Subjects -> BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS (Total: 3570 journals)
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    - ECONOMIC SYSTEMS, THEORIES AND HISTORY (235 journals)
    - FASHION AND CONSUMER TRENDS (20 journals)
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    - TRADE AND INDUSTRIAL DIRECTORIES (2 journals)

PRODUCTION OF GOODS AND SERVICES (143 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 137 of 137 Journals sorted alphabetically
Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Marketing     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Australasian Marketing Journal (AMJ)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
BMC Health Services Research     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Capital Markets Law Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Cleaner Environmental Systems     Open Access  
Cleaner Production Letters     Hybrid Journal  
Cleaner Waste Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Consumption Markets & Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Customer Needs and Solutions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Direct Marketing An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Disaster Prevention and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Economic & Labour Market Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Electronic Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Emerging Markets Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
European Journal of Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Financial Markets, Institutions & Instruments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Food Packaging and Shelf Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Foundations and Trends® in Marketing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Future Business Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Global Journal of Emerging Market Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Health Services and Outcomes Research Methodology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Health Services Management Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Health Services Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
i+Diseño : Revista científico-académica internacional de Innovación, Investigación y Desarrollo en Diseño     Open Access  
Independent Journal of Management & Production     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ingeniería y Competitividad     Open Access  
International Journal of Advanced Operations Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Bank Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Business and Emerging Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Business Forecasting and Marketing Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Electronic Marketing and Retailing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Emerging Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Entrepreneurial Venturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Financial Services Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Information Systems and Supply Chain Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Inventory Research     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Lean Six Sigma     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Logistics Economics and Globalisation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Managing Projects in Business     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Market Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Nonprofit & Voluntary Sector Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Planning and Scheduling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Product Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Production Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
International Journal of Production Management and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Production Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Productivity and Quality Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Quality Innovation     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Research in Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
International Journal of Service Industry Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Services and Standards     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Services Operations and Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Services Sciences     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Supply Chain and Inventory Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Supply Chain and Operations Resilience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Supply Chain Management     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Systems Science : Operations & Logistics     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Technology Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Trade and Global Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Internet Reference Services Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
JCMS : Journal of Common Market Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Journal of Advances in Management Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Benefit-Cost Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Business Logistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Business Venturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Journal of Cleaner Production     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Journal of Consumer Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Database Marketing & Customer Strategy Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Direct Data and Digital Marketing Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Emerging Knowledge on Emerging Markets     Open Access  
Journal of Entrepreneurial Finance     Open Access  
Journal of Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Journal of Food Products Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Foodservice Business Research     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Global Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Global Operations and Strategic Sourcing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Health Services Research and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of International Consumer Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Marketing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 51)
Journal of Marketing Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Marketing Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Marketing Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 70)
Journal of Nonprofit & Public Sector Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Operations and Supply Chain Management     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Political Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Prediction Markets     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Product Innovation Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Production Research & Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Productivity Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Progressive Human Services     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Public Policy & Marketing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Relationship Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Service Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Services Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Strategic Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Targeting Measurement and Analysis for Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Technology Management & Innovation     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Journal of Vacation Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Logistics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Logistics Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Management and Administrative Sciences Review     Open Access  
Management and Production Engineering Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Manufacturing & Service Operations Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Marketing Intelligence & Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Marketing Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Marketing Review     Full-text available via subscription  
Marketing Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34)
Psychological Services     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Psychology & Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Quantitative Marketing and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Reproduction Fertility and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Review of Pacific Basin Financial Markets and Policies     Hybrid Journal  
Revista Eletrônica Academicus     Open Access  
Revue Interventions économiques     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Service Business     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Service Oriented Computing and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Service Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Services Marketing Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Social Marketing Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Strategy Management Logistics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Supply Chain Forum : an International Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Sustainable Production and Consumption     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Technology Operation Management     Hybrid Journal  
The Journal of Futures Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
The Service Industries Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Universal Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access  
Venture Capital: An International Journal of Entrepreneurial Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
WPOM - Working Papers on Operations Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

           

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Health Services and Outcomes Research Methodology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.683
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 6  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1387-3741 - ISSN (Online) 1572-9400
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Advanced models for improved prediction of opioid-related overdose and
           suicide events among Veterans using administrative healthcare data

