Subjects -> BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS (Total: 3570 journals)
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ECONOMIC SYSTEMS, THEORIES AND HISTORY (235 journals)                  1 2 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 224 Journals sorted alphabetically
Ab Imperio     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Acta Economica     Open Access  
Acta Universitatis Sapientiae, European and Regional Studies     Open Access  
African East-Asian Affairs     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
African Economic History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
African Journal of Economic Policy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Sustainable Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
African Research Review     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
AL-FALAH : Journal of Islamic Economics     Open Access  
Al-Iqtishad : Journal of Islamic Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Al-Tijary : Jurnal Ekonomi dan Bisnis Islam     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
América Latina en la historia económica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Economic Journal : Economic Policy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 169)
American Economist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
An-Nisbah : Jurnal Ekonomi Syariah     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuario de Estudios Centroamericanos     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aquaculture Economics & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
ASAS : Jurnal Hukum dan Ekonomi Islam     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Bulletin of Energy Economics and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal for Poverty Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Quality of Life     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AUDITING: A Journal of Practice & Theory     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Australian Economic History Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
BioPhysical Economics and Resource Quality     Hybrid Journal  
Boletim de Conjuntura Econômica     Open Access  
Buletin Ekonomi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of Economic Theory and Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Business History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Business History Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Cadernos do Desenvolvimento Fluminense     Open Access  
Cahiers du GRM     Open Access  
Ciencias Económicas     Open Access  
Comparative Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Competition and Regulation in Network Industries     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Con-texto     Open Access  
Conjuntura Austral : Journal of the Global South     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Construction Economics and Building     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Contemporary Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Contemporary Economy     Open Access  
Contemporary Review of the Middle East     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Cooperativismo & Desarrollo     Open Access  
Corporate Governance and Sustainability Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Croatian Review of Economic, Business and Social Statistics     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Economía     Open Access  
Cuadernos de historia. Serie Economía y Sociedad     Open Access  
Cuadernos del CENDES     Open Access  
Cultura Económica     Open Access  
Development Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
E-Jurnal Ekonomi Pembangunan Universitas Udayana     Open Access  
Eastern European Countryside     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Econometric Research in Finance     Open Access  
Econometric Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Econometrics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Econometrics and Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Economía : Teoria y práctica     Open Access  
Economía Mexicana. Nueva Época     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Economia Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Economía UNAM     Open Access  
Economia y Sociedad     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Economía y Sociedad     Open Access  
Economia, Sociedad y Territorio     Open Access  
Economic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Economic Anthropology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Economic Education Analysis Journal     Open Access  
Economic History of Developing Regions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Economic Journal of Emerging Markets     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Economic Research-Ekonomska Istraživanja     Open Access  
Economic Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Economic Theory Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Economica : Jurnal Ekonomi Islam     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Economics and Law     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Economics Bosowa     Open Access  
Economics Development Analysis Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Economics of Development     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
EMAJ : Emerging Markets Journal     Open Access  
Emerging Economies Cases Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Emerging Economy Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Empirical Economic Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ensayos de Economía     Open Access  
Ensayos Revista de Economía     Open Access  
Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Environmental Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Erhvervshistorisk Årbog     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Espaço & Economia : Revista Brasileira de Geografia Econômica     Open Access  
Essays in Economic & Business History     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Estonian Discussions on Economic Policy     Open Access  
Estudios de Economía     Open Access  
Ethiopian Journal of Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
European Countryside     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Journal of Economics and Economic Policies : Intervention     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
European Journal of the History of Economic Thought     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Evolutionary and Institutional Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Explorations in Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Expresión Económica : Revista de Análisis     Open Access  
FALAH : Jurnal Ekonomi Syariah     Open Access  
Foundation Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Germinal : Marxismo e Educação em Debate     Open Access  
