Subjects -> BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS (Total: 3541 journals)
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    - CONSUMER EDUCATION AND PROTECTION (20 journals)
    - COOPERATIVES (4 journals)
    - ECONOMIC SCIENCES: GENERAL (212 journals)
    - ECONOMIC SYSTEMS, THEORIES AND HISTORY (235 journals)
    - FASHION AND CONSUMER TRENDS (20 journals)
    - HUMAN RESOURCES (103 journals)
    - INSURANCE (26 journals)
    - INTERNATIONAL COMMERCE (145 journals)
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    - INVESTMENTS (22 journals)
    - LABOR AND INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS (61 journals)
    - MACROECONOMICS (17 journals)
    - MANAGEMENT (595 journals)
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    - MICROECONOMICS (23 journals)
    - PRODUCTION OF GOODS AND SERVICES (143 journals)
    - PUBLIC FINANCE, TAXATION (37 journals)
    - TRADE AND INDUSTRIAL DIRECTORIES (2 journals)

MANAGEMENT (595 journals)                  1 2 3 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 585 Journals sorted alphabetically
360 : Revista de Ciencias de la Gestión     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Academia Revista Latinoamericana de Administración     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Academy of Management Annals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 82)
Academy of Management Discoveries     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
Academy of Management Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 300)
Academy of Management Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 60)
Academy of Management Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 269)
Academy of Strategic Management Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
Administrative Science Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 157)
Advances in Management and Applied Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Africa Journal of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Economic and Management Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Al Tijarah     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Business and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 51)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
American Journal of Mathematical and Management Sciences     Hybrid Journal  
American Journal of Operational Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aquaculture Economics & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Asia Pacific Journal of Innovation and Entrepreneurship     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asia Pacific Journal of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Asia Pacific Management Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Management Research and Innovation     Full-text available via subscription  
Asian Business & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Asian Journal of Management Cases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Asian Journal of Management Science and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Social Sciences and Management Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Asian Journal of Technology Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal on Quality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Australasian Law Management Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australasian Leisure Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Journal of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Baltic Journal of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
BMC Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Board Leadership     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Brigham Young University International Law and Management Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
British Journal of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53)
BRQ Business Review Quarterly     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Building & Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Built Environment Project and Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Bulletin of Kyiv National University of Culture and Arts. Series in Management of Social and Cultural Activity     Open Access  
Business and Management Horizons     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Business and Management Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Business Management Analysis Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Business Management and Strategy     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
Business Perspectives and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Business Process Management Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
California Management Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Canadian Journal of Program Evaluation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Studies in Business and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Studies in Sport Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Central European Management Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chinese Management Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Ciencias Administrativas     Open Access  
Coaching : Theorie & Praxis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cogent Business & Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Collection Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Computational Management Science     Hybrid Journal  
Conference Quality Production Improvement     Open Access  
Construction Innovation: Information, Process, Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Construction Management and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Contabilidade, Gestão e Governança     Open Access  
Contaduría y Administración     Open Access  
Controlling & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Controlling & Management Review : Zeitschrift für Controlling und Management     Full-text available via subscription  
Corporate Board : Role, Duties and Composition     Open Access  
Corporate Governance and Organizational Behavior Review     Open Access  
Corporate Governance and Sustainability Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Corporate Ownership and Control     Open Access  
Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Creativity and Innovation Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54)
Cross Cultural & Strategic Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Dalhousie Journal of Interdisciplinary Management     Open Access  
Data and Information Management     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Decision : Official Journal of Indian Institute of Management Calcutta     Hybrid Journal  
Decision Analytics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Decision Analytics Journal     Open Access  
Desenvolve : Revista de Gestão do Unilasalle     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Development Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Dirāsāt : Jurnal Manajemen dan Pendidikan Islam     Open Access  
Disaster Prevention and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Ecological Management & Restoration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Economic Management Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Economics, Management, and Financial Markets     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Educational Management and Innovation Journal     Open Access  
Ekonomia i Zarzadzanie. Economics and Management     Open Access  
Electronic Government, an International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Engineering Management Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Engineering Management Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Engineering Project Organization Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Entrepreneurship Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Environmental Management     Open Access   (Followers: 54)
Environmental Quality Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Estudios Gerenciales     Open Access  
EuroMed Journal of Management     Hybrid Journal  
European Financial Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
European Journal of Business and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
European Journal of Cross-Cultural Competence and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
European Journal of Innovation Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
European Journal of Management Issues     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Management Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
European Management Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
European Sport Management Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Expert Journal of Business and Management     Open Access  
Financial Internet Quarterly     Open Access  
Fokus Bisnis : Media Pengkajian Manajemen dan Akuntansi     Open Access  
Foundations and Trends® in Technology, Information and Operations Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Foundations of Management     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Fundamental Management Journal     Open Access  
Future Business Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Future Studies Research Journal : Trends and Strategies     Open Access  
GECONTEC : Revista Internacional de Gestión del Conocimiento y la Tecnología     Open Access  
Gender in Management : An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Gestión en el Tercer Milenio     Open Access  
Global Strategy Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Group & Organization Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Health Care Management Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Health Services Management Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Human Factors : The Journal of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35)
Human Resource Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 73)
Human Resource Management International Digest     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Human Resource Management Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 71)
Human Resource Management Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
ICU Director     Hybrid Journal  
IEEE Engineering Management Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 118)
IIMB Management Review     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
IMA Journal of Management Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Impact Assessment and Project Appraisal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Independent Journal of Management & Production     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian Journal of Corporate Governance     Full-text available via subscription  
Industrial Management & Data Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Industrial Marketing Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Information Resources Management Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Information Systems Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Information Technology and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Innovation & Management Review     Open Access  
Innovation: Management, Policy & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
INOVATOR : Jurnal Manajemen     Open Access  
Intelligent Information Management     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intelligent Systems in Accounting, Finance & Management: International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal for Quality Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Advances in Management Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Agile Systems and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Applied Management and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Applied Management Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Aviation Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Business Administration and Management Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Business and Data Analytics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Business and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Business Continuity and Risk Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
International Journal of Business Performance Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Business Process Integration and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Business Science and Applied Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Commerce and Management     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Comparative Management     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Complexity in Leadership and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
International Journal of Conceptual Structures and Smart Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Conflict Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Construction Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Corporate Strategy and Social Responsibility     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Cross Cultural Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Decision Sciences, Risk and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Decision Support Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Disaster Risk Science     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Educational Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Electronic Customer Relationship Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Electronic Governance     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Emergency Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Energy Sector Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Engineering Business Management     Open Access  
International Journal of Engineering Management and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Enterprise Network Management     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
International Journal of Environment and Waste Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Environmental Technology and Management     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Event and Festival Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Financial Services Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Forensic Engineering and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Global Business and Competitiveness     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Hospitality and Event Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Hospitality Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Human Resource Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
International Journal of Human Resources Development and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
International Journal of Indian Culture and Business Management     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Information and Operations Management Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Information Systems and Change Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Information Systems and Project Management     Free   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Information Technology Project Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Innovation and Technology Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Innovation Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Integrated Supply Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Intercultural Information Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Internet and Enterprise Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Knowledge Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Knowledge Management Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
International Journal of Knowledge-Based Organizations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)

        1 2 3 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Human Factors : The Journal of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.37
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 35  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 0018-7208 - ISSN (Online) 1547-8181
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1174 journals]
  • Driver Visual Attention Before and After Take-Over Requests During
           Automated Driving on Public Roads

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      Authors: Linda Pipkorn, Marco Dozza, Emma Tivesten
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThis study aims to understand drivers’ visual attention before and after take-over requests during automated driving (AD), when the vehicle is fully responsible for the driving task on public roads.BackgroundExisting research on transitions of control from AD to manual driving has mainly focused on take-over times. Despite its relevance for vehicle safety, drivers’ visual attention has received little consideration.MethodThirty participants took part in a Wizard of Oz study on public roads. Drivers’ visual attention was analyzed before and after four take-over requests. Visual attention during manual driving was also recorded to serve as a baseline for comparison.ResultsDuring AD, the participants showed reduced visual attention to the forward road and increased duration of single off-road glances compared to manual driving. In response to take-over requests, the participants looked away from the forward road toward the instrument cluster. Levels of visual attention towards the forward road did not return to the levels observed during manual driving until after 15 s had passed.ConclusionDuring AD, drivers may look toward non-driving related task items (e.g., mobile phone) instead of forward. Further, when a transition of control is required, drivers may take over control before they are aware of the driving environment or potential threat(s). Thus, it cannot be assumed that drivers are ready to respond to events shortly after the take-over request.ApplicationIt is important to consider the effect of the design of take-over requests on drivers’ visual attention alongside take-over times.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2022-06-16T11:45:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00187208221093863
       
  • Trust in Shared-Space Collaborative Robots: Shedding Light on the Human
           Brain

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      Authors: Sarah K. Hopko, Ranjana K. Mehta
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      BackgroundIndustry 4.0 is currently underway allowing for improved manufacturing processes that leverage the collective advantages of human and robot agents. Consideration of trust can improve the quality and safety in such shared-space human-robot collaboration environments.ObjectiveThe use of physiological response to monitor and understand trust is currently limited due to a lack of knowledge on physiological indicators of trust. This study examines neural responses to trust within a shared-workcell human-robot collaboration task as well as discusses the use of granular and multimodal perspectives to study trust.MethodsSixteen sex-balanced participants completed a surface finishing task in collaboration with a UR10 collaborative robot. All participants underwent robot reliability conditions and robot assistance level conditions. Brain activation and connectivity using functional near infrared spectroscopy, subjective responses, and performance were measured throughout the study.ResultsSignificantly, increased neural activation was observed in response to faulty robot behavior within the medial and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC). A similar trend was observed for the anterior PFC, primary motor cortex, and primary visual cortex. Faulty robot behavior also resulted in reduced functional connectivity strengths throughout the brain.DiscussionThese findings implicate regions in the prefrontal cortex along with specific connectivity patterns as signifiers of distrusting conditions. The neural response may be indicative of how trust is influenced, measured, and manifested for human-robot collaboration that requires active teaming.ApplicationNeuroergonomic response metrics can reveal new perspectives on trust in automation that subjective responses alone are not able to provide.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2022-06-16T08:33:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00187208221109039
       
  • The Effect of Safety Claims on Consumer Chemical Product Perceptions and
           the Role of Warnings

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      Authors: Soyun Kim
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveTo assess the effect of safety claims and warnings on perceptions of consumer chemical products.BackgroundManufacturers have two contradictory objectives: to increase sales by emphasizing the positive aspects of a product and to protect consumers from hazards of the product. One of the strategies that some manufactures have devised to achieve these goals is to use anti-warnings. Safety claims placed on consumer chemical products were examined to determine if anti-warnings influenced product perceptions.MethodTwo experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1, three consumer chemical products with manipulated safety claims were presented to 300 participants, who completed a survey to rate their perceptions of the products. In Experiment 2, the same products with the safety claims and added warnings were presented to 600 participants and were rated using the same measurements as Experiment 1.ResultsSafety claims on product labels decreased perceived hazards compared to no safety claims on products in both Experiments 1 and 2. In Experiment 2, added warnings raised the perceived hazards.ConclusionThe use of safety claims on consumer chemical products had an effect on product perceptions by decreasing hazard perceptions. The addition of strong warnings on product labels mitigated this effect.ApplicationThis research provides empirical evidence suggesting that the use of safety claims decreased hazard perceptions of potentially hazardous consumer chemical products and can serve as a possible form of anti-warnings.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2022-06-13T09:49:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00187208221107721
       
  • Team Cognition in Handoffs: Relating System Factors, Team Cognition
           Functions and Outcomes in Two Handoff Processes

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      Authors: Abigail R. Wooldridge, Pascale Carayon, Peter Hoonakker, Bat-Zion Hose, David W. Shaffer, Tom Brazelton, Ben Eithun, Deborah Rusy, Joshua Ross, Jonathan Kohler, Michelle M. Kelly, Scott Springman, Ayse P. Gurses
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThis study investigates how team cognition occurs in care transitions from operating room (OR) to intensive care unit (ICU). We then seek to understand how the sociotechnical system and team cognition are related.BackgroundEffective handoffs are critical to ensuring patient safety and have been the subject of many improvement efforts. However, the types of team-level cognitive processing during handoffs have not been explored, nor is it clear how the sociotechnical system shapes team cognition.MethodWe conducted this study in an academic, Level 1 trauma center in the Midwestern United States. Twenty-eight physicians (surgery, anesthesia, pediatric critical care) and nurses (OR, ICU) participated in semi-structured interviews. We performed qualitative content analysis and epistemic network analysis to understand the relationships between system factors, team cognition in handoffs and outcomes.ResultsParticipants described three team cognition functions in handoffs—(1) information exchange, (2) assessment, and (3) planning and decision making; information exchange was mentioned most. Work system factors influenced team cognition. Inter-professional handoffs facilitated information exchange but included large teams with diverse backgrounds communicating, which can be inefficient. Intra-professional handoffs decreased team size and role diversity, which may simplify communication but increase information loss. Participants in inter-professional handoffs reflected on outcomes significantly more in relation to system factors and team cognition (p < 0.001), while participants in intra-professional handoffs discussed handoffs as a task.ConclusionHandoffs include team cognition, which was influenced by work system design. Opportunities for handoff improvement include a flexibly standardized process and supportive tools/technologies. We recommend incorporating perspectives of the patient and family in future work.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2022-06-06T03:28:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00187208221086342
       
