Subjects -> BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS (Total: 3570 journals)
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    - PUBLIC FINANCE, TAXATION (37 journals)
    - TRADE AND INDUSTRIAL DIRECTORIES (2 journals)

INTERNATIONAL COMMERCE (145 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 136 of 136 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Economica Et Turistica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
African Journal of Economic and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Amnis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Antitrust Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asia and the Global Economy     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Shipping and Logistics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Botswana Journal of Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Career Development International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
China Business Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
China Economic Quarterly International     Open Access  
Competition and Regulation in Network Industries     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Critical Perspectives on International Business     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Crossroads     Hybrid Journal  
Digital Finance : Smart Data Analytics, Investment Innovation, and Financial Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
East Asian Community Review     Hybrid Journal  
EC Tax Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Economic Journal of Emerging Markets     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Economics Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ekonomia Międzynarodowa     Open Access  
EMAJ : Emerging Markets Journal     Open Access  
Emerging Markets Finance and Trade     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Estudos Internacionais : revista de relações internacionais da PUC Minas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Business Law Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
European Company Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
European Journal of International Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Expert Journal of Business and Management     Open Access  
Foreign Trade Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Global & Strategis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Global Trade and Customs Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Human Resource Development International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Human Resource Management International Digest     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
IMF Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
IN VIVO     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Information Resources Management Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Information Technologies & International Development     Open Access   (Followers: 81)
International Advances in Economic Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Business Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Commerce Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Economic Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
International Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Economics and Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
International Insolvency Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Applied Behavioral Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
International Journal of Asian Business and Information Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Commerce and Management     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Export Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Governance and Financial Intermediation     Hybrid Journal  
International Labor and Working-Class History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
International Labour Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 60)
International Marketing Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Public Management Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Review of Applied Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Review of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Review of Economics & Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
International Review of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Review of Financial Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Review of Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Review of Social History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
International Review on Public and Nonprofit Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Small Business Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Studies of Management and Organization     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
International Trade Journal : Western Hemispheric Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Transactions In Operational Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Intertax     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Japanese Political Economy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal for International Business and Entrepreneurship Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Accounting and Finance in Emerging Economies     Open Access  
Journal of Advanced Research in Economics and International Business     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Chinese Economic and Foreign Trade Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Chinese Human Resource Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Comparative International Management     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Contemporary European Research     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Economics and International Finance     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of International Accounting, Auditing and Taxation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of International Business Policy     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of International Business Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Journal of International Commerce, Economics and Policy     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of International Consumer Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of International Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Journal of International Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Journal of International Entrepreneurship     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of International Financial Management & Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of International Food & Agribusiness Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of International Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of International Marketing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Journal of International Money and Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Journal of International Trade & Economic Development: An International and Comparative Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of International Trade Law and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Korea Trade     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Monetary Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 95)
Journal of Revenue and Pricing Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Reviews on Global Economics     Open Access  
Journal of the Association for Consumer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of the Japanese and International Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Theoretical and Applied Electronic Commerce Research     Open Access  
Journal of World Trade     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Jurnal Hubungan Internasional     Open Access  
Jurnal Ilmu Ekonomi Terapan     Open Access  
L'Année du Maghreb     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Management international / International Management / Gestiòn Internacional     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Management International Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
MEED Middle East Economic Digest     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Monthly Statistics of International Trade - Statistiques mensuelles du commerce international     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
PharmacoEconomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Proceedings of the International Conference on Business Excellence     Open Access  
Qualitative Research in Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Quarterly Journal of Political Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Regional Formation and Development Studies     Open Access  
Relações Internacionais (R:I)     Open Access  
Research World     Hybrid Journal  
Review of International Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Review of International Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Revista Brasileira de Gestão de Negócios     Open Access  
Revista Multiface Online     Open Access  
Revue internationale de l'économie sociale     Full-text available via subscription  
Revue Internationale du Travail     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Revue internationale P.M.E. : économie et gestion de la petite et moyenne entreprise     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
South African Journal of International Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
South American Development Society Journal     Open Access  
Studies in Comparative International Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Syracuse Journal of International Law and Commerce     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
TDM Transnational Dispute Management Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Transnational Corporations Review     Hybrid Journal  
World Competition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
World Food Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
World Oil Trade     Hybrid Journal  
World Trade and Arbitration Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)

           

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Critical Perspectives on International Business
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.378
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 1  
 
Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal   * Containing 4 Open Access Open Access article(s) in this issue *
ISSN (Print) 1742-2043 - ISSN (Online) 1758-6062
Published by Emerald Homepage  [360 journals]
  • Declining industries in emerging economies and firms’ strategies

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      Authors: Hao Tan
      Abstract: International business (IB) and strategy research in the context of emerging economies (EEs) has focused traditionally on the strategies of firms in and from those markets to seize opportunities arising from their economic growth. This paper aims to demonstrate that declining industries in EEs are an important but overlooked research context for critical IB scholarship and to illuminate special considerations for strategising under those conditions. This paper provides an overview of declining industries in EEs and includes an illustration of a sample of such industries in major EEs. This paper then critically reviews research on firms’ strategies in declining industries and extends that critical discussion to the EE context. Firstly, this paper provides evidence relating to declines in industries in EEs. Secondly, this paper identifies three major strategies that firms use in response to an industry decline and critically discusses those strategies’ manifestations and special considerations in the context of EEs. Industry decline in EEs and the resultant responses of multi-national enterprises and local firms, such as business exit, market competition and firm diversification strategies, cause significant social challenges. This paper calls for further research on the phenomenon, especially regarding its distinctive ramifications compared with those in the context of developed countries. This paper contributes to the critical IB scholarship by questioning the assumptions around high economic growth in individual EE industries and by challenging a universalistic approach that applies findings grounded in declining industries in developed countries to the distinctive context of EEs. This paper also provides forward-looking expositions concerning industry decline in EEs.
      Citation: Critical Perspectives on International Business
      PubDate: 2022-05-26
      DOI: 10.1108/cpoib-01-2021-0015
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Multinational orchestration: a meta-theoretical approach toward
           competitive advantage

