Subjects -> BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS (Total: 3510 journals)
    - ACCOUNTING (127 journals)
    - BANKING AND FINANCE (297 journals)
    - BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS (1231 journals)
    - CONSUMER EDUCATION AND PROTECTION (20 journals)
    - COOPERATIVES (4 journals)
    - ECONOMIC SCIENCES: GENERAL (202 journals)
    - ECONOMIC SYSTEMS, THEORIES AND HISTORY (235 journals)
    - FASHION AND CONSUMER TRENDS (20 journals)
    - HUMAN RESOURCES (103 journals)
    - INSURANCE (26 journals)
    - INTERNATIONAL COMMERCE (145 journals)
    - INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND AID (103 journals)
    - INVESTMENTS (22 journals)
    - LABOR AND INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS (61 journals)
    - MACROECONOMICS (17 journals)
    - MANAGEMENT (586 journals)
    - MARKETING AND PURCHASING (106 journals)
    - MICROECONOMICS (23 journals)
    - PRODUCTION OF GOODS AND SERVICES (143 journals)
    - PUBLIC FINANCE, TAXATION (37 journals)
    - TRADE AND INDUSTRIAL DIRECTORIES (2 journals)

INTERNATIONAL COMMERCE (145 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 136 of 136 Journals sorted by number of followers
Journal of Monetary Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 96)
Information Technologies & International Development     Open Access   (Followers: 82)
International Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
International Labour Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 60)
Journal of International Business Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
IMF Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Review of International Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Journal of International Money and Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Journal of International Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
International Review of Social History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Journal of International Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
International Review of Economics & Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
International Review of Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
International Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
PharmacoEconomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Journal of International Marketing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Quarterly Journal of Political Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
International Journal of Applied Behavioral Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Journal of World Trade     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Human Resource Management International Digest     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of International Trade Law and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Career Development International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Human Resource Development International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
European Business Law Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
African Journal of Economic and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Contemporary European Research     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Studies in Comparative International Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
International Labor and Working-Class History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Review of International Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Marketing Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of International Trade & Economic Development: An International and Comparative Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Small Business Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
European Company Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
International Review of Financial Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of International Entrepreneurship     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of the Association for Consumer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
International Business Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
World Competition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
International Review of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
World Trade and Arbitration Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Journal of International Consumer Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Studies of Management and Organization     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Emerging Markets Finance and Trade     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal for International Business and Entrepreneurship Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Economic Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Information Resources Management Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
International Public Management Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Antitrust Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Competition and Regulation in Network Industries     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Management International Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Advances in Economic Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Review of Applied Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Economics and Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Global Trade and Customs Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
South African Journal of International Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
TDM Transnational Dispute Management Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of International Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
EC Tax Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of International Accounting, Auditing and Taxation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Intertax     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Chinese Human Resource Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
IN VIVO     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of the Japanese and International Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Insolvency Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Review of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of International Financial Management & Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Revenue and Pricing Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Revue Internationale du Travail     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Foreign Trade Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Syracuse Journal of International Law and Commerce     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
European Journal of International Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Monthly Statistics of International Trade - Statistiques mensuelles du commerce international     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Review on Public and Nonprofit Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Management international / International Management / Gestiòn Internacional     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
World Food Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Digital Finance : Smart Data Analytics, Investment Innovation, and Financial Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of International Food & Agribusiness Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Shipping and Logistics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Transactions In Operational Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
China Business Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Qualitative Research in Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Chinese Economic and Foreign Trade Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Trade Journal : Western Hemispheric Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Korea Trade     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
MEED Middle East Economic Digest     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Global & Strategis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Economica Et Turistica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Transnational Corporations Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Economic Journal of Emerging Markets     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Export Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
World Oil Trade     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Economics and International Finance     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Estudos Internacionais : revista de relações internacionais da PUC Minas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Research World     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Asia and the Global Economy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Economics Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revue internationale P.M.E. : économie et gestion de la petite et moyenne entreprise     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Critical Perspectives on International Business     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Commerce Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Botswana Journal of Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Japanese Political Economy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Asian Business and Information Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
L'Année du Maghreb     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Amnis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
China Economic Quarterly International     Open Access  
Regional Formation and Development Studies     Open Access  
Journal of Reviews on Global Economics     Open Access  
Journal of International Business Policy     Hybrid Journal  
East Asian Community Review     Hybrid Journal  
Ekonomia Międzynarodowa     Open Access  
Jurnal Ilmu Ekonomi Terapan     Open Access  
Jurnal Hubungan Internasional     Open Access  
Journal of Advanced Research in Economics and International Business     Full-text available via subscription  
Proceedings of the International Conference on Business Excellence     Open Access  
Journal of Accounting and Finance in Emerging Economies     Open Access  
International Journal of Governance and Financial Intermediation     Hybrid Journal  
South American Development Society Journal     Open Access  
Revista Multiface Online     Open Access  
Revue internationale de l'économie sociale     Full-text available via subscription  
Expert Journal of Business and Management     Open Access  
Crossroads     Hybrid Journal  
Relações Internacionais (R:I)     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Gestão de Negócios     Open Access  
Journal of Theoretical and Applied Electronic Commerce Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Commerce and Management     Hybrid Journal  
EMAJ : Emerging Markets Journal     Open Access  
Journal of International Commerce, Economics and Policy     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Comparative International Management     Full-text available via subscription  