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      Abstract: Veterans suffer disproportionate health impacts from the opioid epidemic, including overdose, suicide, and death. Prediction models based on electronic medical record data can be powerful tools for identifying patients at greatest risk of such outcomes. The Veterans Health Administration implemented the Stratification Tool for Opioid Risk Mitigation (STORM) in 2018. In this study we propose changes to the original STORM model and propose alternative models that improve risk prediction performance. The best of these proposed models uses a multivariate generalized linear mixed modeling (mGLMM) approach to produce separate predictions for overdose and suicide-related events (SRE) rather than a single prediction for combined outcomes. Further improvements include incorporation of additional data sources and new predictor variables in a longitudinal setting. Compared to a modified version of the STORM model with the same outcome, predictor and interaction terms, our proposed model has a significantly better prediction performance in terms of AUC (84% vs. 77%) and sensitivity (71% vs. 66%). The mGLMM performed particularly well in identifying patients at risk for SREs, where 72% of actual events were accurately predicted among patients with the 100,000 highest risk scores compared with 49.7% for the modified STORM model. The mGLMM’s strong performance in identifying true cases (sensitivity) among this highest risk group was the most important improvement given the model’s primary purpose for accurately identifying patients at most risk for adverse outcomes such that they are prioritized to receive risk mitigation interventions. Some predictors in the proposed model have markedly different associations with overdose and suicide risks, which will allow clinicians to better target interventions to the most relevant risks.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Estimating heterogeneous policy impacts using causal machine learning: a
           case study of health insurance reform in Indonesia

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      Abstract: Policymakers seeking to target health policies efficiently towards specific population groups need to know which individuals stand to benefit the most from each of these policies. While traditional approaches for subgroup analyses are constrained to only consider a small number of pre-defined subgroups, recently proposed causal machine learning (CML) approaches help explore treatment-effect heterogeneity in a more flexible yet principled way. Causal forests use a generalisation of the random forest algorithm to estimate heterogenous treatment effects both at the individual and the subgroup level. Our paper aims to explore this approach in the setting of health policy evaluation with strong observed confounding, applied specifically to the context of mothers’ health insurance enrolment in Indonesia. Comparing two health insurance schemes (subsidised and contributory) against no insurance, we find beneficial average impacts of enrolment in contributory health insurance on maternal health care utilisation and infant mortality, but no impact of subsidised health insurance. The causal forest algorithm identified significant heterogeneity in the impacts of contributory insurance, not just along socioeconomic variables that we pre-specified (indicating higher benefits for poorer, less educated, and rural women), but also according to some other characteristics not foreseen prior to the analysis, suggesting in particular important geographical impact heterogeneity. Our study demonstrates the power of CML approaches to uncover unexpected heterogeneity in policy impacts. The findings from our evaluation of past health insurance expansions can potentially guide the re-design of the eligibility criteria for subsidised health insurance in Indonesia.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Incidence rate and financial burden of medical errors and policy
           interventions to address them: a multi-method study protocol

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      Abstract: Medical error is one of the most critical challenges facing medical services. They pose a substantial threat to patient safety, and their costs draw attention from policymakers, health care planners and researchers. We aim to make a realistic estimation of medical error incidence and related costs and identify factors influencing this incidence in Iranian hospitals. In the first phase of this multi-method study, through two reviews of systematic reviews and a meta-analysis, we will estimate the incidence of medical errors and the strategies to reduce them. We will extract available data among 41 hospitals supervised by the East Azerbaijan University in the second phase. We will also develop a model and use a Delphi method to predict medical errors incidence and calibrate our model output using the Monte Carlo simulation. We will compare this estimation with the incidence rate based on meta-analysis results from the first phase. In the third phase, we will investigate the relationship between several factors potentially influencing medical error incidence. In the fourth phase, we will estimate costs associated with medical errors by conducting a patient records review and matching those with claims related to medical errors. In the fifth phase, we will present a policy brief related to strategies for medical errors and associated costs reduction in Iran. Our findings could benefit Iranian and policymakers in other countries to reduce medical errors and associated costs.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Is Medicaid misreporting stable over time' Self-reported health
           insurance coverage of Medicaid recipients in Louisiana, 2007–2017