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      Authors: Vaneet Kaur
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to critically evaluate the canonical contribution of the classical theories of multinational enterprises (MNE) and complement them with congruous multi-theoretical lenses to a propose a meta-theoretical view for competitive advantage. The proposed framework is applied to fundamental questions of MNE, and exploratory insights are revealed. This study sought to review the literature on various paradigms such as resource-based view, knowledge-based view, attention-based view, relational view, dynamic capability view and institution-based view to propose a meta-theoretical approach explicating the phenomenon of competitiveness. This study proffers that the key to global competitiveness lies in building micro-foundational, multidimensional and multilevel multinational orchestration capabilities. The requisite orchestration capabilities are capabilities par excellence that explain: how organizational capabilities originate through the cognition of individual employees at the micro level; how individual-level abilities are amplified when they are harnessed through relational capabilities to form knowledge capabilities at the meso-level; and how the confluence of knowledge capabilities and higher order dynamic capabilities gives rise to heterogeneous firm-level knowledge-based dynamic capabilities that can be combined with institution capabilities to aggrandize the prediction of competitive advantage for MNEs. The successful development of MNE competitiveness as a field of academic inquiry, brought about by an increasing amount of theoretical specialization, has come at the price of significant fragmentation of the overall scientific quest. The abovementioned paradigms and their underlying constructs have primarily been conceptualized in silos. The classical theories of MNE have been used a starting point to which complementary multidisciplinary views have been scaffolded to gain a more nuanced understanding of global competitiveness.
      Citation: Critical Perspectives on International Business
      PubDate: 2022-05-24
      DOI: 10.1108/cpoib-11-2021-0090
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Talent management practices for firms’ absorptive capacity in a host
           country: a study of the Chinese diaspora in Russia

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      Authors: Marina Latukha , Yugui Zhang , Andrei Panibratov , Ksenia Arzhanykh , Liana Rysakova
      Abstract: The paper aims to explore the role of talent management (TM) practices in shaping firm’s absorptive capacity (AC) in the host country. Based on the data from representatives of Chinese diaspora used in Russia, this study discusses the role of TM practices in developing firm’s AC through learning from diaspora. To explore possible connections between both TM practices and AC and TM practices and attractiveness of a company for diaspora representatives (talent mobility), this study reports an exploratory study by using a set-theoretical analytic method, fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis. The findings state that retention and development practices significantly influence firm’s AC, which promotes attractiveness of Russia as of destination country for Chinese employees and of particular company with the corresponding TM system. This study reveals the existing connection between diaspora talent attraction and knowledge assimilation and diaspora talent retention and knowledge transformation. Knowledge acquisition is influenced by talent retention and talent development with a mediation of knowledge sharing.
      Citation: Critical Perspectives on International Business
      PubDate: 2022-05-16
      DOI: 10.1108/cpoib-07-2020-0099
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Issue-based environmental sustainability factors in Nigeria’s oil and
           gas industry: the perspectives of academics

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      Authors: Mfon Solomon Jeremiah , Kassa Woldesenbet Beta , Raphael S. Etim
      Abstract: This study aims to develop a framework that enables the identification of sustainability factors from industry-specific environmental issues, and it proposes that these factors, in turn, can influence the corporate environmental performance (CEP) of firms in such an industry. It also validates the factor identification aspect of the framework. The paper starts by reviewing relevant literature extensively and then developing an issue-based environmental sustainability framework to highlight the structural relationship of industry-specific sustainability factors with CEP. By involving 131 participants from academics in Niger Delta, the paper uses exploratory factor analysis techniques to reduce industry-specific sustainability factors from several environmental and socio-economic issues in the Nigerian oil and gas (O&G) industry. Environmental risk originates from business environmental issues, and it triggers community reaction, which impacts negatively on corporate image. The nature of firm’s strategic responsiveness to these factors determines CEP. The study draws from the perspectives of academics on environmental issues in Niger Delta to validate the factor identification aspect of the framework. The views of other stakeholders are not included, and hence, it should be applied with caution. Useful in identifying and managing industry-specific environmental issues, and thus, achieving some sustainable development objectives. Although most previous studies have focused on generic CEP drivers, this study proposes sustainability factors that can originate from industry-specific environmental issues as crucial drivers of CEP in such an industry. It provides empirical evidence of such credible sustainability factors emerging from the Nigerian O&G industry’s environmental issues.
      Citation: Critical Perspectives on International Business
      PubDate: 2022-04-26
      DOI: 10.1108/cpoib-02-2020-0012
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Truths and unfreedoms of regimes of insecurity and the resistance of the
           commons

