Subjects -> BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS (Total: 3541 journals)
    - ACCOUNTING (132 journals)
    - BANKING AND FINANCE (306 journals)
    - BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS (1229 journals)
    - CONSUMER EDUCATION AND PROTECTION (20 journals)
    - COOPERATIVES (4 journals)
    - ECONOMIC SCIENCES: GENERAL (212 journals)
    - ECONOMIC SYSTEMS, THEORIES AND HISTORY (235 journals)
    - FASHION AND CONSUMER TRENDS (20 journals)
    - HUMAN RESOURCES (103 journals)
    - INSURANCE (26 journals)
    - INTERNATIONAL COMMERCE (145 journals)
    - INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND AID (103 journals)
    - INVESTMENTS (22 journals)
    - LABOR AND INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS (61 journals)
    - MACROECONOMICS (17 journals)
    - MANAGEMENT (595 journals)
    - MARKETING AND PURCHASING (106 journals)
    - MICROECONOMICS (23 journals)
    - PRODUCTION OF GOODS AND SERVICES (143 journals)
    - PUBLIC FINANCE, TAXATION (37 journals)
    - TRADE AND INDUSTRIAL DIRECTORIES (2 journals)

INTERNATIONAL COMMERCE (145 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 136 of 136 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Economica Et Turistica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
African Journal of Economic and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Amnis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Antitrust Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asia and the Global Economy     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Shipping and Logistics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Botswana Journal of Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Career Development International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
China Business Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
China Economic Quarterly International     Open Access  
Competition and Regulation in Network Industries     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Critical Perspectives on International Business     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Crossroads     Hybrid Journal  
Digital Finance : Smart Data Analytics, Investment Innovation, and Financial Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
East Asian Community Review     Hybrid Journal  
EC Tax Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Economic Journal of Emerging Markets     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Economics Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ekonomia Międzynarodowa     Open Access  
EMAJ : Emerging Markets Journal     Open Access  
Emerging Markets Finance and Trade     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Estudos Internacionais : revista de relações internacionais da PUC Minas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Business Law Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
European Company Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
European Journal of International Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Expert Journal of Business and Management     Open Access  
Foreign Trade Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Global & Strategis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Global Trade and Customs Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Human Resource Development International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Human Resource Management International Digest     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
IMF Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
IN VIVO     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Information Resources Management Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Information Technologies & International Development     Open Access   (Followers: 82)
International Advances in Economic Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Business Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Commerce Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Economic Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
International Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Economics and Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
International Insolvency Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Applied Behavioral Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
International Journal of Asian Business and Information Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Commerce and Management     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Export Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Governance and Financial Intermediation     Hybrid Journal  
International Labor and Working-Class History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
International Labour Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 60)
International Marketing Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Public Management Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Review of Applied Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Review of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Review of Economics & Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
International Review of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Review of Financial Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Review of Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Review of Social History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
International Review on Public and Nonprofit Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Small Business Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Studies of Management and Organization     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
International Trade Journal : Western Hemispheric Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Transactions In Operational Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Intertax     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Japanese Political Economy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal for International Business and Entrepreneurship Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Accounting and Finance in Emerging Economies     Open Access  
Journal of Advanced Research in Economics and International Business     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Chinese Economic and Foreign Trade Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Chinese Human Resource Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Comparative International Management     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Contemporary European Research     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Economics and International Finance     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of International Accounting, Auditing and Taxation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of International Business Policy     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of International Business Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
Journal of International Commerce, Economics and Policy     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of International Consumer Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of International Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Journal of International Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Journal of International Entrepreneurship     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of International Financial Management & Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of International Food & Agribusiness Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of International Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of International Marketing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Journal of International Money and Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Journal of International Trade & Economic Development: An International and Comparative Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of International Trade Law and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Korea Trade     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Monetary Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 95)
Journal of Revenue and Pricing Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Reviews on Global Economics     Open Access  
Journal of the Association for Consumer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Journal of the Japanese and International Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Theoretical and Applied Electronic Commerce Research     Open Access  
Journal of World Trade     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Jurnal Hubungan Internasional     Open Access  
Jurnal Ilmu Ekonomi Terapan     Open Access  
L'Année du Maghreb     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Management international / International Management / Gestiòn Internacional     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Management International Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
MEED Middle East Economic Digest     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Monthly Statistics of International Trade - Statistiques mensuelles du commerce international     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
PharmacoEconomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Proceedings of the International Conference on Business Excellence     Open Access  
Qualitative Research in Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Quarterly Journal of Political Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Regional Formation and Development Studies     Open Access  
Relações Internacionais (R:I)     Open Access  
Research World     Hybrid Journal  
Review of International Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Review of International Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Revista Brasileira de Gestão de Negócios     Open Access  
Revista Multiface Online     Open Access  
Revue internationale de l'économie sociale     Full-text available via subscription  
Revue Internationale du Travail     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Revue internationale P.M.E. : économie et gestion de la petite et moyenne entreprise     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
South African Journal of International Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
South American Development Society Journal     Open Access  
Studies in Comparative International Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Syracuse Journal of International Law and Commerce     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
TDM Transnational Dispute Management Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Transnational Corporations Review     Hybrid Journal  
World Competition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
World Food Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
World Oil Trade     Hybrid Journal  
World Trade and Arbitration Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)