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      Abstract: This study investigates individual-level misreporting among Medicaid recipients in Louisiana from 2007 to 2017. It explores whether the type of individual who misreports varies over time, including following a major policy shift (the implementation of the Affordable Care Act). Results are based on a series of biennial Medicaid Bias Studies from 2007 to 2017 in which Medicaid recipients are asked about their health care coverage, allowing us to identify individuals who misreport their status. Study participants are (1) randomly selected from state Medicaid files or (2) matched participants from a statewide health insurance survey designed to estimate uninsured rates. Survey respondents are asked a battery of questions designed to identify health insurance coverage for themselves and for each member residing within their household. Responses are then matched to Medicaid enrollment data to identify misreporting, including whether household members are misreported as uninsured, covered by an employer, or covered by some other government program. The results reveal that the level of Medicaid misreporting varies over time and that misreporting declined significantly following the Louisiana’s Medicaid expansion. As a result, careful estimation of Medicaid misreporting continues to be an important source of bias in estimates of health insurance coverage.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Application of pooled testing in estimating the prevalence of COVID-19

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      Abstract: Testing at a mass scale has been widely accepted as an effective way to contain the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 Virus. In the initial stages, the shortage of test kits severely restricted mass-scale testing. Pooled testing was offered as a partial solution to this problem. However, it is a relatively lesser-known fact that pooled testing can also result in significant gains, both in terms of cost savings as well as measurement accuracy, in prevalence estimation surveys. We review here the statistical theory of pooled testing for screening as well as for prevalence estimation. We study the impact of the diagnostic errors, and misspecification of the sensitivity and the specificity on the performances of the pooled as well as individual testing procedures. Our investigation clarifies some of the issues hotly debated in the context of COVID-19 and shows the potential gains for the Indian Council for Medical Research (ICMR) in using a pooled sampling for their upcoming COVID-19 prevalence surveys.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Initial validation of the global assessment of severity of illness

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      Abstract: Scales currently validated to assess severity of chronic physical conditions in children are not well suited for limited-resource settings as they lack ease of use and interpretation. This study assessed the validity of the Global Assessment of Severity of Illness (GASI), a single-item scale designed for quick and simple assessment of illness severity in children with various chronic physical conditions. Study objectives were to examine validity, reliability, and responsiveness of the GASI. Clinicians assessed the severity of asthma, food allergy, epilepsy, diabetes, and juvenile arthritis in 55 children, and parents reported on children’s health-related quality of life. Area under the curve (AUC) computed by logistic regression and Kendall’s Tau-c (τc) assessed the strength of association between the GASI and other study measures. The kappa coefficient (κ), weighted kappa (κw), and McNemar’s test assessed stability in GASI ratings over time. The standardized response mean and Guyatt’s responsiveness index examined internal and external responsiveness of the GASI, respectively. The GASI correlated strongly with established severity scales (AUC = 0.83–0.96; τc = 0.57–0.78) and did not correlate with health-related quality of life (τc < 0.1). Moderate (κw = 0.57) to substantial (κ = 0.79) test–retest reliability was supported and the magnitude of responsiveness was large (d = 0.83–3.83). This study provided initial evidence of excellent construct validity and responsiveness in the GASI and also supported acceptable test–retest reliability in a clinical sample of children with physical conditions. Future research using larger samples should aim to replicate these findings to improve feasibility of standardized assessment in limited-resource settings and facilitate cross-condition comparisons in pediatric research.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Just you wait… and fill out this survey. Discussion of the
           methodological aspects of waiting room surveys

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      Abstract: Abstract A method commonly used in health care research is the waiting room (WR) survey. While patients are waiting for their appointment, they are asked to complete a questionnaire measuring their attitudes, behaviors and other characteristics. In this paper we synthesize practical guidelines for WR surveys by comparing the method with two similar approaches: public intercept (PI) surveys and drop-off-pick-up (DOPU) surveys. In this comparison we use the Total Survey Error approach Groves (Survey Methodology, Wiley, New York, 2004); (Groves in Public Opinion Quarterly 74(5): 849-879, 2010) and apply it to three case examples in which one of the three surveys is used. We take into account measurement (validity, measurement- and processing error) and representation (coverage-, sampling- and nonresponse error). From our review, we conclude that waiting room surveys, though limited to patients and their caregivers, can provide useful information on patients’ perspective on health care. Response rates in waiting rooms are usually high, but often not even reported. We recommend adjustment for sampling bias by taking into account the number of visits to the hospital per respondent and sample times proportionate to the number of sample members expected on a particular time. These surveys also allow for collection of para-data; i.e., relevant information in the circumstances of a request to participate in survey research, and behavior of surveyors can easily be controlled, or investigated in an experimental design.
      PubDate: 2022-03-26
       