  • Exploring Optimal Objective Function Weightings to Predict Lifting
           Postures Under Unfatigued and Fatigued States

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      Authors: Justin B. Davidson, Joshua G. A. Cashaback, Steven L. Fischer
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveTo explore whether the optimal objective function weightings change when using a digital human model (DHM) to predict origin and destination lifting postures under unfatigued and fatigued states.BackgroundThe ability to predict human postures can depend on state-based influences (e.g., fatigue). Altering objective function weightings within a predictive DHM could improve the ability to predict tasks specific lifting postures under unique fatigue states.MethodA multi-objective optimization-based DHM was used to predict origin and destination lifting postures for ten anthropometrically scaled avatars by using different objective functions weighting combinations. Predicted and measured postures were compared to determine the root mean squared error. A response surface methodology was used to identify the optimal objective function weightings, which was found by generating the posture that minimized error between measured and predicted lifting postures. The resultant weightings were compared to determine if the optimal objective function weightings changed for different lifting postures or fatigue states.ResultsDiscomfort and total joint torque weightings were affected by posture (origin/destination) and fatigue state (unfatigued/fatigued); however, post-hoc differences between fatigue states and lifting postures were not sufficiently large to be detected. Weighting the discomfort objective function alone tended to predict postures that generalized well to both postures and fatigue states.ConclusionLift postures were optimal predicted using the minimization of discomfort objective function regardless of fatigue state.ApplicationWeighting the discomfort objective can predict unfatigued postures, but more research is needed to understand the optimal objective function weightings to predict postures during a fatigued state.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2022-06-02T10:02:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00187208221096928
       
  • Orientation Comes First: Becoming Aware of Spatial Disorientation
           Interferes with Cognitive Performance

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      Authors: Annemarie Landman, Dimitrios Kalogeras, Mark Houben, Eric L. Groen
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      BackgroundPrevious research has shown that experiencing motion stimuli negatively impacts cognitive performance.ObjectiveIn the current study, we investigate whether this impact relates to Type-II spatial disorientation (SD), to motion stimulus magnitude, or to an interaction of these factors.MethodStimuli for participants (n = 23) consisted of Earth-vertical yaw rotations on a rotating chair in a completely darkened room. In the surprise condition, the stimulus started with subthreshold acceleration, followed by suprathreshold deceleration to a non-zero velocity, inducing a sensation of rotation that is opposite to the actual rotation revealed when the lights were switched on. In the no-surprise condition, the same changes in velocity were used, but starting from (almost) zero velocity, which induced a sensation of rotation in the same direction as the actual rotation. Participants performed a self-paced arithmetic task and measurement of their cognitive performance started after the environment was revealed. Stimulus magnitude was operationalized through higher or lower peak suprathreshold deceleration.ResultsThe results revealed that counting speed decreased significantly when participants were surprised, constituting a large effect size. The proportion of counting errors likewise increased significantly when participants were surprised, but only in the high-magnitude condition.ApplicationThe findings suggest that surprise caused by the recognition of SD has an involuntary disruptive effect on cognition, which may impact performance of piloting tasks. These results are relevant when modeling motion stimuli effects on performance, and when developing SD awareness training for pilots.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2022-06-01T04:12:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00187208221103931
       
  • Simulated Acute Hypobaric Hypoxia Effects on Cognition in Helicopter
           Emergency Medical Service Personnel – A Randomized, Controlled,
           Single-Blind, Crossover Trial

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      Authors: Marika Falla, Katharina Hüfner, Markus Falk, Elisabeth M. Weiss, Anna Vögele, Michiel Jan van Veelen, Bernhard Weber, Jonas Brandner, Martin Palma, Alexander Dejaco, Hermann Brugger, Giacomo Strapazzon
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveTo evaluate, under replicable, blinded and standardised conditions, the effect of acute exposure to hypobaric hypoxia (HH) (equivalent to 200 or 3000 or 5000 m above sea level (asl)) on selected cognitive domains and physiological parameters in personnel of helicopter emergency medical service (HEMS).MethodsWe conducted a randomized clinical trial using a single-blind crossover design in an environmental chamber (terraXcube) to induce HH in 48 HEMS personnel. Participants performed cognitive tests (CT) before the ascent, after 5 min at altitude, and after simulated cardiopulmonary resuscitation (SCR). CT evaluated: sustained attention using the psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) that included measurement of reaction time (RT); risky decision making using the balloon analogue risk task (BART), and attention and speed of processing using the digit symbol substitution test (DSST). CT performance was subjectively rated with a visual analogue scale (VAS). Physiological data were recorded with a physiological monitoring system. Data were analysed using a linear mixed model and correlation analysis.ResultsMean reaction time was significantly slower (p = 0.002) at HH (5000 m asl), but there were no independent effects of HH on the other parameters of the PVT, BART or DSST. Participants did not detect subjectively the slower RT at altitude since VAS performance results showed a positive correlation with mean RT (p = 0.009). DSST results significantly improved (p = 0.001) after SCR.ConclusionAcute exposure of HEMS personnel to HH induced a slower RT but no changes in any other investigated measures of cognition. The reduced RT was not detected subjectively by the participants. Trial number 3489044136, ClinicalTrials.gov trial registration.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2022-05-31T10:50:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00187208221086407
       
  • The Effect of Lane Direction Pavement Markings on Driving Performance and
           Safety: A Driving Simulator Study

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      Authors: Hadas Marciano
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveA driving simulator study was conducted to test the effect of directions pavement markings (DPMs) on drivers’ performance.BackgroundThe perception of traditional direction signs may be less efficient than that of DPMs because drivers allocate more attentional resources to the road than to any other location.MethodTwo experimental conditions of DPMs were tested: (a) the name of the lane’s destination town, inscribed in white letters; (b) red and white shields enclosing the name of the lane’s destination town. In both conditions, the name or shield was preceded by a white arrow and traditional road signs were presented as well. The experimental conditions were compared to a baseline condition, which consisted of traditional road signs only. Various scenarios of three-lane highways were simulated and the number of vehicles on the road was manipulated, forming a 2 × 3 design (two load conditions × three experimental conditions). Twenty-two participants took part in the experiment.ResultsPavement markings in both configurations were highly beneficial. Compared with the baseline condition, in both experimental conditions, the drivers noticed the correct lane sooner and moved to the correct lane earlier. Results also suggested that white markings are more beneficial than shield markings; however, this finding should be further confirmed.ConclusionLane DPMS are desirable as they are likely to improve traffic safety at relatively low cost.ApplicationRegulations demanding the presence of DPMs, at the very least in low visibility decision sites, would increase traffic safety.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2022-05-30T04:23:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00187208221099137
       
  • Effects of Augmented Reality-, Virtual Reality-, and Mixed Reality–Based
           Training on Objective Performance Measures and Subjective Evaluations in
           Manual Assembly Tasks: A Scoping Review

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      Authors: Lea M. Daling, Sabine J. Schlittmeier
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThe present scoping review aims to transform the diverse field of research on the effects of mixed reality-based training on performance in manual assembly tasks into comprehensive statements about industrial needs for and effects of mixed reality-based training.BackgroundTechnologies such as augmented and virtual reality, referred to as mixed reality, are seen as promising media for training manual assembly tasks. Nevertheless, current literature shows partly contradictory results, which is due to the diversity of the hardware used, manual assembly tasks as well as methodological approaches to investigate the effects of mixed reality-based training.MethodFollowing the methodological approach of a scoping review, we selected 24 articles according to predefined criteria and analyzed them concerning five key aspects: (1) the needs in the industry for mixed reality-based training, (2) the actual use and classification of mixed reality technologies, (3) defined measures for evaluating the outcomes of mixed reality-based training, (4) findings on objectively measured performance and subjective evaluations, as well as (5) identified research gaps.ResultsRegarding the improvement of performance and effectiveness through mixed reality-based training, promising results were found particularly for augmented reality-based training, while virtual reality-based training is mostly—but not consistently—as good as traditional training.ApplicationMixed reality-based training is still not consistently better, but mostly at least as good as traditional training. However, depending on the use case and technology used, the training outcomes in terms of assembly performance and subjective evaluations show promising results of mixed reality-based training.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2022-05-28T05:57:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00187208221105135
       
  • Driver Vigilance Decrement is More Severe During Automated Driving than
           Manual Driving

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      Authors: Eric T. Greenlee, Patricia R. DeLucia, David C. Newton
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThe present study compared the performance, workload, and stress associated with driver vigilance in two types of vehicle: a traditional, manually operated vehicle, and a partially automated vehicle.BackgroundDrivers of partially automated vehicles must monitor for hazards that constitute automation failures and the need for human intervention, but recent research indicates that a driver’s ability to do so declines as a function of time. That research lacked a comparison measure of driving without vehicle automation, so it is unknown to what degree these effects are specific symptoms of monitoring the roadway during an automated drive. Drivers in manual control of their vehicle must similarly monitor for hazards and may suffer similar vigilance decrements.MethodParticipants completed a simulated 40-minute drive while monitoring for hazards. Half of participants completed the drive with an automated driving system that maintained speed and lane position; the remaining half manually controlled the vehicle’s speed and lane position.ResultsDriver sensitivity to hazards decreased and tendency to make false alarms increased over time in the automated control condition, but not in the manual control condition. Drivers in both conditions detected fewer hazards as the drive progressed. Ratings of workload and task-induced stress were elevated similarly in both conditions.ConclusionPartially automated driving appears to uniquely impair driver vigilance by reducing the ability to discriminate between benign and dangerous events in the driving environment as the drive progresses.ApplicationApplied interventions should target improvements in driver sensitivity to hazardous situations that signal potential automation failures.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2022-05-28T04:48:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00187208221103922
       
  • The effect of an occlusion-induced delay on braking behavior in critical
           situations: A driving simulator study

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      Authors: Joost C F de Winter, Mehdi Saffarian, John W Senders
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveTo share results of an experiment that used visual occlusion for a new purpose: inducing a waiting time.BackgroundSenders was a leading figure in human factors. In his research on the visual demands of driving, he used occlusion techniques.MethodsIn a simulator experiment, we examined how drivers brake for different levels of urgency and different visual conditions. In three blocks (1 = brake lights, 2 = no brake lights, 3 = occlusion), drivers followed a vehicle at 13.4 or 33.4 m distance. At certain moments, the lead vehicle decelerated moderately (1.7 m/s2) or strongly (6.5 m/s2). In the occlusion condition, the screens blanked for 0.4 s (if 6.5 m/s2) or 2.0 s (if 1.7 m/s2) when the lead vehicle started to decelerate. Participants were instructed to brake only after the occlusion ended.ResultsThe lack of brake lights caused a delayed response. In the occlusion condition, drivers adapted to the instructed late braking by braking harder. However, adaptation was not always possible: In the most urgent condition, most participants collided with the lead vehicle because the ego-vehicle’s deceleration limits were reached. In non-urgent conditions, some drivers braked unnecessarily hard. Furthermore, while waiting until the occlusion cleared, some drivers lightly touched the brake pedal.ConclusionThis experimental design demonstrates how drivers (sometimes fail to) adjust their braking behavior to the criticality of the situation.ApplicationThe phenomena of biomechanical readiness and (inappropriate) dosing of the brake pedal may be relevant to safety, traffic flow, and ADAS design.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2022-05-27T08:50:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00187208221101301
       
  • Objective Nontechnical Skills Measurement Using Sensor-based Behavior
           Metrics in Surgical Teams

