Subjects -> BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS (Total: 3570 journals)
    - ACCOUNTING (132 journals)
    - BANKING AND FINANCE (306 journals)
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    - CONSUMER EDUCATION AND PROTECTION (20 journals)
    - COOPERATIVES (4 journals)
    - ECONOMIC SCIENCES: GENERAL (212 journals)
    - ECONOMIC SYSTEMS, THEORIES AND HISTORY (235 journals)
    - FASHION AND CONSUMER TRENDS (20 journals)
    - HUMAN RESOURCES (103 journals)
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    - INTERNATIONAL COMMERCE (145 journals)
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    - PUBLIC FINANCE, TAXATION (37 journals)
    - TRADE AND INDUSTRIAL DIRECTORIES (2 journals)

INTERNATIONAL COMMERCE (145 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 136 of 136 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Economica Et Turistica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
African Journal of Economic and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Amnis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Antitrust Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asia and the Global Economy     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Shipping and Logistics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Botswana Journal of Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Career Development International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
China Business Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
China Economic Quarterly International     Open Access  
Competition and Regulation in Network Industries     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Critical Perspectives on International Business     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Crossroads     Hybrid Journal  
Digital Finance : Smart Data Analytics, Investment Innovation, and Financial Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
East Asian Community Review     Hybrid Journal  
EC Tax Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Economic Journal of Emerging Markets     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Economics Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ekonomia Międzynarodowa     Open Access  
EMAJ : Emerging Markets Journal     Open Access  
Emerging Markets Finance and Trade     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Estudos Internacionais : revista de relações internacionais da PUC Minas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Business Law Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
European Company Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
European Journal of International Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Expert Journal of Business and Management     Open Access  
Foreign Trade Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Global & Strategis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Global Trade and Customs Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Human Resource Development International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Human Resource Management International Digest     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
IMF Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
IN VIVO     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Information Resources Management Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Information Technologies & International Development     Open Access   (Followers: 81)
International Advances in Economic Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Business Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Commerce Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Economic Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
International Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Economics and Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
International Insolvency Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Applied Behavioral Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
International Journal of Asian Business and Information Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Commerce and Management     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Export Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Governance and Financial Intermediation     Hybrid Journal  
International Labor and Working-Class History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
International Labour Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 60)
International Marketing Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Public Management Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Review of Applied Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Review of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Review of Economics & Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
International Review of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Review of Financial Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Review of Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Review of Social History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
International Review on Public and Nonprofit Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Small Business Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Studies of Management and Organization     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
International Trade Journal : Western Hemispheric Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Transactions In Operational Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Intertax     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Japanese Political Economy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal for International Business and Entrepreneurship Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Accounting and Finance in Emerging Economies     Open Access  
Journal of Advanced Research in Economics and International Business     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Chinese Economic and Foreign Trade Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Chinese Human Resource Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Comparative International Management     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Contemporary European Research     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Economics and International Finance     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of International Accounting, Auditing and Taxation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of International Business Policy     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of International Business Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Journal of International Commerce, Economics and Policy     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of International Consumer Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of International Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Journal of International Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Journal of International Entrepreneurship     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of International Financial Management & Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of International Food & Agribusiness Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of International Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of International Marketing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Journal of International Money and Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Journal of International Trade & Economic Development: An International and Comparative Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of International Trade Law and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Korea Trade     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Monetary Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 95)
Journal of Revenue and Pricing Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Reviews on Global Economics     Open Access  
Journal of the Association for Consumer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of the Japanese and International Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Theoretical and Applied Electronic Commerce Research     Open Access  
Journal of World Trade     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Jurnal Hubungan Internasional     Open Access  
Jurnal Ilmu Ekonomi Terapan     Open Access  
L'Année du Maghreb     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Management international / International Management / Gestiòn Internacional     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Management International Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
MEED Middle East Economic Digest     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Monthly Statistics of International Trade - Statistiques mensuelles du commerce international     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
PharmacoEconomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Proceedings of the International Conference on Business Excellence     Open Access  
Qualitative Research in Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Quarterly Journal of Political Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Regional Formation and Development Studies     Open Access  
Relações Internacionais (R:I)     Open Access  
Research World     Hybrid Journal  
Review of International Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Review of International Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Revista Brasileira de Gestão de Negócios     Open Access  
Revista Multiface Online     Open Access  
Revue internationale de l'économie sociale     Full-text available via subscription  
Revue Internationale du Travail     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Revue internationale P.M.E. : économie et gestion de la petite et moyenne entreprise     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
South African Journal of International Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
South American Development Society Journal     Open Access  
Studies in Comparative International Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Syracuse Journal of International Law and Commerce     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
TDM Transnational Dispute Management Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Transnational Corporations Review     Hybrid Journal  
World Competition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
World Food Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
World Oil Trade     Hybrid Journal  
World Trade and Arbitration Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)

           

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
International Marketing Review
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.895
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 14  
 
Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal   * Containing 6 Open Access Open Access article(s) in this issue *
ISSN (Print) 0265-1335 - ISSN (Online) 1758-6763
Published by Emerald Homepage  [360 journals]
  • Bringing culture into the picture: cross-cultural differences
           in online customer reviews

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      Authors: Jong Min Kim , Eunkyung Lee , Yeosun Yoon
      Abstract: Prior literature on online customer reviews (OCRs) suggests that individuals are socially influenced by information shared by others. Given that the online environment brings together users from different cultures, understanding how users differ in their processing and generation of OCRs across cultures is imperative. Specifically, this paper explores how cross-cultural differences influence OCR generation when there are inconsistencies between recent and overall review ratings. The authors employ an empirical study and an experimental approach to test the predictions. For the empirical study (Study 1), the authors collected and analyzed actual review data from an online hotel review platform, Booking.com. This was followed by an experimental study (Study 2) in which the authors manipulated the thinking style represented by each cultural orientation to further explain how and why cross-cultural differences exist. The results show that compared with the review ratings of users from collectivist cultures, those of users from individualistic cultures are more likely to follow recent review ratings. Based on the experimental study, the authors further find that such cross-cultural differences in OCR generation are driven by differences in thinking style. This research extends the literature by demonstrating the cross-cultural differences in individuals' herding tendencies in OCR generation. The authors also add to the literature by showing in which direction OCR herding occurs when there is a discrepancy between overall and recent review ratings. From a managerial perspective, the findings provide guidelines for online platforms serving the global market on predicting customers' OCR generation and constructing appropriate response strategies.
      Citation: International Marketing Review
      PubDate: 2022-05-12
      DOI: 10.1108/IMR-07-2020-0167
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • How do marketing activities influence organizational reputation in higher
           education institutions' An impression management perspective across
           eight countries

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      Authors: Fernando Angulo-Ruiz , Albena Pergelova , Juraj Chebeň , Eladio Angulo-Altamirano
      Abstract: Based on impression management theory, the authors ask how marketing activities build organizational reputation and examine the mediating mechanisms of desired impressions, and the moderating impact of national culture. Specifically, and in the context of higher education (HE) institutions, the authors examine the influence of relational marketing and traditional advertising on organizational reputation through the mediation of desired impressions (e.g. quality of learning, career prospects and extracurricular activities) across countries and specify the moderation role of cultural variables. This study estimates empirical models using a survey data set comprising 1,890 student responses from 10 universities in 8 countries. The authors use confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and measurement invariance models, as well as ordinary least squares with robust standard errors to test the hypotheses. The results indicate that marketing activities affect organizational reputation through the mediation of desired impressions in line with our theoretical reasoning. Specifically, the results show that (1) relational marketing has direct and indirect effects on organizational reputation; (2) relational marketing has a higher influence on organizational reputation in countries with lower individualism and lower masculinity scores; (3) quality of learning mediates the relationship between traditional advertising and organizational reputation; (4) quality of learning also mediates the association between relational marketing and organizational reputation; (5) career prospects mediate the relationship between relational marketing and organizational reputation; (6) traditional advertising does not have a direct but only an indirect effect on organizational reputation; and (7) these findings are net of the effect of respondents', universities', and countries' characteristics. The findings contribute to the body of knowledge on the antecedents of organizational reputation, from an international marketing perspective. The results extend the impression management by integrating constructs that have been studied independently into a cohesive framework that links marketing activities, desired impressions and organizational reputation. With the study, impression management theory provides a framework to study the impact of marketing activities on organizational reputation not only in domestic but also in international markets. By asking the target market about the importance of different marketing activities, their expectations of the organization and its reputation, HE administrators can employ the model proposed in this study to assess the relevant marketing strategies that will drive desired impressions which in turn will influence reputation. While there are studies that focus on the impact of several constructs on organizational reputation in an international context, it is striking to observe that extant research is silent on how (via what mediating mechanisms) marketing activities work as an antecedent of organizational reputation. To address this gap, we examine marketing activities as antecedents of organizational reputation in an international, cross-country context, and specify the moderation role of cultural variables.
      Citation: International Marketing Review
      PubDate: 2022-05-10
      DOI: 10.1108/IMR-05-2021-0180
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Applying reactance theory to study consumer responses to COVID
           restrictions: a note on model specification

         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

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      Authors: Michela Matarazzo , Adamantios Diamantopoulos
      Abstract: The purpose of the study is to highlight the relevance of reactance theory for modeling consumer responses to COVID restrictions. The study also aims to critically evaluate the appropriateness of the most established reactance model (the intertwined model) for studying reactance specifically in relation to freedom threats arising from measures aimed at combatting the spread of the pandemic. Following a conceptual analysis of the intertwined model of reactance, structural equation modeling is applied to Rain's (2013) meta-analytic data to compare the model to alternative model specifications. The analysis reveals both conceptual and statistical shortcomings of the intertwined model of reactance in its current/traditional form. It also draws attention to other model specifications that provide just as good statistical fit and offer promising alternative ways of modeling reactance in a COVID context. The study is the first attempt to explicitly discuss conceptual and statistical problems associated with the most widely accepted model of reactance, illustrate these issues with specific reference to consumer reactions to COVID restrictions, identify alternative promising model specifications and suggest a respecification of the intertwined model.
      Citation: International Marketing Review
      PubDate: 2022-05-03
      DOI: 10.1108/IMR-12-2021-0370
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Demystifying the evaluation of brands endorsed by religious leaders
           in the emerging markets