Ghana Journal of Development Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Gizarte Ekonomiaren Euskal Aldizkaria : Revista Vasca de Economía Social     Open Access  
Hakam : Jurnal Kajian Hukum Islam dan Hukum Ekonomi Islam     Open Access  
History of Economic Thought and Policy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
History of Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
I-ECONOMICS : A Research Journal on Islamic Economics     Open Access  
Iberian Journal of the History of Economic Thought     Open Access  
Ikonomika : Jurnal Ekonomi dan Bisnis Islam     Open Access  
Indian Economic & Social History Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Indian Economic Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Indian Economic Review     Hybrid Journal  
Informe Econômico     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Business Intelligence Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Economic Policy Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Economic Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Game Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Sustainable Economies Management     Full-text available via subscription  
Investigación Económica     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Investigaciones de Historia Económica     Open Access  
IQTISHADIA : Jurnal Ekonomi & Perbankan Syariah     Open Access  
Iqtishoduna : Jurnal Ekonomi Islam     Open Access  
Irish Economic and Social History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Islamic Economics Journal     Open Access  
Journal of Advanced Research in Economics and International Business     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Asian Development     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Chinese Economic and Foreign Trade Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Demographic Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Economic and Social Thought     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Economic History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 52)
Journal of Economic Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Economic Literature     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 190)
Journal of Economic Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 220)
Journal of Economic Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Journal of Economics and International Relations     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Ekonomi     Open Access  
Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Governance and Regulation     Open Access  
Journal of Illicit Economies and Development     Open Access  
Journal of Innovation and Entrepreneurship     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Islamic Economic Laws     Open Access  
Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Post Keynesian Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Public Economic Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Public Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 76)
Journal of Public Economics Plus     Open Access  
Journal of Quantitative Economics     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Regional Economics Indonesia     Open Access  
Journal of Revenue and Pricing Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Spatial Econometrics     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Statistical and Econometric Methods     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of the History of Economic Thought     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Wine Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Jurnal Economica : Research of Economic And Economic Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Ekonomi dan Bisnis Islam (Journal of Islamic Economics and Business)     Open Access  
Jurnal Ekonomi dan Pembangunan Indonesia     Open Access  
Jurnal Ekonomi Pembangunan : Kajian Masalah Ekonomi dan Pembangunan     Open Access  
Jurnal Ekonomi Syariah Teori dan Terapan     Open Access  
Jurnal Hukum dan Pembangunan Ekonomi     Open Access  
Jurnal Ilmu Ekonomi Terapan     Open Access  
Latin American Economic Review     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Latin American Journal of Management for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal  
Madagascar Conservation & Development     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Management of Sustainable Development     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Marketing Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Mediations : Journal of the Marxist Literary Group     Open Access  
MediaTrend     Open Access  
Mises : Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy, Law and Economics     Open Access  
Modern Economy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Moneta e Credito     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
New Agenda : South African Journal of Social and Economic Policy     Full-text available via subscription  
OECD Journal : Economic Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Organizations and Markets in Emerging Economies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Papeles de Europa     Open Access  
Pecvnia : Revista de la Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y Empresariales, Universidad de León     Open Access  
Perfil de Coyuntura Económica     Open Access  
Pittsburgh Papers on the European Union     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Población y Desarrollo - Argonautas y caminantes     Open Access  
Population and Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Pro-fit     Open Access  
Proceedings of Voronezh State University. Series: Economics and Management     Open Access  
QA : Rivista dell’Associazione Rossi-Doria     Full-text available via subscription  
Quarterly Journal of Islamic Finance and Banking Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Regional Formation and Development Studies     Open Access  
Review of Behavioral Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Review of Development and Change     Full-text available via subscription  
Review of Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 189)
Review of Evolutionary Political Economy     Hybrid Journal  
Review of Keynesian Economics     Partially Free   (Followers: 9)
Revista Conjuntura Econômica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista de Economía del Caribe     Open Access  
Revista de Economía del Rosario     Open Access  
Revista de Historia Económica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Revista de Historia Industrial. Economía y Empresa     Open Access  
Revista de Política Económica para el Desarrollo Sostenible     Open Access  
Revista Economía y Política     Open Access  
Revista Galega de Economia     Open Access  
Revista Gestão e Desenvolvimento     Open Access  
Revista Latinoamericana de Desarrollo Económico     Open Access  