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      Authors: Jackie S. Cha, Dimitrios I. Athanasiadis, Yuhao Peng, David Wu, Nicholas E. Anton, Dimitrios Stefanidis, Denny Yu
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThe purpose of this study was to identify objective measures that predict surgeon nontechnical skills (NTS) during surgery.BackgroundNTS are cognitive and social skills that impact operative performance and patient outcomes. Current methods for NTS assessment in surgery rely on observation-based tools to rate intraoperative behavior. These tools are resource intensive (e.g., time for observation or manual labeling) to perform; therefore, more efficient approaches are needed.MethodThirty-four robotic-assisted surgeries were observed. Proximity sensors were placed on the surgical team and voice recorders were placed on the surgeon. Surgeon NTS was assessed by trained observers using the NonTechnical Skills for Surgeons (NOTSS) tool. NTS behavior metrics from the sensors included communication, speech, and proximity features. The metrics were used to develop mixed effect models to predict NOTSS score and in machine learning classifiers to distinguish between exemplar NTS scores (highest NOTSS score) and non-exemplar scores.ResultsNTS metrics were collected from 16 nurses, 12 assistants, 11 anesthesiologists, and four surgeons. Nineteen behavior features and overall NOTSS score were significantly correlated (12 communication features, two speech features, five proximity features). The random forest classifier achieved the highest accuracy of 70% (80% F1 score) to predict exemplar NTS score.ConclusionSensor-based measures of communication, speech, and proximity can potentially predict NOTSS scores of surgeons during robotic-assisted surgery. These sensing-based approaches can be utilized for further reducing resource costs of NTS and team performance assessment in surgical environments.ApplicationSensor-based assessment of operative teams’ behaviors can lead to objective, real-time NTS measurement.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2022-05-25T05:22:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00187208221101292
       
  • Effects of Long-duration Microgravity and Gravitational Transitions on
           Fine Motor Skills

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      Authors: Kritina Holden, Maya Greene, E. Vincent, Anikó Sándor, Shelby Thompson, Alan Feiveson, Brandin Munson
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveAssess the effects of long-duration microgravity and gravitational transitions on fine motor skills using a tablet-based test battery of four fine motor tasks: Pointing, Dragging, Shape Tracing, and Pinch-Rotate.BackgroundWhile there have been some studies on fine motor skills in microgravity, few have measured the fine motor skills that are core components of interaction with computer-based devices, and none have measured performance systematically, to include preflight, inflight, and postflight space mission time periods.MethodsSeven astronauts completed the Fine Motor Skills test battery 30–40 times before, during, and up to 30 days after standard duration International Space Station missions, while a matching set of seven ground-based control participants also completed the battery over a comparable period of time. Response time and accuracy were the primary outcome measures.ResultsRelative to controls, astronauts experienced fine motor skill decrements at gravitational transitions (first week on orbit, and first month post landing). No decrements were found inflight after the first week of adaptation.ConclusionGravitational transitions appear to negatively impact fine motor skills needed to operate small controls with accuracy, such as those on touchscreen interfaces. This raises concerns for future long-duration crewmembers who will land on a planetary surface and need to perform critical tasks accurately, such as configuring spacesuits, powering up a habitat, or teleoperating rovers.ApplicationResults from this study highlight the need for confirmatory research, and the possible need for countermeasure development. The Fine Motor Skills test battery may have application outside of NASA as a fine motor skills diagnostic screening, rehabilitation, or readiness-to-perform tool.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2022-05-25T01:00:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00187208221084486
       
  • Natural Scene Virtual Reality as a Behavioral Health Countermeasure in
           Isolated, Confined, and Extreme Environments: Three Isolated, Confined,
           Extreme Analog Case Studies

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      Authors: Allison Anderson, Aleksandra Stankovic, Devin Cowan, Abigail Fellows, Jay Buckey
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      IntroductionIsolated, confined, extreme (ICE) environments are accompanied by a host of stress-inducing circumstances: operational pressure, interpersonal dynamics, limited communication with friends and family, and environmental hazards. We evaluated the effectiveness of attention-restoration-therapy-based immersive Virtual Reality (VR) in three ICE environments: the Canadian Forces Station—Alert (CFS Alert), the 12-month HI-SEAS IV expedition, and the 8-month HI-SEAS V expedition.MethodsThirty-one individuals (29 male, 2 female) at CFS Alert, and 12 total crewmembers (7 male, 5 female, six crewmembers per sessions) at HI-SEAS participated. All participants viewed immersive VR scenes, but scene content varied by deployment. Data collection included pre- and post-intervention surveys and semi-structured post-mission interviews. Survey data were analyzed by scene content within each analog using nonparametric approaches.ResultsAcceptability and desirability of the VR content varied significantly by ICE analog, as well as by participants within a given analog. The two initial exploratory protocols enabled a more directed study in HI-SEAS V to identify the importance of differences in scene content.DiscussionUse and perceived utility of the VR varied considerably across participants, indicating that psychological support needs to be individualized. Overall, natural scene VR was broadly considered restorative, but after long periods of isolation, dynamic and familiar scenes including those with people were also appealing. Immersive, nature-based VR was highly valued by some, but not all participants, suggesting that this intervention tool holds promise for use in ICE settings but needs to be tailored to the setting and individual.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2022-05-23T05:10:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00187208221100693
       
  • Knowing When to Pass: The Effect of AI Reliability in Risky Decision
           Contexts

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      Authors: Elder H, Rieger T, Canfield C, Shank D B, Casey Hines
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThis study manipulates the presence and reliability of AI recommendations for risky decisions to measure the effect on task performance, behavioral consequences of trust, and deviation from a probability matching collaborative decision-making model.BackgroundAlthough AI decision support improves performance, people tend to underutilize AI recommendations, particularly when outcomes are uncertain. As AI reliability increases, task performance improves, largely due to higher rates of compliance (following action recommendations) and reliance (following no-action recommendations).MethodsIn a between-subject design, participants were assigned to a high reliability AI, low reliability AI, or a control condition. Participants decided whether to bet that their team would win in a series of basketball games tying compensation to performance. We evaluated task performance (in accuracy and signal detection terms) and the behavioral consequences of trust (via compliance and reliance).ResultsAI recommendations improved task performance, had limited impact on risk-taking behavior, and were under-valued by participants. Accuracy, sensitivity (d’), and reliance increased in the high reliability AI condition, but there was no effect on response bias (c) or compliance. Participant behavior was only consistent with a probability matching model for compliance in the low reliability condition.ConclusionIn a pay-off structure that incentivized risk-taking, the primary value of the AI recommendations was in determining when to perform no action (i.e., pass on bets).ApplicationIn risky contexts, designers need to consider whether action or no-action recommendations will be more influential to design appropriate interventions.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2022-05-21T09:21:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00187208221100691
       
  • Erratum to “Calibration of Trust in Automated Driving: A Matter of
           Initial Level of Trust and Automated Driving Style'”

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      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2022-05-19T04:50:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00187208221079809
       
  • Modality Changes in Vigilance Displays: Further Evidence of Supramodal
           Resource Depletion in Vigilance

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      Authors: Eric T. Greenlee, Patricia R. DeLucia, Tiffany G. Lui
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThis study was designed to evaluate the effects of a modality change on vigilance performance to determine whether depletion of modality-specific resources contributes to the vigilance decrement.BackgroundResource theory accounts for the vigilance decrement by arguing that the demands of vigilance deplete limited information processing resources. Research indicates that both supramodal and modality-specific resources are involved in vigilance, but it is unclear whether the vigilance decrement is due to depletion of supramodal resources, modality-specific resources, or both. If depletion of modality-specific resources contributes to the decrement, changing the modality of a vigilance display should improve vigilance performance after a decrement.MethodParticipants completed a 50-min vigilance task beginning in either the visual modality or the auditory modality. After 40-min, half of the participants experienced a sudden transition to the other modality; the remaining participants did not experience a modality change.ResultsPerformance declined over time and was generally superior in the auditory modality. Changing modality from visual to auditory increased correct detections, whereas changing from auditory to visual decreased correct detections. Both types of modality change were associated with an increase in false alarms, and neither had an effect on workload or stress.ConclusionSupramodal resource depletion, rather than modality-specific resource depletion, is the most likely explanation for the vigilance decrement that can be derived from resource theory.ApplicationModality changes are not likely to counteract the vigilance decrement and may actually increase false alarm errors. Countermeasure development should involve identification of depleted supramodal resources.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2022-05-17T07:48:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00187208221099793
       
  • A Window Into the Tired Brain: Neurophysiological Dynamics of Visuospatial
           Working Memory Under Fatigue

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      Authors: Rohith Karthikeyan, Joshua Carrizales, Connor Johnson, Ranjana K. Mehta
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveWe examine the spatiotemporal dynamics of neural activity and its correlates in heart rate and its variability (HR/HRV) during a fatiguing visuospatial working memory task.BackgroundThe neural and physiological drivers of fatigue are complex, coupled, and poorly understood. Investigations that combine the fidelity of neural indices and the field-readiness of physiological measures can facilitate measurements of fatigue states in operational settings.MethodSixteen healthy adults, balanced by sex, completed a 60-minute fatiguing visuospatial working memory task. Changes in task performance, subjective measures of effort and fatigue, cerebral hemodynamics, and HR/HRV were analyzed. Peak brain activation, functional and effective connections within relevant brain networks were contrasted against spectral and temporal features of HR/HRV.ResultsTask performance elicited increased neural activation in regions responsible for maintaining working memory capacity. With the onset of time-on-task effects, resource utilization was seen to increase beyond task-relevant networks. Over time, functional connections in the prefrontal cortex were seen to weaken, with changes in the causal relationships between key regions known to drive working memory. HR/HRV indices were seen to closely follow activity in the prefrontal cortex.ConclusionThis investigation provided a window into the neurophysiological underpinnings of working memory under the time-on-task effect. HR/HRV was largely shown to mirror changes in cortical networks responsible for working memory, therefore supporting the possibility of unobtrusive state recognition under ecologically valid conditions.ApplicationsFindings here can inform the development of a fieldable index for cognitive fatigue.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2022-05-14T08:26:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00187208221094900
       
  • An Attentive Blank Stare Under Simulator-induced Spatial Disorientation
           Events

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      Authors: Agnieszka Fudali-Czyż, Rafał Lewkowicz, Piotr Francuz, Paweł Stróżak, Paweł Augustynowicz, Olaf Truszczyński, Bibianna Bałaj
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThis study investigated the effect of the spatial disorientation (SD) events on an attentive blank stare in the cockpit scene and demonstrated how much the flight task and visual delayed discrimination task were competing for the pilots’ attention.BackgroundSD in flight is the leading cause of human error-related aircraft accidents in the military, general and commercial aviation, and has been an unsolved problem since the inception of flight. In-flight safety research, visually scanning cockpit instruments, and detecting changes are critical countermeasures against SD.MethodThirty male military pilots were performing a dual task involving piloting a flight simulator and visual change detection, while eye movements were obtained using an eye tracker.ResultsPilots made more flight errors and spent less time gazing at the area of change in SD-conflict than in non-conflict flights. The vestibular origin SD-conflict led not only to deteriorated piloting and visual scanning but also to problems coordinating overt and covert attention, resulting in lower noticeability of visual changes despite gazing at them.ConclusionOur study shows that looking at a given area in space is not a sufficient condition for effective covert attention allocation and the correct response to a visual stimulus. It seems to be important to make pilots aware of this during SD training.ApplicationTo reduce change blindness, some strategies, such as reducing the number of secondary tasks is extremely valuable. Particular efforts should also be focused on improving the design of the aircraft cockpit by increasing the conspicuousness of critical information.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2022-05-14T03:50:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00187208221093827
       
  • Interactions in Sociotechnical Systems: Achieving Balance in the Use of an
           Augmented Reality Mobile Application

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      Authors: Abigail R. Wooldridge, John Morgan, Widya A. Ramadhani, Keith Hanson, Elsa Vazquez-Melendez, Harleena Kendhari, Nadia Shaikh, Teresa Riech, Matthew Mischler, Sara Krzyzaniak, Ginger Barton, Kyle T. Formella, Zachary R. Abbott, John N. Farmer, Rebecca Ebert-Allen, Trina Croland
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveWe explore relationships between barriers and facilitators experienced by users to understand dynamic interactions in sociotechnical systems and improve a mobile phone-based augmented reality application that teaches users about the contents of a standardized pediatric code cart.BackgroundUnderstanding interactions between performance obstacles and facilitators can provide guidance to (re)designing sociotechnical systems to improve system outcomes. Clinicians should know about contents and organization of code carts, and an augmented reality mobile application may improve that knowledge but changes the sociotechnical system in which they learn. Prior work identified barriers and facilitators impacting the use of this application—participants described dimensions together, indicating interactions that are explored in the current study.MethodWe conducted four focus groups (number of clinicians = 18) and two interviews with clinicians who used the application. We performed a secondary analysis of focus group data exploring interactions between previously identified barriers and facilitators to application use. We used epistemic network analysis to visualize these interactions.ResultsWork system barriers interacted with barriers and facilitators interacted with facilitators to amplify cumulative negative or positive impact, respectively. Facilitators balanced barriers, mitigating negative impact. Facilitators also exacerbated barriers, worsening negative impact.ConclusionBarriers and facilitators interact and can amplify, balance, and exacerbate each other—notably, positives are not always positive. To obtain desired outcomes, interactions must be further considered in sociotechnical system design, for example, the potential improvements to the application we identified.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2022-05-13T05:44:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00187208221093830
       