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      Authors: Denni Arli , Narain Gupta , Deepak Sardana , Piyush Sharma
      Abstract: This paper uses social identity theory to investigate the sequential mediating effects of extrinsic religiosity and perceived role of religious leaders in the impact of consumers' intrinsic religiosity on perceived value of brands endorsed by religious leaders. This paper comprises two survey-based studies with urban consumers in two emerging markets, India (N = 303) and Indonesia (N = 150). Intrinsic religiosity has a direct positive effect on extrinsic religiosity, which in turn mediates the effect of intrinsic religiosity on the perceived value of the brands endorsed by religious leaders in both India and Indonesia. However, extrinsic religiosity has a significant positive effect on the perceived value of these brands through the perceived role of religious leaders in India but not in Indonesia. Samples for both the studies are drawn from urban consumers in India and Indonesia, which also have large rural populations. Hence, future research may use both urban and rural samples from other countries to replicate our results. The study findings may help both local and global brand managers in the emerging markets with religious societies, such as India and Indonesia, to understand how they may use endorsements by religious leaders to manage the differences in the impact of consumers' intrinsic versus extrinsic religiosity on their brand perceptions and evaluations. This paper extends social identity theory to the international marketing context by showing that religious consumers in the emerging markets are likely to support the brands endorsed by religious leaders vis-à-vis other national or multinational brands. Thus, religious identification offers a unique sacred worldview and unlimited group membership, unlike other social groups, especially in the highly religious emerging markets.
      Citation: International Marketing Review
      PubDate: 2022-04-22
      DOI: 10.1108/IMR-08-2021-0258
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • A longitudinal analysis of country image and brand origin effects

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      Authors: Peter Magnusson , Srdan Zdravkovic , Stanford A. Westjohn
      Abstract: The objective of this study is to offer a longitudinal examination of country image, consumers’ brand origin recognition accuracy, and how their effects on brand evaluations have evolved over the last decade. The authors compare data gathered in 2020 against data gathered in 2008. Each data set consists of more than 500 American consumers evaluating approximately 12 different brands from three separate industries (i.e. auto, television, and fashion). The findings indicate that country image can evolve over time and that its effect on brand evaluation persists even when inaccurate brand origin associations are made. The study offers meaningful insights for managers in understanding how brands’ country associations affect corresponding brand attitudes. Significant research attention has been focused on the effects of country image. However, longitudinal analysis of the same research questions has been rare. This study offers a valuable comparison of how several important country-image related issues have evolved over time.
      Citation: International Marketing Review
      PubDate: 2022-04-20
      DOI: 10.1108/IMR-07-2021-0228
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Personality effects on WoM and eWoM susceptibilty – a cross-country
           perspective

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      Authors: Tatjana M. König , Theresa B. Clarke , Maria Hellenthal , Irvine Clarke III
      Abstract: This study utilizes social communication theory as the framework to examine the influence of personality on young word-of-mouth (WoM) and electronic word-of-mouth (eWoM) audiences across the US, France and Germany and explores relationships between personality traits and cultural dimensions. An adaptation of the consumer susceptibility to interpersonal influence (CSII) scale measured WoM influence in an online review context. After pretesting and validating the consumer susceptibility to online review influence (CSRI) scale in Luxemburg, hypotheses were tested, and research questions were explored in a multi-group structural equation model based on French, German and US samples. Personality traits are negatively linked to CSRI as well as to CSII across the three countries. Overall, the stronger the personality traits, the weaker the online and offline WoM influence seems. In contrast to France, results for the US and Germany show that young people are either more susceptible to WoM or to eWoM influence. Results imply tendencies for a potential interaction effect between power distance and openness to new experience on WoM and partially on eWoM. Earned media is more effective among audiences with weaker personality structures. Stronger personalities may prefer to serve as senders of WoM and eWoM (influencers). The non-uniform results between WoM and eWoM susceptibility across the countries favor earned media strategies optimized on a country basis and psychological targeting when communicating online review results. This study expands knowledge of individual (personality traits) and country similarities and differences across France, Germany and the US and how they affect earned media (WoM and eWoM) influence.
      Citation: International Marketing Review
      PubDate: 2022-04-18
      DOI: 10.1108/IMR-11-2020-0272
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • The interaction effect of country-of-origin positioning and cultural
           distance on international advertising effectiveness: a construal level
           perspective

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      Authors: Felix Septianto , Arnold Japutra , Billy Sung , Yuri Seo
      Abstract: This research draws upon construal level theory to investigate how brands can develop effective international marketing strategies using country image versus product image across international markets with different cultural distances between them. The paper reports two preliminary studies and three experimental studies in the context of Australian brands using a “clean and green” image. The preliminary studies explore how product versus country image and cultural similarity are related to construal levels. Then, Study 1 examines consumers from different countries as a proxy of cultural distance, whereas Studies 2 and 3 manipulate levels of cultural distance to test the effects on consumers. Moreover, Study 3 also uses a behavioral outcome as the focal dependent variable and tests the underlying mechanism. The results demonstrate a significant interaction effect between country-of-origin positioning and cultural distance, such that an Australian brand emphasizing the country (vs product) image gains more favorable responses among consumers with high levels of cultural distance. Conversely, an Australian brand emphasizing the product (vs country) image gains more favorable responses among consumers with low levels of cultural distance. Further, this research identifies perceived brand cultural authenticity as the underlying process driving the interaction effect. The findings of this research contribute to the literature on international marketing in general and the country-of-origin literature in particular by examining country-of-origin positioning and cultural distance from the construal level perspective. The research also provides managerial implications on how to promote products in the international market across different cultural distances.
      Citation: International Marketing Review
      PubDate: 2022-04-12
      DOI: 10.1108/IMR-10-2021-0291
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Family multinationals: a systematic literature review to take
           stock and look ahead

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      Authors: Emanuela Rondi , Francesco Debellis , Cristina Bettinelli , Alfredo De Massis
      Abstract: The authors develop a systematic literature review of research on family multinationals, i.e. firms owned by one or more families that engage in foreign direct investments (FDIs). Building on the examination of past and current research, the authors develop an integrative framework and identify directions to advance this area of research. Coherently with recommendations for systematic literature reviews, the authors developed and followed a systematic search protocol, selecting and reviewing 92 articles on family multinationals published from 1991 to 2021. The authors then identified the most recurrent and emerging themes in these studies to build an integrative framework. In recent years, the literature on family firm internationalization has grown exponentially, and with it the focus on family multinationals. However, the study of family multinationals has many theoretical and methodological shortcomings that have only allowed marginally appreciating their entrepreneurial aspects. In this study, the authors take stock to identify the critical knowledge gaps and motivate future researchers to fill this breach. In conducting the first systematic literature review of family multinationals, the authors provide an integrative account of current knowledge, develop a reconciling framework and identify directions for future research.
      Citation: International Marketing Review
      PubDate: 2022-04-08
      DOI: 10.1108/IMR-01-2021-0025
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Is brand globalness compatible with brand country-of-origin'
           An investigation of hybrid brand positioning strategies for emerging
           market brands

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      Authors: Ruiyang Hong , Zhe Zhang , Chun Zhang , Zuohao Hu
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to investigate hybrid brand positioning strategies for emerging market brands based on two positioning elements: brand country-of-origin (COO) and brand globalness. Researchers conducted two studies. In Study 1, a survey of 128 brand managers of emerging market brands were used to examine whether asymmetric positioning strategies improve brand preference more than symmetric strategies, and if so, which type of asymmetric strategies improves brand preference more. In Study 2, a consumer experiment in the USA was conducted to identify the positioning strategy for emerging market brands that improve brand preference the most. For emerging market brands, at any given value of COO or global elements, asymmetric strategies outperform symmetric strategies in terms of brand preference. On average, the best hybrid positioning strategy is the one that highlights brand COO and de-emphasizes brand globalness. A large body of branding literature examines COO and globalness separately without considering their co-presence in the same brand positioning strategy. Few studies that examine the joint influence of brand COO and globalness focus on established brands from developed markets and do not examine whether highlighting both brand COO and global elements equally is an effective positioning strategy for emerging market brands. This study introduces a framework to systematically examine the various combinations of COO and global elements in a brand’s positioning strategies for emerging market brands. By conducting two studies, the authors empirically test the influence of various combinations of COO and global elements on brand preference for emerging market brands from both firm and consumer perspectives.
      Citation: International Marketing Review
      PubDate: 2022-04-05
      DOI: 10.1108/IMR-08-2021-0260
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • The dual impetus for perceived brand globalness and brand competence in a
           rapidly changing environment: the role of Brand-Nation Connection

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      Authors: Jiaxun He , Jiaye Ge
      Abstract: This study aims to investigate how brand innovativeness and national traditions influence perceived brand globalness and brand competence by affecting Brand-Nation Connection (BNC) in the changing world. Besides the study of the development and validation of the BNC construct, this paper conducts two studies that use eight global brands from different categories to test hypotheses. Two empirical studies show that brand innovativeness and national traditions have positive effects on BNC. Furthermore, technological turbulence moderates the impact of brand innovativeness on BNC, and cultural change moderates the relationship between national traditions and BNC. Meanwhile, BNC is an important determinant of perceived brand globalness, and both BNC and perceived brand globalness positively influence brand competence, with the former exerting a stronger effect. The findings highlight that in the changing world, the coexistence of brand innovation and cultural traditions through strategic management is essential for brand competence. They also provide guidelines for emerging global brands to incorporate nation-related cues and global signals in their brand positioning to reinforce brand competence. This study contributes to understanding how brand innovation and cultural traditions create value for emerging global brands in a rapidly changing environment. It also provides implications regarding how BNC helps emerging market brands to go global, and it presents a new understanding that both nation-level brand status and perceived brand globalness are signals that convey brand competence.
      Citation: International Marketing Review
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
      DOI: 10.1108/IMR-06-2021-0210
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Testing the antecedents of customer knowledge sharing on social media: a
           quantitative analysis on Italian consumers

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      Authors: Gabriele Baima , Gabriele Santoro , Anna Claudia Pellicelli , Maciej Mitręga
      Abstract: The increasing adoption of digital technologies such as social media have changed the way consumers share knowledge about products and services among each other. The aim of this paper is to test what factors drive customers to share knowledge about products and services on social media pages. A quantitative survey design was employed for this study. Empirical data were drawn from 358 consumers in Italy, using a purposive sampling technique. The hypothesised relationships were tested using ordinary least squares regression modelling. The results of this study reveal that the usage frequency of online reviews (UFORs), social bonds (SBs), subjective happiness (SH) and reciprocity positively impact on customer knowledge sharing (CKS). By contrast, the perceived usefulness of online reviews (PUORs), helping others, customer susceptibility to interpersonal influence (CSII) and informational (INFO) do not impact CKS. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this study is amongst the first to empirically test the antecedents of knowledge-sharing behaviours about products and services on online social media. The present work offers relevant implications for theory. First, the work enriches the customer knowledge management (CKM) theory by providing empirical evidence on factors leading to the higher sharing of knowledge amongst customers. Second, the work adds to the literature on social media, demonstrating the individual determinants on knowledge-sharing behaviours about products and services in online communities. Practically speaking, this paper identifies some key elements driving CKS in social media conversations. Thus, building upon the findings of this study, the authors provide some guidelines for social media managers and retailers for promoting CKS on social media pages.
      Citation: International Marketing Review
      PubDate: 2022-03-31
      DOI: 10.1108/IMR-03-2021-0122
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Developing strategies for international celebrity branding: a comparative
           analysis between Western and South Asian cultures