           

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Studies in Comparative International Development
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.073
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 16  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0039-3606 - ISSN (Online) 1936-6167
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2467 journals]
  • Puzzling Partnerships: Overseas Infrastructure Development by Chinese
           State-Owned Enterprises and Humanitarian Organizations

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      Abstract: Abstract Chinese state-owned enterprises (SOEs) are now working with humanitarian organizations to develop infrastructure abroad. This emerging phenomenon is puzzling: when, where, and why do Chinese SOEs, best known for constructing massive overseas infrastructure projects for commercial and political gain, execute smaller, lower-profile humanitarian projects' Similarly, why would humanitarian organizations––often with minimal experience in infrastructure contracting––select partners criticized for lack of emphasis on the international standards and best practices that they seek to promote' We address these questions through qualitative case studies of Chinese SOE-humanitarian organization collaboration in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Nigeria, and the Republic of Congo. These cases suggest that such partnerships are more likely when a humanitarian organization has previous experience working in China or with Chinese actors, when Chinese SOEs aim to enter new markets, or when these firms operate in dangerous or politically unstable environments. This study contributes to scholarship on China’s evolving role in international development by providing the first empirical analysis of Chinese SOE-humanitarian organization partnerships.
      PubDate: 2022-11-28
       
  • The Role of Historical Malaria in Institutions and Contemporary Economic
           Development

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      Abstract: Abstract This research examines the causal impact of institutional quality on economic development from a novel perspective. At the country level, we exploit variation in the natural malaria prevalence in 1900, just before vector-control methods were developed, to instrument for institutional quality using a two-stage least squares instrumental variables framework. Our instrument is a population-weighted average of malaria endemicity estimates for the year 1900 developed by the World Health Organization scientists in the 1960s. We argue that this measure of historical malaria offers more expansive geographic information about the disease environment, and our baseline IV estimates reveal that greater institutional quality causes greater contemporaneous economic growth. Next, we investigate the robustness of these baseline results to alternative explanations, including the role of geography and the role of early colonizers’ experiences, as the causal link between the early disease environmental, institutional quality, and contemporary growth. As an additional test of the explanatory power of malaria endemicity in 1900 as an instrumental variable, we replace our instrument for settler mortality and replicate the core results from the seminal study on colonial origins of comparative development by Acemoglu et al. (2001). In summary, we propose that malaria endemicity estimated for 1900 holistically explains the legacy of early disease on institutional quality development and contemporary economic development, thus significantly contributing to the resolution of the geography versus institutions debate.
      PubDate: 2022-11-23
       
  • The Impact of Institutional Formation on Firms’ Strategic Choices in
           Knowledge Development, Absorptive Capacity and Vertical Integration

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      Abstract: Abstract  This study examines the impact of institutional shifts on the strategic choices of Russian firms. It proposes and tests hypotheses of how a shift from a weak to a strong institutional context is likely to affect firms’ knowledge accumulation, absorptive capacities and internalisation of operations. Using discriminant analysis, the econometric investigation demonstrates that firms tend to allocate greater resources towards improving their knowledge and absorptive capacity and make more efforts to vertically integrate—in line with improvements in the institutional environment. These investments ensure the survivability and competitiveness of firms in the long term. Furthermore, the study demonstrates that the long-term strategic orientation of firms goes hand in hand with rising resource allocations by the nation-state towards economic development. The findings align with the institutionalist political economy views that institutions are the ultimate overseers that allow the market to operate efficiently, especially in emerging market environments. The paper is also instructive to other developing economies about the need to strengthen their institutional environments, which supports the long-term orientation of firms and has a positive impact on economic development. The analysis does not take into account the impact of sanctions on Russian business and economy, post the annexation of Crimea and the armed conflict with Ukraine. Nor does it consider the impact of COVID-19 on the economy. As such, the study attempts to constitute an untainted comparison of two paths of transition on Russian firms—shock therapy, vis-à-vis, an institutional political economy approach.
      PubDate: 2022-11-18
       