  • Older Adult Patients and Care Partners as Knowledge Brokers in Fragmented
           Health Care

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      Authors: Kathryn L. Wust, Pascale Carayon, Nicole E. Werner, Peter L. T. Hoonakker, Megan E. Salwei, Rachel Rutkowski, Hanna J. Barton, Paula v. W. Dail, Barbara King, Brian W. Patterson, Michael S. Pulia, Manish N. Shah, Maureen Smith
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveTo describe older adult patients’ and care partners’ knowledge broker roles during emergency department (ED) visits.BackgroundOlder adult patients are vulnerable to communication and coordination challenges during an ED visit, which can be exacerbated by the time and resource constrained ED environment. Yet, as a constant throughout the patient journey, patients and care partners can act as an information conduit, or knowledge broker, between fragmented care systems to attain high-quality, safe care.MethodsParticipants included 14 older adult patients ([math] 65 years old) and their care partners (e.g., spouse, adult child) who presented to the ED after having experienced a fall. Human factors researchers collected observation data from patients, care partners and clinician interactions during the patient’s ED visit. We used an inductive content analysis to determine the role of patients and care partners as knowledge brokers.ResultsWe found that patients and care partners act as knowledge brokers by providing information about diagnostic testing, medications, the patient’s health history, and care accommodations at the disposition location. Patients and care partners filled the role of knowledge broker proactively (i.e. offer information) and reactively (i.e. are asked to provide information by clinicians or staff), within-ED work system and across work systems (e.g., between the ED and hospital), and in anticipation of future knowledge brokering.ConclusionPatients and care partners, acting as knowledge brokers, often fill gaps in communication and participate in care coordination that assists in mitigating health care fragmentation.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2022-05-13T02:54:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00187208221092847
       
  • Manually Acquiring Targets From Multiple Viewpoints Using Video Feedback

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      Authors: Bailey Ramesh, Anna Konstant, Pragathi Praveena, Emmanuel Senft, Michael Gleicher, Bilge Mutlu, Michael Zinn, Robert G. Radwin
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThe effect of camera viewpoint was studied when performing visually obstructed psychomotor targeting tasks.BackgroundPrevious research in laparoscopy and robotic teleoperation found that complex perceptual-motor adaptations associated with misaligned viewpoints corresponded to degraded performance in manipulation. Because optimal camera positioning is often unavailable in restricted environments, alternative viewpoints that might mitigate performance effects are not obvious.MethodsA virtual keyboard-controlled targeting task was remotely distributed to workers of Amazon Mechanical Turk. The experiment was performed by 192 subjects for a static viewpoint with independent parameters of target direction, Fitts’ law index of difficulty, viewpoint azimuthal angle (AA), and viewpoint polar angle (PA). A dynamic viewpoint experiment was also performed by 112 subjects in which the viewpoint AA changed after every trial.ResultsAA and target direction had significant effects on performance for the static viewpoint experiment. Movement time and travel distance increased while AA increased until there was a discrete improvement in performance for 180°. Increasing AA from 225° to 315° linearly decreased movement time and distance. There were significant main effects of current AA and magnitude of transition for the dynamic viewpoint experiment. Orthogonal direction and no-change viewpoint transitions least affected performance.ConclusionsViewpoint selection should aim to minimize associated rotations within the manipulation plane when performing targeting tasks whether implementing a static or dynamic viewing solution. Because PA rotations had negligible performance effects, PA adjustments may extend the space of viable viewpoints.ApplicationsThese results can inform viewpoint selection for visual feedback during psychomotor tasks.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2022-05-12T11:38:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00187208221093829
       
  • Recovery of Cognitive Performance Following Multi-Stressor Military
           Training

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      Authors: Jamie L. Tait, Brad Aisbett, Sean L. Corrigan, Jace R. Drain, Luana C. Main
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThis project aimed to assess the impact of an 8-day military training exercise on cognitive performance, and track its recovery in periods of reduced training load and partially restored sleep.BackgroundMilitary personnel often work in challenging multi-stressor environments, where sleep loss is inevitable. Sleep loss can impair multiple cognitive domains, which can have disastrous consequences in military contexts.MethodA total of 57 male and female soldiers undergoing the Australian Army combat engineer Initial Employment Training course were recruited and tracked over a 16-day study period which included an 8-day field-based military training exercise. Cognitive performance was assessed via a computerised battery at seven time points across four sequential study periods; 1) baseline (PRE), 2) military field training exercise which included total sleep deprivation (EX-FIELD), 3) training exercise at simulated base with restricted sleep opportunities (EX-BASE), and 4) a 3-day recovery period (REC). Subjective load, fatigue, and sleep were evaluated continuously via questionnaire and actigraphy.ResultsPsychomotor speed, reaction time, visual tracking and vigilance were impaired following the EX-FIELD period (p < 0.05). The majority of affected measures recovered 2 days following EX-FIELD, being no different in EX-BASE compared to PRE.ConclusionThe sensitivity of the cognitive tests to sleep restriction, and recovery, indicates they can help assess operational readiness in military personnel. Future studies should explore other indicators of, and strategies to preserve, operational readiness in military personnel.ApplicationThis study highlights the impact of work-induced fatigue on cognitive performance, and would interest authorities seeking to preserve operational readiness.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2022-05-12T02:28:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00187208221086686
       
  • Quantifying Workload and Stress in Intensive Care Unit
           Nurses: Preliminary Evaluation Using Continuous Eye-Tracking

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      Authors: Nima Ahmadi, Farzan Sasangohar, Jing Yang, Denny Yu, Valerie Danesh, Steven Klahn, Faisal Masud
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      Objective(1) To assess mental workloads of intensive care unit (ICU) nurses in 12-hour working shifts (days and nights) using eye movement data; (2) to explore the impact of stress on the ocular metrics of nurses performing patient care in the ICU.BackgroundPrior studies have employed workload scoring systems or accelerometer data to assess ICU nurses’ workload. This is the first naturalistic attempt to explore nurses’ mental workload using eye movement data.MethodsTobii Pro Glasses 2 eye-tracking and Empatica E4 devices were used to collect eye movement and physiological data from 15 nurses during 12-hour shifts (252 observation hours). We used mixed-effect models and an ordinal regression model with a random effect to analyze the changes in eye movement metrics during high stress episodes.ResultsWhile the cadence and characteristics of nurse workload can vary between day shift and night shift, no significant difference in eye movement values was detected. However, eye movement metrics showed that the initial handoff period of nursing shifts has a higher mental workload compared with other times. Analysis of ocular metrics showed that stress is positively associated with an increase in number of eye fixations and gaze entropy, but negatively correlated with the duration of saccades and pupil diameter.ConclusionEye-tracking technology can be used to assess the temporal variation of stress and associated changes with mental workload in the ICU environment. A real-time system could be developed for monitoring stress and workload for intervention development.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2022-05-05T03:35:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00187208221085335
       
  • A Typology for the Application of Team Coordination Dynamics Across
           Increasing Levels of Dynamic Complexity

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      Authors: Jamie C. Gorman, Travis J. Wiltshire
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThis review and synthesis examines approaches for measuring and assessing team coordination dynamics (TCD). The authors advance a system typology for classifying TCD approaches and their applications for increasing levels of dynamic complexity.BackgroundThere is an increasing focus on how teams adapt their coordination in response to changing and uncertain operational conditions. Understanding coordination is significant because poor coordination is associated with maladaptive responses, whereas adaptive coordination is associated with effective responses. This issue has been met with TCD approaches that handle increasing complexity in the types of TCD teams exhibit.MethodA three-level system typology of TCD approaches for increasing dynamic complexity is provided, with examples of research at each level. For System I TCD, team states converge toward a stable, fixed-point attractor. For System II TCD, team states are periodic, which can appear complex, yet are regular and relatively stable. In System III TCD, teams can exhibit periodic patterns, but those patterns change continuously to maintain effectiveness.ResultsSystem I and System II are applicable to TCD with known or discoverable behavioral attractors that are stationary across mid-to long-range timescales. System III TCD is the most generalizable to dynamic environments with high requirements for adaptive coordination across a range of timescales.ConclusionWe outline current challenges for TCD and next steps in this burgeoning field of research.ApplicationSystem III approaches are becoming widespread, as they are generalizable to time- and/or scale-varying TCD and multimodal analyses. Recommendations for deploying TCD in team settings are provided.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2022-04-28T08:48:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00187208221085826
       
  • Perceived Discomfort, Neck Kinematics, and Muscular Activity During
           Smartphone Usage: A Comparative Study

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      Authors: Zahra Vahedi, Zeinab Kazemi, Ali Sharifnezhad, Adel Mazloumi
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThe present study aims to evaluate the effects of posture, task, and handgrip style on discomfort, neck kinematics, and concomitant muscular activity when using a smartphone (SP).BackgroundAlong with the popularity of smartphones, musculoskeletal disorders have become prevalent among smartphone users. However, comprehensive aspects of discomfort, kinematics, and electromyographic responses across various conditions remain to be investigated.MethodTwenty-four young smartphone users performed typing, video watching, and reading tasks while holding the smartphone both with one hand and with two hands while either sitting or standing. Neck kinematics and muscular activities were simultaneously recorded.ResultsWorking with SPs led to higher discomfort in the neck (p = 0.01), lower back (p = 0.01), and shoulder (p = 0.04) while sitting as compared to standing. Sitting was associated with greater neck flexion and more minor lateral bending for all tasks and grip styles (p < 0.05). Electromyographic analysis indicated significant differences between sitting and standing, with alterations being dependent on the test condition. Moreover, neck kinematics and muscular activities significantly differed based on the task nature, handgrip, and interactions.ConclusionThis study highlights the risk of using smartphones in increased neck angle flexion and muscular activities fatigue. Thus, posture and handgrip should be considered while using SPs. As each test condition affects a specific dependent variable, a holistic approach is required to evaluate the responses of SP users’ musculoskeletal systems.ApplicationResults can be applied to develop guidelines for musculoskeletal disorders/discomfort prevention among SP users, especially with the rise of smartphone use during the COVID-19 pandemic.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2022-04-28T03:13:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00187208221087760
       
  • Testing Senders’ Visual Occlusion Model: Do Operators (Drivers) Really
           Predict During Visual Occlusion'

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      Authors: Huei-Yen Winnie Chen, Paul Milgram
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThe present study tests the hypothesis that humans are capable of predicting the state of a system during visual occlusion, an assumption often made in models of sampling behaviour, but seldom tested.BackgroundIn 1967, John Senders introduced the visual occlusion paradigm to evaluate attentional demand of tasks such as automobile driving. Despite multiple studies employing this paradigm, the concept of operators actually being able to resolve uncertainty during occlusion by predicting system output has remained unvalidated.MethodA self-paced visual occlusion monitoring task was contrived, involving a randomly rotating basin with a ball at the bottom. Participants were required to detect critical events (ball falling off the edge) while looking only as often as subjectively deemed necessary. Assuming the need to resolve uncertainty imposed by the random rotations, we examined relations between occlusion durations and system states preceding occlusion, for different glance durations, to infer whether predicting may have taken place.ResultsResults suggested that glance requests were consistent with the use of simple first order predictions. This pertained not only for longer (300 and 500 ms) glances, but even for 100 ms glances whenever critical events were imminent.ConclusionThe presumption that human operators are capable, under certain circumstances, of predicting system state in the absence of visual information appears feasible; however, glance duration plays an important role.ApplicationsBy providing support for some of its basic premises, the use of Senders’ visual occlusion paradigm as a potential tool for evaluating human monitoring performance has been strengthened.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2022-04-28T03:11:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00187208221085828
       
  • Cervical Spine Motion Requirements From Night Vision Goggles May Play a
           Greater Role in Chronic Neck Pain than Helmet Mass Properties

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      Authors: Jeff M. Barrett, Laura A. Healey, Steven L. Fischer, Jack P. Callaghan
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      BackgroundChronic Neck Pain (CNP) among rotary-wing aircrew is thought to stem from night vision goggles (NVG) and counterweight (CW) systems which displace the centre of mass of the head. This investigation aimed to quantify the loads acting on the neck as a function of movement magnitude (MM), helmet conditions, and movement axes in rapid movements.MethodsCervical spine kinematics during rapid head repositioning tasks for flexion-extension (FE) and axial rotation (AR) movements were measured from 15 males and 15 females. Participants moved in either a 35° (Near MM) or 70° arc (Far MM), while donning a helmet, helmet with NVG, helmet with NVG and a typical CW, and a CW Liner (CWL). Measured EMG from three muscles bilaterally and used to drive a biomechanical model to quantify the compression and shear acting at the C5-C6 joint.ResultsIn AR, the NVGs were associated with the largest compression magnitudes, 252 (24) N. CW conditions decreased the maximum compression to 249 (53) N. For FE, the compression was 340 N for the Far MM trials and 246 N for Near MMs. Changing the helmet configuration only modestly influenced these magnitudes in FE.ConclusionEvery 30° of MM increased compression by 57 to 105 N. The reduction of the moment of inertia by 16% in the CWL did not reduce reaction forces. Joint loads scaled proportionately with head-supported weight by a factor of 2.05. The magnitudes of loads suggest a cumulative loading pathway for CNP development.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2022-04-27T06:30:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00187208221090689
       
