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INTERNATIONAL COMMERCE (145 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 136 of 136 Journals sorted by number of followers
Journal of Monetary Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 100)
Information Technologies & International Development     Open Access   (Followers: 86)
International Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64)
International Labour Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 61)
IMF Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Journal of International Business Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Review of International Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Journal of International Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Journal of International Money and Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Journal of International Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
International Review of Social History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
International Review of Economics & Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
International Review of Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
International Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Journal of International Marketing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of International Trade Law and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Human Resource Development International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Human Resource Management International Digest     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
PharmacoEconomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Quarterly Journal of Political Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Career Development International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of World Trade     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
International Journal of Applied Behavioral Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
European Business Law Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
African Journal of Economic and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
International Labor and Working-Class History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Studies in Comparative International Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Contemporary European Research     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
International Marketing Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Review of International Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of International Trade & Economic Development: An International and Comparative Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Review of Financial Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Small Business Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of International Entrepreneurship     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
European Company Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Emerging Markets Finance and Trade     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Business Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
World Trade and Arbitration Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of the Association for Consumer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
International Economic Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Review of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of International Consumer Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
World Competition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Information Resources Management Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Antitrust Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Public Management Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Studies of Management and Organization     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal for International Business and Entrepreneurship Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Competition and Regulation in Network Industries     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
International Economics and Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Management International Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
TDM Transnational Dispute Management Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
International Advances in Economic Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Review of Applied Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
South African Journal of International Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
EC Tax Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Global Trade and Customs Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of International Accounting, Auditing and Taxation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of International Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Insolvency Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Review of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of International Financial Management & Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of the Japanese and International Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
IN VIVO     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Intertax     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Chinese Human Resource Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Foreign Trade Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Syracuse Journal of International Law and Commerce     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
World Food Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Asia and the Global Economy     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
European Journal of International Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Transactions In Operational Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Revenue and Pricing Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Trade Journal : Western Hemispheric Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Monthly Statistics of International Trade - Statistiques mensuelles du commerce international     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Revue Internationale du Travail     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Review on Public and Nonprofit Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Management international / International Management / Gestiòn Internacional     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Chinese Economic and Foreign Trade Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Digital Finance : Smart Data Analytics, Investment Innovation, and Financial Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
World Oil Trade     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Commerce Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of International Food & Agribusiness Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Economics Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Qualitative Research in Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Shipping and Logistics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
China Business Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Export Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Global & Strategis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
China Economic Quarterly International     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Critical Perspectives on International Business     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Japanese Political Economy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Revue internationale P.M.E. : économie et gestion de la petite et moyenne entreprise     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Amnis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
L'Année du Maghreb     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Asian Business and Information Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Botswana Journal of Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Estudos Internacionais : revista de relações internacionais da PUC Minas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Economics and International Finance     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Economic Journal of Emerging Markets     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Research World     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Korea Trade     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Economica Et Turistica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Transnational Corporations Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
MEED Middle East Economic Digest     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Regional Formation and Development Studies     Open Access  
Journal of Reviews on Global Economics     Open Access  
Journal of International Business Policy     Hybrid Journal  
East Asian Community Review     Hybrid Journal  
Ekonomia Międzynarodowa     Open Access  
Jurnal Ilmu Ekonomi Terapan     Open Access  
Jurnal Hubungan Internasional     Open Access  
Journal of Advanced Research in Economics and International Business     Full-text available via subscription  
Proceedings of the International Conference on Business Excellence     Open Access  
Journal of Accounting and Finance in Emerging Economies     Open Access  
International Journal of Governance and Financial Intermediation     Hybrid Journal  
South American Development Society Journal     Open Access  
Revista Multiface Online     Open Access  
Revue internationale de l'économie sociale     Full-text available via subscription  
Expert Journal of Business and Management     Open Access  
Crossroads     Hybrid Journal  
Relações Internacionais (R:I)     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Gestão de Negócios     Open Access  
Journal of Theoretical and Applied Electronic Commerce Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Commerce and Management     Hybrid Journal  
EMAJ : Emerging Markets Journal     Open Access  
Journal of International Commerce, Economics and Policy     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Comparative International Management     Full-text available via subscription  

           

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PharmacoEconomics
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.998
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 21  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 1170-7690 - ISSN (Online) 1179-2027
Published by Adis Homepage  [21 journals]
  • Palliative Care Costs in Different Ambulatory-Based Settings: A Systematic
           Review