  • Correction to: Inequality and Immigration Policy

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      PubDate: 2022-11-04
       
  • State of the Fiscal Contract in Lagos’ Informal Settlements

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      Abstract: Abstract Governments often have contentious relationships with residents of urban informal settlements. Motivated by the desire for rents and dreams of becoming the next luxury destination, city governments worldwide have forcefully evicted and demolished informal communities in this pursuit. In such instances it would seem that the state has broken the social contract with its most vulnerable citizens. How do citizens respond' We might expect them to reciprocate in kind, by withholding taxes owed to the government. Using a survey of citizens living in informal settlements across Lagos State in Nigeria, we explore what predicts citizens’ willingness to comply with government taxation. In this unlikely context for voluntary compliance, we observe that a third of respondents pay taxes and a majority are willing to pay absent enforcement. We find minimal support for standard theories of tax payment — trust in or reciprocity toward the government, or identification with the nation. Instead, we find that willingness to pay taxes is correlated with group membership, believing that community members respect taxpayers, and donating to the community. Our data suggest that local institutions and social relations are associated with citizens’ willingness to comply with tax policy.
      PubDate: 2022-10-29
       
  • Transformation Towards Renewable Energy Systems: Evaluating the Role of
           Development Financing Institutions

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      Abstract: Abstract Our paper seeks to evaluate the role of development financing institutions (DFIs) in fostering renewable energy transformations. Whereas the conventional approach to renewable energy finance emphasizes the bankability of individual projects, we advance an alternative approach for the role of DFIs in overcoming system-level constraints to enhance renewable energy transformations. We identify four constraints, namely, the incumbent entrenchment of fossil fuels, unmet energy demand of energy-intensive industries, weak production capacity of renewable energies, and lack of supporting infrastructure. We argue that DFIs can potentially address these constraints by setting a mission-driven vision, acting as honest brokers to overcome the incumbent entrenchment, scaling up renewable energy financing to make the cost of renewable energies more competitive, incubating nascent renewable energies, and financing supporting infrastructure. We then select representative DFIs to evaluate the role of DFIs in fostering renewable energy transformations. We find that most sampled DFIs have recently prioritized financing renewable energy, supported pilot projects to achieve demonstration effects, and made investments in complementary infrastructure. Yet few DFIs have achieved the economies of scale to bring down the renewable energy price or shape the policy environment in favor of renewable energy in a manner that can trigger significant transformational change.
      PubDate: 2022-10-04
       
  • Inequality and Immigration Policy

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      Abstract: Abstract How does inequality between capital and labor affect immigration policy' Increasing inequality can heighten anti-immigrant attitudes among host-state workers. Yet, for labor-intensive firms, their increasing share of the value added provides more business opportunities to expand their production, which in turn leads to increased business support for open immigration. Given these countervailing pressures of rising inequality in immigration policymaking, we argue that a country’s level of economic development holds the key to the causal mechanism between inequality and immigration policy openness. In less-developed economies where local and immigrant workers compete for the same jobs, rising inequality leads to more restrictive immigration policy. In advanced economies where local and immigrant workers are complements, rising inequality leads to less restrictive immigration policy. Using data on the capital share of the value added in the industrial sector as a measure of inequality in 24 democracies from 1947 to 2006, we find support for our argument.
      PubDate: 2022-09-29
       
  • Effect of Participation and Alignment on the Sustainability of Development
           Aid Output: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Uganda