  • Workarounds in the Shadow System: An Ethnographic Study of Requirements
           for Documentation and Cooperation in a Clinical Advisory Center

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      Authors: Frauke Mörike, Hannah L. Spiehl, Markus A. Feufel
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveHospital information systems (HIS) are meant to manage complex work processes across healthcare organizations. We describe limitations of HIS to address local information requirements and how they are circumvented at different organizational levels. Results can be used to better support collaboration in socio-technical systems.BackgroundWorkarounds describe a mismatch between a technology’s purpose and its actual use, whereas shadow systems are unofficial IT systems circumventing limitations of official systems to support workflows. Boundary infrastructures are conceptualized as the entirety of all (in)formal digital and analog systems connecting different communities of practice in a socio-technical system.MethodsAn ethnographic study with observations and semi-structured interviews was conducted and analyzed through categorization and iterative coding.ResultsSeveral digital-analog workarounds are employed for documentation and a shared server functions as a shadow system to support workflows in ways the HIS cannot. For collaborative documentation, all (official and informal) information sources were used simultaneously as part of an interconnected boundary infrastructure.ConclusionFormal and informal IT systems are interconnected across different organizational levels and provide insights into unmet information requirements, effective and problematic work practices, and how to address them to improve system functioning. An integrated perspective on boundary infrastructures, workarounds, and shadow systems may advance system analysis, providing a more comprehensive picture of IT requirements than any concept alone.ApplicationWorkarounds and shadow systems highlight that HIS should support systemic and local needs. Customized interfaces in HIS to support search, access, and exchange of relevant data might help to mitigate current shortcomings.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2022-04-26T05:37:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00187208221087013
       
  • Driver-Automated Vehicle Interaction in Mixed Traffic: Types of
           Interaction and Drivers’ Driving Styles

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      Authors: Zheng Ma, Yiqi Zhang
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThis study investigated drivers’ subjective feelings and decision making in mixed traffic by quantifying driver’s driving style and type of interaction.BackgroundHuman-driven vehicles (HVs) will share the road with automated vehicles (AVs) in mixed traffic. Previous studies focused on simulating the impacts of AVs on traffic flow, investigating car-following situations, and using simulation analysis lacking experimental tests of human drivers.MethodThirty-six drivers were classified into three driver groups (aggressive, moderate, and defensive drivers) and experienced HV-AV interaction and HV-HV interaction in a supervised web-based experiment. Drivers’ subjective feelings and decision making were collected via questionnaires.ResultsResults revealed that aggressive and moderate drivers felt significantly more anxious, less comfortable, and were more likely to behave aggressively in HV-AV interaction than in HV-HV interaction. Aggressive drivers were also more likely to take advantage of AVs on the road. In contrast, no such differences were found for defensive drivers indicating they were not significantly influenced by the type of vehicles with which they were interacting.ConclusionDriving style and type of interaction significantly influenced drivers’ subjective feelings and decision making in mixed traffic. This study brought insights into how human drivers perceive and interact with AVs and HVs on the road and how human drivers take advantage of AVs.ApplicationThis study provided a foundation for developing guidelines for mixed transportation systems to improve driver safety and user experience.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2022-04-26T01:20:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00187208221088358
       
  • Looking out or Looking Away'—Exploring the Impact of Driving With a
           Passenger on Young Drivers’ Eye Glance Behavior

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      Authors: Shashank Mehrotra, Fangda Zhang, Shannon C. Roberts
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveTo explore how passenger presence and the degree of association between young driver and passenger influences young drivers’ eye glance behavior when they are subjected to distraction.BackgroundYoung drivers (18–20 years old) are at an elevated crash risk when subjected to distraction. They are likely to be distracted even further when they drive with passengers. However, the eye glance behavior of these drivers when driving with passengers has not been explored.MethodEye glance data of 34 young drivers between the ages of 18 and 20 years were collected. Participants drove with and without a passenger while subjected to three distracting tasks (visual-manual, cognitive, or visual-cognitive) and driving scenarios that required driver attention.ResultsVisual-cognitive as well as visual-manual states of distraction result in higher mean and standard deviation of glance duration, along with higher number of glances away from road. Passenger presence is found to negatively influence young drivers’ eye glance behavior. The degree of association between the young driver and the passenger may help reduce the deviation of eye glances towards the task-related objects.ConclusionIn addition to distraction, passengers have a negative influence on the eye glance behavior of young drivers. However, a high degree of association between driver and passenger may mitigate the negative impact of distraction on the eye glance behavior of young drivers.Application (non-theoretical works)This research may aid in the design of interventions that improve young drivers’ eye glance behavior when they drive with their peers.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2022-04-24T05:45:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00187208221081209
       
  • Attention to Changes on a Head-Worn Display: Two Preclinical Studies with
           Healthcare Scenarios

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      Authors: Isaac S. Salisbury, Paul D. Schlosser, Tsz-Lok Tang, Caitlin Browning, Ismail Mohamed, Tobias Grundgeiger, Robert G. Loeb, Penelope M. Sanderson
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveIn two experiments, we examined how quickly different visual alerts on a head-worn display (HWD) would capture participants’ attention to a matrix of patient vital sign values, while multitasking.BackgroundAn HWD could help clinicians monitor multiple patients, regardless of where the clinician is located. We sought effective ways for HWDs to alert multitasking wearers to important events.MethodsIn two preclinical experiments, university student participants performed a visuomotor tracking task while simultaneously monitoring simulated patient vital signs on an HWD to detect abnormal values. Methods to attract attention to abnormal values included highlighting abnormal vital signs and imposing a white flash over the entire display.ResultsExperiment 1 found that participants detected abnormal values faster with high contrast than low contrast greyscale highlights, even while performing difficult tracking. In Experiment 2, a white flash of the entire screen quickly and reliably captured attention to vital signs, but less so on an HWD than on a conventional screen.ConclusionVisual alerts on HWDs can direct users’ attention to patient transition events (PTEs) even under high visual-perceptual load, but not as quickly as visual alerts on fixed displays. Aspects of the results have since been tested in a healthcare context.ApplicationPotential applications include informing the design of HWD interfaces for monitoring multiple processes and informing future research on capturing attention to HWDs.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2022-04-24T05:38:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00187208221075851
       
  • The Effect of Handrail Cross-Sectional Design and Age on the Speed and
           Quality of Reach-To-Grasp Reactions to Recover Balance

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      Authors: Philippa Gosine, Vicki Komisar, Alison C. Novak
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveTo determine the effect of handrail cross-section on the speed and quality of reach-to-grasp movements following balance loss in younger and older adults.BackgroundGrasping a handrail is a common strategy for balance recovery. For handrails to be effective, the design must enable fast and accurate reactive grasping. Little is known about the effect of handrail cross-section on the timing or quality of the reach-to-grasp movement following balance loss.MethodsTwenty-four younger and 16 older adults experienced incrementally increasing magnitudes of perturbations in the forward and backward direction until they were no longer able to recover balance. We analyzed the last trial where the participant could recover using only the handrail, without stepping or relying on the harness, the maximum withstood perturbation (MWP). Seven handrail cross-sections were tested.ResultsHandrail cross-section did not affect the speed or timing of the reach-to-grasp reaction for younger or older adults. However, handrail cross-section affected the MWP, the grip types used, and the likelihood of making an error or adjustment when grasping. The greatest MWP and fewest errors occurred with 1.5” round handrails.ConclusionThe absence of common strategies for accurately grasping complex shapes (reaching more slowly), combined with the higher frequency of errors with larger handrails, suggests that both older and younger adults prioritized quickly reaching the handrail over prehension during reach-to-grasp balance reactions.ApplicationThis work provides new insights on the effect of age and handrail cross-sectional design on reach-to-grasp reactions to recover balance, which can inform safer handrail design standards.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2022-04-24T04:44:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00187208221082439
       
  • Research Article in Revision for Human Factors Special Issue: Human
           Factors and Ergonomics in Space Exploration Crew Autonomy During Simulated
           Medical Event Management on Long Duration Space Exploration Missions

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      Authors: Steven Yule, Jamie M. Robertson, Benjamin Mormann, Douglas S. Smink, Stuart Lipsitz, Egide Abahuje, Lauren Kennedy-Metz, Sandra Park, Christian Miccile, Charles N. Pozner, Thomas Doyle, David Musson, Roger D. Dias
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveOur primary aim was to investigate crew performance during medical emergencies with and without ground-support from a flight surgeon located at mission control.BackgroundThere are gaps in knowledge regarding the potential for unanticipated in-flight medical events to affect crew health and capacity, and potentially compromise mission success. Additionally, ground support may be impaired or periodically absent during long duration missions.MethodWe reviewed video recordings of 16 three-person flight crews each managing four unique medical events in a fully immersive spacecraft simulator. Crews were randomized to two conditions: with and without telemedical flight surgeon (FS) support. We assessed differences in technical performance, behavioral skills, and cognitive load between groups.ResultsCrews with FS support performed better clinically, were rated higher on technical skills, and completed more clinical tasks from the medical checklists than crews without FS support. Crews with FS support also had better behavioral/non-technical skills (information exchange) and reported significantly lower cognitive demand during the medical event scenarios on the NASA-TLX scale, particularly in mental demand and temporal demand. There was no significant difference between groups in time to treat or in objective measures of cognitive demand derived from heart rate variability and electroencephalography.ConclusionMedical checklists are necessary but not sufficient to support high levels of autonomous crew performance in the absence of real-time flight surgeon supportApplicationPotential applications of this research include developing ground-based and in-flight training countermeasures; informing policy regarding autonomous spaceflight, and design of autonomous clinical decision support systems.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2022-04-16T08:45:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00187208211067575
       
  • Usability of a Human Factors-based Clinical Decision Support in the
           Emergency Department: Lessons Learned for Design and Implementation

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      Authors: Megan E. Salwei, Peter Hoonakker, Pascale Carayon, Douglas Wiegmann, Michael Pulia, Brian W. Patterson
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveTo evaluate the usability and use of human factors (HF)–based clinical decision support (CDS) implemented in the emergency department (ED).BackgroundClinical decision support can improve patient safety; however, the acceptance and use of CDS has faced challenges. Following a human-centered design process, we designed a CDS to support pulmonary embolism (PE) diagnosis in the ED. We demonstrated high usability of the CDS during scenario-based usability testing. We implemented the HF-based CDS in one ED in December 2018.MethodWe conducted a survey of ED physicians to evaluate the usability and use of the HF-based CDS. We distributed the survey via Qualtrics, a web-based survey platform. We compared the computer system usability questionnaire scores of the CDS between those collected in the usability testing to use of the CDS in the real environment. We asked physicians about their acceptance and use of the CDS, barriers to using the CDS, and areas for improvement.ResultsForty-seven physicians (56%) completed the survey. Physicians agreed that diagnosing PE is a major problem and risk scores can support the PE diagnostic process. Usability of the CDS was reported as high, both in the experimental setting and the real clinical setting. However, use of the CDS was low. We identified several barriers to the CDS use in the clinical environment, in particular a lack of workflow integration.ConclusionDesign of CDS should be a continuous process and focus on the technology’s usability in the context of the broad work system and clinician workflow.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2022-04-14T08:02:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00187208221078625
       
  • Facilitating the Work of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Operators Using
           Artificial Intelligence: An Intelligent Filter for Command-and-Control
           Maps to Reduce Cognitive Workload

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      Authors: Yuval Zak, Yisrael Parmet, Tal Oron-Gilad
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveEvaluating the ability of a Gibsonian-inspired artificial intelligence (AI) algorithm to reduce the cognitive workloads of military Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) operators.BackgroundMilitary UAV operators use the command-and-control (C2) map for developing mission-relevant situation awareness (SA). Yet C2 maps are overloaded with information, mostly irrelevant to the mission, causing operators to neglect the map altogether. To reduce irrelevant information, an intelligent filtering algorithm was developed. Here we evaluate its effectiveness in reducing operators’ cognitive workloads.MethodTwo-stage operational scenarios were conducted with professional ex-military UAV operators, using two filter protocols and a no-filter control. High-end real-time techniques were used to continuously assess workload from muscle behavior and machine learning models.ResultsLower cognitive workload was found when applying the algorithm’s protocols, especially when fatigue started to accumulate (Stage II). However, concerns about the quality of SA arose.ConclusionThe algorithm was positively evaluated for its ability to reduce operators’ cognitive workloads. More evaluations of operators’ SA are required.ApplicationThe algorithm demonstrates the possibility of integrating AI to improve human performance in complex systems, and can be applied to other domains where spatial-temporal information needs to be contextually filtered in real time.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2022-04-08T05:27:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00187208221081968
       