        1 2 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
BioPhysical Economics and Resource Quality
Number of Followers: 0  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 2366-0112 - ISSN (Online) 2366-0120
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Sustainability, Self-sufficiency, and Biodiversity: Case Study of the
           Majuli Island in Assam, India

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Abstract Traditional rural societies which are largely pre industrial, displays self sufficiency and symbiosis between its culture, heritage and economy. This symbiotic relationship fostered a healthy biodiversity. The growth of consumerism and focus on economic growth often threatens the traditional self-sufficiency of rural communities. Majuli, one of the largest inhabited river islands and home to numerous self-sufficient indigenous communities, is a good example of man nature symbiosis. Present day emphasis on economic determinism and a consumerist culture threatens its biodiversity and self-sufficiency. Reckless natural resources exploitation, increased chemical use in agriculture and labour out migration threaten the sustainability and bio-diversity of the island.
      PubDate: 2022-05-13
       
  • Is There a Kuznets Curve for CO2-Emissions'

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      Abstract: Abstract The history of the environmental Kuznets curve is traced. We estimate how the CO2-intensity of economies is related to GDP per capita and examine the implications for the Kuznets curve. We find mixed evidence for the existence of this curve. In many poor and medium rich countries the CO2-intensity has increased since 1990, while in rich countries it has fallen. In some of those it has fallen at an increasing rate, but in others at a declining rate. If the CO2-intensity converges to a lower limit as countries grow richer the Kuznets curve would not exist.
      PubDate: 2022-05-12
       
  • How Much Energy Storage can We Afford' On the Need for a Sunflower
           Society, Aligning Demand with Renewable Supply

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      Abstract: Abstract The worsening climate crisis impels society to accelerate climate action. The attainable speed of the energy transition is ultimately limited by the available energy to build the replacing renewable infrastructures. Decarbonizing the energy system by replacing dispatchable fossil with variable renewable power requires energy storage to match supply with demand. Current storage technologies are energetically expensive to build and operate, thus the demand for storage shapes the fastest possible transition and the probability to exceed 1.5 °C heating. This study explores and quantifies the effect of demanded storage and its technological progress on the fastest possible transition constrained only by energy. The simulation results using three exemplary storage technologies show that storage substantially delays the transition and increases the probability to exceed 1.5 °C heating. Technological progress, if materialized fast, can reduce energy costs of storage; however, storage demand remains a critical driver for climate risks. Consequently, minimizing storage demand through a supply-driven power system effectively reduces climate risks—a paradigm shift towards a solar-aligned “sunflower society”.
      PubDate: 2022-04-28
       
  • The Contributions of Muscle and Machine Work to Land and Labor
           Productivity in World Agriculture Since 1800

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      Abstract: Abstract Since 1800, there have been enormous changes in mechanical technologies farmers use and in the relative contributions of human and animal muscles and machines to farm work. We develop a database from 1800 to 2012 of on-farm physical work in world agriculture from muscles and machines. We do so to analyze how on-farm physical work has contributed to changes in land and human labor productivities. We find two distinct periods. First, from 1800 to around 1950, land productivity (measured as kcal food supply per hectare of cropland) was relatively stagnant at about 1.7 million kcal/ha, in part due to a scarcity of on-farm physical work. During this period, physical work was scarce because most of on-farm physical work (approximately 80% in 1950) was being powered by low power, low energy efficiency muscle work provided by humans and draft animals. From 1950 to 2012, land productivity nearly tripled as more machine-based work inputs became available. The additional machine-based work inputs have contributed to the growth in land and labor productivities, as they have enabled farmers to control more physical work enabling more irrigation and agrochemical applications. However, the tripling of land productivity has required a near 4.5-fold increase in physical work per hectare, suggesting diminishing returns. Farmers accomplished this extra work with less final energy because they transitioned from low-efficiency muscle work to high-efficiency machines which drove farm-wide energy conversion efficiency up fourfold from 1950 to 2012. By 1990, machine conversion efficiencies started to plateau. Given diminishing returns and plateauing efficiencies, we predict that fuel and electricity usage on farms will increase to continue raising land productivity.
      PubDate: 2022-03-28
       
  • Interdependence of Growth, Structure, Size and Resource Consumption During
           an Economic Growth Cycle

