has no preference for redistribution. Using a quantitative version of our model, we find that the optimal speed of automation is considerably lower than at the laissez-faire. The optimal policy improves aggregate efficiency and achieves welfare gains of 4%. Slowing down automation achieves important gains even when the government implements generous social insurance policies.
       
  • NIH Grant Expansion, Ancestral Diversity and Scientific Discovery in
           Genomics Research -- by Wei Fu, Shin-Yi Chou, Li-San Wang

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      Abstract: In the approaching era of genomic medicine, the underrepresentation of minority populations in human genetics and genomics research has raised growing concerns regarding the distributive justice in the translation of biomedical innovations into human health across populations. Quantitative assessment of public funding policy in addressing the missing diversity is imperative yet lacking. In this paper, we fill this gap by empirically answering two central questions in the context of Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS): whether improved funding opportunity facilitates minority health research, and how significant is the scientific value of funding science on underrepresented populations. Our identification draws on an exogenous NIH grant expansion under the American Reinvestment and Recovery Act of 2009, and exploits variations in the share of people with medical conditions among minorities relative to whites. Our main findings are threefold. First, the ARRA-NIH grant expansion contributes to an increase in the inclusion of minority ancestries in GWAS. It also facilitates the engagement of minority scientists in academic activities and promotes their role in scientific collaborations. The grant expansion fosters the discoveries of disease-associated genetic variants within minority populations. This quantitative evidence speaks to the role that public funding policy can play in advancing science.
       
  • Estimating the Effect of Easements on Agricultural Production -- by Nicole
           Karwowski

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      Abstract: US crops face higher losses as growing season temperatures rise and destructive disasters become commonplace. The Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) easement programs offer an adaptation strategy to improve agricultural resilience. Easements impact agricultural production directly by reducing planting on marginal land and indirectly by improving yields on surrounding cropland. I use national USDA data from the past three decades to build a county-level panel. I employ a regression model with two-way fixed effects to quantify how easement land share impacts yields, risk, as well as acres planted, failed, and prevented planted. A 100% increase in land share of wetland easements increases yields by 0.34%, 0.77% and 0.46% for corn, soybeans, and wheat. Easements improve yields by mitigating the effect of excess precipitation and extreme degree days. Wetland easements reduce soybean losses from excess moisture, heat, and disease by $3.59, $6.07 and $11.23 for each dollar of liability. I also find evidence of a spillage effect in which producers reduce soybean and wheat acreage but increase corn production. This work quantifies the ecosystem benefits of easement habitats and uncovers program externalities including yield spillovers and a spillage effect. My results have policy implications for future NRCS funding and targeting decisions.
       
  • Universalism: Global Evidence -- by Alexander W. Cappelen, Benjamin Enke,
           Bertil Tungodden

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      Abstract: This paper presents a new set of stylized facts about the global variation in universalism, leveraging hypothetical money allocation tasks deployed in representative samples of 64,000 people from 60 countries. Our data reveal large variation in universalism within and across countries, which almost entirely reflects heterogeneity in people's moral views regarding how to treat different types of relationships. These moral views vary systematically with age, gender and religiosity. Universalism is strongly predictive of relevant outcomes such as civic engagement and left-wing economic and social policy views, in particular in the rich West. Across countries, universalism varies with the economic, political and religious organization of societies. We provide tentative evidence that experience with democracy makes people more universalist. Overall, our results show that moral universalism shapes and is shaped by politico-economic outcomes across the globe.
       
  • Heterogeneous Returns to Active Labour Market Programs for Indigenous
           Populations -- by Donn. L. Feir, Kelly Foley, Maggie E.C. Jones

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      Abstract: This paper studies the impact of active labour market programs for institutionally distinct Indigenous populations in Canada using administrative data on the universe of participants in the Aboriginal Skills and Employment Training Strategy (ASETS). Within Indigenous population groups, we compare labour market outcomes among individuals who participated in high- relative to low-intensity programs, where high-intensity programs were longer in duration. For Métis and non-Status First Nations groups, we find a large impact of high-intensity participation on earnings two years post-ASETS. The post-program earnings of Status First Nations individuals who participated in high-intensity programs were not statistically different from those in low-intensity programs. We argue that these differences are due to the unique institutional environments affecting different Indigenous populations.
       