  • Negative Consequences of Pressure on Marksmanship May be Offset by Early
           Training Exposure to Contextually Relevant Threat Training: A Systematic
           Review and Meta-Analysis

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      Authors: Daniel Cooper, Joel Fuller, Mark W. Wiggins, Jodie A. Wills, Tim Doyle, Luana C. Main
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThe purpose of this meta-analytic review is to examine the relationship between increased psychological pressure and Use of Force (UOF) behaviours, identifying current training methodologies and effectiveness of transfer of training interventions in high threat-simulated scenarios.BackgroundData from UOF performance within Law Enforcement indicates a low transfer of marksmanship training into real-world UOF, resulting in unnecessary damage to property, personal injury and increased risk to loss of life. This meta-analysis examines both the impact of increased pressure and current training interventions.MethodA meta-analysis was conducted across a wide range of published research to answer the primary research questions.ResultsIncreased levels of perceived pressure demonstrated an average decrease in marksmanship accuracy of 14.8%, together with a small increase in incorrect Decision Making (DM) and faster reaction Times (RT). Experience demonstrated a mitigating effect for pressure for marksmanship with a 1.1% increase for every one year of service but no effect on DM or RT. Training interventions utilizing a variety of early contextually relevant exposures to increased pressure improved performance over traditional training on average by 10.6%.ConclusionThe outcomes illustrate the negative effect of pressure on marksmanship and UOF behaviours, and that early exposure to contextually relevant pressure may increase the transfer of training to real-world performance.ApplicationOccupational experience is an important component in reducing the impact of pressure on UOF performance, and transfer of training may be enhanced through training methodologies that combine early exposure to contextually relevant pressure, that may replicate the benefits of experience.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2022-04-07T04:33:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00187208211065907
       
  • Team Self-Maintenance during Long-Duration Space Exploration: A Conceptual
           Framework

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      Authors: Jessica L. Wildman, Dominic Fedele, Anderson Wilder, Michael T. Curtis, Deborah DiazGranados
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveWe developed a conceptual framework of Team Self-Maintenance (TSM) within long-duration space exploration (LDSE), which we define as the process of monitoring, adjusting, and maintaining the psychological well-being of a team in the absence of external support.BackgroundSpecific to LDSE and isolated, confined, and extreme (ICE) environments, periods of routine can have a debilitating effect on the crew’s well-being and performance, and TSM is a critical process for avoiding these detrimental effects.MethodBased on themes drawn from nine subject matter expert interviews combined with an extensive literature review on related concepts, we developed an integrative conceptual framework of the key inputs, processes, and outputs involved in TSM within LDSE contexts.ResultsOur TSM framework suggests team well-being as a key outcome that must be maintained during LDSE and information sharing, self-regulation, resource recovery, and emotional support as the key processes that enable team well-being. We also identify several contextual inputs that can serve as intervention points for enabling effective TSM.ConclusionOur framework suggests that future research and practice aimed at effective LDSE should emphasize team well-being, rather than just performance, and that there are many open questions in terms of how teams will manage their own socio-emotional needs (e.g., conflict, recovery activities, and boredom) without external systems and support.ApplicationThis conceptual framework describes the primary inputs, processes, and outcomes involved in the team self-maintenance process. This framework reflects context-specific theorizing most likely to be applicable only to LDSE contexts.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2022-03-30T01:05:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00187208221076185
       
  • Human Robot Collaboration for Enhancing Work Activities

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      Authors: Li Liu, Andrew J. Schoen, Curt Henrichs, Jingshan Li, Bilge Mutlu, Yajun Zhang, Robert G. Radwin
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveTrade-offs between productivity, physical workload (PWL), and mental workload (MWL) were studied when integrating collaborative robots (cobots) into existing manual work by optimizing the allocation of tasks.BackgroundAs cobots become more widely introduced in the workplace and their capabilities greatly improved, there is a need to consider how they can best help their human partners.MethodsA theoretical data-driven analysis was conducted using the O*NET Content Model to evaluate 16 selected jobs for associated work context, skills, and constraints. Associated work activities were ranked by potential for substitution by a cobot. PWL and MWL were estimated using variables from the O*Net database that represent variables for the Strain Index and NASA-TLX. An algorithm was developed to optimize work activity assignment to cobots and human workers according to their most suited abilities.ResultsHuman workload for some jobs decreased while workload for some jobs increased after cobots were reassigned tasks, and residual human capacity was used to perform job activities designated the most important to increase productivity. The human workload for other jobs remained unchanged.ConclusionsThe changes in human workload from the introduction of cobots may not always be beneficial for the human worker unless trade-offs are considered.Application: The framework of this study may be applied to existing jobs to identify the relationship between productivity and worker tolerances that integrate cobots into specific tasks.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2022-03-29T01:58:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00187208221077722
       
  • Review of the Factors Affecting Acceptance of AI-Infused Systems

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      Authors: Ulugbek Vahobjon Ugli Ismatullaev, Sang-Ho Kim
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThe study aimed to provide a comprehensive overview of the factors impacting technology adoption, to predict the acceptance of artificial intelligence (AI)-based technologies.BackgroundAlthough the acceptance of AI devices is usually defined by behavioural factors in theories of user acceptance, the effects of technical and human factors are often overlooked. However, research shows that user behaviour can vary depending on a system’s technical characteristics and differences in users.MethodA systematic review was conducted. A total of 85 peer-reviewed journal articles that met the inclusion criteria and provided information on the factors influencing the adoption of AI devices were selected for the analysis.ResultsResearch on the adoption of AI devices shows that users’ attitudes, trust and perceptions about the technology can be improved by increasing transparency, compatibility, and reliability, and simplifying tasks. Moreover, technological factors are also important for reducing issues related to human factors (e.g. distrust, scepticism, inexperience) and supporting users with lower intention to use and lower trust in AI-infused systems.ConclusionAs prior research has confirmed the interrelationship among factors with and without behaviour theories, this review suggests extending the technology acceptance model that integrates the factors studied in this review to define the acceptance of AI devices across different application areas. However, further research is needed to collect more data and validate the study’s findings.ApplicationA comprehensive overview of factors influencing the acceptance of AI devices could help researchers and practitioners evaluate user behaviour when adopting new technologies.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2022-03-28T10:49:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00187208211064707
       
  • Mobile Health Application for Seizure Management: A Human-Systems
           Integration Approach

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      Authors: May Jorella Lazaro, Alysson Alvaran, Myung Hwan Yun, Sungho Kim
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThe study aims to develop a mHealth application for seizure management based on the human system integration (HSI) approach.BackgroundUnmet healthcare needs among people with epilepsy continue to exist despite the advancement in healthcare technology. Current seizure management methods are found to be ineffective. Therefore, a more efficient strategy such as mHealth technology is necessary to aid seizure management.MethodThe needs identification phase involved identifying the user requirements by interviewing 10 stakeholders and conducting thematic analysis and needs interpretation technique. In the solution identification phase, the system requirements were derived using various human-centered design and systems engineering approaches and were evaluated through quality function deployment to determine design targets. For the design and evaluation phase, the design targets were reflected in the app through the iterative prototyping process, and the interface and functional design were evaluated by seven human factors and ergonomics experts and four stakeholders, respectively.ResultsThree primary needs and ten user requirements were derived from the needs identification phase. Ten out of fifteen system requirements were selected as design targets to be included in the final prototype. Results of the evaluation showed that the interface design of the proposed app showed superior usability compared to a competitor app and that the app functions were beneficial for the stakeholders.ConclusionThe mHealth app designed through the HSI framework showed good potential in addressing the main issues in seizure management.ApplicationThe mHealth app design methodology based on the HSI approach can be applied to the design of small-scale systems in various domains.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2022-03-26T06:13:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00187208221074427
       
  • Agent Transparency, Situation Awareness, Mental Workload, and Operator
           Performance: A Systematic Literature Review

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      Authors: Koen van de Merwe, Steven Mallam, Salman Nazir
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveIn this review, we investigate the relationship between agent transparency, Situation Awareness, mental workload, and operator performance for safety critical domains.BackgroundThe advancement of highly sophisticated automation across safety critical domains poses a challenge for effective human oversight. Automation transparency is a design principle that could support humans by making the automation’s inner workings observable (i.e., “seeing-into”). However, experimental support for this has not been systematically documented to date.MethodBased on the PRISMA method, a broad and systematic search of the literature was performed focusing on identifying empirical research investigating the effect of transparency on central Human Factors variables.ResultsOur final sample consisted of 17 experimental studies that investigated transparency in a controlled setting. The studies typically employed three human-automation interaction types: responding to agent-generated proposals, supervisory control of agents, and monitoring only. There is an overall trend in the data pointing towards a beneficial effect of transparency. However, the data reveals variations in Situation Awareness, mental workload, and operator performance for specific tasks, agent-types, and level of integration of transparency information in primary task displays.ConclusionOur data suggests a promising effect of automation transparency on Situation Awareness and operator performance, without the cost of added mental workload, for instances where humans respond to agent-generated proposals and where humans have a supervisory role.ApplicationStrategies to improve human performance when interacting with intelligent agents should focus on allowing humans to see into its information processing stages, considering the integration of information in existing Human Machine Interface solutions.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2022-03-11T11:50:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00187208221077804
       
  • Sorting Insiders From Co-Workers: Remote Synchronous Computer-Mediated
           Triage for Investigating Insider Attacks

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      Authors: Coral J. Dando, Paul J. Taylor, Tarek Menacere, Thomas C. Ormerod, Linden J. Ball, Alexandra L. Sandham
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveDevelop and investigate the potential of a remote, computer-mediated and synchronous text-based triage, which we refer to as InSort, for quickly highlighting persons of interest after an insider attack.BackgroundInsiders maliciously exploit legitimate access to impair the confidentiality and integrity of organizations. The globalisation of organisations and advancement of information technology means employees are often dispersed across national and international sites, working around the clock, often remotely. Hence, investigating insider attacks is challenging. However, the cognitive demands associated with masking insider activity offer opportunities. Drawing on cognitive approaches to deception and understanding of deception-conveying features in textual responses, we developed InSort, a remote computer-mediated triage.MethodDuring a 6-hour immersive simulation, participants worked in teams, examining password protected, security sensitive databases and exchanging information during an organized crime investigation. Twenty-five percent were covertly incentivized to act as an ‘insider’ by providing information to a provocateur.ResultsResponses to InSort questioning revealed insiders took longer to answer investigation relevant questions, provided impoverished responses, and their answers were less consistent with known evidence about their behaviours than co-workers.ConclusionFindings demonstrate InSort has potential to expedite information gathering and investigative processes following an insider attack.ApplicationInSort is appropriate for application by non-specialist investigators and can be quickly altered as a function of both environment and event. InSort offers a clearly defined, well specified, approach for use across insider incidents, and highlights the potential of technology for supporting complex time critical investigations.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2022-03-07T08:46:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00187208211068292
       
  • Human Factors Integration in Robotic Surgery

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      Authors: Ken Catchpole, Tara Cohen, Myrtede Alfred, Sam Lawton, Falisha Kanji, Daniel Shouhed, Lynne Nemeth, Jennifer Anger
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveUsing the example of robotic-assisted surgery (RAS), we explore the methodological and practical challenges of technology integration in surgery, provide examples of evidence-based improvements, and discuss the importance of systems engineering and clinical human factors research and practice.BackgroundNew operating room technologies offer potential benefits for patients and staff, yet also present challenges for physical, procedural, team, and organizational integration. Historically, RAS implementation has focused on establishing the technical skills of the surgeon on the console, and has not systematically addressed the new skills required for other team members, the use of the workspace, or the organizational changes.ResultsHuman factors studies of robotic surgery have demonstrated not just the effects of these hidden complexities on people, teams, processes, and proximal outcomes, but also have been able to analyze and explain in detail why they happen and offer methods to address them. We review studies on workload, communication, workflow, workspace, and coordination in robotic surgery, and then discuss the potential for improvement that these studies suggest within the wider healthcare system.ConclusionThere is a growing need to understand and develop approaches to safety and quality improvement through human-systems integration at the frontline of care.Precis: The introduction of robotic surgery has exposed under-acknowledged complexities of introducing complex technology into operating rooms. We explore the methodological and practical challenges, provide examples of evidence-based improvements, and discuss the implications for systems engineering and clinical human factors research and practice.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2022-03-05T02:04:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00187208211068946
       