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      Authors: Zahra Shah , Hossein Olya , Lien Le Monkhouse
      Abstract: This empirical research conceptualises the impact of celebrity effectiveness on consumer purchase intention, with customer perception and attitude as mediators. A cross-cultural approach is adopted to analyse consumer response to celebrity branding across Britain and Pakistan containing non-explicit and explicit sex appeals. A within-subject experimental design (2 countries × 2 ad designs) is employed to test the research model across Western and South Asian cultures. Structural equation modelling (SEM) and multi-group analysis (MGA) are used to test proposed hypotheses. SEM results confirm the theoretical model: perception and attitude towards the advert and brand mediate the impact of celebrity effectiveness on purchase intention. Celebrity-endorsed advertising without explicit sex appeals elicited an overall favourable response across markets. British consumers respond to both adverts similarly. Yet, Pakistani consumers filter advert themes through salient cultural values and respond negatively to explicit sex appeals whilst, interestingly, accepting sexuality in associations of a celebrity endorser. International celebrities can have cross-cultural appeal, and commonalities exist between the markets. A global or domestic marketing strategy can be utilised across the cultures based upon the environmental conditions and the themes and appeals incorporated within advert design. The conceptual model is developed by consolidating existing models within celebrity endorsement and considering the mediating influence of both the advert and brand. The model is validated across theoretically different cultures. The comparative approach and selection of an underrepresented market provide novel insight into international branding strategies and global consumer culture.
      Citation: International Marketing Review
      PubDate: 2022-03-31
      DOI: 10.1108/IMR-08-2021-0261
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • A consumer cultural paradox: exploring the tensions between traditional
           and international education

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      Authors: Ivana Beveridge , Olivier Furrer , Betsy D. Gelb
      Abstract: In a globalized world, consumers embrace mutually conflicting cultural values rather than making exclusive, either/or choices. As a result, they experience multiple tensions, a phenomenon that can be identified as the consumer cultural paradox. Despite clear interest in the influence of local/global culture on consumers, knowledge of how conflicting cultural elements shape consumer behavior remains limited. To address these issues, the current article seeks to identify higher- and lower-level tensions inherent in the consumer cultural paradox. Using in-depth interviews, the authors investigate tensions experienced by Chinese consumers of international private education services. This study applies a paradox lens, a tension-based conceptual approach that is well suited for studying consumer paradoxes. Ten lower-level tensions of the consumer cultural paradox arise in the focal international service context; these tensions in turn form three higher-level tensions. The study is among the first in marketing to use a paradox lens and empirical research to delineate multiple dimensions of the consumer cultural paradox, then categorize them into lower and higher-level tensions. The findings offer theoretical and managerial implications, in that recognizing the multiple tensions experienced by consumers allows scholars and marketers to gain a better understanding of how consumers perceive and evaluate services from different cultures.
      Citation: International Marketing Review
      PubDate: 2022-03-25
      DOI: 10.1108/IMR-05-2021-0177
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • How scarcity influences home country consumers' attitudes toward the firm
           engaging in cross-border philanthropy' The role of perceived
           distributive justice

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      Authors: Zelin Tong , Fang Ma , Haowen Xiao , Perry Haan , Wenting Feng
      Abstract: The purpose of this research is to explore how experienced scarcity affects home country consumers' attitudes toward the firm engaging in cross-border philanthropy by analyzing perceived distributive justice as a mediating variable. This research also investigates the moderating factor of this effect to identify practical strategies for managers. This research conducted one survey (Study 1) and three experiments (Studies 2–4) by manipulating scarcity to provide robust evidence for the influence of experienced scarcity on consumer perception of the company conducting cross-border philanthropy. This paper provides empirical insights about the significant negative effect of experienced scarcity on consumer attitudes toward the firm engaging in cross-border philanthropy. It proposes that home country consumers with high versus low experienced scarcity show lower perceived distributive justice for cross-border philanthropy, which generates less favorable attitudes toward the firm. To alleviate the negative impact of experienced scarcity on consumers' perceptions of corporate reputation, providing donation amount comparisons between home and foreign countries has a significant moderating effect. This paper provides several suggestions for marketers seeking cross-border philanthropy to improve consumers' attitudes toward the firm. This paper enriches the literature on corporate social responsibility in the domain of cross-border philanthropy and explains contradictory findings on consumers' attitudes toward corporate cross-border philanthropy. Moreover, this study makes meaningful contributions to the scarcity and justice literature.
      Citation: International Marketing Review
      PubDate: 2022-03-24
      DOI: 10.1108/IMR-02-2021-0081
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Intellectual capital in nonprofit organizations: a focus on social capital
           as a marketing enabler

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      Authors: Renato Civitillo , Giuseppe Festa , Constantinos-Vasilios Priporas , Matteo Rossi
      Abstract: The research has the aim of exploring whether and how relevant studies about nonprofit organizations (NPOs) have so far investigated the fruitful effects that can be generated by proactive governance, management and marketing of their IC – particularly when considering its extension to SC – with relation to the promotion of corporate reputation. After a literature review about the intellectual capital (IC) and the social capital (SC) in the nonprofit sector (NPS), at either national or international level, the study presents a bibliometric-systematic literature review (B-SLR) of the field in question. According to a quantitative (more bibliometric) perspective, the scientific interest on this specific issue has not always been constant and methodical, while three themes (institutional scope, human resources and operational functioning) have so far mostly been analyzed according to a qualitative (and therefore more systematic) perspective. Despite some recent trends aimed at re-evaluating the effect of intangible assets in any organization, there is still some reticence within the NPS to consider the importance of these resources. This orientation also extends to IC, and more specifically to SC, which should now be considered as relevant factors in the creation of value for any socio-economic organization, both nationally and internationally.
      Citation: International Marketing Review
      PubDate: 2022-03-22
      DOI: 10.1108/IMR-01-2021-0029
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • A review of consumer affinity research: recent advances and future
           directions

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      Authors: M. Mar Serrano-Arcos , Raquel Sánchez-Fernández , Juan Carlos Pérez-Mesa , Petra Riefler
      Abstract: Consumer affinity may be a key factor in overcoming ethnocentric barriers and promoting a favourable attitude towards specific foreign countries and their products. However, progress in knowledge of this concept in international marketing literature has suffered from a lack of integration and analysis. The purpose of this study was to shed new light on the concept of consumer affinity based on a comprehensive systematic review of the literature, provide a critical analysis of previous research in terms of conceptual, methodological and substantive issues and problems and offer avenues for future research. This structured systematic review of consumer affinity included articles published in international peer-reviewed journals from 2008 to 2021, examining key conceptual, operational and substantive aspects. This systematic review of articles on consumer affinity published over the past 14 years revealed that this line of research is a growing vibrant domain in the context of international marketing. It also showed that current knowledge of consumer affinity is characterized by theoretical inconsistencies, contradictory empirical results and scant international marketing research in the affinity domain. This article provides an overview of the extant literature on consumer affinity and yields a consolidated image of its current status, as well as a research agenda that raises new questions for the academic community.
      Citation: International Marketing Review
      PubDate: 2022-03-16
      DOI: 10.1108/IMR-01-2021-0011
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • A bibliometric analysis of the structure and trends of customer engagement
           in the context of international marketing

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      Authors: Mukta Srivastava , Sreeram Sivaramakrishnan
      Abstract: Research in customer engagement (CE) has gained momentum in the last decade, thanks to its growing popularity among scholars and practitioners. The Marketing Science Institute (MSI), for instance, has been continually listing CE as part of its Tier I research priorities since 2010. CE scholars have also studied the construct in the international marketing context. Hofstede's characterization of cultures as either individualist or collectivist helped scholars explain the need for different CE strategies across countries, and the domain seems to be evolving ever since. The ever-growing interest of CE scholars in the international market and cross-cultural scenarios requires a comprehensive and scientific review of the literature. Using bibliometric analysis, this study fills this critical gap by mapping the intellectual structure of CE research in the context of international marketing and provides future research directions to scholars in this domain. The authors have used VOSviewer and Biblioshiny software packages to conduct a bibliometric analysis of 109 articles in the domain. The major findings include the most influential countries, journals, articles and authors, the different research streams and their development and the future research directions in the domain. When CE is considered in an international marketing context, four broad themes emerged. The first theme is about differences in customer engagement behaviors across cultures. The second theme is about the development of CE and related constructs. The third theme relates to how brands have used CE and CBE (customer brand engagement) across different international contexts. The fourth theme is all about the conceptual and methodological support for the study of CE. This study is a novel attempt at providing a comprehensive bibliometric analysis of CE research in the international marketing context, using a combination of VOSviewer and Biblioshiny software packages.
      Citation: International Marketing Review
      PubDate: 2022-03-14
      DOI: 10.1108/IMR-06-2021-0204
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Employing machine learning for capturing COVID-19 consumer sentiments from
           six countries: a methodological illustration

         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

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      Authors: Bodo B. Schlegelmilch , Kirti Sharma , Sambbhav Garg
      Abstract: This paper aims to illustrate the scope and challenges of using computer-aided content analysis in international marketing with the aim to capture consumer sentiments about COVID-19 from multi-lingual tweets. The study is based on some 35 million original COVID-19-related tweets. The study methodology illustrates the use of supervised machine learning and artificial neural network techniques to conduct extensive information extraction. The authors identified more than two million tweets from six countries and categorized them into PESTEL (i.e. Political, Economic, Social, Technological, Environmental and Legal) dimensions. The extracted consumer sentiments and associated emotions show substantial differences across countries. Our analyses highlight opportunities and challenges inherent in using multi-lingual online sentiment analysis in international marketing. Based on these insights, several future research directions are proposed. First, the authors contribute to methodology development in international marketing by providing a “use-case” for computer-aided text mining in a multi-lingual context. Second, the authors add to the knowledge on differences in COVID-19-related consumer sentiments in different countries. Third, the authors provide avenues for future research on the analysis of unstructured multi-media posts.
      Citation: International Marketing Review
      PubDate: 2022-02-22
      DOI: 10.1108/IMR-06-2021-0194
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Customer-centric strategy driving innovativeness and business growth in
           international markets