           

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
International Small Business Journal
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.974
Citation Impact (citeScore): 4
Number of Followers: 11  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0266-2426 - ISSN (Online) 1741-2870
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1174 journals]
  • Small and medium-sized enterprises response to Covid-19: The effect of
           external openness and procedural management

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Jonas Fasth, Niklas Åkerman, Viktor Elliot, Mikael Hilmersson
      Abstract: International Small Business Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Crisis management research is strongly influenced by the behaviour of large multinationals with few insights into how small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) mitigate the negative effects of exogenous shocks such as the Covid-19 pandemic. Inspired by the capability-based view on crisis management, we postulate that management openness and degree of interactivity determine SME crisis response. We test our theoretical model with an original dataset of 902 Swedish SMEs compiled from a telephone-based survey conducted in June 2020. We find that formalised procedures for crisis management and openness to input from others, particularly external actors, enhances an organisation’s ability to make a decisive rapid response. We discuss our findings and suggest that formalised procedures and openness are important components of an SME’s rapid response capability.
      Citation: International Small Business Journal
      PubDate: 2022-07-01T07:33:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02662426221101528
       
  • Legitimacy and innovation in social enterprises

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Raluca Bunduchi, Alison U Smart, Catalina Crisan-Mitra, Sarah Cooper
      Abstract: International Small Business Journal, Ahead of Print.
      This article examines the interrelationship between legitimacy building efforts – the different ways in which social enterprises (SEs) conform to stakeholder expectations – and types of innovation – the different approaches by which they create social and economic value through product, process and business model innovation. Using a multi-case study research design of twenty SEs in Scotland and Romania, we find that the SEs adjusted their approach to legitimacy building depending upon the types of innovation and stakeholder involved. Also, while all SEs pursued pragmatic and moral legitimacy through conforming with their stakeholders’ expectations, the type of innovation shaped the way in which they prioritised one form of legitimacy over another to deal with the tensions involved in pursuing legitimacy with heterogeneous stakeholders. This finding emphasises the importance of innovation type when explaining how SEs balance the tensions involved in trying to conform to a wide range of heterogeneous stakeholders with different expectations.
      Citation: International Small Business Journal
      PubDate: 2022-06-07T08:50:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02662426221102860
       
  • From adversity to advice: Survival threats as a trigger for sustained
           engagement with external business support in small firms

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      Authors: Halima Jibril, Maria Wishart, Stephen Roper
      Abstract: International Small Business Journal, Ahead of Print.
      This article analyses the relationship between the experience of a crisis and advice seeking in small firms. Although the benefits of business advice and support to smaller firms are well documented, smaller firms are often reluctant to seek external advice, relying instead on informal routines and a focus on daily operations. Conceptualising crisis as a trigger for advice seeking, and using survey data from 2089 small firms, we find a strong and significant relationship between experiencing a crisis and seeking external business advice up to 5 years after the crisis. This sustained effect on advice seeking is particularly strong for firms who also sought advice at the time of the crisis. Additionally, we find that the effect of a business crisis on sustained advice seeking is stronger for firms subject to a crisis with external origins.
      Citation: International Small Business Journal
      PubDate: 2022-06-07T01:20:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02662426221105004
       
  • How would foreign entrepreneurs deal with pressures for corruption' A
           micro-foundational approach

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Kun Liu, Len J Treviño, Ahmad Al Asady
      Abstract: International Small Business Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Is corruption good or bad for entrepreneurship' Prior research has presented mixed results when exploring this question. This article takes a micro-foundational approach by focussing on how foreign entrepreneurs cognitively deal with corruption in the host environment. We argue that the entrepreneur’s motivational antecedent to engaging in corruption, or corruption propensity, represents a cognitive belief in the legitimacy and effectiveness of corruption. We find that higher corruption propensity leads to lower firm growth. In addition, the effects of corruption propensity are conditioned by the corruption difference between home and host countries. Finally, we discuss implications for research, practice and public policy.
      Citation: International Small Business Journal
      PubDate: 2022-06-01T04:48:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02662426221094763
       
  • Multipartner alliances among small firms promoted by external managers:
           Risk and governance mechanisms