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      Authors: Srinath Jagannathan , Patturaja Selvaraj
      Abstract: This paper aims to explore narratives of insecurity to understand how the casualisation of the employment relationship makes life more fragile and precarious. The authors engage in an inquiry about how multinational enterprises (MNEs) structure precariousness for workers in emerging economies. The authors attempt to understand how workers analyse their experiences of precariousness and what form their resistance takes as a result of their analysis. The authors engage with the narratives of eight Indian workers/trade union activists working in different marginal spaces of the Indian economy to uncover a commons where we are the multitude. By commons, the authors imply shared forms of property, which stand against the concept of private property that is central to the social relations of capitalism. The authors are performing the data of workers by interspersing them in an analysis of angst and hope. Workers understand their experiences of precariousness as emerging from a complex political economy structured by MNEs, which involves multiple fronts of marginalisation. Workers realize that they need to engage in comprehensive forms of resistance to undo the regimes of precariousness. Workers create shared universes of grief to relate to each other’s experiences of precariousness. The unfreedoms experienced by workers lead to a sharing of the social relations of commons where workers can resist by expressing solidarity with each other. The authors contribute to practice by arguing that workers’ collectives should not accept the naturalisation of precariousness. By staging a dialogue about the injuries of precariousness, they can craft a politics of resistance that begins the process of commoning. Workers’ politics of resistance can significantly democratise the global political economy in important ways by advancing the potential for commons. The authors make an original contribution to the study of precariousness in the context of international business by arguing that the experience of precariousness can lead to a commons where workers resist structures of injustice.
      Citation: Critical Perspectives on International Business
      PubDate: 2022-04-18
      DOI: 10.1108/cpoib-08-2020-0110
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • A comparative analysis of corporate social responsibility development in
           the USA and China

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      Authors: Maoliang Bu , Steven Rotchadl , Mengmeng Bu
      Abstract: This paper aims to conduct a comparative study between the historical development of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in both the USA and China. It is motivated by the phenomenon that CSR is developing in two different directions (global vs local). A comparative study on sustainability-linked compensation illustrates how CSR in the USA is driven by firm-level economic decisions, in which the manifestations of CSR are usually those which prove to be the most profitable financially. Moreover, a case analysis on the green bond market in China contrarily illustrates how CSR in China is usually based more on alignment with top-down, state-led initiatives in which the state directs the ways in which CSR is manifested. This paper reveals that despite globalizing trends are attempting to unify definitions of CSR, they inevitably become localized to fit the societal needs in which they are located. By understanding how CSR development in these two countries has changed over time, this paper shows that future developments in CSR will likely be influenced more by local practices than by converging global forces.
      Citation: Critical Perspectives on International Business
      PubDate: 2022-04-07
      DOI: 10.1108/cpoib-09-2021-0073
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • “It’s hard for them to even understand what we are saying”(.)
           Language and power in the multinational workplace

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      Authors: Kyoungmi Kim , Jo Angouri
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to discuss the role of language ideologies in negotiating organisational relationships in a Korean multinational company (MNC). By adopting an interactional sociolinguistics (IS) approach, this paper illustrates how language becomes part of a mechanism of negotiating group membership and of perpetuating or challenging power asymmetries through social and ideological processes. This paper draws on interview data from an ethnographic case study of a Korean MNC to understand language ideologies in one working team. The interview data are analysed through an IS framework to connect the situated interaction to the broader social context. This paper shows that participants’ discourse of linguistic differentiation becomes an interactional resource in challenging the organisational status quo. Linguistic superiority/inferiority is constructed through particular sequencing and the systematic production of a dichotomy between two groups – expatriate managers and local employees – at various levels of their company structure. Group membership is enacted temporarily in positioning the self and the others. This paper offers a methodological contribution to international business language-sensitive research on language and power by conducting interactional analysis of interview talk. Through the lens of IS, it provides insights into how discourse becomes a primary site of negotiating power and status and a multi-level approach to the study of organisational power dynamics and the complex linguistic landscape of any workplace.
      Citation: Critical Perspectives on International Business
      PubDate: 2022-02-28
      DOI: 10.1108/cpoib-06-2020-0084
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Public procurement – price-taker or market-shaper'

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      Authors: Sandra G. Hamilton
      Abstract: This paper examines the role of government procurement as a social policy mechanism within a multilateral open trading system. Government regulations globally are being transformed to foster more responsible business conduct in multinational enterprises (MNEs). Yet, concern that sustainability may present a discriminatory barrier to trade has stalled the progress of sustainable public procurement (SPP) at the international level, raising questions regarding the role and scope of the World Trade Organisation’s (WTO) Government Procurement Agreement (GPA) to align taxpayer-funded contracts with the United Nations (UN) Sustainable Development Goals. With a focus on social sustainability, this paper reviews the grey and academic literature to assess the changing landscape of public procurement policy and supply chain legislation in high-income countries. Frontrunner nations are adopting a mandatory approach to sustainable public procurement and due diligence legislation is elevating supply chain risk from reputational damage to legal liability. While technological innovation and the clean, green production of manufactured goods dominates the sustainable public procurement literature, the social aspects of sustainability poverty, inequality and human rights remain underrepresented. The scope of this paper is limited to the examination of government procurement covered by the WTO-GPA (2012). Smaller value contracts, under the WTO-GPA thresholds and the category of defence are beyond the scope of the paper. The paper focusses on the underserved topic of social sustainability in business-to-government (B2G) – business to government – supply chains arguing that for responsible business conduct to become a competitive advantage, it must be more meaningfully rewarded on the demand-side of all taxpayer-funded contracts in organisation for economic co-operation and development countries. The paper introduces the idea of priceless procurement as a mechanism to build system capacity in the evaluation of non-financial sustainability objectives. To build the capacity to stimulate competition based on social and environmental policy objectives, the paper introduces the concept of priceless procurement in B2G contracts.
      Citation: Critical Perspectives on International Business
      PubDate: 2022-01-04
      DOI: 10.1108/cpoib-08-2020-0116
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Contextual and linguistic challenges for French business schools to
           achieve international accreditation: experts as boundary-spanners