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      Abstract: Abstract This paper explains how the Human and Resources with MONEY (HARMONEY) economic growth model exhibits realistic dynamic interdependencies relating resources consumption, growth, and structural change. We explore dynamics of three major structural metrics of an economy. First, we show that an economic transition to relative decoupling of gross domestic product (GDP) from resource consumption is an expected pattern that occurs because of physical limits to growth, not a response to avoid physical limits. While increasing operational resource efficiency does increase the level of relative decoupling, so does a change in pricing from one based on full costs to one based only on marginal costs that neglect depreciation and interest payments. Marginal cost pricing leads to higher debt ratios and a perception of higher levels of relative resource decoupling. Second, if assuming full labor bargaining power for wages, when a previously-growing economy reaches peak resource extraction and GDP, wages remain high but profits and debt decline to zero. By removing bargaining power, profits can remain positive at the expense of declining wages. Third, the internal structure of HARMONEY evolves in the same way the post-World War II U.S. economy. This is measured as the distribution of intermediate transactions within the input-output tables of both the model and U.S. economy.
      PubDate: 2021-12-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s41247-021-00093-8
       
  • Deriving EROI for Thirty Large Oil Companies Using the CO2 Proxy from 1999
           to 2018

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      Abstract: Abstract Energy Return on Investment (EROI, sometimes EROEI) is one of the most important indices for evaluating the efficacy of a primary energy source. It is generally defined as the relation between the energy extracted from a given resource and the energy costs diverted from society to extract it. In this paper, the EROI of 30 oil companies was calculated using the CO2 emitted by the companies and declared in Sustainability and/or Annual Reports as required by law, to estimate the energy used for the production process over a time span of 20 years (1999–2018). The resulting EROI estimates for the companies analyzed are rather homogeneous and, except in some cases, these values are relatively constant over time. These values agree (although sometimes somewhat lower than) estimates derived by other methods.
      PubDate: 2021-11-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s41247-021-00095-6
       
  • Analysis of the Long-Term Impact of Energy Expenditure on Economic Growth:
           A Case Study of China

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      Abstract: Abstract In this study, we use the term “energy expenditure” to calculate the direct and indirect energy costs invested in the extraction and conversion of net energy at the end of use in China. In this study, less energy expenditure is assumed to lead to more net energy to fulfill human psychological needs and to develop the economic system. However, in reality, energy expenditure is inevitable, and the question of what maximum energy expenditure is tolerable for economic growth remains. Therefore, we calculated the energy expenditure for China based on embodied energy theory and the IO table from 1987 to 2015 and then used a multivariate linear regression model to test the maximum tolerable level of energy expenditure in China. The results show that China’s economic system needs 3217 mtce net energy to ensure that the average annual GDP growth remains higher than 5% into the 2030s, which means that energy expenditure cannot be higher than 45.44% in 2030. According to the EROI forecast, EROI will drop to 1.52:1 in 2030, and the energy expenditure level will reach up to 64%. This figure is far above the maximum tolerable level of energy expenditure of 45.44%. If the level of energy expenditure exceeds this limit, the energy industry will hardly supply enough net energy to support economic development in 2030.
      PubDate: 2021-11-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s41247-021-00094-7
       
  • A Comprehensive Net Energy Analysis and Outlook of Energy System in China

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      Abstract: Abstract Net energy is the surplus energy after subtracting energy production input, which is regarded as the energy that really promotes social development. At present, a large amount of net energy analysis is concentrated in the preliminary production stage, and there are few deeper studies on energy system. This study mainly uses input–output analysis to estimate energy input (including import input, energy loss and embodied energy), and calculates EROI and Net Energy Supply of energy system in China from 1990 to 2018. The results show that EROI has shown a downward trend in the past. Among all energy sectors, Production and Supply of Electric Power and Heat Power accounts for the highest proportion of energy input, and the proportion of energy loss is gradually increasing. In addition, this study uses the simulated function to establish the relationship between net energy and GDP and makes an outlook of net energy supply and EROI in different scenarios. EROI is likely to decline in the near future, and more attention should be paid to the efficient use of net energy to achieve economic goals.
      PubDate: 2021-11-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s41247-021-00091-w
       
  • A Review at the Utilization of Renewable Energy in an Agricultural
           Operation

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      Abstract: Abstract Faced with an increasing demand for food and unstable fuel markets, research into more environmentally sustainable sources was expedited. One of the significant overhead costs for favorable climate management in greenhouse cultivation is energy. Using a wind–solar clean energy grid to monitor greenhouse ecosystems decreases fuel usage while improving greenhouse output sustainability. Different agricultural techniques can benefit from the usage of potential renewable energy sources, which can be used to help alleviate the energy shortage that exists in both rural and urban regions while also slowing the rate of dreadful environmental conditions. In addition, suitable agricultural extension services are required to instruct, enlighten, and disseminate this knowledge to rural areas in order to facilitate alternative energy production, management, monitoring, and assessment. The purpose of this study is to examine the use of renewable energy in an agricultural operation.
      PubDate: 2021-11-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s41247-021-00092-9
       