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: María L Vélez, José M Sánchez, Pedro Araújo
      Abstract: International Small Business Journal, Ahead of Print.
      External managers may be key to setting up and managing multi-partner alliances (MPAs) among small firms, but their role has not yet been integrated in previous literature on risk and governance structures. This longitudinal matched-pair case study investigates the dynamics between relational and performance risks and control-based and trust-based governance mechanisms, in MPAs promoted and managed by external managers. The integration of external managers allows the identification of different levels of trust and control among partners. This is also the case between such partners and the external manager who controls/trusts, who is controlled/trusted, and how this changes over time. Our results show that trust and control are influenced by both the external actor and partner’s risk perceptions; they also complement each other to manage high performance and relational risks in a dynamic process. We extend prior knowledge by showing that the analysis of control/trust complementarity must take into consideration both partner-partner and partner-manager relationships.
      Citation: International Small Business Journal
      PubDate: 2022-05-31T07:15:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02662426221100182
       
  • Individual religious affiliation, religiosity and entrepreneurial
           intentions among students in four countries

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      Authors: Olivier Giacomin, Frank Janssen, Rachel S Shinnar, Katherine Gundolf, Nematollah Shiri
      Abstract: International Small Business Journal, Ahead of Print.
      This article explores religion and religiosity in the field of entrepreneurship. Based on an original, international dataset of 740 students, we examine the impact of individual religious affiliation (Protestant, Catholic or Muslim) or non-affiliation (Agnostic/Atheist) on entrepreneurial intentions. We further examine the influence of individual religiosity (beyond mere religious affiliation) on entrepreneurial intentions, offering new insights as to the role religion and religiosity play in entrepreneurship. Findings support the notion that religion matters when entrepreneurial intentions are concerned. We show that having a religious affiliation – as compared to identifying as an Agnostic/Atheist – has a positive relationship with entrepreneurial intentions. More importantly, we show that religiosity – not just religious affiliation – affects intentions differently across different religions, thus pointing to the importance of taking religiosity into account, and not only religious affiliation. We also show that followers of a specific religion cannot be regarded as a uniform group when it comes to entrepreneurship and that it is important to differentiate between streams.
      Citation: International Small Business Journal
      PubDate: 2022-05-18T11:43:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02662426221097910
       
  • Starting up, not slowing down: Social entrepreneurial intentions in later
           working-life

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      Authors: Zeineb Djebali, MariaLaura Di Domenico, Mark NK Saunders
      Abstract: International Small Business Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Despite a growing literature on entrepreneurial intentions, there remain gaps in the understanding of how these are affected by the age of later working-life social entrepreneurs. This research examined the ‘over-50s’ social entrepreneur understandings of age as an antecedent of their social entrepreneurial intentions. In-depth interviews were conducted with 28 UK-based social entrepreneurs. Our findings demonstrate that social entrepreneurial intentions in later working-life are influenced by an interplay of necessity, fulfilment and experienced later life, age being perceived as a positive construct rather than as a barrier. Our research contributes to the social entrepreneurship and small business literature by enhancing and advancing current knowledge and theorisation of the social entrepreneurial intentions of the over-50s. We reveal first, how social entrepreneurs make sense of their older age and the influence of their social entrepreneurial intentions; and second, how these social entrepreneurial intentions are formed by the intertwining of necessity, fulfilment and experienced later life.
      Citation: International Small Business Journal
      PubDate: 2022-05-14T07:42:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02662426221093570
       
  • Book review: Entrepreneurial Strategy: Starting, Managing, and Scaling New
           Ventures

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Radha Vyas, BCP BBA
      Abstract: International Small Business Journal, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: International Small Business Journal
      PubDate: 2022-05-14T03:21:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02662426221095227
       
  • Book review: Immigrant entrepreneurship: Cases from contemporary Poland

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Seth Butler
      Abstract: International Small Business Journal, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: International Small Business Journal
      PubDate: 2022-05-13T05:16:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02662426221095201
       
  • Pace of innovation and speed of small and medium-sized enterprise
           international expansion

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      Authors: Mikael Hilmersson, Firouze Pourmand Hilmersson, Sylvie Chetty, Roger Schweizer
      Abstract: International Small Business Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The literature emphasises that technological advances have enabled firms to expand internationally at accelerated speed. Yet, technological advances are treated as a contextual variable and little is known about how firm-level technological innovations influence the internationalisation speed of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). To address this shortcoming, we draw on insights based on capability development theory to establish the effects of innovation timing and pace on SME international expansion speed. We test our conceptual model using a sample of 180 Swedish SMEs and show that the faster the innovation pace, the faster the internationalisation. We then address the boundary conditions of this relationship to show that the elapsed time between a firm’s founding and first innovation negatively moderates the positive effects of its innovation pace. Our findings have theoretical, managerial and policy implications.
      Citation: International Small Business Journal
      PubDate: 2022-05-06T10:31:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02662426221085193
       