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      Authors: Mary Vigier , Michael Bryant
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to explore the contextual and linguistic challenges that French business schools face when preparing for international accreditation and to shed light on the different ways in which experts facilitate these accreditation processes, particularly with respect to how they capitalize on their contextual and linguistic boundary-spanning competences. The authors interviewed 12 key players at four business schools in France engaged in international accreditations and in three specific categories: senior management, tenured faculty and administrative staff. The interview-based case study design used semi-structured questions and an insider researcher approach to study an underexplored sector of analysis. The findings suggest that French business schools have been particularly impacted by the colonizing effects of English as the mandatory language of the international accreditation bodies espousing a basically Anglophone higher education philosophy. Consequently, schools engage external experts for their contextual and linguistic boundary-spanning expertise to facilitate accreditation processes. The authors contribute to language-sensitive research through a critical perspective on marginalization within French business schools due to the use of English as the mandatory lingua franca of international accreditation processes and due to the underlying higher-education philosophy from the Anglophone academic sphere within these processes. As a result, French business schools resort to external experts to mediate their knowledge and competency gaps.
      Citation: Critical Perspectives on International Business
      PubDate: 2022-01-03
      DOI: 10.1108/cpoib-06-2020-0080
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Reversal of language hierarchy and the politics of translation in a
           multinational corporation

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      Authors: Jonna Ristolainen, Virpi Outila, Rebecca Piekkari
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to explain the reversal of language hierarchy in a Finnish multinational corporation (MNC) from a political perspective. This paper situated the language hierarchy in the historical context of the colonial-style relationship between Finland and Russia. From a post-colonial perspective, the colonial legacy of Russia has had an influence on language strategy and everyday translation work in the Finnish multinational until the present day. This paper undertook a case study based on qualitative secondary analysis of existing data sets. These data sets originated from two previously conducted studies of the same Finnish MNC. The findings revealed a reversal of the traditional corporate language hierarchy. Russian, as the host country language of powerful local subsidiaries, rose to the top of the hierarchy at the expense of English, the common corporate language, and other languages. The colonial-style relationship was enacted by professional and paraprofessional translators who collaborated by using “the master’s language and imitating the master’s voice” to reap the strategic benefits of local responsiveness. In contrast to previous work drawing on post-colonial theory in the study of MNCs, this paper represents the headquarters in Finland as the “colonised” party and the Russian subsidiaries as the “coloniser.” Owing to its colonial legacy, Russian, the host country language, became very powerful and influenced the language strategy of the entire MNC. This paper conceptualized translation as a multilevel phenomenon and offers a holistic explanation of why the language hierarchy in the Finnish MNC was reversed.
      Citation: critical perspectives on international business
      PubDate: 2021-04-05
      DOI: 10.1108/cpoib-06-2020-0086
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • The nasty face of the liability of foreignness: MNCs and rent extraction

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      Authors: Asli Kozan
      Abstract: This study aims to clarify the factors that act as a buffer to rent extraction from multi-national corporations (MNCs) in exchange relationships with the host country’s political actors. This study proposes a conceptual model of the factors that determine rent extraction by host country political actors from MNCs. The model identifies the sources of power the MNC can use to alleviate the power imbalance relative to the political actor to decrease rent extraction. Additionally, it identifies the factors that constrain the power-advantaged political actor, thus moderating the relationship between power imbalance and rent extraction. This conceptual paper’s propositions remain for future empirical validation. This study integrates insights from the international business literature and resource dependence theory (RDT) to identify the determinants of firm-specific rent extraction risk for MNCs. First, the model sheds light on the heterogeneity among MNCs in their susceptibility to rent extraction and their ability to manage their liability of foreignness in the host country. Second, by integrating the horizontal and vertical distribution of power in the political environment to analyze the power-dependence relationship between the MNC and host country political actors, the framework addresses a shortcoming of RDT and accounts for the dynamics of the external environment for MNCs managing their dependencies. This study also provides a basis for discussing the rent extraction MNCs face worldwide and lays the foundation for future empirical works.
      Citation: Critical Perspectives on International Business
      PubDate: 2021-12-21
      DOI: 10.1108/cpoib-10-2018-0074
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Is it possible to improve the international business action towards the
           sustainable development goals'

         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

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      Authors: Andrea Celone , Antonello Cammarano , Mauro Caputo , Francesca Michelino
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to investigate possible improvements in the pursuit of the sustainable development goals (SDGs) by multinational enterprises (MNEs) through an analysis of the literature. A critical framework based on Gleicher’s formula for change is provided after conducting a systematic literature review. The best way to pursue the SDGs is through an integrated approach that recognises the importance of MNEs in terms of possibilities and power of action. Working towards the SDGs appears to be largely limited by three aspects of the problem: its complexity and wickedness, the genuine interest in reaching some SDGs, at the expense of profit and low foresight. A fundamental limitation of the study concerns, as in most of the literature on the matter, the impossibility of providing an optimal solution to the problem of meeting the SDGs, given their nature. However, formulating the best definition of the problem and its characteristics can contribute to making its management better. This study has social implications due to the extreme importance that many SDGs have with regard to democracy and social equity, beyond their environmental and economic aspects. The claimed contribution is the value brought by the synthesis of several points of view, through the interdisciplinary analysis of the research question. The novelty consists in organising the literature according to the formula for change.
      Citation: Critical Perspectives on International Business
      PubDate: 2021-12-20
      DOI: 10.1108/cpoib-08-2020-0122
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Practice coordination by principles: a contemporary MNC approach to
           coordinating global practices

