Subjects -> BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS (Total: 3570 journals)
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    - ECONOMIC SCIENCES: GENERAL (212 journals)
    - ECONOMIC SYSTEMS, THEORIES AND HISTORY (235 journals)
    - FASHION AND CONSUMER TRENDS (20 journals)
    - HUMAN RESOURCES (103 journals)
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    - PUBLIC FINANCE, TAXATION (37 journals)
    - TRADE AND INDUSTRIAL DIRECTORIES (2 journals)

ECONOMIC SYSTEMS, THEORIES AND HISTORY (235 journals)                  1 2 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 224 Journals sorted alphabetically
Ab Imperio     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Acta Economica     Open Access  
Acta Universitatis Sapientiae, European and Regional Studies     Open Access  
African East-Asian Affairs     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
African Economic History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
African Journal of Economic Policy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Sustainable Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
African Research Review     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
AL-FALAH : Journal of Islamic Economics     Open Access  
Al-Iqtishad : Journal of Islamic Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Al-Tijary : Jurnal Ekonomi dan Bisnis Islam     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
América Latina en la historia económica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Economic Journal : Economic Policy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 168)
American Economist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
An-Nisbah : Jurnal Ekonomi Syariah     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuario de Estudios Centroamericanos     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aquaculture Economics & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
ASAS : Jurnal Hukum dan Ekonomi Islam     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Bulletin of Energy Economics and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal for Poverty Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Quality of Life     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AUDITING: A Journal of Practice & Theory     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Australian Economic History Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
BioPhysical Economics and Resource Quality     Hybrid Journal  
Boletim de Conjuntura Econômica     Open Access  
Buletin Ekonomi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of Economic Theory and Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Business History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Business History Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Cadernos do Desenvolvimento Fluminense     Open Access  
Cahiers du GRM     Open Access  
Ciencias Económicas     Open Access  
Comparative Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Competition and Regulation in Network Industries     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Con-texto     Open Access  
Conjuntura Austral : Journal of the Global South     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Construction Economics and Building     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Contemporary Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Contemporary Economy     Open Access  
Contemporary Review of the Middle East     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Cooperativismo & Desarrollo     Open Access  
Corporate Governance and Sustainability Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Croatian Review of Economic, Business and Social Statistics     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Economía     Open Access  
Cuadernos de historia. Serie Economía y Sociedad     Open Access  
Cuadernos del CENDES     Open Access  
Cultura Económica     Open Access  
Development Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
E-Jurnal Ekonomi Pembangunan Universitas Udayana     Open Access  
Eastern European Countryside     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Econometric Research in Finance     Open Access  
Econometric Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Econometrics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Econometrics and Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Economía : Teoria y práctica     Open Access  
Economía Mexicana. Nueva Época     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Economia Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Economía UNAM     Open Access  
Economia y Sociedad     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Economía y Sociedad     Open Access  
Economia, Sociedad y Territorio     Open Access  
Economic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Economic Anthropology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Economic Education Analysis Journal     Open Access  
Economic History of Developing Regions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Economic Journal of Emerging Markets     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Economic Research-Ekonomska Istraživanja     Open Access  
Economic Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Economic Theory Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Economica : Jurnal Ekonomi Islam     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Economics and Law     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Economics Bosowa     Open Access  
Economics Development Analysis Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Economics of Development     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
EMAJ : Emerging Markets Journal     Open Access  
Emerging Economies Cases Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Emerging Economy Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Empirical Economic Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ensayos de Economía     Open Access  
Ensayos Revista de Economía     Open Access  
Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Environmental Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Erhvervshistorisk Årbog     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Espaço & Economia : Revista Brasileira de Geografia Econômica     Open Access  
Essays in Economic & Business History     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Estonian Discussions on Economic Policy     Open Access  
Estudios de Economía     Open Access  
Ethiopian Journal of Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
European Countryside     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Journal of Economics and Economic Policies : Intervention     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
European Journal of the History of Economic Thought     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
European Review of Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Evolutionary and Institutional Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Explorations in Economic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Expresión Económica : Revista de Análisis     Open Access  