         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

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      Authors: Sasu Tuominen , Helen Reijonen , Gábor Nagy , Andrea Buratti , Tommi Laukkanen
      Abstract: The motivation for this study comes from decision making related to strategic marketing orientations in international markets. The authors examine if customer orientation and customer relationship orientation perform as two distinct constructs in driving firm innovativeness, and how together they support business growth among export firms. This study aims to suggest a customer-centric strategy for export firms that drive innovativeness and growth. An international corporation specialized in company information services provided a list of the contact information of Italian companies. The authors sent an email request to respond to an online survey and received 416 effective responses from firms operating in export markets. The authors propose and empirically test a model in which customer orientation, customer relationship orientation and innovativeness predict business growth. This model controls for the effects of firm size, industry and customer type (B2B vs. B2C). The study findings suggest that customer orientation and customer relationship orientation are two distinct strategic orientations driving innovativeness. However, they do not directly affect business growth. Instead, they require the innovativeness of an exporter to materialize as business growth. The results of the study recommend business strategies focusing not only on customer needs and satisfaction but also on retaining current customers and building customer relationships in international markets. Firms can learn from international customers and develop effective customer-centric strategies to spread the acquired information into the internal decision-making as it contributes to firm innovativeness and business growth in international markets. This study is one of the pioneering studies combining customer orientation and customer relationship orientation, showing their theoretical and empirical divergence. This study is also among the first which tests how the two strategic orientations together with innovativeness promote business growth among export firms. The authors add understanding of the synergistic effects both of using customer information and developing deeper relationships on firm innovativeness and performance among exporters.
      Citation: International Marketing Review
      PubDate: 2022-02-22
      DOI: 10.1108/IMR-09-2020-0215
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Performance implication of exploration and exploitation in foreign
           markets: the role of marketing capability and operation flexibility

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      Authors: Min Ju , Gerald Yong Gao
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to examine the performance impact of foreign ventures' exploration and exploitation strategies in emerging markets. Exploration and exploitation represent key strategic choices and have been extensively studied in the context of domestic markets. Yet the implication of such innovation strategies for foreign ventures operating in emerging markets has been under-researched. We aim to investigate whether foreign ventures can realize the value of exploration and exploitation strategies in emerging markets and also the moderating role of marketing capability and operation flexibility to enable the implementation process. This study adopts the hierarchical moderated regression approach using a sample of foreign ventures operating in high-tech manufacturing industries in China. The authors find that both exploration and exploitation have positive effects on firms' financial performance. Marketing capability strengthens the performance impact of exploration, but exhibits no such impact of exploitation. Moreover, operation flexibility positively moderates the effects of both exploration and exploitation on performance. This study provides important insights into whether foreign ventures can boost performance through exploration and exploitation strategies in emerging markets as well as the implementation-level factors that can facilitate such positive effects. The study is novel in revealing the moderating role of marketing capability and operation flexibility in facilitating the performance outcome of exploration and exploitation strategies.
      Citation: International Marketing Review
      PubDate: 2022-02-17
      DOI: 10.1108/IMR-01-2021-0024
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Digital platforms and international performance of Italian SMEs:
           an exploitation-based overview

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      Authors: Francesco Caputo , Fabio Fiano , Teresa Riso , Marco Romano , Adnane Maalaoui
      Abstract: Recognising the increasing relevance of digital platforms in socio-economic dynamics, the paper aims at investigating in which ways digital platforms can influence the economic performances of Italian small and medium enterprises (SMEs) actively engaged in foreign countries. The paper adopts the interpretative lens provided by the exploration–exploitation dichotomy within current studies in knowledge management for defining knowledge-based factors able to influence the economic performance of Italian SMEs in foreign countries. An explorative study on secondary data related to 746 Italian SMEs is conducted for testing via structural equation modelling (SEM) the positive relationships between (1) SME's investment in information and communication technologies (ICT), (2) number of languages available for the SME's website and (3) number of languages available for SME's social pages and SME's return on sales (ROS) in foreign countries. The results underline the key role of exploitation factors in terms of influence on SME's performance in foreign countries. The paper enriches current studies about international marketing providing preliminary evidence about the key role of exploitation factors in influencing SME's performance in foreign countries.
      Citation: International Marketing Review
      PubDate: 2022-02-11
      DOI: 10.1108/IMR-02-2021-0102
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Eyes open and hands on: market knowledge and marketing capabilities in
           export markets

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      Authors: Mohammad Tayeenul Hoque , Mohammad Faisal Ahammad , Nikolaos Tzokas , Shlomo Tarba , Prithwiraj Nath
      Abstract: Drawing on the knowledge-based view of the firm (KBV) and Dynamic Marketing Capabilities (DMC), this paper examines the role of key internationalization knowledge absorption processes as learning strategies, namely market exploitation and market exploration in enabling internationalization knowledge absorption in export-oriented firms involved in manufacturing goods or producing electrical/engineering products. The data were gathered via a cross-sectional survey using a questionnaire (i.e. n = 315) on a sample of Bangladeshi manufacturing firms exporting in US and European markets. The findings suggest that an export firm's internationalization absorption strategies are positively associated with export performance. The authors also found that the mediator, DMC, strengthened the relationship between knowledge absorption and export performance. Moreover, the findings of moderated mediation model revealed that the direct and indirect effects of market exploitation on export performance are more prevalent when competitive intensity is low. While competitive intensity is high, the direct and indirect effects of market exploration on export performance are more prevalent. By introducing a higher-level dynamic marketing capability approach and linking it to ambidexterity constructs (learning though exploration and exploitation), export business professionals should appreciate the full spectrum of mid-level marketing capabilities they need to develop alongside their exploration and exploitation strategies to improve their export performance. This study directs attention to the competitive intensity conditions the exporting firm is facing. When export business professionals are faced with high-level of competitive intensity in the market, they should establish a clear focus on their exploration learning strategies if they wish to enhance their export performance. The authors contribute to two broad domains of literature: organizational learning and DMC strategy. The study results show that how the two components of international ambidexterity as organizational learning constructs (i.e. market exploration and exploitation) influence knowledge management processes within firms through a firm's possession of a fine configuration of higher-level marketing capability. This study also theoretically and empirically examines how higher-level DMC strategy can mediate the consequence of international knowledge absorption mechanism on firm export performance. From a practical perspective, this study provides useful lessons for exporting firms wishing to enhance their performance.
      Citation: International Marketing Review
      PubDate: 2022-01-11
      DOI: 10.1108/IMR-01-2021-0003
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • How knowledge acquisition creates a competitive edge' A qualitative
           inquiry from international consultancy alliance

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      Authors: Muhammad Shakeel Aslam , Imran Ali , Ahmad Qammar , Lea Kiwan , Amandeep Dhir
      Abstract: The current study attempts to bridge the existing gap related to the role of knowledge acquisition from international alliance partners to improve competitiveness by examining the distinct processes of knowledge acquisition and the challenges confronted in this learning process in order to enhance local and international market performance. Following case-study approach based on systematic combining, the study presents a case of knowledge acquisition and learning in the context of an international consultancy alliance between leading Pakistani and Chinese engineering firms using six in-depth interviews of key engineers to explore the dynamic mechanisms for knowledge acquisition and learning from the Chinese firm. Grounded analysis drawn upon the Straussian version of grounded theory (GT) {{Strauss, 1990 #136} Strauss, 1998 #139} is used for data analysis in this research. It was found that the processes of explicit and implicit knowledge acquisition from Chinese firms are integrated consultancy working, social and technical adaptability and seeking confirmation about the work done and knowledge/theories and models used in work. However, these processes are quite complex, posing serious challenges for National Engineering Services, Pakistan to acquire the required knowledge, which can be addressed through partners' motivation to share and acquire knowledge, cultural intelligence and friendship and informal association. The study also found that the knowledge acquired from technologically advanced international organizations by the host partner in the international strategic alliance not only provides a competitive edge to the local host in its local market but also builds its capacity to undertake similar projects in other parts of the world, substantially enhancing its market success. Adding up to the current literature that focuses on knowledge acquisition in a parent-subsidiary relationship, the current research proposes a framework for knowledge acquisition in the unique context of international strategic alliances. The research provides managerial guidelines to manage knowledge acquisition for gaining a competitive edge that would be helpful for the managers in the era of growing interdependence among the organizations across the borders.
      Citation: International Marketing Review
      PubDate: 2022-01-11
      DOI: 10.1108/IMR-03-2021-0111
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Guest editorial: Advancing research on global luxury consumption

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      Authors: George Christodoulides , Nina Michaelidou
      Abstract: Guest editorial: Advancing research on global luxury consumption
      Citation: International Marketing Review
      PubDate: 2022-04-15
      DOI: 10.1108/IMR-04-2022-388
      Issue No: Vol. 39 , No. 2 (2022)
       
  • The impact of luxury brand status signaling, extension authenticity and
           fit on luxury line extension evaluation: a cross-national study

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      Authors: Jean Boisvert , Nicholas J. Ashill
      Abstract: Grounded in categorization theory, this study examines the impact of luxury parent brand status signaling on brand extension authenticity and consumer attitudes in two international luxury markets. Using samples of luxury consumers from France and the United States, the study's hypotheses are tested using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), structural equation modelling (SEM) and multi-groups comparisons. Findings demonstrate that luxury parent brand (PB) status signaling, familiarity and perceived quality impact luxury extension authenticity, and authenticity has a significant effect on consumer attitudes toward the extension. The relationship between PB status signaling and extension authenticity is stronger for French consumers compared to their American counterparts. The effect of luxury PB perceived quality and familiarity on PB status signaling is similar for both American and French consumers. However, the effect of PB familiarity on luxury brand extension authenticity is stronger in France than the United States. Results provide researchers and managers with insights on how to design marketing programs for luxury line extensions in a cross-national context. The authors contribute to existing literature examining factors related to the parent brand and the relationship between the parent brand and the extension by examining the effect of PB status signaling and extension authenticity on extension attitudes in two international luxury markets.
      Citation: International Marketing Review
      PubDate: 2022-04-08
      DOI: 10.1108/IMR-02-2021-0058
      Issue No: Vol. 39 , No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Drivers of attitudes toward luxury and counterfeit products:
           the moderating role of interpersonal influence