  • Is Our Fiscal System Discouraging Marriage' A New Look at the Marriage
           Tax -- by Elias Ilin, Laurence J. Kotlikoff, Melinda Pitts

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      Abstract: We develop, apply, and test a new measure of the marriage tax – the reduction in future spending from getting married – using SCF and ACS data. Our measure incorporates all major and most minor U.S. tax and benefit programs. And it assumes clone marriage – marrying oneself – to ensure the living-standard loss from marrying is unaffected by spousal choice. Our calculated high and highly variable marriage taxes materially reduce the probability of marriage particularly for low-income females with children.
       
  • The Big Tech Lending Model -- by Lei Liu, Guangli Lu, Wei Xiong

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      Abstract: By comparing uncollateralized business loans made by a big tech lending program with conventional bank loans, we find that big tech loans tend to be smaller and have higher interest rates and that borrowers of big tech loans tend to repay far before maturity and borrow more frequently. These patterns remain for borrowers with access to bank credit. Our findings highlight the big tech lender’s roles in serving borrowers’ short-term liquidity rather than their long-term financing needs. Through this model, big tech lending facilitates credit to borrowers underserved by banks without experiencing more-severe adverse selection or incurring greater risks than banks (even during the COVID-19 crisis).
       
  • Investing with the Government: A Field Experiment in China -- by Emanuele
           Colonnelli, Bo Li, Ernest Liu

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      Abstract: We study the demand for government participation in China’s venture capital and private equity market. We conduct a large-scale, non-deceptive field experiment in collaboration with the leading industry service provider, through which we survey both sides of the market: the capital investors and the private firms managing the invested capital by deploying it to high-growth entrepreneurs. Our respondents together account for nearly $1 trillion in assets under management. Each respondent evaluates synthetic profiles of potential investment partners, whose characteristics we randomize, under the real-stakes incentive that they will be introduced to real partners matching their preferences. Our main result is that the average firm dislikes investors with government ties, indicating that the benefits of political connections are small compared to the cons of having the government as an investor. We show that such dislike is not present with government-owned firms, and this dislike is highest with best-performing firms. Additional results and follow-up surveys suggest political interference in decision-making is the leading mechanism why government capital is unattractive to private firms. We feed our experimental estimates and administrative data into a simple model of two-sided search to discuss the distributional effects of government participation. Overall, our findings point to a “grabbing hand” interpretation of state-firm relationships reflecting a desire by the government to keep control over the private sector.
       
  • The Costs of Job Displacement over the Business Cycle and Its Sources:
           Evidence from Germany -- by Johannes F. Schmieder, Till M. von Wachter,
           Jörg Heining

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      Abstract: We document the sources behind the costs of job loss over the business cycle using administrative data from Germany. Losses in annual earnings after displacement are large, persistent, and highly cyclical, nearly doubling in size during downturns. A large part of the long-term earnings losses and their cyclicality is driven by declines in wages. Key to these long-lasting wage declines and their cyclicality are changes in employer characteristics, as displaced workers switch to lower-paying firms. Changes in characteristics of workers or displacing firms explain little of the cyclicality, though non-employment durations correlated with losses in employer effects play a role.
       
  • The Size and Census Coverage of the U.S. Homeless Population -- by Bruce
           D. Meyer, Angela Wyse, Kevin Corinth