  • Do Primary Energy Consumption and Economic Growth Drive Each Other in
           Pakistan' Implications for Energy Policy

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      Abstract: Abstract Since energy supports the economic production activities and has been considered the engine of economic growth, it is of central importance to investigate their mutual relationships. We examine the causality between primary energy consumption and economic growth in Pakistan for the period of 1972 to 2015. We adopt a multivariate causality framework by adding primary energy consumption to labor and capital as input factors in the production model. The results of the Toda–Yamamoto Granger causality test confirm the existence of bidirectional causality between primary energy consumption and GDP, thereby validating the existence of the feedback hypothesis in Pakistan. The findings of the study call for the government to adopt policies for energy efficiency and expansion rather than energy conservation. Moreover, the renewable energy consumption share should be upscaled in the current energy mix to strengthen the economic activities by keeping the environmental sustainability objective as a top priority of the country.
      PubDate: 2021-09-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s41247-021-00090-x
       
  • Energy Efficiency, Monetary Costs, and Sustainability of Brazilian Rainfed
           and Irrigated Rice Cropping Systems

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      Abstract: Abstract Increasing resource use efficiency to meet the world demand for food is among the greatest challenges for the sustainability of agricultural systems. Appropriate biophysical characteristics, resource renewability, and production costs are decisive for the biophysical and economic persistence of agricultural systems. In Brazil, rice is grown in flooding-irrigated (predominantly in the South) and rainfed (other regions) systems. The present study measured the energy efficiency, monetary costs, and the sustainability of characteristic examples of these two types of agroecosystems. We calculated indices of energy flow analysis, discriminating between energy fractions derived from renewable and non-renewable inputs. The irrigated system had more than double the yield, but an energy return on investment (EROI, 2.03:1) and energy productivity (EP, 0.13 kg MJ−1) that were lower than those of the rainfed system (2.86:1 and 0.19 kg MJ−1, respectively). However, the renewable EROI (EROIr) showed that the irrigated system is more sustainable: 364:1 vs 5:1 by our measure. We propose using the energy efficiency cost (EEC) and energy exchange ratio (EnER), and their renewable (R EnER) and non-renewable (NR EnER) fractions to assess the monetary costs of energy efficiency. By these criteria, irrigated systems are less efficient economically, expending more energy to produce a monetary unit of paddy rice (33.87 MJ US$−1) than the rainfed system (24.03 MJ US$−1). The pricing system can underestimate renewable resources such as water for irrigation since the irrigated system’s NR EnER (21.09) was higher than the R EnER (12.78). Thus, the pricing system underestimates the biophysical sustainability of the agricultural systems.
      PubDate: 2021-08-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s41247-021-00089-4
       
  • Reduced Use of Fossil Fuels can Reduce Supply of Critical Resources

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      Abstract: Abstract Previous research has identified that climate change mitigation policies could increase demand for resources perceived as critical, because these are used in many renewable energy technologies. This study assesses how reducing the extraction and use of fossil fuels could affect the supply of (i) elements jointly produced with fossil fuels and (ii) elements jointly produced with a host that is currently mainly used in fossil fuel supply chains. Several critical resources are identified for which supply potential from current sources is likely to decline. Some of these, e.g. germanium and vanadium, have uses in low-carbon energy systems. Renewable energy transitions can thus simultaneously increase demand and reduce supply of critical elements. The problem is greatest for technology groups in which by-products are more difficult to recycle than the host. Photovoltaic cell technology stands out as one such group. Phasing out fossil fuels has the potential to reduce both the supply potential (i.e. primary flow) and recoverable resources (i.e. stock) of materials involved in such technology groups. Further studies could examine possibilities to increase recovery rates, extract jointly produced resources independently of hosts and how the geographical distribution of by-product supply sources might change if fossil fuel extraction is scaled back.
      PubDate: 2021-05-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s41247-021-00088-5
       
  • Degrowth: How Much is Needed'