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      Authors: Rajesh Iyer , Barry J. Babin , Jacqueline K. Eastman , Mitch Griffin
      Abstract: This study explores consumers' motivations to purchase luxury and counterfeit products using an international sample. In addition, it also examines the moderating role of interpersonal influence on this process. This study seeks to examine if the consumers who demand the highest quality express a preference for luxury goods over counterfeit goods. Survey research was employed to subjects from the USA, India, China and Russia. Responses from US and India consumers were collected using online software, whereas responses from China and Russia were collected with the help of a local market research firm. The findings of the study indicate that consumers tend to show similar reactions based on the luxury and counterfeit consumption process examined here. In terms of interpersonal influence as a moderator, however, the study found it significantly impacts status seekers' attitude toward luxury and how a perfectionist shopper perceives counterfeit consumption. This study is one of the first in the literature to empirically address both luxury and counterfeit consumption. Further it considers consumers from multiple countries with high levels of luxury good purchases.
      Citation: International Marketing Review
      PubDate: 2022-03-30
      DOI: 10.1108/IMR-02-2021-0091
      Issue No: Vol. 39 , No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Luxury symbolism, self-congruity, self-affirmation and luxury consumption
           behavior: a comparison study of China and the US

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      Authors: Zi Wang , Ruizhi Yuan , Martin J. Liu , Jun Luo
      Abstract: Despite the growing research into luxury symbolism and its influence on consumer behavior, few studies have investigated the underlying psychological processes that occur in different cultural contexts. This study investigates the relationships among luxury symbolism, psychological underpinnings of self-congruity, self-affirmation and customer loyalty, especially regarding how these relationships differ between consumers in China and those in the US. Sample data were collected through surveys administered to 653 participants (327 in China and 326 in the US). A multi-group structural equation model was adopted to examine the conceptual model and proposed hypotheses. The results show that luxury symbolism positively influences self-consistency, social consistency, social approval and self-esteem, and subsequently impacts self-affirmation and customer loyalty. However, for US consumers, self-esteem and social approval have significantly negative impacts on self-affirmation, while for Chinese consumers, social approval has no significant impact on self-affirmation. The authors also find that interdependent self-construal positively moderates the relationship between luxury symbolism, and social approval and social consistency. Independent self-construal positively moderates the relationship between luxury symbolism and self-consistency, and negatively influences the relationship between luxury symbolism and self-esteem. Based on the theory of self-congruity and self-affirmation, this study fills a literature gap by revealing the psychological underpinnings regarding luxury symbolism and customer loyalty. It extends extant studies in luxury consumption by introducing self-construal (independent self vs interdependent self) as an important cultural moderator in luxury symbolism. This paper provides insights for luxury practitioners to create efficient marketing strategies by satisfying consumers' psychological needs in different cultures.
      Citation: International Marketing Review
      PubDate: 2022-03-14
      DOI: 10.1108/IMR-02-2021-0090
      Issue No: Vol. 39 , No. 2 (2022)
       
  • The myth of the universal millennial: comparing millennials’ perceptions
           of luxury across six countries

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      Authors: Jean-Noël Kapferer , Pierre Valette-Florence
      Abstract: The purpose of this research is to challenge the popular belief among luxury practitioners and researchers that millennials are a homogeneous and disruptive generation of consumers which is redefining luxury according to its terms. This study first presents comparisons of luxury perception among 1,450 actual luxury consumers between the ages of 18 and 34 years in six main luxury markets, eastern and western, mature and emerging (United States, China, Japan, Germany, France and Brazil). Within each country, millennials' perception of luxury is then compared to the perception held by previous generations (Gen X, baby boomers and seniors). The results clearly demonstrate that millennials' definition of luxury is not internationally homogeneous; millennials do not hold a global vision that transcends frontiers. Furthermore, comparisons of luxury perceptions among nonmillennials from the same countries reveal that millennials match their national culture more than a cohesive age culture. This research has two main limitations linked to the limited number of surveyed countries, along with a limited sample size of millennials per country. Nonetheless, the results give additional support to the glocalization hypothesis. Yet, as millennials represent 44% of personal luxury goods purchases, they catch attention from both luxury sellers and researchers. Evidence indicates the notion of a “millennial luxury consumer” could be still an empty label. The extensive use of the “millennial” label across countries implies generational homogeneity across borders, whereas reality is more diverse. Also despite the fact that luxury brands are highly globalized, the perception of what defines luxury – the hierarchy of its most salient attributes – does vary per country, thus needs specific attention. The current findings reveal that millennials from the six surveyed countries do not share the same perceptions of luxury traits. Moreover, millennials' definition of luxury mirrors the definition held by nonmillennials from their own country, suggesting a strong cultural influence in each country.
      Citation: International Marketing Review
      PubDate: 2022-01-05
      DOI: 10.1108/IMR-04-2021-0155
      Issue No: Vol. 39 , No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Investigating the influence of absorptive capacity of recipients within
           cross-border transfer of knowledge: evidence from emerging markets

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      Authors: Hina Mehreen, Hussain Gulzar Rammal, Vijay Pereira, Manlio Del Giudice
      Abstract: This study aims to investigate whether the absorptive capacity, learning intent of the recipient, the attractiveness of the knowledge source and the relationship quality between the recipient and the source in high-technology sectors in emerging markets influences the nature of the intra-organizational knowledge being transferred. A total of 180 completed survey responses from all cellular network providers operating in Pakistan were analyzed. This study uses multiple regression analysis to empirically tests the above relationships using data from the cellular network sector in Pakistan. The findings highlight how the highly educated workforce and the motivation to learn has an impact on the effective cross-border sharing of knowledge, both technological and marketing knowledge. This study is one of the few to test the factors that influence the effective and efficient transfer of knowledge from developed to emerging markets.
      Citation: International Marketing Review
      PubDate: 2021-05-21
      DOI: 10.1108/IMR-11-2020-0264
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Knowledge sharing in international markets for product and process
           innovation: moderating role of firm's absorptive capacity

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      Authors: Sheshadri Chatterjee, Ranjan Chaudhuri, Demetris Vrontis
      Abstract: This study examines the relationship between knowledge-sharing activities of the firm and its innovation capability. It also investigates the moderating impact of the firms' absorptive capacity on the relationship between knowledge sharing and firm innovation capability from the cross-subsidiary perspective in the international market environment. This study reviewed the literature from the areas of knowledge management, international market and innovation management. Through the literature review, absorptive capacity theory and dynamic capability view (DCV) theory, a conceptual model has been developed. This model has been validated using partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) technique with 612 respondents from 16 multinational firms from different countries. The study finds that knowledge-sharing activities across subsidiaries of multinational firms are important for product and process innovation. Firms’ absorptive capacity also impacts the relationship between firms' knowledge-sharing activities and their different dynamic capabilities, such as sensing, seizing and transforming. The study also finds that firms' innovation capability positively impacts their competitiveness. This study provides valuable inputs to the management of multinational firms to recognize the importance of knowledge-sharing activities across their different subsidiaries in the international marketing knowledge management (MKM) context. The study adds to the literature on knowledge management, international market and firms' innovation capability. As the study examines the knowledge-sharing activities across different subsidiaries of multinational firms, especially in the context of process and product innovation, it is considered unique. The study also provides a unique validated model.
      Citation: International Marketing Review
      PubDate: 2021-05-14
      DOI: 10.1108/IMR-11-2020-0261
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Market knowledge acquisition and transfer in international SMEs:
           peculiarities, specifications and linkages to market success

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      Authors: Evangelia Siachou , Ioanna Papasolomou , Eleni Trichina , Alkis Thrassou
      Abstract: This paper aims to systematically review and evaluate extant literature on knowledge acquisition and transfer in international small-to-medium enterprises (SMEs) and to identify the requisite types of knowledge acquired and transferred in this context. The research further determines the mechanisms enabling SMEs to process this knowledge, unpacks the benefits of both knowledge acquisition and transfer for international SMEs and links them to the market success. The research has conducted a comprehensive systematic review of existing literature on market knowledge acquisition and its transfer, in the context of international SMEs, utilizing peer-reviewed articles published in top tier journals without any custom range of time. The search strategy resulted in 37 reviewed academic articles, whose analysis identifies and elucidates on the best practices of knowledge acquisition and transfer in the context of international SMEs; the type of the knowledge acquired and transferred; the form and mechanism of the intersection of these processes; and the benefits gained. The findings, crucially, also identify and illuminate extant research gaps and insufficiencies and develop a comprehensive research agenda for the way forward. The present study offers a uniquely comprehensive perspective on a topic of diachronic and, currently, rising significance to scholars and practitioners alike. Transcending its descriptive value, though, it further identifies extant knowledge deficiencies, it distils and consolidates critical knowledge and prescribes avenues for research towards the growth and development of international SMEs and born globals.
      Citation: International Marketing Review
      PubDate: 2021-12-27
      DOI: 10.1108/IMR-02-2021-0095
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Impact of knowledge sharing on employees' service quality:
           the moderating role of artificial intelligence

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      Authors: Tuyet-Mai Nguyen , Ashish Malik
      Abstract: A growing number of international travellers have influenced how hotels manage their customer satisfaction reviews and ratings. This study examines the influence of knowledge sharing on employee service quality and customer satisfaction in the hotel industry. Another purpose of this study is to investigate the moderating effect of artificial intelligence (AI) system quality on the relationship between knowledge sharing on employee service quality and customer satisfaction. The research design was developed using the positivism approach and quantitative method. Data were collected via a self-administered survey from Vietnamese hotels that used AI systems in employees' work tasks. Three hundred and fifty pairs of questionnaires for frontline employees and customers were collected and used for the data analysis. Structural equation modelling was accessed to examine the framework model. This research shows that the increase of knowledge sharing behaviours significantly influenced customer perceptions of employees' service quality. Furthermore, employee service quality positively affected customer satisfaction. An indirect impact of knowledge sharing on customer satisfaction via employee service quality was found. AI system quality moderated the effect of knowledge sharing on employee service quality whereby the higher the AI system quality, the stronger the impact of knowledge sharing on employee service quality. Therefore, a moderated mediation of employee service quality was found in examining the relationship between knowledge sharing and customer satisfaction. This study's findings direct hotel knowledge management and marketing strategies to attract international customers. The study provides hotel managers with directions to increase customer satisfaction to create a competitive advantage in international marketing strategies. This study's distinctive contribution lies in examining the phenomenon of employee service quality at the intersection of knowledge sharing and customer satisfaction and the use of AI systems from an emerging market context. Furthermore, the moderation role of AI quality has rarely been explored.
      Citation: International Marketing Review
      PubDate: 2021-12-24
      DOI: 10.1108/IMR-02-2021-0078
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • How international marketers make decisions: exploring approaches to
           learning and using heuristics