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      Abstract: Background Cost-of-illness studies in palliative care are of growing interest in health economics. There is no standard methodology to capture direct and non-direct healthcare and non-healthcare expenses incurred by health services, patients and their caregivers in the course of the ambulatory palliative care process. Objective We aimed to describe the type of healthcare and non-healthcare expenses incurred by patients with cancer and non-cancer patients and their caregivers for palliative care in ambulatory-based settings and the methodology used to capture the data. Methods We conducted a systematic review of studies on the costs of ambulatory-based palliative care in patients with cancer (breast, lung, colorectal) and non-cancer conditions (chronic heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, dementia) found in six bibliographic databases (PubMed, EMBASE [via Ovid], Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, EconLit, the National Institute for Health Research Health Technology Assessment Database and the National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database at the University of York, and Google Scholar). The studies were published between January 2000 and December 2022. We followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) methodology for study selection and assessed study quality using the Quality of Health Economic Studies instrument. The study was registered in PROSPERO (CRD42021250086). Results Of 1434 identified references, 43 articles met the inclusion criteria. The primary data source was databases. More than half of the articles presented data from public healthcare systems (65.12%) were retrospective (60.47%), and entailed a bottom-up costing analysis (93.2%) made from a healthcare system perspective (53.49%). The sociodemographic characteristics of patients and families/caregivers were similar across the studies. Cost outcomes reports were heterogeneous; almost all of the studies collected data on direct healthcare costs (97.67%). The main driver of costs was inpatient care (55.81%), which increased during the end-of-life period. Nine studies (20.97%) recorded costs due to productivity losses for caregivers and three recorded such costs for patients. Caregiving costs were explored through an opportunity cost analysis in all cases, based on interviews conducted with and questionnaires administered to patients and caregivers, mainly via telephone calls (23.23%). Conclusions This systematic review reveals that studies on the costs of ambulatory-based palliative care are increasing. These studies are mostly conducted from a healthcare system perspective, which leaves out costs related to patients’/caregivers’ economic burden. There is a need for prospective studies to assess this financial burden and evaluate, with strong evidence, the interventions and actions designed to improve the quality of life of palliative care patients. Future studies should propose cost calculation approaches using a societal perspective to better estimate the economic burden imposed on patients in ambulatory-based palliative care.
      PubDate: 2024-03-01
       
  • Estimating the Treatment and Prophylactic Economic Value of New
           Antimicrobials in Managing Antibiotic Resistance and Serious Infections
           for Common Pathogens in the USA: A Population Modelling Study

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      Abstract: Background Antimicrobial resistance is a growing public health concern. There is a global need to estimate the population-level value of developing new antimicrobials and to ensure the effective use of existing antimicrobials as strategies to counteract antimicrobial resistance. To this aim, population-level value criteria need to be considered alongside conventional value measures. Objective The objective of this study was to develop a novel modelling approach to estimate the value of new antimicrobials, considering the transmission, diversity and enablement elements of STEDI value. Methods We developed a population-based mathematical model for the assessment of antimicrobial value considering both prophylactic use of antimicrobials and the treatment of selected serious hospital-acquired infections in hospitals in the USA at a population level. Large-scale clinical and population healthcare data were used to inform a modelling-based analysis assessing the impact of introducing a new antimicrobial compared with continuing with no new antimicrobial, accounting for the transmission, diversity and enablement value of antimicrobial agents. Results Over a 10-year period, the addition of a new antimicrobial as part of an antimicrobial stewardship strategy in the USA was estimated to result in a proportional reduction of 9.03% in projected antimicrobial resistance levels. This yielded an estimated reduction of $64.3 million in hospitalization costs and a gain of over 153,000 quality-adjusted life-years at an economic value of over $15.4 billion over 10 years. Considering input uncertainty, the estimate of monetary benefit ranged from $11.1 to $21.4 billion. Conclusions The use of a new antimicrobial for treatment and prophylactic indications yields considerable clinical and economic benefits including transmission diversity and enablement value. These findings may provide decision makers with important evidence to support investment in new antimicrobials and antimicrobial stewardship policy that address the patient, population and system burden associated with antimicrobial resistance.
      PubDate: 2024-03-01
       
  • Evaluating the Quantity and Quality of Health Economic Literature in
           Blinding Childhood Disorders: A Systematic Literature Review