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      Abstract: Despite widespread concern about homelessness, fundamental questions about the size and characteristics of this hard to study population are unresolved, in large part because it is unclear whether existing data are sufficiently complete and reliable. We examine these questions as well as the coverage of new microdata sources that are designed to be nationally representative and will allow pathbreaking new analyses. We compare three restricted use data sources that have been largely unused to study homelessness to less detailed public data. In doing this triangulation of sources, we examine the completeness and accuracy of available data and improve our understanding of the size of the homeless population and its inclusion in household surveys. Specifically, we compare restricted data from the 2010 Census, American Community Survey (ACS), and Homeless Management Information System (HMIS) to HUD's public-use point-in-time (PIT) estimates and the Housing Inventory Count (HIC) at the national, city and county, and person level. We explore the extent to which definitions, weighting, frame completeness, and seasonality explain discrepancies between sources. We also link HMIS shelter-use data to the Census to evaluate the usefulness of these microdata to study this population. Our analyses suggest that on a given night there are 500,000-600,000 people experiencing homelessness in the U.S., about one-third of whom are sleeping on the streets and two-thirds in shelters. About 80-95 percent of those in shelters were counted in the Census. Despite employing substantially different methods, the Census, ACS, and PIT arrive at similar estimates after accounting for definitional differences, ambiguity in the classification of certain facilities, and differences arising from the timeframe of Census response. The coverage of these sources is surprisingly good given the difficulties of surveying this population. By establishing the broad coverage and reliability of the new data sources, this paper lays the foundation for pathbreaking future work on the characteristics, income, safety net participation, mortality, migration, geographic distribution, and housing status transitions of the U.S. homeless population.
       
  • Public Pension Reforms and Retirement Decisions: Narrative Evidence and
           Aggregate Implications -- by Huixin Bi, Sarah Zubairy

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      Abstract: We construct a database of public pension policy changes with motivation and implementation information for ten OECD countries. Structural pension reforms, motivated by long-run sustainability concerns, often come with prolonged phase-in periods. In response to pension retrenchments implemented immediately, people close to retirement stay in the work force longer. News about future pension retrenchments with implementation lags, however, is likely to lead this group to exit the labor market. This decline in the labor force participation rate is particularly strong for reforms with long lags, ones that introduce fundamental policy changes, and where citizens have lower trust in the government.
       
  • The Fertility Consequences of Air Pollution in China -- by Xuwen Gao, Ran
           Song, Christopher Timmins

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      Abstract: We incorporate pollution exposure into Becker’s “Quantity-Quality” (Q-Q) model of fertility and quantify how air pollution distorts individuals’ fertility behaviors in China. We document a robust pattern in which increased pollution over time negatively affects the fertility of ethnic Han people, who comprise approximately 92% of the Chinese population. These patterns are evident in both cross-sectional and panel data, when instrumenting for pollution using distant coal-fired plants upwind of cities or thermal inversions that trap pollution. Consistent with the stylized Q-Q model of fertility, we find that increased pollution drives up the parental expenditure per child, which increases the shadow price associated with the number of children and reduces fertility. Consistent with the model, we also find that the fertility choices of people who tend to have higher demand for child quality are significantly more sensitive to pollution changes. Pollution does not have a meaningful effect on the fertility of ethnic minorities, which can also be explained under the Q-Q framework.
       
  • Fighting Communism Supporting Collusion -- by Sebastian Galiani, Jose
           Manuel Paz y Miño, Gustavo Torrens

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      Abstract: We develop a simple model to explain why a powerful importer country like the United States may provide political support for international collusive agreements concerning certain commodities (e.g., coffee). This behavior raises questions due to the fact that an importer country should have strong economic incentives to avoid the cartelization of its suppliers. We show that an importer country sometimes helps producer countries organize and enforce collusion to advance important geopolitical goals, e.g., by reducing the chances that the producer countries will align with a rival global power (e.g., the Soviet Union). Moreover, using this practice, a powerful importer country can immediately share the cost of collusion with other importers (including allies). Thus, a powerful importer country may see collusion as a superior strategy to foreign aid (a priori a more direct and efficient instrument), which is riddled with free riding problems. The model sheds light on why the United States supported (or failed to support) international commodity agreements for coffee, sugar, and oil during and immediately after the Cold War period.
       
  • Measuring the Tolerance of the State: Theory and Application to Protest --
           by Veli Andirin, Yusuf Neggers, Mehdi Shadmehr, Jesse M. Shapiro

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      Abstract: We develop a measure of a regime's tolerance for an action by its citizens. We ground our measure in an economic model and apply it to the setting of political protest. In the model, a regime anticipating a protest can take a costly action to repress it. We define the regime's tolerance as the ratio of its cost of repression to its cost of protest. Because an intolerant regime will engage in repression whenever protest is sufficiently likely, a regime's tolerance determines the maximum equilibrium probability of protest. Tolerance can therefore be identified from the distribution of protest probabilities. We construct a novel cross-national database of protest occurrence and protest predictors, and apply machine-learning methods to estimate protest probabilities. We use the estimated protest probabilities to form a measure of tolerance at the country, country-year, and country-month levels. We apply the measure to questions of interest.
       