  • Imputing race and ethnicity in healthcare claims databases

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      Abstract: Abstract Our objective was to enhance existing methods for indirectly estimating race/ethnicity in health care data by exploring ways to improve imputation accuracy with a total of 9,812,306 hospital visits from the Connecticut statewide hospitalization claims database from 2012 to 2017. Using this data, we developed multinomial logistic regression models to predict patients’ race and ethnicity when assuming that 50% of race/ethnicity is missing completely at random. Our models included predictors derived from Connecticut birth records, US Census data, and demographic patient-level data, and were compared using performance measures. Our model correctly classified the race and ethnicity of approximately 85% of patients in the Connecticut hospitalization claims data. We found the following [sensitivities and specificities] for our five race/ethnicity categories: non-Hispanic White [94, 83], non-Hispanic Black [76, 97], non-Hispanic Asian or Pacific Islander [41, 99.6], Hispanic [87, 95], and non-Hispanic other race [5, 99.7]. First name, surname, census tract and insurance type were key predictors. Further, Connecticut-specific name dictionaries were better at identifying non-White race and ethnicity compared to the national 2010 US Census surname dictionary. Therefore, state-specific health records, census information, and patients’ demographic characteristics can be utilized to improve the prediction of missing racial and ethnic information in Connecticut hospitalization claims. In addition, this approach can be adapted to other state-specific healthcare databases, which enhances opportunities to investigate and address racial disparities in health outcomes.
      PubDate: 2022-03-08
       
  • Inferring patient transfer networks between healthcare facilities

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      Abstract: Abstract Constructing accurate patient transfer networks between hospitals is critical for understanding the spread of healthcare associated infections through statistical and mathematical modeling, and for determining optimal screening and treatment strategies. The Healthcare Cost & Utilization Project (HCUP) State Inpatient Databases (SID) provide valuable information on patient transfers from publicly obtainable claims databases, yet often give an incomplete picture due to missingness of patient tracking identifiers. We designed a novel imputation algorithm that enabled us to estimate the true number of patient transfers between each pair of hospitals in a state over a specified time period and age group in the presence of these missing identifiers. We then validated the algorithm’s performance through a series of simulation experiments using the HCUP SID, and finally tested the algorithm on multiple states’ genuine data. Our proposed method significantly reduced the total mean squared error in predicting the true number of transfers amongst hospitals for all simulation experiments, and it also yielded epidemic simulations that more closely approximated those corresponding to the true patient transfer network.
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10742-021-00249-5
       
  • Hospital quality-review spending and patient safety: a longitudinal
           analysis using instrumental variables

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      Abstract: Abstract Since the landmark Institute of Medicine’s (IOM’s) 2000 report first focused attention to the problem of the safety of inpatient care, it has been a priority of hospital staffs, administrators, and policymakers. Despite remarkable progress in the 20 years since the IOM report, there is still much unknown about how these improvements in safety have been achieved. Using a 12-year (2004–2015) panel of Florida acute-care general hospitals, we estimate the relationship between hospital expenditure on peer (or quality) review and patient-safety outcomes, using a composite measure of patient safety (PSI-90) from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Our identification strategy to account for endogenous quality-review (QR) expenditure relies on exogeneity from within the hospital, in which we use staffing of non-acute ancillary services as instruments for QR expenditure. Estimation of hospital fixed effects (FE) with instrumental variables (FEIV) yields a statistically significant and beneficial effect of QR expenditure on patient safety. We find that, on average, a standard-deviation ($2.4 million) increase in QR expenditure is associated with a 16% decrease in adverse patient-safety events (i.e. PSI-90). Broadly, this study represents a unique contribution to the literature by examining a direct relationship between hospital peer-review spending and inpatient quality of care.
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10742-021-00251-x
       