         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

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      Authors: Alexander Kristiansen , Roger Schweizer
      Abstract: In the mainstream international business literature on multinational corporations (MNCs), an authoritative central headquarter (HQ) that transfers standardised practices to its subsidiaries remains the norm. This study aims to explore how MNCs coordinate their management practices through principles. The paper draws on empirical findings from a qualitative in-depth single case study based on evidence-rich qualitative data including observations from how a high-tech MNC headquartered in Sweden coordinates its development practices. An alternative informal coordination approach (i.e. coordination by principles) is identified. Additionally, antecedents and implications of the approach are presented. Coordination by Principles may facilitate the internalisation of practices and be a feasible compromise between context adaptation and traditional standardisation, particularly for MNCs with highly heterogeneous research and development operations. This paper highlights the importance of acknowledging that firm practices often are based on management ideas that HQs adopt to prevent loss of legitimacy. As such, this study contributes to the scarce literature that critically questions the assumption that HQs solely transfer practices to subsidiaries to improve subsidiary efficiency and performance.
      Citation: Critical Perspectives on International Business
      PubDate: 2021-10-06
      DOI: 10.1108/cpoib-04-2020-0027
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Exploiting bullets: international business and the dynamics of war

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      Authors: Martin David Owens
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to critically review the existing research on the intersection between war and international business (IB) and to map out a future research agenda. Drawing on corporate examples and extant literature within IB, political science and international relations, the paper provides an introduction to the main concepts of war, a review of the IB research on war and provides a critical future research agenda. The review of the multiple strands of war-related research in IB generally reveals an understudied area. Among other biases, prior research has focused on inter-state wars and has relatively unexplored foreign direct investment (FDI) and non-FDI within civil wars. Furthermore, previous studies offer little attention to how IB and multinational companies contribute to the emergence and development of wars. The paper develops an analytical and critical research agenda for future research to examine the relationship between war and IB. This includes a set of questions for each of the three major phases of war: pre-conflict, armed violence and post-conflict. To the best of my knowledge, this has not been done before in the context of IB research.
      Citation: Critical Perspectives on International Business
      PubDate: 2021-09-27
      DOI: 10.1108/cpoib-05-2020-0063
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • How can international business research contribute towards the sustainable
           development goals'

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      Authors: Asmund Rygh , Eleni Chiarapini , María Vallejo Segovia
      Abstract: Realising the sustainable development goals (SDGs) will require substantial efforts from both governments, businesses, civil society and academic researchers. This paper aims to discuss the contributions that the international business (IB) discipline can make to promoting the SDGs. The paper is conceptual. The authors argue that IB can contribute to promoting the SDGs, given IB’s expertise on the multinational enterprise (MNE) and knowledge that is relevant to the international dimensions that most SDGs have. However, paradigmatic features of IB such as a focus on firm-level financial performance and on the MNE as an organisation, and dominance of quantitative methods, may presently restrict the discipline’s contributions to the SDGs. The authors present a set of recommendations for IB research on the SDGs, many of which imply an extension of the boundaries of the current IB paradigm.
      Citation: Critical Perspectives on International Business
      PubDate: 2021-09-13
      DOI: 10.1108/cpoib-08-2020-0123
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Between liability and asset: a critical review of 25 years of foreignness
           research in international business

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      Authors: Young Hoon An , Stefan Zagelmeyer , Asmund Rygh
      Abstract: The dialectics of liabilities of foreignness (LOF) and assets of foreignness (AOF) have led to further explorations of what it means for an organisation to be foreign. This paper reviews, synthesises and contextualises recent research on both the challenges and benefits of foreignness, to develop a balanced and integrated view of this international business concept. This review aims at mapping the key concepts, theories, methods and contexts in the literature and organising the key findings in an antecedent-outcomes-strategy framework, explicitly comparing LOF and AOF to explore their interrelationships. Drawing on a sample of 126 journal articles, NVivo was used to code and identify key thematic areas. The review confirms a shift in the literature towards acknowledging the notion of AOF. Using different theoretical lenses, it identifies, reviews and discusses antecedents, consequences and strategy implications of LOF and AOF. It argues that foreignness will continue to be a fundamental concept in international business research and suggests that AOF and LOF deserve an equally central place in an integrated analytical framework of foreignness in international business strategy. The paper is the first systematic attempt to integrate the literature on LOF and AOF. The systematic comparison across drivers, outcomes and strategies allows for a better understanding of the advantages and disadvantages of foreignness and the underlying phenomenon of foreignness. The authors also explore the paradox perspective on foreignness.
      Citation: Critical Perspectives on International Business
      PubDate: 2021-08-19
      DOI: 10.1108/cpoib-07-2020-0102
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • The temporal dimension from the perspective of internationalisation: a
           theoretical discussion