  • The emergence of team entrepreneurial passion from team helping: An
           affective events theory perspective

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      Authors: Xiumei Zhu, Shan Yang, Endrit Kromidha
      Abstract: International Small Business Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Research has acknowledged the outcomes of entrepreneurial passion, but little is known in regard to how it occurs. In this article, we shift the focus to the team level and investigate the emergence of team entrepreneurial passion (TEP) from the team helping perspective. Drawing on affective events theory (AET), we examine how team help-seeking and -giving facilitate TEP. Team-level analyses were performed on data drawn from 487 members of 112 new venture teams in an accelerator for high-technology firms in China. Our findings show that team help-seeking and -giving are in a direct relationship with TEP; we highlight how the interaction between these two aspects is positively associated with TEP. This article extends the study of TEP to team helping and treats the latter in relation to its two separate but related aspects of seeking and giving. Further, our focus moves from singular effects to an interactive perspective on the antecedents of TEP.
      Citation: International Small Business Journal
      PubDate: 2022-05-05T06:47:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02662426221089499
       
  • Mixed embeddedness and entrepreneurship beyond new venture creation:
           Opportunity tensions in the case of reregulated public markets

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      Authors: Lena Högberg, Craig Mitchell
      Abstract: International Small Business Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The mixed embeddedness (ME) perspective offers a holistic approach to understanding entrepreneurship as embedded in a myriad of contexts. Alone, however, it is not capable of explaining the dynamic interrelations between entrepreneurship and opportunity structures beyond venture start-up. We offer a synthesis between ME and the dynamic states approach, using the concept of opportunity tension to explore the recursive interplay between entrepreneurial agency and opportunity structures. The integrated approach is applied to, and developed by drawing upon, the case of ethnic minority entrepreneurship in the changing Swedish welfare state following customer choice reform. We explore opportunity tensions that arise during start-up, growth and exit for two firms that provide care for the elderly in public quasi-markets. We develop concepts that account for different patterns of embeddedness and opportunity tensions as well as bottom-up effects of entrepreneurship in terms of reregulation and conclude that the interplay amounts to a paradox of ethnicity.
      Citation: International Small Business Journal
      PubDate: 2022-05-05T02:16:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02662426221083827
       
  • Book review:Contextualizing Entrepreneurship Theory

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Amber Olson
      Abstract: International Small Business Journal, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: International Small Business Journal
      PubDate: 2022-05-04T07:53:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02662426211070941
       
  • Entrepreneurial passion and venture profit: Examining the moderating
           effects of political connections and environmental dynamism in an emerging
           market

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Samuel Adomako, Kevin F Mole, Rebecca J Franklin, Charles Y Murnieks
      Abstract: International Small Business Journal, Ahead of Print.
      This article analyses the contingent factors which influence the relationship between entrepreneurial passion and venture profit. While research on entrepreneurial passion is burgeoning, studies that analyse contingent factors and boundary conditions surrounding entrepreneurial passion theory are sparse. Moreover, we know very little about how the influence of entrepreneurial passion on venture outcomes might vary in emerging markets, typically characterised by higher levels of bureaucratic involvement and institutional deficiencies. We extend entrepreneurial passion theory by testing a contingent model that evaluates the influence of political connections and environmental dynamism on the relationship between entrepreneurial passion and venture profit. More specifically, we examine the role of passion on venture profit and the moderating impact of political connections and perceived environmental dynamism. Using time-lagged data from 231 small businesses in Ghana, we find that political connections amplify the potency of passion as a driver of venture profit. In addition, we find that this interaction is conditioned by environmental dynamism; specifically, the moderating effect of political connections on the relationship between entrepreneurial passion and venture profit is stronger when dynamism is high. Our fine-grained analysis increases the conceptual scope and generalisability of entrepreneurial passion to non-Western contexts.
      Citation: International Small Business Journal
      PubDate: 2022-04-28T09:40:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02662426221085182
       
  • Entrepreneurial Leadership in Austrian Family SMEs: A Configurational
           Approach