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      Abstract: Background Evidence on the socioeconomic burden associated with childhood visual impairment, severe visual impairment and blindness (VI/SVI/BL) is needed to inform economic evaluations of existing and emerging interventions aimed at protecting or improving vision. This study aimed to evaluate the quantity and quality of literature on resource use and/or costs associated with childhood VI/SVI/BL disorders. Methods PubMed, Web of Science (Ovid), the National Health Service (NHS) Economic Evaluation Database and grey literature were searched in November 2020. The PubMed search was rerun in February 2022. Original articles reporting unique estimates of resource use or cost data on conditions resulting in bilateral VI/SVI/BL were eligible for data extraction. Quality assessment (QA) was undertaken using the Drummond checklist adapted for cost-of-illness (COI) studies. Results We identified 31 eligible articles, 27 from the peer-reviewed literature and four from the grey literature. Two reported on resource use, and 29 reported on costs. Cerebral visual impairment and optic nerve disorders were not examined in any included studies, whereas retinopathy of prematurity was the most frequently examined condition. The quality of studies varied, with economic evaluations having higher mean QA scores (82%) compared to COI studies (77%). Deficiencies in reporting were seen, particularly in the clinical definitions of conditions in economic evaluations and a lack of discounting and sensitivity analyses in COI studies. Conclusions There is sparse literature on resource use or costs associated with childhood visual impairment disorders. The first step in addressing this important evidence gap is to ensure core visual impairment outcomes are measured in future randomised control trials of interventions as well as cohort studies and are reported as a discrete health outcome.
      PubDate: 2024-03-01
       
  • Using Real-World Data to Inform Value-Based Contracts for Cell and Gene
           Therapies in Medicaid

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      Abstract: Objective High upfront costs and long-term benefit uncertainties of gene therapies challenge Medicaid budgets, making value-based contracts a potential solution. However, value-based contract design is hindered by cost-offset uncertainty. The aim of this study is to determine actual cost-offsets for valoctocogene roxaparvovec (hemophilia A) and etranacogene dezaparvovec (hemophilia B) from Colorado Medicaid’s perspective, defining payback periods and its uncertainty from the perspective of Colorado Medicaid. Methods This cost analysis used 2018–2022 data from the Colorado Department of Health Care Policy & Financing to determine standard-of-care costs and employed cost simulation models to estimate the cost of Medicaid if patients switched to gene therapy versus if they did not. Data encompassed medical and pharmacy expenses of Colorado Medicaid enrollees. Identified cohorts were patients aged 18+ with ICD-10-CM codes D66 (hemophilia A) and D67 (hemophilia B). Severe hemophilia A required ≥ 6 claims per year for factor therapies or emicizumab, while moderate/severe hemophilia B necessitated ≥ 4 claims per year for factor therapies. Patients were included in the cohort in the year they first met the criteria and were subsequently retained in the cohort for the duration of the observation period. Standard-of-care included factor VIII replacement therapy/emicizumab for hemophilia A and factor IX replacement therapies for hemophilia B. Simulated patients received valoctocogene roxaparvovec or etranacogene dezaparvovec. Main measures were annual standard-of-care costs, cost offset, and breakeven time when using gene therapies. Results Colorado Medicaid’s standard-of-care costs for hemophilia A and B were $426,000 [standard deviation (SD) $353,000] and $546,000 (SD $542,000) annually, respectively. Substituting standard-of-care with gene therapy for eligible patients yielded 8-year and 6-year average breakeven times, using real-world costs, compared with 5 years with published economic evaluation costs. Substantial variability in real-world standard-of-care costs resulted in a 48% and 59% probability of breakeven within 10 years for hemophilia A and B, respectively. Altering eligibility criteria significantly influenced breakeven time. Conclusions Real-world data indicates substantial uncertainty and extended payback periods for gene therapy costs. Utilizing real-world data, Medicaid can negotiate value-based contracts to manage budget fluctuations, share risk with manufacturers, and enhance patient access to innovative treatments.
      PubDate: 2024-03-01
       
  • Estimating Costs Associated with Disease Model States Using Generalized
           Linear Models: A Tutorial