         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

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      Authors: Simone Guercini , Susan Maria Freeman
      Abstract: The paper addresses the following research question: how do decision-makers use heuristics in their international business (IB) environment' Whereas, the literature has focused on entrepreneurial companies, here contrasting approaches to learning and using heuristics in international marketing (IM) decisions are examined and discussed. The paper aims to address a gap in the study of micro-foundations of internationalization, exploiting research from other disciplinary fields. It combines a multidisciplinary literature review and longitudinal case studies to illustrate different approaches in learning and using heuristics by international marketers. International marketers can adopt “closed” heuristics that are consolidated and consistently followed, or “open” heuristics, which are constantly being adapted and learned. Established multinationals learn heuristics in international marketing decision-making, following both “closed” and “open” models. This paper offers an original contribution by presenting different approaches not yet examined in the literature, focusing on how international marketers make decisions through learning and using heuristic rules. The focus is on established exporters, in contrast to the literature that has largely paid attention to the effectiveness of heuristics in new entrepreneurial firms.
      Citation: International Marketing Review
      PubDate: 2021-12-24
      DOI: 10.1108/IMR-07-2020-0165
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Digital tools and smart technologies in marketing: a thematic
           evolution

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      Authors: Estrella Diaz , Águeda Esteban , Rocío Carranza Vallejo , David Martín-Consuegra Navarro
      Abstract: This paper aims to analyze the evolution of digital and smart technologies and their relationship with different themes within marketing journals. In addition, this study has included the evolution of digital and smart technologies in relevant International Marketing (IM)/International Business (IB) journals to describe the impact of technology on this specific area to draw some interesting conclusions. A bibliometric approach is applied in this research using science mapping analysis to visualize and reveal the evolution of smart and digital technologies in this specific academic area. By combining science maps with performance indicators, the results of this study suggest that new technologies are related to eight main topics within marketing journals: implementation-completion, perceptions, behavior, market competition, adoption-diffusion model, social media, competitive advantage and disruptive technology. Additionally, this work provides new avenues for future research. When analyzing IM and IB journals, the findings highlight six thematic areas: perceptions-eWOM relationship, innovative foreign markets, performance determinants, Japan, industrial research and China. This study contributes theoretically to developing and describing a framework for research in smart and digital technologies in the general marketing and international marketing/business fields. It adds a coherent perspective on the points of contact in marketing evolution, where smart technology has a meaningful role. This study outlines the changing questions surrounding the touchpoints as well as emerging research topics.
      Citation: International Marketing Review
      PubDate: 2021-12-21
      DOI: 10.1108/IMR-12-2020-0307
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • A structured literature review on Big Data for customer relationship
           management (CRM): toward a future agenda in international marketing

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      Authors: Pasquale Del Vecchio , Gioconda Mele , Evangelia Siachou , Gloria Schito
      Abstract: This paper aims to advance the international marketing debate by presenting the results of a structured literature review (SLR) focusing on Big Data implementation in customer relationship management (CRM) strategizing. It outlines past and present literature and frames a future research agenda. The research analyzes papers published in journals from 2013 to 2020, deriving significant insights about Big Data applications in CRM. A sample of 48 articles indexed at Scopus was preliminarily submitted for bibliometric analysis. Finally, 46 papers were analyzed with content and a bibliometric analysis to identify areas of thematic specializations. The paper presents a conceptual multilevel framework demonstrating areas of specialization emerging from the literature. The framework is built around four coordinated sequences of actions relevant to “why,” “what,” “who” and “how” Big Data is implemented in CRM strategies, thus supporting the conception and implementation of an internationalization marketing strategy. Implications for the development of the future research agenda on international marketing arise from the comprehension of Big Data in CRM strategy. The paper provides a comprehensive SLR of the articles dealing with models and processes of Big Data for CRM from an international marketing perspective. Despite these issues' relevance and the increasing literature focused on them, research in this area is still fragmented and underexplored, requiring more systematic and holistic studies.
      Citation: International Marketing Review
      PubDate: 2021-12-13
      DOI: 10.1108/IMR-01-2021-0036
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Building dynamic capabilities for international marketing knowledge
           management

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      Authors: Veronica Scuotto , Chiara Nespoli , Rosa Palladino , Imen Safraou
      Abstract: By using the lens of knowledge-based view (KBV) and focusing on individual loci of knowledge, the present study addresses whether marketing knowledge management (MKM) is rooted in individual dynamic capabilities (DCs) and consequently whether it has a close relationship with the three main DCs, namely, the ability to solve a problem (substantive capability); the adaptation to rapid changes (adaptative capability); and the ability to change the way individuals solve problems (change capability). The present study aimed to examine the effects of MKM (the quantitative variable) on DCs (the quantitative variables). Drawing on the relevant literatures, the researchers have developed a model that defines the subjects of the empirical test. To do this, the authors opted for a hypothetico-deductive approach, which is commonly used in quantitative studies. The empirical analysis involved a linear regression and a sample of 105 managers of Italian companies operating in the knowledge intensive sector. Substantive, adaptive and change capabilities were all positively correlated with MKM. The results indicate the significant need for individual DCs to improve business performance in terms of creativity, innovation, and flexibility in response to market changes. The authors show that individual MKM has a strong relationship with individual DCs when the employees have the capacity to solve problems, adapt, and change. In turn, managers are strategically creative and imagine future possibilities in the international marketing sphere. This includes procedures and routines to learn in local markets. The study also stresses the fact that individuals represent the primary loci of knowledge.
      Citation: International Marketing Review
      PubDate: 2021-12-09
      DOI: 10.1108/IMR-03-2021-0108
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Understanding firm survival in a global crisis

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      Authors: Uday Salunkhe , Bharath Rajan , V. Kumar
      Abstract: Global crises create an environment that is characterized by a fight for survival by countries, companies and citizens. While firms have adopted business initiatives to ensure survival in a global crisis, many measures are geared toward preventing customer churn, declining revenues and eroding market share. Such short-term focus raises an important question regarding long-term survival – how can firms survive a global crisis' The purpose of this study is to investigate how firms can survive a global crisis. This study considers pandemics as the study context and uses a triangulation methodology (past research, managerial insights and popular press articles) to advance the organizing framework. Using the process study approach, the proposed framework recognizes the onset characteristics of a global crisis with a focus on pandemics and the government actions that reflect the pandemic onset. The framework also identifies a logical order of three marketplace reactions to the pandemic – management response, consumer response and critical business transformations that ultimately lead to firm survival – and advances related research propositions of such reactions. By deploying critical business transformations, firms can ensure firm survival in a pandemic by fostering engagement with customers, employees and resources. Additionally, the moderators that influence the relationships between (1) management response and critical business transformations, (2) consumer response and critical business transformations, and (3) critical business transformations and firm survival are identified. Finally, this study presents an agenda for future research. To the authors' best knowledge, this is the first study to adopt an interdisciplinary approach to study firm survival in a global crisis such as a pandemic. This study answers the call for more research to the growing field of pandemic research in the areas of marketing research and marketing strategy. The learnings from this study can help firms on what to anticipate and how to respond in a crisis such as a pandemic. Societal welfare is accounted for as firms plan to deal with a crisis. This is the first study to propose a strategic framework to deal with a crisis that is largely unanticipated where the duration and the impact is not predictable.
      Citation: International Marketing Review
      PubDate: 2021-12-08
      DOI: 10.1108/IMR-05-2021-0175
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • National cultures and their impact on electronic word of mouth: a
           systematic review

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      Authors: Anh Dang , David Raska
      Abstract: This paper aims to summarize peer-reviewed journal articles on national cultures and electronic word of mouth (eWOM) behavior, identify the main findings and patterns among those studies and discuss research gaps that need to be addressed in the future. A systematic review process was utilized to analyze peer-reviewed journal articles on both eWOM and national cultures. The main research questions were defined, then proceeded by the identification of exclusive and inclusive criteria to search for relevant articles, which were further filtered based on abstracts and full texts, and then scrutinized for main findings and major variables such as countries, cultural variables and data collection methods. An analysis of 52 papers shows that national cultures, primarily Hofstede's dimensions, influence the willingness of individuals to share eWOM, how they write eWOM and the extent to which they use eWOM to make decisions. Although the reviewed studies have provided insightful implications for marketing theory and practice, the present paper has identified a number of important questions that warrant future research attention. eWOM is continually being employed as a popular source of information for consumers throughout different countries to make their purchase decisions. However, eWOM behavior differs from country to country due to national cultures, and managers' eWOM strategies that work in one country may not be applicable in another. Therefore, there has been an increasing interest in this topic. Nevertheless, it remains unclear which subjects have been addressed and what areas are yet to be investigated. This paper presents a comprehensive review of how national cultures affect eWOM behavior by drawing upon prior research and provides directions for future research contributions.
      Citation: International Marketing Review
      PubDate: 2021-11-02
      DOI: 10.1108/IMR-12-2020-0316
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • The open innovation journey along heterogeneous modes of
           knowledge-intensive marketing collaborations: a cross-sectional study of
           innovative firms in Europe

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      Authors: Armando Papa , Alice Mazzucchelli , Luca Vincenzo Ballestra , Antonio Usai
      Abstract: Previous research focused on open innovation (OI) suggests that enterprises benefit from adopting the journey; however, the relationship among OI, marketing journey and knowledge-intensive innovation marketing activities (KIIMA) remains unclear. The present study proposes a conceptual model of the marketing journey linking heterogeneous modes of marketing collaboration to knowledge-intensive activities. The conceptual model was tested via ordinary least squares (OLS) linear regression based on a sample of data drawn from the Eurostat database. The results indicate that strategies are a robust proxy for evaluating KIIMA, and partnerships, heterogeneous sources of knowledge and different marketing modes for collaboration among European knowledge-intensive firms are core antecedents of KIIMA, such as new-product development and marketing innovation, as well as firms' sustainable competitive advantage. This study fills the gap by tracking the role of the journey within marketing collaborations on KIIMA, and it intervenes in the debate about interactive marketing innovation mechanisms. The study contributes to OI, knowledge management and the marketing literature by identifying the heterogeneous modes for marketing collaborations under which the marketing journey enhances knowledge-intensive activities such as those for marketing innovation.
      Citation: International Marketing Review
      PubDate: 2021-10-04
      DOI: 10.1108/IMR-03-2021-0109
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Dynamics of the termination of global alliances: probing the past,
           analyzing the present and defining the frontiers for future research