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      Abstract: Abstract Most aid project output does not last long after the departure of external donors. This inconvenient truth remains unchanged despite the introduction decades ago of participatory approaches and the alignment of aid content, on the belief that they would cure this problem via the generation of a sense of ownership and the reduction in recurrent costs. To understand this paradox, this study re-examines the impact of participation and alignment on the sustainability of aid project output through a field experiment in Uganda using an aid project that promotes household water treatment and safe storage (HWTS) as an example. The results reveal that the true impact of alignment is negative, while the impact of participation is zero. Specifically, when the aid content is changed from nonaligned to aligned while the use of a nonparticipatory approach is unchanged, the rate of HWTS retention drops by 35.4 percentage points after 2 weeks and by 43.7 percentage points after another 4 months. This finding suggests that at least the unconditional alignment of aid content should be reconsidered to prevent the further deterioration of already unsustainable aid project output.
      PubDate: 2022-09-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s12116-022-09374-9
       
  • Legislator Attributes and Advocacy Focus: Non-electoral Sources of
           Parochialism in an Indirectly-Elected Legislature

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      Abstract: Abstract What explains the differences between legislators’ orientation toward parochialism' While much literature exists on the effect of electoral rules on legislators’ focus on parochial interests in democratic legislatures, less is known about party-nominated and indirectly elected legislators. Drawn on interviews and an original dataset of congressional opinions in China, this analysis identifies non-electoral sources of pork barrel politics. It finds evidence of some orientation toward parochialism among indirectly elected provincial legislators in China. In particular, provincial legislators who concurrently work in lower-level political positions are more inclined to favor constituency-centered interests over broader public interests than non-official legislators. After ruling out several important alternative mechanisms, I argue that extra-legislative incentives and resources to solve local policy problems are the likely mechanisms that connect legislators’ occupation attributes with their advocacy focus. These findings have implications for the role of legislator attributes and the function of non-popularly elected legislatures.
      PubDate: 2022-09-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s12116-022-09373-w
       
  • Decentralization and Pro-poor Participation in Ghana: Unmasking the
           Barriers to Inclusive Grassroots Development

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      Abstract: Abstract Donors have strongly advocated decentralization on the grounds that it broadens the participation of citizens in development processes, thereby increasing government responsiveness to their needs. Although there have been studies seeking to establish the veracity of this claim, they remain weak on two fronts. One, while wealth differentials affect citizen participation, these studies approach citizens as a homogenous group. Two, participation is mostly viewed narrowly—participation in elections. Drawing on empirical data from Ghana’s decentralization reform, this paper addresses these gaps by questioning how pro-poor citizen participation in decentralized development planning has been. I argue that although Ghana’s decentralization was propagated on championing pro-poor grassroots participation in governance and development, in reality, participation is elitist and has failed to reflect the voices of the poor. My findings demonstrate that the participation structures and processes used in local development planning are unfavourable to the poor in many respects. Elite and representative participation is promoted to the detriment of broad citizen participation. This exclusion is resulting in surging apathy of citizens towards the district assemblies—institutions hitherto trusted as their development champions. This paper concludes that the poor will remain voiceless despite decentralization unless the structural barriers to their participation are tackled in decentralization design and praxis.
      PubDate: 2022-09-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s12116-022-09371-y
       
  • Electoral Politics, Fiscal Policy, and the Resource Curse

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      Abstract: Abstract While some governments use natural resources for immediate political gain, others create transparent institutions that promote sustainable development. What explains this variation' Using novel data for Latin America between 1990 and 2019, I show that executive incumbents are more likely to restrict their discretion over natural resource revenue when public approval is high and legislative opposition is strong. When rulers are safe in their seats, they can use public funds for long-run developmental strategies, rather than short-term political survival. When there is a strong legislative opposition, rulers can signal a desire to compromise by relinquishing control over resource revenue. These findings, illustrated by the case of Mexico, suggest that a combination of high support and strong opposition provides space to create long-term fiscal policy frameworks while generating short-term incentives to do so.
      PubDate: 2022-09-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s12116-022-09367-8
       
  • The Complex Imprint of Foreign Rule: Tracking Differential Legacies along
           the Administrative Hierarchy

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      Abstract: Abstract Could imperial rule affect state institutions at the national, regional, and local level differently' No systematic theory to answer this question exists, which is surprising given the importance that is attributed to foreign rule for political-administrative organization around the world. The effectiveness of imperial rule may differ along the administrative hierarchy because empires are often subject to financial constraints, limits on organizational capabilities, and informational asymmetries. Therefore, a commonly used approach—aggregation at the national level—may yield erroneous findings about colonial legacies by ignoring vital nuances. To address this gap, I develop a novel theory of imperial pervasiveness and test it through a number of statistical analyses. Leveraging an original dataset of citizen perceptions of state institutions in Romania, this study reveals vastly different long-term effects of historical Habsburg rule at the regional and local levels. The results indicate that we need to rethink the study of colonial origins.
      PubDate: 2022-08-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s12116-022-09363-y
       