  • Causal mediation analysis decomposition of between-hospital variance

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      Abstract: Abstract Causal variance decompositions for a given disease-specific quality indicator can be used to quantify differences in performance between hospitals or health care providers. While variance decompositions can demonstrate variation in quality of care, causal mediation analysis can be used to study care pathways leading to the differences in performance between the institutions. This raises the question of whether the two approaches can be combined to decompose between-hospital variation in an outcome type indicator to that mediated through a given process (indirect effect) and remaining variation due to all other pathways (direct effect). For this purpose, we derive a causal mediation analysis decomposition of between-hospital variance, discuss its interpretation, and propose an estimation approach based on generalized linear mixed models for the outcome and the mediator. We study the performance of the estimators in a simulation study and demonstrate its use in administrative data on kidney cancer care in Ontario.
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10742-021-00256-6
       
  • Measuring spatial access to emergency general surgery services: does the
           method matter'

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      Abstract: Abstract Emergency general surgery (EGS) is a critical component of emergency care in the United States. Due to the time sensitiveness of EGS conditions, ensuring adequate spatial access to EGS services is paramount for reducing patient morbidity and mortality. Past studies have used travel time to measure spatial access to EGS services, which has its limitations. The major purpose of this paper is to evaluate the utility of a gravity-based spatial access model in measuring spatial access to EGS services in California. Our data sources include the American Hospital Association 2015 Annual Survey, the American Community Survey 2013–2017 five-year average dataset, and background geospatial datasets. We implemented both the gravity-based model and the shortest travel time method and compared them in measuring spatial access to EGS-capable hospitals in California at the census block group level. We analyzed each metric’s ability to identify disparities in spatial access for the population as a whole, and subsequently to identify socio-demographic disparities. Overall, we found that both methods identified similar geographic and socio-demographic patterns of the spatial access. Native Americans and rural residents experienced the greatest disadvantage in spatial access to both general EGS services and advanced EGS services. However, the gravity-based model revealed more disparities in spatial access to EGS services than the travel time model, suggesting that using travel cost alone to measure spatial access to EGS services may underestimate the magnitude of disparities. These findings call for the use of gravity-based models that incorporate measures of population demand and hospital capacity when assessing spatial access to surgical services, and have implications for reallocating surgery resources to address disparities in spatial access.
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10742-021-00254-8
       
  • A comparison of approaches to identify live births using the medicaid
           analytic extract

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      Abstract: Abstract Medicaid claims are an important, but underutilized source of data for neonatal health services research in the United States. However, identifying live births in Medicaid claims data is challenging due to variation in coding practices by state and year. Methods of identifying live births in Medicaid claims data have not been validated, and it is not known which methods are most appropriate for different research questions. The objective of this study is to describe and validate five approaches to identifying births using Medicaid Analytic eXtract (MAX) from 45 states (2006–2014). We calculated total number of MAX births by state-year using five definitions: (1) any claim within 30 days of birth date listed in personal summary (PS) file, (2) any claim within 7 days of PS birth date, (3) live birth ICD-9 in inpatient or other therapies file, (4) live birth ICD-9 code in inpatient file, (5) live birth ICD-9 in inpatient file with matching PS birth date. We then compared the number of MAX births by state and year to expected counts using outside data sources. Definition 1 identified the most births (14,189,870) and was closest to total expected count (98.3%). Each definition produced over- and underestimates compared to expected counts for given state-years. Findings suggest that the broadest definition of live births (Definition 1) was closest to expected counts, but that the most appropriate definition depends on research question and state-years of interest.
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10742-021-00252-w
       
  • Assessing consistency among indices to measure socioeconomic barriers to
           health care access