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      Authors: Andreas Strobl, Andreas Kallmuenzer, Mike Peters
      Abstract: International Small Business Journal, Ahead of Print.
      This article explores the role of stewardship practices related to entrepreneurial leadership in turning entrepreneurial orientation (EO) into family firm performance while considering its environmental context. Family business research has not fully investigated how the EO–financial performance relationship depends on configurations of internal and external factors which establish strategic fit. We argue that family firms can overcome the often-highlighted paternalism-entrepreneurship paradox by employing stewardship practices related to entrepreneurial leadership (internal factor), which in turn can help them leverage strategic fit between EO and dynamic environments (external factor). The results of a survey of 162 Austrian small and medium-sized family enterprises (family SMEs) show that family SMEs can only profit from EO under certain configurations of internal and external factors. Employing stewardship practices related to entrepreneurial leadership turns out to be an efficient and necessary condition for transforming EO into performance. Environmental dynamism is, furthermore, a double-edged sword facilitating and impeding the transformation of EO into performance. These findings contribute to existing research by shedding light on the role of stewardship practices in establishing strategic fit in entrepreneurial 10 years family firms.
      Citation: International Small Business Journal
      PubDate: 2022-04-28T04:46:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02662426221084918
       
  • Juggling on a tightrope: Experiences of small and micro business managers
           responding to employees with mental health difficulties

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      Authors: Jane Suter, Annie Irvine, Carole Howorth
      Abstract: International Small Business Journal, Ahead of Print.
      This article presents findings from an in-depth qualitative study focused exclusively on the first-hand experiences of small and micro businesses managers who have responded to employees with mental health difficulties. Despite growing policy focus on workplace mental health, empirical research evidence on management experiences of responding to mental health issues in a small or micro business context is rare. Drawing on in-depth interviews with 21 UK-based small and micro business managers who described 45 individual employee cases, we examine how managers traverse a support-performance continuum, and use a tension-based lens to analyse the tensions that managers experienced. We examine three key tensions for small and micro business managers that surfaced when responding to employees with mental health problems: (1) Individual vs Collective; (2) Confidence vs Caution; (3) Informal vs Formal. Our analysis exposes how managers handle tensions when managing at the nexus of support and performance and contributes a deeper understanding of the dynamics and challenges of managing mental health problems in small and micro businesses.
      Citation: International Small Business Journal
      PubDate: 2022-04-23T08:06:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02662426221084252
       
  • Coopetition strategy as naturalised practice in a cluster of informal
           businesses

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      Authors: William PK Darbi, Paul Knott
      Abstract: International Small Business Journal, Ahead of Print.
      This article builds on existing analyses of coopetition strategy as practice by exploring coopetition as a social-structural and relational phenomenon. We draw on social practice theory to present an analysis of coopetition in a cluster of small informal businesses in Accra, Ghana. In so doing, we adopt a comprehensive socio-cultural perspective enabling us to account for a wider range of antecedents, drivers and both intended and unintended outcomes for individuals, firms, clusters and wider institutions. We show how immersive cooperation among competing firms became a naturalised practice in the cluster, embedded as a cultural assumption. Following this, we develop a conceptual framework that shows how the actions of individuals (agency) and strength of institutional and societal (structure) influences may lead to different forms of small business coopetition strategy.
      Citation: International Small Business Journal
      PubDate: 2022-04-13T02:29:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02662426221079728
       
  • Business unpredictability, improvisation and business network commitment
           in small and medium-sized enterprise market entry

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      Authors: Mikael Hilmersson, Martin Johanson, Stylianos Papaioannou, Helene Lundberg
      Abstract: International Small Business Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Market entry performance is critical during internationalisation; prevailing views suggest that firms need to carefully plan their entry before putting the plan into action. This article focuses on three attributes affecting the possibility and usefulness of making a pre-planned market entry: unpredictability, improvisation and business network commitment. We develop six hypotheses tested on a sample of 250 entries; our main finding is that improvisation plays a mediating role in relation to performance in unpredictable markets. The analysis reveals that the relationship between unpredictability and network commitment is not significant, while the effect of unpredictability on market entry performance is negative. These findings suggest implications for internationalisation and international entrepreneurship theory. For managers and entrepreneurs, we show that unpredictability weakens market entry performance, a negative effect that can be mitigated if the entrant firm improvises.
      Citation: International Small Business Journal
      PubDate: 2022-03-21T07:49:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02662426211069964
       
  • Effectual market creation in the cross-border e-commerce of small- and
           medium-sized enterprises

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      Authors: Daniel Tolstoy, Sara Melén Hånell, Nurgül Özbek
      Abstract: International Small Business Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Cross-border e-commerce can enable smaller firms to quickly reach many foreign markets. This article examines how effectual market creation affects the international performance of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) engaged in cross-border e-commerce. Building upon effectuation theory, we suggest that firms can drive foreign market demand by creating new ways to interact and engage with customers in the digital space. Analysing a sample of 99 Swedish e-commerce SMEs, we find that effectual market creation has a positive effect on their international performance. We also find that this positive effect is enabled by insidership in international markets, illustrated by activities related to international marketing analytics and international networking. Through these findings, we contribute to theory development on the internationalisation of small digital firms.
      Citation: International Small Business Journal
      PubDate: 2022-03-04T06:08:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02662426211072999
       