FALAH : Jurnal Ekonomi Syariah     Open Access  
Foundation Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Germinal : Marxismo e Educação em Debate     Open Access  
Ghana Journal of Development Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Gizarte Ekonomiaren Euskal Aldizkaria : Revista Vasca de Economía Social     Open Access  
Hakam : Jurnal Kajian Hukum Islam dan Hukum Ekonomi Islam     Open Access  
History of Economic Thought and Policy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
History of Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
I-ECONOMICS : A Research Journal on Islamic Economics     Open Access  
Iberian Journal of the History of Economic Thought     Open Access  
Ikonomika : Jurnal Ekonomi dan Bisnis Islam     Open Access  
Indian Economic & Social History Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Indian Economic Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Indian Economic Review     Hybrid Journal  
Informe Econômico     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Business Intelligence Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Economic Policy Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Economic Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Game Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Sustainable Economies Management     Full-text available via subscription  
Investigación Económica     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Investigaciones de Historia Económica     Open Access  
IQTISHADIA : Jurnal Ekonomi & Perbankan Syariah     Open Access  
Iqtishoduna : Jurnal Ekonomi Islam     Open Access  
Irish Economic and Social History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Islamic Economics Journal     Open Access  
Journal of Advanced Research in Economics and International Business     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Asian Development     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Chinese Economic and Foreign Trade Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Demographic Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Economic and Social Thought     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Economic History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 52)
Journal of Economic Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Economic Literature     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 189)
Journal of Economic Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 220)
Journal of Economic Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Journal of Economics and International Relations     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Ekonomi     Open Access  
Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Governance and Regulation     Open Access  
Journal of Illicit Economies and Development     Open Access  
Journal of Innovation and Entrepreneurship     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Islamic Economic Laws     Open Access  
Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Post Keynesian Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Public Economic Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Public Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 76)
Journal of Public Economics Plus     Open Access  
Journal of Quantitative Economics     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Regional Economics Indonesia     Open Access  
Journal of Revenue and Pricing Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Spatial Econometrics     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Statistical and Econometric Methods     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of the History of Economic Thought     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Wine Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Jurnal Economica : Research of Economic And Economic Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Ekonomi dan Bisnis Islam (Journal of Islamic Economics and Business)     Open Access  
Jurnal Ekonomi dan Pembangunan Indonesia     Open Access  
Jurnal Ekonomi Pembangunan : Kajian Masalah Ekonomi dan Pembangunan     Open Access  
Jurnal Ekonomi Syariah Teori dan Terapan     Open Access  
Jurnal Hukum dan Pembangunan Ekonomi     Open Access  
Jurnal Ilmu Ekonomi Terapan     Open Access  
Latin American Economic Review     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Latin American Journal of Management for Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal  
Madagascar Conservation & Development     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Management of Sustainable Development     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Marketing Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Mediations : Journal of the Marxist Literary Group     Open Access  
MediaTrend     Open Access  
Mises : Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy, Law and Economics     Open Access  
Modern Economy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Moneta e Credito     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
New Agenda : South African Journal of Social and Economic Policy     Full-text available via subscription  
OECD Journal : Economic Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Organizations and Markets in Emerging Economies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Papeles de Europa     Open Access  
Pecvnia : Revista de la Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y Empresariales, Universidad de León     Open Access  
Perfil de Coyuntura Económica     Open Access  
Pittsburgh Papers on the European Union     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Población y Desarrollo - Argonautas y caminantes     Open Access  
Population and Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Pro-fit     Open Access  
Proceedings of Voronezh State University. Series: Economics and Management     Open Access  
QA : Rivista dell’Associazione Rossi-Doria     Full-text available via subscription  
Quarterly Journal of Islamic Finance and Banking Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Regional Formation and Development Studies     Open Access  
Review of Behavioral Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Review of Development and Change     Full-text available via subscription  
Review of Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 189)
Review of Evolutionary Political Economy     Hybrid Journal  
Review of Keynesian Economics     Partially Free   (Followers: 9)
Revista Conjuntura Econômica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista de Economía del Caribe     Open Access  
Revista de Economía del Rosario     Open Access  
Revista de Historia Económica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Revista de Historia Industrial. Economía y Empresa     Open Access  
Revista de Política Económica para el Desarrollo Sostenible     Open Access  
Revista Economía y Política     Open Access  
Revista Galega de Economia     Open Access  
Revista Gestão e Desenvolvimento     Open Access  
Revista Latinoamericana de Desarrollo Económico     Open Access  