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      Authors: Nakul Parameswar , Sanjay Dhir , Tran Tien Khoa , Antonino Galati , Zafar U. Ahmed
      Abstract: While the number of global alliance terminations in the business world has grown steadily during the past few decades, the scholarly literature on strategic alliance (SA) termination remains limited. This research paper aims to perform a bibliometric analysis of the literature on alliance termination and propose a model for future research agenda that links the termination phase to the pre-alliance termination phase and post alliance termination phase. A search query on global alliance termination identified a total of 69 research papers from the Scopus database, and a bibliometric analysis was performed using the bibliometrix R-package and VOSviewer. The analysis further used the TCCM framework to review the set of papers. This research analysis reveals that, compared to the pre-formation, formation, and process stages of alliances, limited research has been undertaken on global alliance termination. The bibliometric analysis and TCCM framework provide a complete view of the extant literature on global alliance termination from different dimensions and act as the which as the foundation for a developing the research agenda that links pre-alliance termination phase and post-alliance termination phase to that of alliance termination phase. The proposed research agenda is unique as it integrates multiple phases in the alliance lifecycle with global alliance termination phase and develops a distinct view for future research that emphasizes on the post-alliance termination phase. The bibliometric analysis provides a precise snapshot of the state of the literature on global alliance termination. The research agenda developed provides a direction for further academic research that links alliance termination not only to pre-alliance termination phase but also to the post-alliance termination phase that is nascently explored in the literature. This study is among the few to review and synthesize the literature on global alliance termination. It, therefore, functions as a catalyst to draw global scholars' attention. Further, it provides global researchers with direction by proposing a global research agenda.
      Citation: International Marketing Review
      PubDate: 2021-10-01
      DOI: 10.1108/IMR-01-2021-0046
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Owner CEO narcissism, international entrepreneurial orientation and
           post-entry speed of internationalization: an empirical study of exporting
           SMEs from China

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      Authors: Xiaoxuan Li , Yue Wang , Miles M. Yang , Yanzhao Tang
      Abstract: This study explores the impact of owner chief executive officers' (CEO) narcissism on the exporting small to medium-sized enterprises' (SMEs) decision-making on the international market expansion speed after their initial entry. Specifically, the authors use the mechanism of firms' international entrepreneurial orientation (IEO) to examine how owner CEO narcissism may influence SMEs' post-entry speed of internationalization (PSI), both directly and indirectly. To test the hypotheses, the authors draw on data from a two-wave questionnaire and on archival export data from 291 Chinese exporting SMEs in three municipalities and 17 provinces from 2019 to 2020. The results support the theoretical predictions that owner CEO narcissism shapes exporting SMEs' decisions on PSI, both directly and indirectly, through the mediation of firm-level IEO. The study extends emerging research on the role of CEO narcissism in the upper echelons literature into the international marketing (IM) context. It also offers new insights into what drives exporting SMEs' IM decision-making from a psychological microfoundations perspective. Furthermore, the authors theoretically establish and empirically demonstrate the key role of a firm's IEO as a mediator to complement the existing literature's focus on the direct influence of CEO narcissism on firms' internationalization decisions.
      Citation: International Marketing Review
      PubDate: 2021-09-23
      DOI: 10.1108/IMR-07-2020-0169
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Technological knowledge and internationalization: evidence from India

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      Authors: Saurabh Bhattacharya , Arpita Agnihotri , Natalia Yannopoulou , Georgia Sakka
      Abstract: The authors combine institutional theory with resource-based theory to explain how emerging market firms (EMFs) manage their technological knowledge capital by venturing into international markets. The authors further explore the contingency effect of international marketing knowledge and competitive intensity in the home country in influencing technological knowledge capital and internationalization relationship. The study employs multiple linear regression analysis using a dataset consisting of 326 Bombay Stock Exchange-listed A and B category stocks for a six-year period (2010–2016). The study finds that with an increase in technological knowledge capital, the internationalization of Indian firms increases. Furthermore, international marketing knowledge and competitive intensity positively moderate this relationship. The study finds that with an increase in technological knowledge capital, the internationalization of Indian firms increases. Furthermore, international marketing knowledge and competitive intensity positively moderate this relationship. The authors’ findings increase international marketing managers' awareness of how internationalization acts as a knowledge management tool for EMFs under the contingency effect of international marketing knowledge and competitive intensity. The study provides novel insights into the technological knowledge capital management strategy by EMFs through internationalization and the role of international marketing knowledge and competitive intensity in increasing firms' ability to even better manage technological knowledge capital.
      Citation: International Marketing Review
      PubDate: 2021-09-21
      DOI: 10.1108/IMR-02-2021-0082
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Impact of nation brand experience on nation brand loyalty, and positive
           WOM in a changing environment: the role of nation brand love

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      Authors: Rohit Yadav , Justin Paul , Amit Mittal
      Abstract: Nation brand building is a complex task as it involves multiple stakeholders. In the context of globalisation, a strong nation brand has important implications not only for attracting foreign businesses and tourists but also for the brands originating from that country. This study examines the role of nation brand experience in enhancing a nation's global reputation. The relationships between nation brand experience, nation brand love, nation brand loyalty and positive word of mouth (WOM) were examined by analysing 334 survey responses collected from foreign tourists in India. Structural equation analysis was carried out as part of the analysis. The results confirmed that international visitors' sensory and affective nation brand experiences significantly enhance brand love for a nation, leading to national brand loyalty and positive WOM among them. The findings are expected to help practitioners understand consumer buying behavior related to nation brand and develop innovative strategies for improving brand values. Understanding a developing nation brand experience and how it converts to brand loyalty through the mediation effect of nation brand love from the lens of foreign tourists is the novelty of this study.
      Citation: International Marketing Review
      PubDate: 2021-09-09
      DOI: 10.1108/IMR-05-2021-0173
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • A network model approach to enhance knowledge sharing for
           internationalization readiness of SMEs

         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

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      Authors: Domitilla Magni , Roberto Chierici , Monica Fait , Kelly Lefebvre
      Abstract: Building upon the insights of the resource-based view and internationalization theories, the purpose of this paper is to examine the role networks play in SMEs' readiness for internationalization. By investigating three different types of knowledge sharing, namely economic-setting, market-specific and customer-specific, the study analyzes their effect on SMEs' readiness for internationalization. The four research hypotheses derived by from the analysis of the literature have been investigated by applying the multiple regression technique. By means of an online survey, 300 valid questionnaires were collected and information from a sample of Italian SMEs belonging to 11 agro-food consortia have been analyzed. The results suggest that SMEs' readiness for internationalization could be supported by sharing customer-specific, market-specific and economic-setting knowledge with other firms operating within the same agro-food consortium. Additionally, data analysis highlights a negative relation between the risk perception in the process and readiness for internationalization, suggesting the importance of knowledge sharing in reducing the criticality issues of being a newcomer entering international markets. From a theoretical perspective, this study aims to fill the gap in knowledge management and international relationship marketing literature. Since proposes a combination of different kinds of knowledge that contribute to reducing the criticalities SMEs must face by identifying useful information to be conveyed within the network. From a managerial perspective, the study provides useful insights for the agro-food sector, highlighting how experiential and network knowledge constitutes a pre-condition for managing internationalization complexity and discovering opportunities on foreign markets.
      Citation: International Marketing Review
      PubDate: 2021-08-19
      DOI: 10.1108/IMR-03-2021-0110
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • International open innovation and international market success: an
           empirical study of emerging market small and medium-sized enterprises

         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

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      Authors: Nadia Zahoor , Zaheer Khan , Ahmad Arslan , Huda Khan , Shlomo Yedidia Tarba
      Abstract: This paper presents a theorization and an empirical analysis of the influences of international open innovation (IOI) on the international market success of emerging market small and medium-sized enterprises (ESMEs). An analysis of the moderating roles played by cross-cultural competencies and digital alliance capabilities in this specific context is also presented. The study adopted a quantitative research design involving a survey of 231 ESMEs based in the UAE. The authors formulated some hypotheses and tested them by employing hierarchical regression models. The findings revealed that IOI positively affects the international market success of ESMEs. The authors further found that both cross-cultural competencies and digital alliance capabilities moderate the relationship between IOI and international market success. The study advances the international marketing, knowledge and innovation management literature in two ways. First, it is a pioneering study that advances both the theoretical and empirical scholarship regarding the relationship between IOI and emerging market firm international market success by employing an extended resource-based view. Second, it further highlights the role played by cross-cultural competencies and digital alliance capabilities as effective governance mechanisms that moderate the relationship between IOI and international market success.
      Citation: International Marketing Review
      PubDate: 2021-08-17
      DOI: 10.1108/IMR-12-2020-0314
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Analysing the importance of international knowledge, orientation,
           networking and commitment as entrepreneurial culture and market
           orientation in gaining competitive advantage and international performance
           

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      Authors: Mohammad Falahat , Pedro Soto-Acosta , T. Ramayah
      Abstract: This study argues that having an entrepreneurial culture and market orientation are critical for young enterprises to gain competitive advantage and superior international performance. We investigate how young entrepreneurial companies despite their limited resources and experience expand rapidly in foreign markets almost from their inception. This investigation uses a mixed-methods approach, combining in-depth interviews and survey data. In-depth interviews lead us to conceptualise a model highlighting the importance of international knowledge, international orientation, international networking and international commitment as entrepreneurial culture and market orientation for gaining competitive advantage and, in return, superior performance in the international market. Then, the derived conceptual model is empirically tested on a sample of Malaysian Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs). Results show that entrepreneurial culture is positively associated with competitive advantage and international performance, while market orientation is positively related to competitive advantage but not to international performance. In addition, government support strengthens the positive effect of competitive advantage on international performance. This study investigation analyses the importance of entrepreneurial culture and market orientation in contributing to competitive advantage and superior performance. In addition, this study examines the critical role of government support in the relationships between entrepreneurial culture and competitive advantage and between competitive advantage and international performance.
      Citation: International Marketing Review
      PubDate: 2021-08-16
      DOI: 10.1108/IMR-02-2021-0053
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Consumer cosmopolitanism in international marketing research: a systematic
           review and future research agenda

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      Authors: Anna Makrides , Olga Kvasova , Alkis Thrassou , Elias Hadjielias , Alberto Ferraris
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to systematically collate and scrutinize the state of the art on consumer cosmopolitanism (CCOS) from an international marketing perspective and to provide a foundation for future research on the subject matter to proliferate and prosper. A systematic review of the extant literature was conducted focusing on peer-reviewed journal articles published in major marketing, international business and management journals. A systematic analysis of 44 journal articles shows that CCOS research is a rapidly growing research stream in the international marketing field. However, at the same time, the results reveal a lack of coherent and consistent conceptual underpinning, conflicting empirical findings regarding the profile and behavior of cosmopolitan consumers, persisting knowledge gaps, as well as methodological and contextual weaknesses. This paper is the first to consolidate the pertinent literature on CCOS. In doing so, it provides a roadmap for future research with reference to theory, context and methodology based on the research inconsistencies and knowledge gaps identified, contributing toward the development of this research area.
      Citation: International Marketing Review
      PubDate: 2021-08-10
      DOI: 10.1108/IMR-12-2020-0304
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • The role of socio-psychological and personality antecedents in luxury
           consumption: a meta-analytic review