  • The Political Economy of Intermediate Capital Account Regimes: a Fuzzy-Set
           Qualitative Comparative Analysis

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      Abstract: Abstract Contrary to expectations, the global push for liberalizing reforms during the 1980s and 1990s did not abolish policy diversity in regard to capital flow management. Even though many countries fully opened their capital accounts, there remain several examples of divergence, which go from the maintenance of high levels of capital controls to partial liberalization. Against this background, relying on data from 84 countries between 1995 and 2017, this article uses fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) to shed light on the conditions underlying different capital account regimes. In line with the Polanyian theoretical framework, findings reveal that two kinds of causal paths paved the way for intermediate regimes: the statist path was followed by right-leaning authoritarian regimes that attempted to combine the integration into global markets with the maintenance of control over the domestic private sector; the pluralist path was observed where either manufacturing industries or popular sectors were strong enough to motivate the reregulation of capital flows. Conversely, findings show that extreme regimes such as open and closed ones were associated with homogenous conditions like, respectively, leftist authoritarian regimes and rich democracies with stable economies.
      PubDate: 2022-06-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s12116-022-09361-0
       
  • How Climate Change Affects Organized Criminal Group Behavior

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      Abstract: Abstract Climate-generated stress has been linked to multiple socio-political outcomes, many of which are violent. Scarcity is a key mechanism behind these violent outcomes. I argue that climate-induced scarcity creates conditions for organized criminal groups to capture the markets of legal commodities. Scarcity drives prices up, creating incentives for criminal groups to capture the production and distribution of these commodities with pernicious consequences. Using qualitative evidence for the abalone shellfish market in two South African provinces, I trace the process connecting climate-induced scarcity to price changes, to criminal market capture. In doing so, I make three contributions: I propose a new theory about the climate drivers behind the behavior of organized crime by bringing together scholarship on climate and conflict and criminal violence; I extend research on organized crime from markets of illicit goods into markets for licit ones; and I provide evidence suggestive of brokerage as a specific mechanism to illegally control a market.
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s12116-022-09360-1
       
  • Ethnic Polarization and Human Development: The Conditional Effects of
           Minority Language Recognition

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      Abstract: Abstract The literature suggests ethnic diversity has a negative effect on development. Yet, we also know that government policies—e.g., recognizing multiple languages in minority-sizable areas—can attenuate these effects. In this paper, we ask: What are the socioeconomic implications of minority language recognition' We leverage a legal stipulation in Romania as a quasi-experiment: Minority languages are recognized as official in areas where the minority constitutes more than 20% of the population. We argue the recognition of minority languages builds social trust and facilitates efficiency in economic exchanges—mollifying the otherwise detrimental consequences of diversity. Using data at the municipality level, we find that in areas where only Romanian is recognized, ethnic diversity has a negative effect on development—a result consistent with the literature. This effect, however, is absent in areas where a minority language is recognized. The implications suggest that lowering the threshold for language recognition could promote even further development.
      PubDate: 2022-06-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s12116-022-09362-z
       
  • Empowering Inclusion' The Two Sides of Party-Society Linkages in Latin
           America

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      Abstract: Abstract This article investigates why, in two different political and institutional contexts, leftist governing parties became agents of empowered inclusion, boosting the capacity of subordinate social actors to shape the agenda of politics and allowing them to push social policy in an inclusionary direction. To explain how and why this happened, it highlights the ambiguous nature of party-society linkages. While societal ties are necessary for sustained significant progress in social and political inclusion, they can also block the later consolidation of achievements. This happens as some groups, once included, block further inclusion. We build our theoretical argument about the two-sided nature of party-society linkages using comparative evidence from Bolivia and Uruguay—two countries where progress toward empowered inclusion has been especially notable in the past two decades. The article contributes to existing scholarship on social and political inclusion by calling for greater attention to the critical but, at times, ambiguous role that the social bases of parties play.
      PubDate: 2022-06-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s12116-022-09365-w
       
  • Take or Reject State Power' The Dual Dilemma for Teachers’
           Unions in Brazil and Mexico