        1 2 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
América Latina en la historia económica
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.134
Number of Followers: 3  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1405-2253 - ISSN (Online) 2007-3496
Published by SciELO Homepage  [672 journals]
  • Private Capital Investment in Public Services Financing: The Case of the
           Municipal Districts of Antioquia (Colombia), 1912-1931

    • Abstract: Resumen Este artículo tiene como objetivo mostrar un caso de la inversión para la provisión y mejoramiento de servicios públicos en distritos municipales de Antioquia y su financiamiento por parte del capital privado. Con tal fin se examinan los empréstitos otorgados por parte de una casa comercial-bancaria de Medellín, y en especial por uno de sus socios, en el periodo 1912-1931. Dicha firma obtuvo créditos de bancos extranjeros, recursos que canalizaron a numerosos distritos municipales. El texto revela hechos que tuvieron importancia en el crecimiento de Antioquia, esto es, el flujo de capital extranjero, así como el papel que desempeñaron intermediarios financieros de Medellín, los cuales facilitaron su ingreso en el circuito financiero local.Abstract In this paper I analyze the growth of credit that took place in many municipalities in the department of Antioquia (1912-1931). Credits were offered by a wealthy Brokerage House which at the time had abandoned foreign trade and was investing its profits in urban business and banking. Long time relations established with foreign banks allowed the commercial house to benefit from foreign loans, sums of money that were channeled to the region, and were intended to promote the development of public service infrastructure in rural areas. The article shows the flow of foreign capital into the region and the role played by financial intermediaries in Medellin which facilitated its entry into local financial circuits.
       
  • Baldíos, possession rights and royal land during the first composición
           process in Charcas. Viceroyalty of Peru, 1591-1597

    • Abstract: Resumen A partir de un corpus documental diverso, que incluye disposiciones regias, correspondencia vicerregia, pareceres locales y el juicio de residencia del juez de composición Osores de Ulloa, este artículo explora la figura jurídica de las tierras baldías e indaga en las relaciones posesorias que distintos vecinos ejercieron en ellas en el distrito de Charcas (virreinato del Perú) en la década de 1590. En ese sentido, se propone que, si hasta la década de 1580 las esferas virreinales peruanas propiciaban el uso común y el reparto gracioso de los baldíos, la primera composición y venta de tierras, ordenada por reales cédulas de 1591, tuvo un papel central en el reforzamiento del dominio regio sobre las tierras baldías y sobre las tierras indígenas consideradas vacantes, a partir del accionar de los jueces comisionados que en el terreno dotaron de referente material a una noción jurídica en disputa.Abstract Based on the analysis of a rich documentary corpus, including royal dispositions, viceroyal letters, reports and the residencia of the Charcas judge of composición Osores de Ulloa, this article explores the legal notion of baldíos and it analyzes the possessory relations exercised in Charcas (viceroyalty of Peru) in the 1590s. It proposes that, if until the 1580s Peruvian viceroyal spheres favored common use and graceful distribution of baldíos, the first composición de tierras ordered by 1591 royal dispositions played a significant role in the reinforcement of royal domain of baldíos and "vacant" indigenous lands, taking into account judges actions which provided material reference to a disputed legal notion.
       