  • High growth episodes among R&D intensive firms. Evidence for Europe,
           US and Japan

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      Authors: Luigi Aldieri, Vania Sena, Concetto Paolo Vinci
      Abstract: International Small Business Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The purpose of this article is three-fold: first, it tests whether inter-industry R&D spillovers are positively associated with the likelihood of experiencing high growth episodes among R&D intensive firms in Europe, US and Japan; second, it tests whether such a relationship is conditional on their level of absorptive capacity (ACAP); third, it tests whether the acquisition of foreign patents please replace brackets with commas may trigger high growth episodes among a sub-set of R&D intensive firms. For the empirical analysis, we focus on R&D intensive manufacturing firms observed between 2002 and 2017, located in Europe, US and Japan. The empirical findings support the hypotheses suggesting that: a) inter-industry R&D spillovers are associated with the likelihood of experiencing high growth episodes; b) ACAP conditions the relationship between inter-industry R&D spillovers and the likelihood of experiencing high growth episodes and c) shares of foreign patents are positively associated with the likelihood of experiencing high growth episodes among high-tech R&D intensive firms.JEL codes: C41, L25, O33.
      Citation: International Small Business Journal
      PubDate: 2022-03-02T07:44:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02662426211070943
       
  • Contextualising rural entrepreneurship – A strong structuration
           perspective on gendered-local agency

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      Authors: Nermin Elkafrawi, Annie Roos, Deema Refai
      Abstract: International Small Business Journal, Ahead of Print.
      This article employs Stones’ (2005) Strong Structuration Theory (SST) to contextualise rural entrepreneurship. Through shadowing a single case study of a woman entrepreneur from rural Sweden, we propose gendered-local agency as operationalisation of active agency in practice. While SST positions active agency as a property of agents, we demonstrate it is as a property that is intertwined with both agents and structure. Simultaneously enabled and constrained, gendered-local agency itself becomes contextualised within gender-related and locality-related rural-specific interplay that modifies, preserves and challenges rural structures. The article contributes to the literature on contextualising entrepreneurship through a structuration lens by signifying gendered-local agency as a manifestation of rural-specific interplay between contexts as environments (out there) and context as constructed (through entrepreneurs). This conceptualisation proposes everyday entrepreneurship as a demonstration of agency in action, thus setting a foundation for exploring entrepreneurship through the context-specific agent-structure interplay in the rural context and others.
      Citation: International Small Business Journal
      PubDate: 2022-03-01T02:44:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02662426211069851
       
  • Getting a Foot in the Door: Trade Credit Strategies and the Pursuit of
           Entrepreneurial Internationalisation

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      Authors: Richard A Hunt, Mathew LA Hayward, Yue Song, David M Townsend, Maximilian Stallkamp
      Abstract: International Small Business Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Trade credit strategies – comprised of the approaches used by internationalising firms to set the payment terms and schedules for their customers – are one of the few levers available to new small firms to overcome the liability of outsidership. They are vital to entrepreneurial firms seeking to achieve international market growth in the context of scarce resources and limited knowledge of foreign markets and partners. Though under-explored and under-theorised to-date, trade credits may unlock material insights for predictive models of entrepreneurial growth. As such, our study develops and tests the notion that trade credits constitute an important mechanism for entrepreneurial firms to initiate goodwill and generate valuable referrals. However, our findings also suggest that while riskier trade credit strategies help first-time exporters combat exclusion from networks key to a firm’s ability to internationalise, the attendant risks often have a detrimental impact on long-term profitability and survival, thus creating a decision-making conundrum for growth-aspirants. Drawing upon a sample of 88,000 export transactions by 1040 small lumber firms from 52 countries, we advance theory and practice by showing how trade credit strategies shape both growth and performance.
      Citation: International Small Business Journal
      PubDate: 2022-03-01T01:48:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02662426221078940
       
  • Predicting future default on the Covid-19 bounce back loan scheme: The
           £46.5 billion question