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      Abstract: Abstract The considerable literature on Degrowth has focussed mainly on the case for it and on elements of a desirable new economy. Little attention has been given to the magnitude of the required Degrowth, and the common implicit assumption is that it would not be very great, enabling a desirable economy to be achieved by reforms within the existing economy. The following discussion argues that this is mistaken and that the reductions must be so large that they cannot be implemented within the existing structures and must involve extremely radical system change. Implications for the form that a sustainable and just society must take and for the way it might be achieved it are explored.
      PubDate: 2021-05-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s41247-021-00087-6
       
  • Are We Seeing Dematerialization of World GDP'

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      Abstract: Abstract Production of commodities and industrial products typically declines in relative terms as countries get richer. Does this mean that economic growth will become dematerialized and take place without being accompanied by a rise in the use of materials' Do we see signs of this already happening' We look at the production of cement and thirteen minerals 1960–2019 and find no evidence of dematerialization. Production of cement and eight minerals has grown more rapidly than world GDP and that of three minerals more rapidly than world population. Extraction of most minerals has accelerated rather than stagnated since the turn of the century.
      PubDate: 2021-05-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s41247-021-00086-7
       
  • Natural Resources and Illicit Financial Flows from BRICS Countries

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      Abstract: Abstract Natural resources wealth constitutes a fundamental pillar of economic development in BRICS countries which seek to swiftly catch-up the advanced economies. However, this catching-up process is coupled with an increase in capital flight. This paper aims at investigating the determinants of capital flight in BRICS countries over the period 2001–2017, while putting a greater emphasis on the role of natural resources. The econometric analysis reveals that natural resources exert a positive effect on capital flight, suggesting that natural resource rents fuel capital flight in BRICS countries. Empirical results show also that capital flight is determined by macroeconomic and institutional factors as well. However, the disaggregated analysis by natural resource components show some disparities that cannot be overlooked. Despite the large benefits of natural resources wealth, curbing the capital flight waves remains a key challenge that faces the BRICS grouping in order to ensure that profits are maximized for the good of countries.
      PubDate: 2021-03-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s41247-021-00085-8
       
  • Estimate of the Societal Energy Return on Investment (EROI)

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      Abstract: Abstract Access to abundant and affordable primary energy resources has been recognised as an essential factor for the prosperity of human societies. To measure their quality, understood as the ease with which the energy system can extract and transform them into a form useful to society, the concept of energy return on investment (EROI) is widely used. Yet, so far, very few estimates of this indicator exist at a society level. This paper first aims at providing an estimate of the societal EROI using a simple macroeconomic model with two sectors, an energy sector and a final sector aggregating the rest of the economy. For the year 2018 and at a worldwide level, we obtain a gross EROI of 9.4, and a net EROI of 8.5. The estimation of the net energy ratio (NER), a second indicator more comprehensive than the EROI, allows assessing the energy embodied in the intermediate and capital consumptions of the entire economy. The NER calculation reveals that only 39% of the final energy produced contributes to total consumption (private and public) and economic growth, the remaining 61% being consumed within the economy. These intermediate energy consumptions (direct and indirect) are unevenly distributed between the two sectors: 11% of the production goes to the energy sector, while no less than 50% is consumed within the final sector. These figures proved to be very insensitive to variations in the value of estimated model parameters.
      PubDate: 2021-02-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s41247-021-00084-9
       
  • Artificial Neural Network Modeling of Bioethanol Production Via Syngas
           Fermentation

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      Abstract: Abstract This paper explores the construction and validation of an artificial neural network (ANN) model to accurately and efficiently predict the performance of a downdraft biomass gasification integrated with syngas fermentation plant for ethanol production. The study aims to predict the specific mass flow rate of bioethanol product from the systems derived by various kinds of biomass feedstocks under atmospheric pressure and various operating conditions. The input parameters used in the models are elemental analysis compositions (C, O, H, N and S), proximate analysis compositions (moisture, ash, volatile material and fixed carbon) and operating parameters (gasifier temperature and air to fuel ratio). The architecture of the model consisted of one input, one hidden and one output layer. 1008 simulated data from 84 different types of biomasses in various operating conditions were used to train the ANN. The developed ANN shows agreement with simulated data with Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) less than 0.05 in the case of product bioethanol. Moreover, the relative influence of biomass characteristics and some specific operating parameters on output are determined. Finally, to have a more detailed assessment, the variations of all input variables with respect to carbon content are compared and analyzed together. The suggested integrated ANN based model can be applied as a very useful tool for optimization and control of the process through the downdraft biomass gasification integrated with bioethanol production unit.
      PubDate: 2021-01-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s41247-020-00083-2
       