  • Perdigão and the formation of a business group in Brazil: characteristics
           and strategies (1934-2009)

    • Abstract: Resumo O principal objetivo deste trabalho foi apresentar a Perdigão, S. A., como um modelo de business group consolidado no Brasil entre 1934-2009. Submersa em um cenário repleto de instabilidades e incertezas que costumam caracterizar as economias periféricas, a Perdigão promoveu estratégias que permitiram diferenciá-la da maioria das grandes empresas consolidadas em economias maduras. Portanto, concluímos que ao longo de seus 75 anos de história, a Perdigão caracterizou-se como um modelo organizacional business group capaz de adotar estratégias que permitiram explorar as sinergias criadas pelas atividades complementares entre os setores de carnes e derivados e se consolidar entre as maiores da indústria de alimentos no Brasil.Abstract The main objective of this work was to present Perdigão, S.A., as a model of a business group consolidated in Brazil between 1934-2009. Submerged in a scenario full of instabilities and uncertainties that usually characterize peripheral economies, Perdigão promoted strategies that allowed it to differentiate it from most large companies consolidated in mature economies. Therefore, we conclude that throughout its 75 years of history, Perdigão has been characterized as a business group organizational model capable of adopting strategies that allowed it to exploit the synergies created by the complementary activities between the meat and meat products sectors and consolidate itself among the largest of the food industry in Brazil.
       
  • Prices, Wages and Living Standards of Unskilled Workers in Buenos Aires
           During the First Half of the 19th Century

    • Abstract: Resumen En las últimas décadas, la historiografía latinoamericana se ha planteado múltiples preguntas y desafíos metodológicos sobre el problema del nivel de vida de las sociedades del continente en perspectiva histórica. El objetivo de este trabajo es abordar estos desafíos para el caso de la ciudad de Buenos Aires (Argentina) durante la primera mitad del siglo xix. Utilizamos nuevas series de precios de una variedad de artículos de amplio consumo y de ingresos salariales de mano de obra de poca calificación (jornales de los peones albañiles y sueldos de empleados estatales de bajo rango). Con base en diversas canastas de consumo de subsistencia disponibles, presentamos diferentes posibilidades de series de salarios reales (welfare ratio). Así, examinamos la evolución del nivel de vida de los trabajadores no calificados porteños entre 1824 y 1850, durante un periodo de importantes transformaciones socio-económica y políticas.Abstract In recent decades, Latin American historiography has raised many questions and methodological challenges regarding the standard of living of the continent’s societies in historical perspective. The aim of this paper is to address these challenges for the case of the city of Buenos Aires (Argentina) during the first half of the 19th century. We use new series of prices of a variety of items of wide consumption, and series of wage income of low-skilled labor (wages of bricklayers and salaries of low-ranking state employees). Based on various available subsistence consumption baskets, we present different possibilities of real wage series (welfare ratio). Thus, we examine the evolution of the living standards of unskilled workers in Buenos Aires between 1824 and 1850, during a period of important socio-economic and political transformations.
       
  • Global trafficking and local bussines: the slave trade of the Philippine
           Royal Company in the Rio de la Plata, 1786-1790

    • Abstract: Resumen Esta investigación se centra en las operaciones de la Real Compañía de Filipinas en el mercado global, en este caso, sobre la trata de esclavos entre África y América como acercamiento a las dimensiones locales del comercio global. Se examinan las causas y consecuencias de una empresa que, aunque fallida, abrió un nuevo ciclo en la trata negrera rioplatense y su inserción en la economía global de fines del siglo XVIII.Abstract This research focuses on the operations of the Philippine Royal Company in the global market, on the slave trade between Africa and America as a way to approach to the local dimensions of global trade. It examines the causes and consequences of a company that, despite its failure, opened a new cycle in the Río de la Plata slave trade and its inclusion in the global economy of the late 18th century.
       