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      Authors: Beatrice Zanellato Mayer , Dinora Eliete Floriani
      Abstract: This paper aims to analyse how the temporal dimension is conceptualised in studies of the internationalisation process of firms and its implications. Theoretical models such as U-Model and INV explain the process of internationalisation as dynamic; nonetheless, time is approached as an underlying aspect of the process. In this essay, time is brought to the spotlight since, despite its strategic relevance, it has been treated implicitly in studies of the internationalisation processes, except in those that address the speed of internationalisation. Based on a critical reassessment of the academic literature, the authors present theoretical arguments and highlight elements to be considered in the analysis of the temporal dimension throughout the internationalisation process of firms. This essay focuses on expanding the comprehension of temporality in the internationalisation process, that underlies periods of changes, implied also in periods of stability. The paper discusses time dimension implications during the internationalisation process and reveals that there is an interaction between temporal verticality (context/events), subjective dimension of time (perception and interpretation of time) and objective dimension of time (stability and changes). Therefore, it sustains that these interactions compress past, present and future actions in the internationalisation process. Because of the chosen research approach, this essay did not empirically apply the theoretical model and propositions. Therefore, future studies may empirically apply the propositions and use the temporal lens to look deeper at the temporality of internationalisation process and shed further light on the mechanisms that interlink the pre-and post-entry phases. The argument helps entrepreneurs understand that actions throughout the internationalisation process are also influenced by the experience of time and not only governed by rational matters. Changes in the context can alter the perception of present time as being restricted, and in turn, may alter the flux of future internationalisation actions. However, if actions are conducted in a precipitated manner it can bring forth negative results for the firm. It is essential to recognise the importance of temporal verticality and subjective dimension of time as influencers of future actions of the objective dimension of time in the process of internationalisation. While most research is restricted to understanding time as speed, this essay brings a theoretical model extending the knowledge of time in the literature of international business and international entrepreneurship, by including factors that imply temporality. By explaining the relationship between temporal aspects, it is argued that temporal verticality (events and context) influences temporal subjectivity (perception of the present and interpretation of the past) to direct future actions of the temporality of internationalisation (stability and changes).
      Citation: Critical Perspectives on International Business
      PubDate: 2021-08-16
      DOI: 10.1108/cpoib-06-2020-0075
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Ecocentric management mindset: a framework for corporate sustainability

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      Authors: Cecilia Lobo Araujo , Marc Eric Barda Picavet , Cristina Aparecida Pires de Souza Sartoretto , Enrico Dalla Riva , Paulo Sodre Hollaender
      Abstract: This study aims to propose a framework to drive organizations, and particularly multinational enterprises, to understand and internalize a sustainable mindset for implementing efficient and effective corporate sustainability initiatives and helping them achieve sustainable development goals (SDGs). The framework is based on the bidirectional iterative process of the flexible pattern matching methodology. The literature on ecocentric management was examined from top to bottom in its dialogue with corporate sustainability and corporate social responsibility (CSR). The bottom-up phase was based on highly visible deviant cases of companies that were significantly recognized for their CSR or for their sustainability programs but became well-known examples of unsustainability. Additionally, an illustrative case was analyzed to examine the mindset in practice. The study offers a framework based on six constructs that were identified in ecocentric management literature. It translates the ecocentric management mindset framework into behaviors for organizations that want to conduct efficient sustainable programs that help them achieve the SDGs. The proposed new framework highlights the conceptual pillars of ecocentric management, and offers practical and theoretical perspectives on how sustainability can be better addressed at the corporate level, and help achieve the SDGs.
      Citation: Critical Perspectives on International Business
      PubDate: 2021-08-14
      DOI: 10.1108/cpoib-07-2020-0095
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Overcoming economic liminality: internationalization of B2B SME’s from a
           small emerging economy

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      Authors: Barney G. Pacheco , Syed Akhter
      Abstract: Current research on small to medium enterprise (SME) internationalization has generated valuable insight but continues to overlook the activities of business-to-business (B2B) SMEs located in small emerging economies. This study aims to fill this gap by testing the applicability of the ownership, location and internalization (OLI) framework to understand the internationalization strategies of small B2B firms in Trinidad and Tobago, a small emerging Caribbean economy. The study used a qualitative research design, which involved in-depth interviews with senior executives of three firms in the B2B sector who were knowledgeable about their firm’s internationalization process. Thematic analysis was then used to understand the motivations and strategies underpinning the internationalization approach adopted by each firm. Contrary to the stereotype of SMEs in emerging markets as fragile enterprises, there is evidence that firms exploited the development of innovative products and processes to facilitate foreign market entry and expansion. Additionally, firms overcame resource limitations by relying on governmental ties and leveraging networking opportunities. The findings also call attention to the impact of organizational learning and the role of knowledge as a dynamic capability. Both the context of the study and the application of the OLI framework contributes to the extant literature by yielding substantive insights into the internationalization strategies of B2B firms in a small emerging economy. The findings further highlight how the OLI framework can be supplemented by other theoretical perspectives to better understand internationalization by emerging market SMEs.
      Citation: Critical Perspectives on International Business
      PubDate: 2021-08-07
      DOI: 10.1108/cpoib-08-2020-0112
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Challenges of network interaction in managing sustainable development
           projects in developing countries: case of an international consulting
           company