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      Authors: Megha Bharti , Vivek Suneja , Ajay Kumar Chauhan
      Abstract: This paper conducts a meta-analytic review of literature focused on the salient socio-psychological and personality antecedents of luxury purchase intention. It investigates the role of moderators that can assist an effective market segmentation of the luxury market in both emerging and developed economies. The final analysis includes 95 effect sizes from 42 studies conducted in 15 countries, spanning 5 continents, from 2000 to 2020. The review examined moderating role of Hofstede's cultural dimensions, market type (emerging vs developed) and other study characteristics. Findings show that socio-psychological antecedents had a more salient role than personality antecedents in driving luxury purchase intention (LPI), across both emerging and developed markets. Normative influence, status consumption and materialism exhibited a stronger influence on LPI in emerging markets than developed markets. Further, stronger effects for normative influence and status consumption on LPI were found in high power distance cultures. The role of seeking uniqueness was more salient and the role of normative influence was less salient in studies with a higher percentage of females. Conspicuous consumption was a stronger driver of LPI for fashion luxury products than other luxury products. The study also proposes distinct definitions of status and conspicuous consumption as there is often theoretical overlap of these constructs in literature. A meta-analytic review may leave blind-spots due to lack of sufficient number of studies investigating certain theoretically relevant moderators. The authors discuss these gaps, along with study limitations. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, no previous study has conducted a meta-analytic review of the antecedents and moderators of LPI. With the extension of luxury demand beyond the developed countries in the West to the “new rich” consumers in the East, it becomes imperative to conduct a meta-analysis for a richer understanding of the drivers of luxury demand across different cultural orientations and market segmentations.
      Citation: International Marketing Review
      PubDate: 2021-12-14
      DOI: 10.1108/IMR-02-2021-0096
      Issue No: Vol. 39 , No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Global consumer culture and national identity as drivers of materialism:
           an international study of convergence and divergence

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      Authors: Mark Cleveland , Nicolas Papadopoulos , Michel Laroche
      Abstract: This paper studies the sociocultural drivers of materialism cross-culturally. Research in this area is scarce, even though rapid social transformations worldwide, fueled by globalization, make it imperative to identify the conditions under which commonalities and differences in materialistic tendencies are most likely to evidence among consumers as they seek to assert, restore, or enhance their self-concept and status in the context of global consumption trends. The psychographic determinants of materialism were rigorously validated across a diverse set of eight countries, by investigating which facets of acculturation to global consumer culture and national ethnic identity, along with consumer ethnocentrism, encourage or repel materialism. Using multigroup SEM and other analyses, the authors confirmed construct dimensionality and ascertained the stability of the relationships. The most consistent positive drivers of materialism were self-identification with global consumer culture and exposure to American-based global mass media. The results demonstrated the compatibility of national identity and traditions with materialistic tendencies. Materialism was positively related to or independent of consumer ethnocentrism. The findings offer consequential insights for both research and practice, although the cross-sectional character of survey research and certain sampling characteristics limit their generalizability. The results pinpoint segments that spill over national boundaries, and those that remain geographically constrained, thus providing guidance for marketing and communication strategies to practitioners. The authors shed light on two widely held yet insufficiently researched assumptions: that the homogenizing effect of global consumer culture may be fomenting materialism worldwide, and that nationalistic, parochially oriented consumers may be more capable of resisting materialistic values. The study design addresses several shortcomings of prior research, and its findings advance the understanding of materialism and its antecedents by identifying the conditions driving materialistic tendencies.
      Citation: International Marketing Review
      PubDate: 2021-12-13
      DOI: 10.1108/IMR-02-2021-0097
      Issue No: Vol. 39 , No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Quiet versus loud luxury: the influence of overt and covert narcissism on
           young Chinese and US luxury consumers' preferences'

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      Authors: Ling Jiang , Annie Peng Cui , Juan Shan
      Abstract: This study examines the impact of narcissism on young luxury consumers' preferences for quiet versus loud luxury products in China and the United States. As young consumers are increasingly becoming the bedrock of global luxury growth, it is imperative for marketing researchers and practitioners to understand the psychological and social needs of these consumers. A two-study examination of young Chinese and US luxury consumers suggests that the two types of narcissism influence luxury consumption in different ways. Study 1 is a survey of young Chinese consumers that examines how the impact of narcissism on luxury purchase is mediated by social attitude functions and moderated by social anxiety. Study 2 is an experiment conducted in both the United States and China that establishes the causal relationship between the different types of narcissism and purchase intention toward quiet versus loud luxury products. Building on an overarching framework that integrates both the narcissism literature and social attitude function theory, this study shows that overt narcissistic (vs. covert) consumers hold a value-expressive (vs. social-adjustive) attitude toward luxury products, which leads them to prefer quiet (vs. loud) luxury. In addition, higher levels of social anxiety enhance the mediating role of narcissistic consumers' social attitude functions. This study advances understanding of young Chinese and US luxury consumers' narcissistic consumption patterns by proposing and empirically testing a novel research model that examines the mechanisms by which overt and covert narcissism leads to a different preference of quiet and loud luxury via the routes of different social attitude functions.
      Citation: International Marketing Review
      PubDate: 2021-10-28
      DOI: 10.1108/IMR-02-2021-0093
      Issue No: Vol. 39 , No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Charting research on international luxury marketing: where are we now and
           where should we go next'

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      Authors: Cleopatra Veloutsou , George Christodoulides , Francisco Guzmán
      Abstract: Despite luxury's increasing globalization and broadening scope via digitalization and new markets, the intellectual structure of the overall research corpus remains tenuous. This work therefore aims to provide an overview of published work on international luxury marketing and to contribute to a better understanding of the research area. Using a systematic approach, 1151 items (papers) were retrieved and 181 selected from the international luxury marketing field published before 2019. These items were analyzed by using various bibliometric techniques to identify the most productive countries, journals, influential authors, papers and research clusters. Although most of the outputs originate from business, management and marketing journals, other disciplines also research this topic. The analysis reveals an emerging field, with 85% of the published papers appearing between 2010 and 2018, which are primarily the output of US- and UK-based authors and none of whom dominates the field. The three identified keyword clusters are (1) consumers and consumption (2) tools and (3) core themes. This article contributes to our understanding of the evolution, current status and research trends of published research on international luxury marketing by presenting a mapping analysis and proposing future research directions. This is the first bibliometric mapping analysis of research on the topic from its conception to 2019. It contributes insights from different research disciplines, adds to the categorization of the international luxury marketing literature and provides promising future research directions in terms of research areas and strategies.
      Citation: International Marketing Review
      PubDate: 2021-10-07
      DOI: 10.1108/IMR-04-2021-0154
      Issue No: Vol. 39 , No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Priceless time – The UHNWI's most precious possession: implications for
           international marketing theory and practice

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      Authors: Philipp ‘Phil’ Klaus , JungKun Park , Annalisa Tarquini-Poli
      Abstract: Traditionally, international luxury marketing highlights possible disparities of cultural and value perception. The context-specific nature of traditional international luxury marketing, which ranges from educational and cultural to financial and offering-based variations, delivers little guidance to managers in the field regarding how to cater best to their highest target segment. The study aims to exemplify the relevance of global consumer culture (GCC) theory for the ultra-high-net-worth-individual (UHNWI) context. The authors' research on UHNWIs maps the DNA, so to speak, of the UHNWI customer experience (CX) by determining what drives UHNWI purchasing behavior independent of background – in other words, what matters most to this exclusive consumer segment. Interviewing 15 UHNWIs using a means-end approach and incorporating the emerging consensus technique (ECT), the authors explored the CX of UHNWIs leading to their purchasing decisions. The authors' analysis reveals the three main constituents of the UHNWI CX: the value of time, expectation mismanagement and the utilitarian nature of luxury. The findings highlight that UHNWIs see traditional luxury as a necessity rather than a luxury and value different factors, such as time, much more highly. The findings highlight the UHNWI homogenous nature, connecting GCC to purchasing behavior. The authors' study delivers empirical evidence of what matters most to the UHNWI segment and drives their purchasing behavior. The authors are questioning existing luxury segmentation strategies and lay out a clear guidance on how to design and deliver effective and efficient marketing, sales and communications strategies for the elusive UHNWI segment. The research highlights that it is the experience and the three main dimensions, namely expectation mismanagement, luxury as a utility and the value of time. Following UHNWI CX DNA framework will allow luxury companies to build their marketing and client acquisition efforts on a solid understanding of what matters most to the UHNWI target segment. The study highlights the commonalities of UHNWIs in terms of what matters most to them. Based on this, the authors develop a UHNWI CX DNA. The authors propose that traditional context-specific differences upheld by international marketing researchers might not apply to the UHNWI segment. The authors deliver evidence that UHNWI are an excellent example of the applicability of GCC theory. The only difference in perception the authors noticed was between CX evaluations of self-made UHNWIs and those who inherited their wealth in an otherwise homogenous segment.
      Citation: International Marketing Review
      PubDate: 2021-10-05
      DOI: 10.1108/IMR-02-2021-0085
      Issue No: Vol. 39 , No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Luxury fashion retailers' localised marketing strategies in practice
           – evidence from China

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      Authors: Huifeng Bai , Julie McColl , Christopher Moore
      Abstract: From an international retailing perspective, this empirical study aims to examine luxury fashion retailers' changing marketing strategies in China. Using case studies of 14 luxury fashion retailers, qualitative data were collected via 31 semi-structured executive interviews. Both standardised global and localised multinational marketing strategies were found to have initially been employed by luxury fashion retailers entering into China. Subsequently, localised multinational strategies became increasingly important for their post-entry operations and business development, particularly in terms of their product strategies. More specifically, as well as the introduction of Chinese brand names, product design has been adapted according to Chinese market conditions, and product portfolios have been adapted to satisfy regional differences. However, localised product sourcing in China is far less common. As the findings are generated from China, they may not explain luxury fashion retailers' marketing strategies in other markets. Despite the relatively small sample size, the 14 luxury fashion retailer case studies originate from across a wide range of countries, retail formats and ownership structures and are therefore considered to be varied enough to represent the market. The study offers practitioners insights into the success that can be generated by the manipulation of marketing strategies, particularly product strategies, within the world's second biggest luxury market. This paper extends the current international retailing literature by examining and comparing the motives and practices of luxury fashion retailers and the increasing localisation of their marketing strategies in China as they move from initial market entry into their post-entry operations.
      Citation: International Marketing Review
      PubDate: 2021-09-22
      DOI: 10.1108/IMR-02-2021-0079
      Issue No: Vol. 39 , No. 2 (2021)
       
  • International Marketing Review

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