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      Abstract: Abstract Many places within rural America lack ready access to health care facilities. Barriers to access can be both spatial and non-spatial. Measurements of spatial access, such as the Enhanced Floating 2-Step Catchment Area and other floating catchment area measures, produce similar patterns of access. However, the extent to which different measurements of socioeconomic barriers to access correspond with each other has not been examined. Using West Virginia as a case study, we compute indices based upon the literature and measure the correlations among them. We find that all indices positively correlate with each other, although the strength of the correlation varies. Also, while there is broad agreement in the general spatial trends, such as fewer barriers in urban areas, and more barriers in the impoverished southwestern portion of the state, there are regions within the state that have more disagreement among the indices. These indices are to be used to support decision-making with respect to placement of rural residency students from medical schools within West Virginia to provide students with educational experiences as well as address health care inequalities within the state. The results indicate that for decisions and policies that address statewide trends, the choice of metric is not critical. However, when the decisions involve specific locations for receiving rural residents or opening clinics, the results can become more sensitive to the selection of the index. Therefore, for fine-grained policy decision-making, it is important that the chosen index best represents the processes under consideration.
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10742-021-00257-5
       
  • Applying random forest in a health administrative data context: a
           conceptual guide

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      Abstract: Abstract To introduce Random Forest (RF), a machine learning method, in an accessible way for health services researchers and highlight its unique considerations when applied to health administrative data. Physician claims’ data from the universal public insurer linked with the Canadian Community Health Survey for the Canadian province of Quebec. We describe in detail how RF can be useful in health services research, provide guidance on data set up, modeling decisions and demonstrate how to interpret results. We also highlight specific considerations for applying RF to health administrative data. In a working example, we compare RF with logistic regression, Ridge regression and LASSO in their ability to predict whether a person has a regular medical doctor. We use survey responses to “do you have a regular medical doctor” from three cycles of the Canadian Community Health Survey (2007, 2009, 2011). Responses are linked with physician claims’ data from 2002 to 2012. We limit our cohort to persons 40 years and older at the time of responding to the survey. We discuss the strengths and weaknesses of using RF in a health services research setting in comparison to using more conventional modeling techniques. Applying a RF model in a health services research setting can have advantages over conventional modeling approaches and we encourage health services researchers to add RF to their toolbox of predictive modeling methods.
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10742-021-00255-7
       
  • Detecting bad actors in value-based payment models

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      Abstract: Abstract The U.S. federal government is spending billions of dollars to test a multitude of new approaches to pay for healthcare. Unintended consequences are a major consideration in the testing of these value-based payment (VBP) models. Since participation is generally voluntary, any unintended consequences may be magnified as VBP models move beyond the early testing phase. In this paper, we propose a straightforward unsupervised outlier detection approach based on ranked percentage changes to identify participants (e.g., healthcare providers) whose behavior may represent an unintended consequence of a VBP model. The only data requirements are repeated measurements of at least one relevant variable over time. The approach is generalizable to all types of VBP models and participants and can be used to address undesired behavior early in the model and ultimately help avoid undesired behavior in scaled-up programs. We describe our approach, demonstrate how it can be applied with hypothetical data, and simulate how efficiently it detects participants who are truly bad actors. In our hypothetical case study, the approach correctly identifies a bad actor in the first period in 86% of simulations and by the second period in 96% of simulations. The trade-off is that 9% of honest participants are mistakenly identified as bad actors by the second period. We suggest several ways for researchers to mitigate the rate or consequences of these false positives. Researchers and policymakers can customize and use our approach to appropriately guard VBP models against undesired behavior, even if only by one participant.
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10742-021-00253-9
       
  • The answer depends on pragmatic norms, semantic context-sensitivity, and
           epistemic reflection. A linguistic and epistemological analysis of the
           Danish Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36)

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      Abstract: Abstract The SF-36 is a commonly used tool for measuring health status in a general population. Despite the overall moderate to high validity scores, certain communicative dynamics of the questionnaire deserve attention. Our aim was to examine how pragmatic dynamics, semantic context-sensitivity and epistemic reflection may influence answers to the SF-36. We applied a three-step Gricean analysis, including identification of the items in which pragmatic dynamics are most likely to have a significant effect, examination of how Gricean maxims might affect the answers given to the items identified, and assessment of whether the combined influence of linguistic context-sensitivity and pragmatic norms is benign. We found that the pragmatic dynamics of scalar implicatures are crucial to the interpretation of answer options but generally benign to its purpose. Regarding context, we raised concerns about the answer option ‘Ved ikke’ (Don’t know); rather than representing a neutral midpoint, the answer is compatible with both a positive and a negative answer option. Whereas scalar implicatures are helpful to the purpose of SF-36, other contextual effects appear to be more worrisome. However, since pragmatic norms of communication, semantic context-sensitivity, and attention to epistemic error possibilities can all be expected to shape answers to the SF-36, we think that all three factors belong in a description of how the questionnaire works.
      PubDate: 2022-02-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s10742-022-00272-0
       