         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

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      Authors: Olga Dziubaniuk , Maria Ivanova-Gongne , Ekaterina Berdysheva
      Abstract: This study aims to explore the challenges and complexities of interaction in international stakeholder networks within the context of projects focused on the implementation of sustainable development goals (SDGs). In particular, it examines the challenges faced by stakeholders in a network from a developed country during interaction in the context of a developing country. Using a qualitative approach, this study analyses interview data collected from the key managers of an international consulting company in charge of a water supply and sanitation project in Nepal. The primary data is triangulated with secondary data, such as project reports and related academic articles. This study illustrates how interaction in international stakeholder networks affects and is interrelated with SDGs, as well as how aiming to achieve one specific goal can stimulate the implementation of other sustainable goals. Further, this research shows how project managers from a developed country had to adapt to the specifics of the developing country context and how their sustainability project influenced the well-being of local communities by improving environmental and social sustainability. The research suggests that challenges in stakeholder interaction may arise because of differences in process management methods used by the international stakeholders involved in the project and country-context specifics, such as corruption, imperfect national regulations, cultural specifics, effects of climate change, etc. The paper contributes to the literature on international multi-stakeholder interaction between actors from developed and developing countries. Furthermore, it adds to the literature on stakeholder networking by highlighting the importance of engaging in a dialogue with local communities during the conceptualisation stages of both sustainability and SDG implementation because of diverging worldviews and practices.
      Citation: Critical Perspectives on International Business
      PubDate: 2021-07-13
      DOI: 10.1108/cpoib-08-2020-0115
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • The standalone and resource-bundling effects of government and
           nongovernment institutional support on early internationalizing firms’
           performance

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      Authors: Anisur R. Faroque , Hafiza Sultana , Jashim Uddin Ahmed , Farhad Uddin Ahmed , Mahabubur Rahman
      Abstract: This study aims to analyze the individual and joint effects of institutional support by government and nongovernment institutions on early internationalizing firms’ (EIFs) performance. It also investigated the moderating impact of firm age and size on the institutional support-firms’ export performance relationships. Data were collected from 705 EIFs in the apparel industry of Bangladesh and analyzed with hierarchical regression. The positive influence of institutional support on exporting firms’ financial performance is stronger for the joint effect of government and nongovernment assistance than the individual impact. Firms’ size positively moderates the impact of individual government and nongovernment assistance, while age positively moderates their resource-bundling effect. The findings suggest the necessity of integrating resources from diverse but complementary sources of institutional support for superior export performance. The findings also show the presence of the liability of smallness and liability of newness in the standalone and joint influence of institutional support, respectively. Firms need to bundle resources obtained from the government (unrequited) and nongovernment (reciprocal) institutional support to overcome the liability of smallness they might encounter while availing of support from only one source. Distinguishing between government and nongovernment institutional support, this paper sheds light on exporting firms’ resource-bundling mechanism for these two sources of support in the backdrop of an emerging economy. It also offers fresh insights into the critical role of the liabilities of newness and smallness in early internationalization, especially with regard to the home-country institutional environment.
      Citation: Critical Perspectives on International Business
      PubDate: 2021-08-28
      DOI: 10.1108/cpoib-06-2020-0076
      Issue No: Vol. 18 , No. 3 (2021)
       
  • Post-merger integration and subsidiary roles in Chinese MNCs – the case
           of Chinese M&As in Germany

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      Authors: Ursula Mense-Petermann
      Abstract: This paper adds to the literature on outward Foreign Direct Investments by Chinese Multinational Corporations (MNCs) in advanced economies. Its objective is threefold: to characterize the subsidiary roles that advanced economy targets of Chinese Multinational Corporations (CMNC) takeovers typically adopt, to assess the position that these subsidiary roles grant them within the CMNCs as a whole and to flesh out how subsidiary actors perceive and make sense of the particular constellation as a subsidiary of a CMNC. Furthermore, this paper aims to contribute to theory development on headquarters‐subsidiary relations by suggesting an additional theoretical lens. The paper draws on in-depth qualitative case studies from the automotive, mechanical engineering and solar industries and focuses on German firms that have been acquired by Chinese MNCs. Theoretically, the present paper draws on extant post-merger integration (PMI) and subsidiary role research, particularly from a micro-political and sensemaking perspective, refined by adding a neo-imperial dominance – lens. The paper reveals the subsidiary roles that German subsidiaries of Chinese MNCs typically adopt and discovers the PMI pattern of “reverse integration” delineating quite a particular form of reverse knowledge transfer. Regarding human integration, it emphasizes the importance of neo-imperial attitudes surfacing in the German subsidiaries. The value of the paper is in contributing to fill the pending research gap on the subsidiary roles that advanced economy subsidiaries of Chinese MNCs adopt, on the resulting positions of these subsidiaries within the overall Chinese groups and the sense that subsidiary actors make of being acquired by a Chinese MNC. The paper also reveals the importance of neo-imperial dominance patterns and attitudes in PMI in the constellation scrutinized.
      Citation: Critical Perspectives on International Business
      PubDate: 2021-08-19
      DOI: 10.1108/cpoib-02-2020-0010
      Issue No: Vol. 18 , No. 3 (2021)
       
  • Offshore outsourcing of R&D to emerging markets: information systems as
           tools of neo-colonial control