  • Was Pandemic Fiscal Relief Effective Fiscal Stimulus' Evidence from
           Aid to State and Local Governments -- by Jeffrey Clemens, Philip G. Hoxie,
           Stan Veuger

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      Abstract: We use an instrumental-variables estimator reliant on variation in congressional representation to analyze the effects of federal aid to state and local governments across all four major pieces of COVID-19 response legislation. Through September 2021, we estimate that the federal government allocated $855,000 for each state or local government job-year preserved. Our baseline confidence interval allows us to rule out estimates of less than $433,000. Our estimates of effects on aggregate income and output are centered on zero and imply modest if any spillover effects onto the broader economy. We discuss aspects of the pandemic context, which include the surprising resilience of state and local tax revenues as well as of broader macroeconomic conditions, that may underlie the small employment and stimulative impacts we estimate in comparison with previous research.
       
  • Getting to the Core: Inflation Risks Within and Across Asset Classes -- by
           Xiang Fang, Yang Liu, Nikolai Roussanov

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      Abstract: Do “real” assets protect against inflation' Core inflation betas of stocks are negative while energy betas are positive; currencies, commodities, and real estate also mostly hedge against energy inflation but not core. These hedging properties are reflected in the prices of inflation risks: only core inflation carries a negative risk premium, and its magnitude is consistent both within and across asset classes, uniquely among macroeconomic risk factors. While high core inflation tends to be followed by low real output, consumption, and dividend payouts, it impacts asset prices through both cash-flow and discount rate channels. The relative contribution of core and energy changes over time, helping explain the time-varying correlation between stock and bond returns. A two-sector New Keynesian model qualitatively accounts for these facts and implies that the changing stock-bond correlation can be attributed to the shifting importance of supply and demand shocks in driving energy inflation over time.
       
  • Machine Learning Can Predict Shooting Victimization Well Enough to Help
           Prevent It -- by Sara B. Heller, Benjamin Jakubowski, Zubin Jelveh, Max
           Kapustin

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      Abstract: This paper shows that shootings are predictable enough to be preventable. Using arrest and victimization records for almost 644,000 people from the Chicago Police Department, we train a machine learning model to predict the risk of being shot in the next 18 months. We address central concerns about police data and algorithmic bias by predicting shooting victimization rather than arrest, which we show accurately captures risk differences across demographic groups despite bias in the predictors. Out-of-sample accuracy is strikingly high: of the 500 people with the highest predicted risk, 13 percent are shot within 18 months, a rate 130 times higher than the average Chicagoan. Although Black male victims more often have enough police contact to generate predictions, those predictions are not, on average, inflated; the demographic composition of predicted and actual shooting victims is almost identical. There are legal, ethical, and practical barriers to using these predictions to target law enforcement. But using them to target social services could have enormous preventive benefits: predictive accuracy among the top 500 people justifies spending up to $123,500 per person for an intervention that could cut their risk of being shot in half.
       
  • Age and the labor market for Hispanics in the United States -- by Joanna
           Lahey, Roberto M. Mosquera

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      Abstract: We explore the labor market for Hispanic high school graduates in the United States by age using information from the US Census, American Community Survey, Current Population Survey, and three laboratory experiments. We find, in general, that the differences in outcomes for Hispanic and non-Hispanic high school graduates do not change across the lifecycle. Moving to a laboratory setting, we provided participants with randomized resumes for a clerical position that are on average equivalent except for name and age (as indicated by date of high school graduation). In all three experiments, hypothetical applicants with Hispanic and non-Hispanic names were generally treated the same across the lifecycle by a student population, a population of human resources managers, and a more general population from mTurk. These results stand in contrast to earlier results that find strong differences by age in how resumes with Black and White names are treated.
       
 
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