  • Does balancing site characteristics result in balanced population
           characteristics in a cluster-randomized controlled trial'

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      Abstract: Background Intervention trials with nested designs seek to balance sites randomized regarding key site characteristics. Among the goals of such site-level balancing is to accrue patient-level equivalence among treatment arms. We investigated patient-level equivalence in a cluster randomized controlled trial, which balanced study waves on site-level characteristics. Methods The Behavioral Health Interdisciplinary Program—Collaborative Chronic Care Model project utilized a stepped wedge design to stagger implementation of an evidence-based team-oriented mental health patient management system at 9 Veteran Affairs Medical Centers. Study sites were balanced on eight site-level characteristics over time (3 balanced waves [consecutive time periods] with 3 sites per wave) to minimize trend. Sites were balanced on selected site-level characteristics but not on patient-level variables. We explored internal differences in patient demographics across the three study waves. Eligible patients had at least two visits to a participating mental health clinic in the prior year and did not have a diagnosis of dementia (n = 5,596). Results We found modest but statistically significant inter-site differences in age, marital status, ethnicity, service-related disability, mental health hospitalizations, and selected diagnoses by study wave. Although many of the differences in patient demographics by study wave were statistically significant, only a few results were practically meaningful as measured by effect size. A bipolar diagnosis (49.0%, 21.0%, 17.0% in waves 1–3, respectively; Cramer’s V = 0.3124) and Hispanic ethnicity (2.9%, 29.6%, 2.0% in waves 1–3, respectively; Cramer’s V = 0.3949) resulted in differences that were considered a ‘moderate’ effect size. The number of patient characteristics that were both statistically and meaningfully different by study wave among all possible site assignments was comparable to the 34 most balanced site assignments identified in our balancing algorithm. Conclusions Using a balancing algorithm to reduce imbalance among site characteristics across time periods did not appear to negatively affect the balance of patient characteristics across sites over time. A site-level balancing algorithm that includes characteristics with a direct relationship to relevant patient-level factors may improve the overall balance across key elements of the study, and aide in the interpretation of results.
      PubDate: 2022-02-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s10742-022-00271-1
       
  • The Barkin Index of Maternal Functioning: an evaluation and foundations
           for a new parental functioning scale

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      Abstract: Abstract In some contexts, including those that involve community healthcare, the functional status of mothers who have infants is of particular interest. This status has been assessed with the Barkin Index of Maternal Functioning (BIMF), proposed by its developers as an improvement over preexisting scales. The present study comprises a description and evaluation of the BIMF, which is revealed to have a number of shortcomings. Solutions proposed to overcome these shortcomings result in a new scale, the Parenting-an-Infant Competence Scale (PICS). This new scale has the prospect of greater psychometric acceptability as well as wider clinical and research applicability.
      PubDate: 2022-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10742-022-00269-9
       
  • Using NVivoTM as a methodological tool for a literature review on nursing
           innovation: a step-by-step approach

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      Abstract: Purpose This paper describes a step-by-step process on how to conduct a literature review using a qualitative analysis approach in conducting a literature review using NVivo to drive the analysis and explore the state of nursing innovation. Data synthesis This manuscript makes a unique contribution highlighting the importance of a comprehensive literature review following conceptual and methodological guidance. Previous literature on the literature review process usually describes the process quickly and without a specific step by step process. This manuscript describes a six-step process to conduct a literature review using a qualitative analytical program. The researcher selects the scope and establishes a search strategy, determines and applies the criteria for the selection process, selects the qualitative software, imports the data, extracts and codes the data, and analyzes it. Conclusion Qualitative research applications, such as NVivo, support nurses’ literature review process by improving rigor and reproducibility. The tools within the applications help better organize the literature, enhance transparency to the analytical process, and provide tools to visualize the data to improve the review’s overall quality. Having the steps documented and organized allows better collaboration between various researchers.
      PubDate: 2022-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10742-022-00270-2
       
 
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