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      Abstract: Abstract How do unions that represent similar constituencies and fight for comparable goals come to embrace radically different relationships to the state and party politics' Drawing on Collier and Collier’s (1991) concept of the dual dilemma, that is, whether to collaborate with the state and risk co-optation or reject such collaborations and risk being sidelined, I analyze teachers’ unions political strategy in São Paulo (APEOESP) and Oaxaca (Local 22). In São Paulo, strategy centers on taking state power by building political parties that fight for working-class interests. In Oaxaca, the rise of the democratic teachers’ movement was a rejection of state power and an attempt to build autonomy from political parties. I argue that teachers chose these contrasting strategies during the late-1970s and early 1980s, due to their experiences of the legacies of labor incorporation under authoritarian regimes. The internal political practices established during this transitional period, when reform movements took control of the unions in both countries, continue to shape teachers’ strategies to the present. These findings suggest that union strategies regarding how to interact with the state are deeply shaped by previous state-labor relations and that unionists’ responses to the dilemma about whether to take or reject state power will directly shape their interpretations of ongoing political challenges.
      PubDate: 2022-06-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s12116-022-09364-x
       
  • When Mayors Deliver: Political Alignment and Well-being

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      Abstract: Abstract While in recent decades developing countries have achieved significant improvements in well-being, disparities within countries persist. Focusing on municipalities in which health services are decentralized and patronage is prevalent, we argue that a little-studied factor, the alignment between mayors and governors, plays an important role in explaining differences in infant mortality rates. In the context of widespread clientelism, lack of alignment deprives mayors of substantial discretionary resources. This generates incentives for nonaligned mayors to focus on improving decentralized social services under their control to cultivate voter support, producing better welfare outcomes associated with these services. Employing an original dataset of metropolitan municipalities in Buenos Aires, Argentina, between 1991 and 2018, we find that mayoral alignment is associated with higher infant mortality, a critical metric of well-being, and with lower levels of health service provision. Local health services in turn reduce infant mortality rates in our data. These results are robust when we control for relevant socioeconomic and political factors, such as electoral competition, protest, and the presence of the state in slums, where health risks are higher.
      PubDate: 2022-05-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s12116-022-09357-w
       
  • Vote Buying as Rent Seeking: Land Sales in China’s Village Elections

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      Abstract: Abstract What explains why vote buying occurs in some elections but not others' The phenomenon of vote buying is under-studied in authoritarian, single-party-dominant regimes, especially in non-partisan elections in which competition is candidate-centered rather than party centered. Village elections in China provide a valuable window on the dynamics of vote buying in these conditions. Employing both an in-depth case study and an original, panel survey to provide new, systematic measures of rents and vote buying, we develop and test the following hypothesis: the availability of non-competitive rents accessible by winning candidates explains the variation in the incidence of vote buying in local elections. Our causal identification strategy exploits the timing of land takings and the exogenous nature of formal land takings authorized in state land-use plans at higher administrative levels to test the vote-buying-as-rent-seeking hypothesis. We find that the lure of rents, mainly from government takings of village land, is a key driver of vote buying by non-partisan candidates for the office of village leader. The evidence suggests that vote buying provides information to the authoritarian state about which local elites it should recruit into the rent-sharing coalition.
      PubDate: 2022-05-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s12116-022-09355-y
       
  • Static Electricity: Institutional and Ideational Barriers to China’s
           Market Reforms

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      Abstract: Abstract China’s “economic juggernaut” is often noted to have arisen from successful market reforms carried out in the context of high state capacity. In contrast, we demonstrate that crucial reforms to replace central planning with markets have stalled as a result of major barriers of two types: institutional and ideational. Focusing on the electricity sector, we find that market reforms pushed by China’s central government are hindered by deep inefficiencies that arise from the legacy plan and “plan-derived” institutions of subnational governments and grid companies, against which the central state has been largely ineffective. We also uncover fascinating ideational differences of the nature and purpose of “markets” that show how they often are envisioned more as a way to extend the planner’s “toolbox,” or to offer “salvation” for ailing incumbent firms, rather than to induce efficiency. Our empirical focus on three prominent types of “market-oriented” experiments in the electric power sector demonstrate clear limits to state capacity, limits that emanate from state actors rather than merely industry, despite high-priority central government goals of increasing efficiency, integrating renewable energy, and reducing emissions from the electricity sector.
      PubDate: 2022-05-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s12116-022-09358-9
       
 
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