  • Ergonomic Risk Assessment of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons – RULA
           Applied to Objective Kinematic Data

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      Authors: Moritz Weitbrecht, Fabian Holzgreve, Laura Fraeulin, Jasmin Haenel, Werner Betz, Christina Erbe, Christian Maurer-Grubinger, Eileen M. Wanke, Doerthe Brueggmann, Albert Nienhaus, David A. Groneberg, Daniela Ohlendorf
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      BackgroundThe prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders is high in oral and maxillofacial surgeons (OS) due to their static and contorted working positions. Hence, the aim of this study was to conduct posture analyses in this specific group of dental professionals using the Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA).MethodsIn total, 15 (12 m/3 f) OS participated in this study. An inertial motion capture system (Xsens) was used to collect kinematic data during a simulated workflow. Computer-based routines calculated the RULA score for the extracted joint angles at each defined time point. Then, an analysis of the time-dependent RULA scores by body regions was conducted. Key variables were the relative occurrence of specific RULA scores during the complete workflow, individual subtasks, and for treatment of each of the four different dental quadrants. The subtasks and dental quadrants were compared using the Friedman test.ResultsThe total median RULA score represented a high risk for OS during their work (7), including the temporal component (OS spent 77.54% of their working time with a RULA score of 7). The wrists and hands, elbows, lower arms, and the neck were exposed to postures with the highest risk for musculoskeletal strain.DiscussionFor OS, both the right and the left assisting hand were heavily strained while working on the first dental quadrant caused the most unfavorable postures for OS.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2022-03-03T02:13:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00187208211053073
       
  • Using a Passive Back Exoskeleton During a Simulated Sorting Task:
           Influence on Muscle Activity, Posture, and Heart Rate

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      Authors: Mona Bär, Tessy Luger, Robert Seibt, Monika A. Rieger, Benjamin Steinhilber
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveTo evaluate using a back exoskeleton in a simulated sorting task in a static forward bent trunk posture on muscle activity, posture, and heart rate (HR).BackgroundPotentials of exoskeletons for reducing musculoskeletal demands in work tasks need to be clarified.MethodsThirty-six healthy males performed the sorting task in 40°-forward bent static trunk posture for 90 seconds, in three trunk orientations, with and without exoskeleton. Muscle activity of the erector spinae (ES), biceps femoris (BF), trapezius descendens (TD), rectus abdominis (RA), vastus laterals (VL), and gastrocnemius medialis was recorded using surface electromyography normalized to a submaximal or maximal reference electrical activity (%RVE (reference voluntary electrical activity)/%MVE). Spine and lower limb postures were assessed by gravimetric position sensors, and HR by electrocardiography.ResultsUsing the exoskeleton resulted in decreased BF muscle activity [−8.12%RVE], and minor changes in ES [−1.29%MVE], RA [−0.28%RVE], VL [−0.49%RVE], and TD [+1.13%RVE] muscle activity. Hip and knee flexion increased [+8.1°; +6.7°]. Heart rate decreased by 2.1 bpm. Trunk orientation had an influence on BF muscle activity.ConclusionUsing the back exoskeleton in a short sorting task with static trunk posture mainly reduced hip extensor muscle activity and changed lower limb but not spine posture. Implications of using a back exoskeleton for workers’ musculoskeletal health need further clarification.ApplicationThe detected changes by using the Laevo® illustrate the need for further investigation prior to practical recommendations of using exoskeletons in the field. Investigating various work scenarios in different kind of workers and long-term applications would be important elements.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2022-02-28T02:34:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00187208211073192
       
  • Reinvestigation of the Psychological Mechanisms of Construction Experience
           on Hazard Recognition Performance

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      Authors: Xiaoshan Zhou, Pin-Chao Liao, Qingwen Xu
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThe study aimed to reinvestigate psychological mechanisms of the influence of construction workers’ experience on hazard recognition performance, with signal detection theory (SDT) and electroencephalogram (EEG) readings.BackgroundExisting evidence regarding the effect of experience on hazard recognition performance in the construction industry remains inconsistent. Behavior-wise, identification of dominant hazard recognition factors (sensitivity or response bias, or both) would help determine appropriate training strategies to improve hazard recognition. In terms of neuro-responses, induced gamma-band activity was expected to reflect the cognitive functions mediating the psychological effects of experience.MethodSeventy-seven construction workers participated in a predesigned hazard recognition task, in which participants judged whether a hazard was present from a series of construction scenario pictures. We computed and compared the sensitivity and response bias of SDT and time-frequency representations of recorded EEG signals of the two experience-level groups.ResultsNovice workers had higher hazard recognition rates. Behavior-wise, novices were more sensitive than more experienced workers. Compared with experienced workers, novices showed stronger gamma-band difference power (hazardous minus safe) in the left frontal and right posterior parietal areas during the hazard recognition process.ConclusionNovices performed better at hazard recognition, indicating their sensitivity to the hazards without a clear difference in response bias. Based on the EEG data, novices’ sensitivity may be attributed to more efficient working memory and attentional control.ApplicationThere is a need for continuous refreshment of hazard recognition skills for experienced workers for safety interventions.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2022-02-26T03:10:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00187208211066666
       
  • Drivers’ Performance in Non-critical Take-Overs From an Automated
           Driving System—An On-Road Study

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      Authors: Annie Rydström, Mattias Söderholm Mullaart, Fjollë Novakazi, Mikael Johansson, Alexander Eriksson
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThe objective of this semi-controlled study was to investigate drivers’ performance when resuming control from an Automated Driving System (ADS), simulated through the Wizard of Oz method, in real traffic.BackgroundResearch on take-overs has primarily focused on urgent scenarios. This article aims to shift the focus to non-critical take-overs from a system operating in congested traffic situations.MethodTwenty drivers drove a selected route in rush-hour traffic in the San Francisco Bay Area, CA, USA. During the drive, the ADS became available when predetermined availability conditions were fulfilled. When the system was active, the drivers were free to engage in non-driving related activities.ResultsThe results show that drivers’ transition time goes down with exposure, making it reasonable to assume that some experience is required to regain control with comfort and ease. The novel analysis of after-effects of automated driving on manual driving performance implies that the after-effects were close to negligible. Observational data indicate that, with exposure, a majority of the participants started to engage in non-driving related activities to some extent, but it is unclear how the activities influenced the take-over performance.ConclusionThe results indicate that drivers need repeated exposure to take-overs to be able to fully resume manual control with ease.ApplicationTake-over signals (e.g., visuals, sounds, and haptics) should be carefully designed to avoid startle effects and the human-machine interface should provide clear guidance on the required take-over actions.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2022-02-25T04:11:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00187208211053460
       
  • Duped by Bots: Why Some are Better than Others at Detecting Fake Social
           Media Personas

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      Authors: Ryan Kenny, Baruch Fischhoff, Alex Davis, Kathleen M. Carley, Casey Canfield
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveWe examine individuals’ ability to detect social bots among Twitter personas, along with participant and persona features associated with that ability.BackgroundSocial media users need to distinguish bots from human users. We develop and demonstrate a methodology for assessing those abilities, with a simulated social media task.MethodWe analyze performance from a signal detection theory perspective, using a task that asked lay participants whether each of 50 Twitter personas was a human or social bot. We used the agreement of two machine learning models to estimate the probability of each persona being a bot. We estimated the probability of participants indicating that a persona was a bot with a generalized linear mixed-effects model using participant characteristics (social media experience, analytical reasoning, and political views) and stimulus characteristics (bot indicator score and political tone) as regressors.ResultsOn average, participants had modest sensitivity (d’) and a criterion that favored responding “human.” Exploratory analyses found greater sensitivity for participants (a) with less self-reported social media experience, (b) greater analytical reasoning ability, and (c) who were evaluating personas with opposing political views. Some patterns varied with participants' political identity.ConclusionsIndividuals have limited ability to detect social bots, with greater aversion to mistaking bots for humans than vice versa. Greater social media experience and myside bias appeared to reduce performance, as did less analytical reasoning ability.ApplicationThese patterns suggest the need for interventions, especially when users feel most familiar with social media.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2022-02-24T10:20:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00187208211072642
       
  • Spacesuit Center of Gravity Assessments for Partial Gravity EVA Simulation
           in an Underwater Environment

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      Authors: Linh Q. Vu, James H. Shaw, K. Han Kim, Elizabeth Benson, Sudhakar L. Rajulu
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThe objective is to analytically determine the expected CG and build hardware to measure and verify the suited subject’s CG for lunar extravehicular activity (EVA) training in an underwater environment.BackgroundFor lunar EVAs, it is necessary for astronauts to train with a spacesuit in a simulated partial gravity environment. NASA’s Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) can provide these conditions by producing negative buoyancy for a submerged suited subject. However, it is critical that the center of gravity (CG) for the human-spacesuit system to be accurate for conditions expected during planetary EVAs.MethodsAn underwater force-transducer system and individualized human-spacesuit model was created to provide real-time measurement of CG, including recommendations for weight placement locations and quantity of weight needed on the spacesuit to achieve a realistic lunar spacesuit CG. This method was tested with four suited subjects.ResultsAcross tested weighout configurations, it was observed that an aft and high CG location will have large postural differences when compared to low and fore CG locations, highlighting the importance of having a proper CG. The system had an accuracy of ±5lbs of the total lunar weight and within ± 15 cm for fore-aft and left-right CG directions of the model predictions.ConclusionThe developed method offers analytical verification of the suited subject’s CG and improves simulation quality of lunar EVAs. Future suit design can also benefit by recommending hardware changes to create ideal CG locations that improve balance and mobility.ApplicationThe developed methodology can be used to verify a proper CG location in future planetary EVA simulations such as different reduced gravity training analogs (e.g. active cable offloading systems).
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2022-02-23T12:18:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00187208211070635
       
  • Small Boat Recovery Task Performance in a Moving Environment

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      Authors: Rebecca A. Fosha, Panagiotis Matsangas, Patrick F. Cravalho, Kristopher M. Thornburg
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveAssess operator performance in a simulation of US Coast Guard small boat recovery to a larger vessel on a large scale, six degree-of-freedom, full motion simulator.BackgroundStudies of human performance in small boat recovery task have never been conducted on a high amplitude, low frequency simulator. Empirical evidence of small boat recovery task performance in challenging motion conditions is needed to inform future maritime systems designs.MethodExperienced active-duty boat crewmembers (N = 13) conducted a small boat recovery task in three sea states on the Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS) at the NASA Ames Research Center. Task performance was assessed using a task equivalent for time to complete the task. Participant behaviors associated with increasing motion severity were observed.ResultsTask performance declined as motion conditions became more severe. Participants were more likely to use at least one hand to maintain balance during motion conditions, becoming more frequent with increasing motion severity. Many participants used one hand to complete the task despite contrary instructions and previous experience.ConclusionTwo design recommendations were proposed to counter declining task performance in increasingly severe motion conditions. Handholds available to participants during the task, and task design supporting single handed completion were recommended for small boat recovery systems.ApplicationThis research is directly applicable to gross motor tasks requiring simultaneous maintenance of balance in a maritime environment, and may be extended to other environments where humans experience complex motions while completing tasks.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2022-02-15T03:44:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00187208211065504
       
  • The Subjective Habitability & Acceptability Questionnaire (SHAQ):
           Development and Validation

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      Authors: Peter G. Roma, Lauren Blackwell Landon, Cara A. Spencer, Alexandra M. Whitmire, Thomas J. Williams
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveDescribe the development and validation of the Subjective Habitability & Acceptability Questionnaire (SHAQ).BackgroundHabitat area size, layout, and design may impact individual and team behavioral health and performance (BHP) outcomes in operational environments. However, there are no standardized measures of these relationships.MethodSHAQ is a modular survey consisting of two 6-item scales: BHP Outcomes (Performance of Individual Activities, Performance of Group Activities, Mood, Psychological Stress, Sleep, and Social Interactions) and Habitability Moderators (Privacy, Social Density, Efficiency, Control, Comfort, and Convenience). We collected SHAQ data from NASA’s Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) crews (n = 19) in reference to multiple habitat areas (Sleep/Bedroom, Hygiene/Bathroom, Work/Office/Workshop, and Food Preparation/Kitchen/Galley) in the HERA operational environment, private hotel rooms, and individual home habitats.ResultsSHAQ has high construct validity (single factor solutions, mean item factor loading = 0.760, mean % variance = 60.37), internal consistency and reliability (item mean α = 0.880, mean ω=0.894, mean ICC = 0.430), concurrent validity (mean item r with System Usability Scale = 0.42), and discriminant validity (e.g., significantly higher facilitation of group activities in HERA Work/Office/Workshop and Food Preparation/Kitchen/Galley areas vs. Hygiene/Bathroom and Sleep/Bedroom areas; significantly higher ratings of privacy, comfort, and convenience in hotel vs. HERA).ConclusionSHAQ is a reliable, valid, and sensitive measure of BHP impacts of habitat size and layout.ApplicationSHAQ can be used to inform evidence-based recommendations and thresholds for habitat area size, layout, and design options to support individual and team BHP in operational environments.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2022-01-29T09:51:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00187208211053462
       