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      Authors: Marc Cowling, Nick Wilson, Paul Nightingale, Marek Kacer
      Abstract: International Small Business Journal, Ahead of Print.
      The UK has had a commitment to loan guarantee schemes since 1981 when it introduced the Small Firms Loan Guarantee (SFLG) scheme to address access to debt finance issues for smaller firms. Over the last 40 years, its support has been unwavering, and in the Covid-19 crisis, it once again turned to loan guarantees as a means of supporting smaller firms through the crisis-induced slump in trading activities. Of its three core Covid-19 guarantee schemes, the Bounce Back Loan (BBL) scheme was the most numerous with 1,531,095 loans issued amounting to a total of £46.5bn in lending. The BBL scheme provided a 100% capital guarantee on loans between £2,000 and £50,000, and firms were allowed to borrow up to 25% of their trading income, with a fixed interest rate of 2.5% of which the first years interest was paid by the government to the lending bank. Our findings suggest that the government losses may range between £7bn and £12bn depending on the underlying assumptions; however, we estimate Covid-19 guarantee schemes may have protected 118,639 businesses and 1,117,849 jobs. Looking to the future, we suggest that a new loan guarantee is justified that more resembles the former SFLG than the restrictive Enterprise Finance Guarantee (EFG) as more than one million small businesses will be heavily indebted and unable to borrow to invest in future growth opportunities. This would support the ‘levelling-up’ agenda and help prevent a post-Covid-19 low investment–low growth scenario.
      Citation: International Small Business Journal
      PubDate: 2022-02-01T04:39:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02662426211058050
       
  • Immanent sensemaking by entrepreneurs and the interpretation of consumer
           context

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      Authors: Laura Niemi, Pekka Stenholm, Henri Hakala, Jenni Kantola
      Abstract: International Small Business Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Contemporary research has highlighted entrepreneurial sensemaking as a dynamic, socially embedded action undertaken to reduce uncertainty, but scholars have yet to fully address the role of routine-like immanent sensemaking employed when entrepreneurs try to understand their task environment. Defined as a routinised way of making sense of how to proceed in novel situations, we investigate how entrepreneurs use immanent sensemaking as they continuously seek to make sense of their consumer context. Our study reveals that entrepreneurs absorb individual, social and cultural signals from consumers to support their judgement and action. The findings suggest that entrepreneurs use immanent sensemaking not only for unusual events but also construct multilevel frames to understand their customers as individual, social and cultural beings in their everyday encounters.
      Citation: International Small Business Journal
      PubDate: 2022-02-01T04:15:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02662426211061531
       
  • Understanding internationalisation of informal African firms through a
           network perspective

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      Authors: Christopher Boafo, Richard Afriyie Owusu, Karine Guiderdoni-Jourdain
      Abstract: International Small Business Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Studies of internationalisation have largely overlooked developing countries with high levels of legitimate informal entrepreneurship. Consequently, this article analyses the internationalisation of Informal African Firms (IAFs) from a network perspective. We undertook in-depth case studies of 14 informal smaller firms in two major enterprise clusters in Ghana. Our findings show that half transacted business in five to seven foreign markets, and more than half sold abroad within three years of inception. The study illustrates the different network ties that influence passive and active internationalisation strategies with evidence that these IAFs developed buyer networks through customer referrals and foreign customer walk-ins to the firm. Overall, we provide a comprehensive understanding of the triggers that initiate international business activities by IAFs so contribute to current theorising noting implications for management practices and policymaking on this important but hitherto, under-explored issue.
      Citation: International Small Business Journal
      PubDate: 2022-01-26T06:51:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02662426211054099
       
  • The impact of trust on social and financial capital acquisition: A
           resource integration perspective in minority-owned entrepreneurial
           organisations

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      Authors: Ronald L Pegram, Camelia L Clarke, James W Peltier, K Praveen Parboteeah
      Abstract: International Small Business Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Although effective resource integration is a critical requisite for entrepreneurial success, the literature suggests there are crucial gaps for minority entrepreneurs. We examine how interracial distrust (ID), an indicator of the extent to which minority entrepreneurs distrust other races, is related to internal and social capital. We examine the relationships of such capitals on the willingness to borrow from banks and friends, and explore the link with firm performance. Using a sample of 276 primarily African American entrepreneurs, we find support for most of our hypotheses. We find that ID is negatively associated with external social capital and a willingness to borrow from banks. Surprisingly, we found that ID had a negative effect on internal social capital and a willingness to borrow from friends. We also found that internal and external social capital was positively related to firm performance. We discuss the implications of some of these surprising research findings as well as the policy implications.
      Citation: International Small Business Journal
      PubDate: 2022-01-09T06:37:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02662426211055300
       
  • Engaging symbiotic ecosystems to build community centred business models
           for the BoP: Evidence from small social enterprises in East Africa