         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

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      Authors: Zehra Sayed , Henrik Agndal
      Abstract: This paper analyzes how information systems (IS) can serve as tools of neo-colonial control in offshore outsourcing of research and development work. It draws on critical work examining business and knowledge process outsourcing. The paper reports an empirical study of how laboratory information management systems (LIMS) shape offshore outsourcing practices involving Western client firms and Indian contract research organizations (CROs) in the pharmaceutical industry. The study adopted a multi-actor perspective, involving interviews with representatives of Western clients, Indian CROs, system validation auditors, and software vendors. The analysis was iterative and interpretative, guided by postcolonial sensitivity to themes of power and control. The study found that LIMS act as tools of neo-colonial control at three levels. As Western clients specify particular brands of LIMS, they create a hierarchy among local CROs and impact the development of the local LIMS industry. At inter-organizational level, LIMS shape relationships by allowing remote, real-time and retrospective surveillance of CROs’ work. At individual level, the ability of LIMS to support micro-modularizing of research leads to routinization of scientific discovery, negatively impacting scientists’ work satisfaction. By examining multiple actors’ perceptions of IS, this paper looks beyond the rhetoric of system efficiency characteristic of most international business research. As it explores dynamics of power and control surrounding IS, it also questions the proposition that outsourcing of high-end work will move emerging economies upstream in the value chain.
      Citation: Critical Perspectives on International Business
      PubDate: 2021-07-16
      DOI: 10.1108/cpoib-07-2020-0089
      Issue No: Vol. 18 , No. 3 (2021)
       
  • Transnationality in the XXI century. Concept and indicators

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      Authors: Grazia Ietto-Gillies
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to analyse the impact of major structural changes on the conceptualization of the transnational corporation (TNC) based on foreign direct investment (FDI) and on indicators of transnationality. Analysis of three major structural changes which impact the current conception of transnationality. They are: the rise of digital companies; the increased role of finance in the economy; externalization of activities via non-equity modalities (NEMs) with an impact on FDI and on the labour market. The paper finds that the current concept of transnationality needs widening to take account of companies with a low degree of fixed assets abroad such as the digital and the financial companies and those internationalizing via NEMs, as well as to take account of the evolving relationship between TNCs and labour. Future research along the lines proposed should consider: working explicitly with the new, inclusive concept of transnationality and arrive at an empirical estimate of the proposed indices of transnationality which modify and amplify the current United Nations Conference on Trade and Development indices. Useful for understanding the nature of transnationality in the twenty-first century and for developing policies. The paper proposes a new concept of transnationality and of the TNC, one that allows for new ways of organizing direct business activities abroad. It also proposes broadening the list of indicators of transnationality.
      Citation: Critical Perspectives on International Business
      PubDate: 2021-07-16
      DOI: 10.1108/cpoib-11-2020-0135
      Issue No: Vol. 18 , No. 3 (2021)
       
  • Ethnography of economic globalization in Mapuche and forest territory of
           South-Central Chile

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      Authors: Noelia Carrasco Henríquez
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to propose an ethnographic discussion surrounding the sociocultural dimensions of the contemporary economy, using the dynamics of monoculture expansion into the indigenous territories of South-Central Chile as an empirical reference. From an ethnographic approach, the paper systematizes some ideas about the difference and inequality that have redrafted the current relationships between forestry companies and Mapuche communities within the context of international certification of forestry management. Findings indicate that difference and inequality, are today managed from global economic rationality and their control impacts directly on quotidian life of diverse and unequal territories. Considering this, this paper gets to conclude that these conditions, while never ceasing to deepen their expression, have been recrafted from the new references of the global economy. For the critical ethnographic approach to be applied, it is necessary to design and implement wide access, which means this type of study usually has limitations when not being able to get to every scale of economic development. For this reason, it is important to keep the methodological discussion, about the ethnography of the economy. The study puts in perspective intercultural relations and the inequality of territories in the framework of the global economy. Illustrates how the managing of the international market of wood and pulp design and insides in local quotidian life systems.
      Citation: Critical Perspectives on International Business
      PubDate: 2021-07-13
      DOI: 10.1108/cpoib-12-2019-0101
      Issue No: Vol. 18 , No. 3 (2021)
       
  • International opportunity development of born global firms: the role of
           institutions

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      Authors: Rubina Romanello , Masoud Karami , Stephan Gerschewski , Natasha Evers , Cici Xiao He
      Abstract: The purpose of the study is to investigate the international opportunity development process of born global firms embedded in two different institutional contexts: China, an emerging economy and Italy, a developed country. Drawing on the entrepreneurial opportunity literature and institutional theory, this study explores and draws insights into how home country institutions of born globals can influence the international opportunity development process of the firms. This paper adopts a qualitative case study approach with in-depth, semi-structured interviews of six born global companies from China and Italy. In doing so, this study uses a flexible pattern matching design, which is consistent with the qualitative research design of the paper. The findings of the study indicate that home institutions play an influential, yet differential role in the international opportunity development processes of Chinese and Italian born global firms. While the Italian firms shape their opportunities mainly through product innovation, their Chinese counterparts develop opportunities primarily through networks embedded in their home institutional context. The key contributions of the paper relate to an integrated analysis of the international opportunity development process of born globals in China and Italy based on institutional theory, which has received limited attention in the international entrepreneurship literature. In addition, the study advances the similarities and differences in the international opportunity development process in two different countries, thus providing valuable insights for policymakers and practitioners to enter international markets successfully.
      Citation: Critical Perspectives on International Business
      PubDate: 2021-07-12
      DOI: 10.1108/cpoib-02-2020-0013
      Issue No: Vol. 18 , No. 3 (2021)
       
  • Critical Perspectives on International Business

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