  • Effect of Automating Procedural Work on Situation Awareness and Workload

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      Authors: Debra Schreckenghost, Kritina Holden, Maya Greene, Tod Milam, Chris Hamblin
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveIn future deep space exploration missions, crew will have to work more autonomously from Earth. Greater crew autonomy will increase dependence on automated systems. This study investigates the performance effects of different strategies to automate procedural work for space exploration operations.BackgroundThe following strategies are investigated for performing procedural work:• Manual Work uses no procedure automation and crew performs all actions.• Shared Work uses procedure automation to perform some actions within a procedure while crew performs other actions.• Supervised Work uses procedure automation to perform procedure actions while crew supervises the automation.MethodTwenty-seven participants participated in a planetary habitat scenario-based simulation using electronic procedures with automatable actions to investigate the effect of these strategies on situation awareness (SA) and workload. This study used a modification of the Situation Presence Assessment Method to measure SA and the Bedford Workload Scale to measure subjective workload.ResultsMean response times and accuracy for SA queries show no significant difference among the three strategies. Bedford Workload ratings compared across the three strategies indicate that participants rated their workload as highest in the Manual Work condition, followed by the Shared Work condition, and lowest in the Supervised Work condition.ConclusionThe study hypothesized that increased levels of automation would lead to lower subjective workload and decreased SA. Although no significant difference in SA was observed, subjective workload was lower in automation strategies. Based on subjective ratings, 93% of participants preferred some form of automation, with 56% preferring the Shared Work automation condition.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2022-01-28T03:10:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00187208211060978
       
  • A Closer Look at Warning Cues on the Sustained Attention to Response Task
           Performance

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      Authors: Jasmine A. Dang, Tyler H. Shaw, Patrick E. McKnight, William S. Helton
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesWe investigated the effects of auditory cues of varying reliability levels on response inhibition performance using a target detection task to determine if external cues offer performance benefits. Further, we examined how the slope of the speed accuracy trade-off changes as a function of auditory cue reliability and used the trade-off to understand where any performance gains may be realized.BackgroundResearchers have proposed that the sustained attention to response task (SART) can be used to study the mechanisms causing failures of response inhibition. External cues may mitigate the results of motor inhibition failure. The extent to which external cues can effectively aid performance depends on the level of cue reliability.MethodNinety-one participants performed three SARTs with auditory cue assistance at three different levels of reliability (i.e. 0%, 60% and 100% reliable at cueing imminent No-Go stimuli).ResultsWe observed fewer errors of commission and faster reaction time in conditions with higher cue reliability. The slope of speed-accuracy trade-off relationship was impacted by cue reliability and was not a simple linear function.ConclusionReliable auditory cues aid performance by reducing reaction time and errors of commission. Auditory cues also impact the relationship between speed and accuracy trade-off.ApplicationInsights of cue effectiveness at different reliability levels help people make informed decisions in developing automation interfaces or sensors based on expected performance. Reliable cues mitigate the risk of impulsive errors; however, the reliability has to be high to have a noticeable impact on the speed-accuracy trade-off.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2022-01-28T02:48:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00187208211060708
       
  • Understanding the Effects of Tactile Grating Patterns on Perceived
           Roughness Over Ultrasonic Friction Modulation Surfaces

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      Authors: Shaowei Chu, Huawei Tu
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveOur study aims to investigate the effects of grating patterns of perceived roughness on surfaces with ultrasonic friction modulation, and also to examine user performance of identifying different numbers of grating patterns.BackgroundIn designing grating-based tactile textures, the widths of low- and high-friction zones are a crucial factor for generating grating patterns that convey roughness sensation. However, few studies have explored the design space of efficient grating patterns that users can easily distinguish and identify via roughness perception.MethodTwo experiments were carried out. In the first experiment, we conducted a magnitude estimation of perceived roughness for both low- and high-friction zones, each with widths of 0.13, 0.25, 0.38, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 3.5, and 5.5 mm. In the second experiment, we required participants to identify 5 pattern groups with 2–6 patterns respectively.ResultsPerceived roughness fitted a linear trend for low- or high-friction zones with widths of 0.38 mm or lower. Perceived roughness followed an inverted U-shaped curve for low- or high-friction zones with widths greater than 0.5 mm but less than 2.0 mm. The peak points occurred at the widths of 0.38 mm for both low- and high-friction zones. The statistical analysis indicates that both low- and high-friction zones had similar effects on human perception of surface roughness. In addition, participants could memorize and identify up to four tactile patterns with identification accuracy rates higher than 90% and average reaction time less than 2.2 s.ConclusionsThe relation between perceived roughness and varying widths of grating patterns follows linear or inverted U-shape trends. Participants could efficiently identify 4 or fewer patterns with high accuracy (>90%) and short reaction time (
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2022-01-18T09:29:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00187208211064025
       
  • Advancing Knowledge on Situation Comprehension in Dynamic Traffic
           Situations by Studying Eye Movements to Empty Spatial Locations

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      Authors: Wiebke Frank, Kristin Mühl, Agnes Rosner, Martin Baumann
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThis study used the looking-at-nothing phenomenon to explore situation awareness (SA) and the effects of working memory (WM) load in driving situations.BackgroundWhile driving, people develop a mental representation of the environment. Since errors in retrieving information from this representation can have fatal consequences, it is essential for road safety to investigate this process. During retrieval, people tend to fixate spatial positions of visually encoded information, even if it is no longer available at that location. Previous research has shown that this “looking-at-nothing” behavior can be used to trace retrieval processes.MethodIn a video-based laboratory experiment with 2 (WM) x 3 (SA level) within-subjects design, participants (N = 33) viewed a reduced screen and evaluated auditory statements relating to different SA levels on previously seen dynamic traffic scenarios while eye movements were recorded.ResultsWhen retrieving information, subjects more frequently fixated emptied spatial locations associated with the information relevant for the probed SA level. The retrieval of anticipations (SA level 3) in contrast to the other SA level information resulted in more frequent gaze transitions that corresponded to the spatial dynamics of future driving behavior.ConclusionThe results support the idea that people build a visual-spatial mental image of a driving situation. Different gaze patterns when retrieving level-specific information indicate divergent retrieval processes.ApplicationPotential applications include developing new methodologies to assess the mental representation and SA of drivers objectively.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2022-01-18T06:46:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00187208211063693
       
  • Attention Limitations in the Detection and Identification of Alarms in
           Close Temporal Proximity

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      Authors: Yuzhi Wan, Nadine Sarter
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to establish the effects of simultaneous and asynchronous masking on the detection and identification of visual and auditory alarms in close temporal proximity.BackgroundIn complex and highly coupled systems, malfunctions can trigger numerous alarms within a short period of time. During such alarm floods, operators may fail to detect and identify alarms due to asynchronous and simultaneous masking. To date, the effects of masking on detection and identification have been studied almost exclusively for two alarms during single-task performance. This research examines 1) how masking affects alarm detection and identification in multitask environments and 2) whether those effects increase as a function of the number of alarms.MethodTwo experiments were conducted using a simulation of a drone-based package delivery service. Participants were required to ensure package delivery and respond to visual and auditory alarms associated with eight drones. The alarms were presented at various stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs). The dependent measures included alarm detection rate, identification accuracy, and response time.ResultsMasking was observed intramodally and cross-modally for visual and auditory alarms. The SOAs at which asynchronous masking occurred were longer than reported in basic research on masking. The effects of asynchronous and, even more so, simultaneous masking became stronger as the number of alarms increased.ConclusionMasking can lead to breakdowns in the detection and identification of alarms in close temporal proximity in complex data-rich domains.ApplicationThe findings from this research provide guidance for the design of alarm systems.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2022-01-11T07:27:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00187208211063991
       
  • Do Real-Time Strategy Video Gamers Have Better Attentional Control'

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      Authors: Mengxin He, Lin-Xuan Xu, Chiang-shan R. Li, Zihan Liu, Jiaqi Hu, Xiangyi Guo, Hongyun Liu, Jin-Tao Zhang
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveDo real-time strategy (RTS) video gamers have better attentional control' To examine this issue, we tested experienced versus inexperienced RTS video gamers on multi-object tracking tasks (MOT) and dual-MOT tasks with visual or auditory secondary tasks (dMOT). We employed a street-crossing task with a visual working memory task as a secondary task in a virtual reality (VR) environment to examine any generalized attentional advantage.BackgroundSimilar to action video games, RTS video games require players to switch attention between multiple visual objects and views. However, whether the attentional control advantage is limited by sensory modalities or generalizes to real-life tasks remains unclear.MethodIn study 1, 25 RTS video game players (SVGP) and 25 non-video game players (NVGP) completed the MOT task and two dMOT tasks. In study 2, a different sample with 25 SVGP and 25 NVGP completed a simulated street-crossing task with the visual dual task in a VR environment.ResultsAfter controlling the effects of the speed-accuracy trade-off, SVGP showed better performance than NVGP in the MOT task and the visual dMOT task, but SVGP did not perform better in either the auditory dMOT task or the street-crossing task.ConclusionRTS video gamers had better attentional control in visual computer tasks, but not in the auditory tasks and the VR tasks. Attentional control benefits associated with RTS video game experience may be limited by sensory modalities, and may not translate to performance benefits in real-life tasks.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2022-01-11T07:23:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00187208211064683
       
  • The Perception of Automation Reliability and Acceptance of Automated
           Advice

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      Authors: Jack Hutchinson, Luke Strickland, Simon Farrell, Shayne Loft
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveExamine (1) the extent to which humans can accurately estimate automation reliability and calibrate to changes in reliability, and how this is impacted by the recent accuracy of automation; and (2) factors that impact the acceptance of automated advice, including true automation reliability, reliability perception, and the difference between an operator’s perception of automation reliability and perception of their own reliability.BackgroundExisting evidence suggests humans can adapt to changes in automation reliability but generally underestimate reliability. Cognitive science indicates that humans heavily weight evidence from more recent experiences.MethodParticipants monitored the behavior of maritime vessels (contacts) in order to classify them, and then received advice from automation regarding classification. Participants were assigned to either an initially high (90%) or low (60%) automation reliability condition. After some time, reliability switched to 75% in both conditions.ResultsParticipants initially underestimated automation reliability. After the change in true reliability, estimates in both conditions moved towards the common true reliability, but did not reach it. There were recency effects, with lower future reliability estimates immediately following incorrect automation advice. With lower initial reliability, automation acceptance rates tracked true reliability more closely than perceived reliability. A positive difference between participant assessments of the reliability of automation and their own reliability predicted greater automation acceptance.ConclusionHumans underestimate the reliability of automation, and we have demonstrated several critical factors that impact the perception of automation reliability and automation use.ApplicationThe findings have potential implications for training and adaptive human-automation teaming.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2022-01-04T03:25:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00187208211062985
       
  • Force Control Strategy of Five-Digit Precision Grasping With Aligned and
           Unaligned Configurations

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      Authors: Po-Tsun Chen, Hsiu-Yun Hsu, You-Hua Su, Chien-Ju Lin, Hsiao-Feng Chieh, Li-Chieh Kuo, Fong-Chin Su
      Abstract: Human Factors, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectiveTo investigate the digit force control during a five-digit precision grasp in aligned (AG) and unaligned grasping (UG) configurations.BackgroundThe effects of various cylindrical handles for tools on power grasp performance have been previously investigated. However, there is little information on force control strategy of precision grasp to fit various grasping configurations.MethodTwenty healthy young adults were recruited to perform a lift-hold-lower task. The AG and UG configurations on a cylindrical simulator with force transducers were adjusted for each individual. The applied force and moment, the force variability during holding, and force correlations between thumb and each finger were measured.ResultNo differences in applied force, force correlation, repeatability, and variability were found between configurations. However, the moments applied in UG were significantly larger than those in AG.ConclusionThe force control during precision grasp did not change significantly across AG and UG except for the digit moment. The simulator is controlled efficiently with large moment during UG, which is thus the optimal configuration for precision grasping with a cylindrical handle. Further research should consider the effects of task type and handle design on force control, especially for individuals with hand disorders.ApplicationTo design the handle of specific tool, one should consider the appropriate configuration according to the task requirements of precision grasping to reduce the risk of accumulating extra loads on digits with a cylindrical handle.
      Citation: Human Factors
      PubDate: 2022-01-03T05:06:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00187208211040914
       
 
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