  • The racial issue and the limits of Brazilian economic and social
           development: a critical perspective

    • Abstract: Resumo O objetivo é analisar a questão racial brasileira como obstáculo histórico ao desenvolvimento econômico-social do país, a partir de uma perspectiva crítica marxista. Considera-se que as relações sociais são moldadas não somente pelo regime de classes como também pelo mito da democracia racial como ferramenta de uma velada segregação –que, como tal, também se mostra uma densa barreira ao fortalecimento de um proletariado sólido–. A metodologia utilizada consistiu em defrontar a argumentação das clássicas teses de Florestan Fernandes e Octávio Ianni com artigos científicos mais recentes, levantando convergências e divergências, para, a partir dos dados levantados, demonstrar que a conscientização acerca da questão racial é condição sine qua non para a legitimação e o fortalecimento do proletariado.Abstract The objective is to analyze the Brazilian racial issue as a historical obstacle to the country’s economic and social development, from a critical Marxist perspective. It is considered that social relations are shaped not only by the class regime but also by the myth of racial democracy as a tool of veiled segregation –which, as such, also proves to be dense barrier to the strengthening of a solid proletariat–. The methodology used consisted of confronting the arguments of the classic theses of Florestan Fernandes and Octávio Ianni with more recent scientific articles, raising convergences and divergences, in order to demonstrate, from the data collected, that awareness about the racial issue is a sine qua non condition for legitimation. and the strengthening of the proletariat.
       
  • Confronting Statistical Sources of Fiscal Budget for Mexico, 1934-1956

    • Abstract: Resumen El balance presupuestario del gobierno mexicano es el indicador principal para evaluar la política fiscal y su impacto macroeconómico. El objetivo de este artículo es confrontar las series del balance fiscal de las fuentes primarias y secundarias y discernir cuál puede ser la más adecuada en la investigación histórico-económica de la etapa del desarrollo con inflación, 1934-1956, en México. Nuestra hipótesis señala que la fuente primaria en términos brutos que utiliza la metodología ingreso-egreso-balance no es la adecuada para evaluar la política gubernamental debido a que incluye rubros que distorsionan el balance fiscal y su impacto macro. La fuente primaria a utilizar es la que aplica la metodología del cálculo del balance fiscal vía su financiamiento. Las fuentes secundarias que usan la primera opción reproducen la deficiencia anotada, lo cual implica problemas de interpretación histórica. Al respecto, realizamos un análisis metodológico de la historiografía sobre el comportamiento de las finanzas públicas.Abstract The budget balance is the main indicator to evaluate the fiscal policy and its macroeconomic impact. The objective of this study is to confront the series of the budget balance provided by the primary and secondary sources and find out which is the most adequate for economic history research in the period 1934-1956. Our hypothesis states that the primary source in gross terms, which is based on the income/expenditure/balance methodology, is not adequate to evaluate the government policy because it includes items that distorts the fiscal balance and its macroeconomic impact. The way to resolve this issue is to use the primary source that applies the methodology to calculate the fiscal balance through its financing. The secondary sources based on the first option reproduced the noted deficiency and affected the historical interpretation, something that is shown with a methodological analysis of the historiography on the performance of the public finances.
       
  • Industrial electrification in Chile: 1895-1955

    • Abstract: Resumen La presente investigación analiza la trayectoria de la electrificación de las industrias chilenas entre 1895 y 1955, como ejemplo de aquellos países periféricos de industrialización tardía que no lograron insertarse al grupo de países de ingreso alto. Empleando datos inéditos sobre la potencia mecánica industrial, se sostiene que los trastornos generados por las guerras mundiales provocaron dificultades en el proceso de modernización industrial, motivando un retorno al uso de motores primarios por sobre los eléctricos. Este estudio demuestra que la transición hacia el motor eléctrico no estuvo exenta de conflictos, y que tales problemas pudieron afectar los incrementos de productividad industrial.Abstract This research deals with the electrification trajectory of Chilean industries between 1895 and 1955, as an example of those peripheral countries of late industrialization that failed to join the group of high-income countries. Using unpublished data on industrial mechanical power, it is argued that the disorders generated by the World Wars caused difficulties in the process of industrial modernization, motivating a return to the use of primary motors over electric ones. This study shows that the transition to the electric motor was not without conflicts and that such problems could have affected the increases in industrial productivity.
       
 
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