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      Authors: Andrea Sottini, Giacomo Ciambotti, David Littlewood
      Abstract: International Small Business Journal, Ahead of Print.
      This article examines how small social enterprises (SSEs) in East Africa build business models for base of the pyramid (BoP) markets, through engaging symbiotic ecosystems. Through in-depth qualitative research, a three-stage process is identified. First, SSEs learn and become sensitised to the manifold challenges of building business models for BoP markets. Second, SSEs identify and connect with key BoP actors, weaving them together to create a symbiotic ecosystem and to overcome the aforementioned challenges. Third, SSEs harness this symbiotic ecosystem to deliver community-centred business models for the BoP. This research contributes to social entrepreneurship, small business, and BoP literatures, by shedding light on the challenges faced by SSEs working in the BoP, and through novel elaboration of how SSEs develop and interact with symbiotic ecosystems to surmount these challenges. It also provides important practical insights, for social entrepreneurs and social enterprise managers in Africa and elsewhere.
      Citation: International Small Business Journal
      PubDate: 2022-01-08T02:27:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02662426211059778
       
  • Everyday social support processes: Household members’ instrumental and
           emotional support of entrepreneurs

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      Authors: Aviel Cogan, Tobias Pret, Melissa S. Cardon
      Abstract: International Small Business Journal, Ahead of Print.
      While it is well-established that entrepreneurs benefit from social support, little is known about how and when instrumental and emotional support from household members facilitate entrepreneurial action and persistence. Through a longitudinal, qualitative study, we develop a conceptual framework that shows how social support from the household becomes an integral part of the everyday activities of entrepreneurs. In contrast to the perception of social support as static, our findings illustrate it as a dynamic, ongoing process which is core to business start-up and growth over time. We also challenge the perspectives that households are simply repositories of resources and entrepreneurs passive recipients of support by demonstrating that social support is necessarily interactive, whereby entrepreneurs and households play a collaborative role in entrepreneurship. Finally, we join the debate concerning mechanisms of social support by suggesting that the main effect model and buffering hypothesis are not contradictory, but are instead interdependent.
      Citation: International Small Business Journal
      PubDate: 2022-01-07T07:45:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02662426211054098
       
  • The influence of the positive affective trait on the willingness to act
           entrepreneurially: The mediating effect of opportunity evaluation

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      Authors: Celia Díaz-Portugal, Juan Bautista Delgado-García, Virginia Blanco-Mazagatos
      Abstract: International Small Business Journal, Ahead of Print.
      This article extends previous literature on opportunity evaluation by analysing how positive affect influences opportunity evaluation and the subsequent willingness to act entrepreneurially. We draw on two mediational channels (i.e., the affect-to-affect-to-outcome and affect-to-cognition routes) regarding the influence of affect on positive outcomes upon arguments that opportunity evaluation comprises of the cognitive representations of the focal opportunity and of oneself. Specifically, we analyse the mediating effects of the image of the opportunity and self-efficacy in the relationship between positive affect and the willingness to act entrepreneurially. We test our hypotheses on a sample of nascent entrepreneurs participating in training programmes in six Spanish incubators whom were asked to evaluate their own opportunities. Our findings show that positive affect exerts a positive indirect effect through the image of the opportunity, but do not indicate any mediating effect of self-efficacy. These findings may help entrepreneurs understand the affective subjectivity of their opportunity assessments.
      Citation: International Small Business Journal
      PubDate: 2022-01-04T11:24:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02662426211047920
       
  • Pre-entrepreneurship social status and research and development investment
           decision: Evidence from Chinese private enterprises

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      Authors: Zhiyong Niu, Dianfan Yu, Xiaoyan Zhou
      First page: 453
      Abstract: International Small Business Journal, Ahead of Print.
      Social status is seen as an important topic in management and organisational sciences. Despite the extensive research on the upper echelons of management, little is known about the influence of social status on R&D investment decisions. We examine the effects of pre-entrepreneurial social status on R&D investments based on imprinting theory, using 2000–2014 data for 20,177 Chinese private small- and medium-sized enterprises. The results reveal that entrepreneurs with an upper and lower social status show a stronger tendency to make R&D investments than middle-class counterparts. The findings are robust to various sensitivity tests. In addition, we explore the moderating influences of political capital and institutional environment, both of which enhance the positive relationship between social status and R&D investments. Our study finds that social status has a lasting and varying impact on decisions to engage in innovation behaviours. The findings contribute to research on Chinese firm innovation and offer key implications for social status and imprinting theorising.
      Citation: International Small Business Journal
      PubDate: 2022-01-30T10:25:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02662426211042625
       
  • Book review: A Research Agenda for the Entrepreneurial University

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      Authors: Michael Breum Ramsgaard
      First page: 531
      Abstract: International Small Business Journal, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: International Small Business Journal
      PubDate: 2022-02-07T03:25:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/02662426211067127
       
 
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