  • Structural Equation Modeling in Forecasting Satisfaction of Biogas to a
           Rural Household: Examples from Nepal

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      Abstract: Abstract In this paper benefit of use of biogas is quantified with structural equation modelling. A survey of 400 households of biogas consumers produced primary data. This primary data is used here. Questionnaire developed for this survey was structured and generated mostly ordinal data. This questionnaire was also pretested and refined. Among several variables studied, distance covered for firewood before and after, source of firewood before and after, income status, educational background, frequency of visit to the hospital and family size were used. Response of consumers on direct benefits like reduced pollution, reduced fuel expenses, reduced physical hazard and reduced physical labour were also considered. Among several structural models explored, two most suitable Time Saved models are discussed here in detail; out of which one model is finalised. This is done using model specification, identification, estimation, testing, identification and validation procedures. Benefit of biogas to the two genders is quantified with odds ratio. It is seen quantitatively that the benefit of biogas to a woman far outweighs its benefit to a man. The direct benefit of biogas to a household in cooking and lighting is obvious, but various hidden benefits and interrelationships cannot be measured. Strong backbone of good quality official records are also missing for data validation. This paper measures and analyses these indirect and latent relationships. It also gives a holistic understanding of the interrelationships.
      PubDate: 2020-11-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s41247-020-00082-3
       
  • Understanding Oil Cycle Dynamics to Design the Future Economy

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      Abstract: Abstract In this work, we make the ansatz that economic production is reduced to the energy made available to the economy. In (Illig and Schindler, BioPhys Econ Resour Qual 2(1):1, 2017) the price of oil was expressed as a function of the size of the economy, the cost share of oil, and the quantity of oil extracted. We clarify assumptions needed to use this explicit price equation to study prices. Using the current extraction rate, the previous year’s extraction rate, and interest rates of the Federal Reserve we use linear regression to give a model for oil prices from 1966 to 2018. The model verifies that deductions made from the explicit price equation are consistent with empirical data over the given time period. Our analysis indicates that the contraction phase of world oil extraction began in 2020 and that it will be characterized by relatively low oil prices. We present some challenges and opportunities for building a future economy if our assumptions prove valid.
      PubDate: 2020-10-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s41247-020-00081-4
       
  • Assessing Carbon Capture: Public Policy, Science, and Societal Need

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      Abstract: Abstract From typhoons to wildfires, as the visible impacts of climate change mount, calls for mitigation through carbon drawdown are escalating. Environmentalists and many climatologists are urging steps to enhance biological methods of carbon drawdown and sequestration. Market actors seeing avenues for profit have launched ventures in mechanical–chemical carbon dioxide removal (CDR), seeking government support for their methods. Governments are responding. Given the strong, if often unremarked, momentum of demands for public subsidy of these commercial methods, on what cogent bases can elected leaders make decisions that, first and foremost, meet societal needs' To address this question, we reviewed the scientific and technical literature on CDR, focusing on two methods that have gained most legislative traction: point-source capture and direct air capture–which together we term “industrial carbon removal” (ICR), in contrast to biological methods. We anchored our review in a standard of “collective biophysical need,” which we define as a reduction of the level of atmospheric CO2. For each ICR method, we sought to determine (1) whether it sequesters more CO2 than it emits; (2) its resource usage at scale; and (3) its biophysical impacts. We found that the commercial ICR (C-ICR) methods being incentivized by governments are net CO2 additive: CO2 emissions exceed removals. Further, the literature inadequately addresses the resource usage and biophysical impacts of these methods at climate-significant scale. We concluded that dedicated storage, not sale, of captured CO2 is the only assured way to achieve a reduction of atmospheric CO2. Governments should therefore approach atmospheric carbon reduction as a public service, like water treatment or waste disposal. We offer policy recommendations along this line and call for an analysis tool that aids legislators in applying biophysical considerations to policy choices.
      PubDate: 2020-10-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s41247-020-00080-5
       
 
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