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      Abstract: Abstract Estimates of costs associated with disease states are required to inform decision analytic disease models to evaluate interventions that modify disease trajectory. Increasingly, decision analytic models are developed using patient-level data with a focus on heterogeneity between patients, and there is a demand for costs informing such models to reflect individual patient costs. Statistical models of health care costs need to recognize the specific features of costs data which typically include a large number of zero observations for non-users, and a skewed and heavy right-hand tailed distribution due to a small number of heavy healthcare users. Different methods are available for modelling costs, such as generalized linear models (GLMs), extended estimating equations and latent class approaches. While there are tutorials addressing approaches to decision modelling, there is no practical guidance on the cost estimation to inform such models. Therefore, this tutorial aims to provide a general guidance on estimating healthcare costs associated with disease states in decision analytic models. Specifically, we present a step-by-step guide to how individual participant data can be used to estimate costs over discrete periods for participants with particular characteristics, based on the GLM framework. We focus on the practical aspects of cost modelling from the conceptualization of the research question to the derivation of costs for an individual in particular disease states. We provide a practical example with step-by-step R code illustrating the process of modelling the hospital costs associated with disease states for a cardiovascular disease model.
      PubDate: 2024-03-01
       
  • Recommendations for Emerging Good Practice and Future Research in Relation
           to Family and Caregiver Health Spillovers in Health Economic Evaluations:
           A Report of the SHEER Task Force

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      Abstract: Background Omission of family and caregiver health spillovers from the economic evaluation of healthcare interventions remains common practice. When reported, a high degree of methodological inconsistency in incorporating spillovers has been observed. Aim To promote emerging good practice, this paper from the Spillovers in Health Economic Evaluation and Research (SHEER) task force aims to provide guidance on the incorporation of family and caregiver health spillovers in cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analysis. SHEER also seeks to inform the basis for a spillover research agenda and future practice. Methods A modified nominal group technique was used to reach consensus on a set of recommendations, representative of the views of participating subject-matter experts. Through the structured discussions of the group, as well as on the basis of evidence identified during a review process, recommendations were proposed and voted upon, with voting being held over two rounds. Results This report describes 11 consensus recommendations for emerging good practice. SHEER advocates for the incorporation of health spillovers into analyses conducted from a healthcare/health payer perspective, and more generally inclusive perspectives such as a societal perspective. Where possible, spillovers related to displaced/foregone activities should be considered, as should the distributional consequences of inclusion. Time horizons ought to be sufficient to capture all relevant impacts. Currently, the collection of primary spillover data is preferred and clear justification should be provided when using secondary data. Transparency and consistency when reporting on the incorporation of health spillovers are crucial. In addition, given that the evidence base relating to health spillovers remains limited and requires much development, 12 avenues for future research are proposed. Conclusions Consideration of health spillovers in economic evaluations has been called for by researchers and policymakers alike. Accordingly, it is hoped that the consensus recommendations of SHEER will motivate more widespread incorporation of health spillovers into analyses. The developing nature of spillover research necessitates that this guidance be viewed as an initial roadmap, rather than a strict checklist. Moreover, there is a need for balance between consistency in approach, where valuable in a decision making context, and variation in application, to reflect differing decision maker perspectives and to support innovation.
      PubDate: 2024-03-01
       
  • A Research Framework to Improve Health Disparity Evidence Gaps in Value
           Assessments

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      Abstract: Abstract A value assessment is intended as a tool for evaluating healthcare treatments to gauge value and inform decisions. Economic value assessments typically incorporate a cost-effectiveness analysis, focusing on costs and health outcomes important to payers, missing important information to ensure existing markets optimize resource allocation. Despite frequent calls for more explicit consideration of health equity impacts in value assessments, health economists continue to develop models informed by traditional cost and quality-of-life data that do not capture differences experienced by health disparity populations. This conceptual paper proposes a research framework to enhance data collection and analysis to address these gaps and better quantify the value of a health innovation, and better assess how a new intervention impacts health disparities. The framework comprises three distinct phases that build on one another: (1) contextualization of lived experiences for disadvantaged communities; (2) individual-level quantification of health disparities for cost and quality-of-life measures; and (3) quantifying community-level impacts.
      PubDate: 2024-03-01
       
  • Population Norms for the EQ-5D-5L, PROPr and SF-6D in Hungary

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      Abstract: Objectives This study aimed to develop population norms for three preference-accompanied measures [EQ-5D-5L, Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS)-preference scoring system (PROPr) and Short-Form Six-Dimension (SF-6D)] in Hungary. Methods In November 2020, an online cross-sectional survey was conducted among a representative sample of the Hungarian adult general population (n = 1631). Respondents completed the Hungarian versions of the EQ-5D-5L, PROMIS-29+2 version 2.1 and 36-item Short Form Survey version 1 (SF-36v1). The association of utilities with sociodemographic and health-related characteristics of respondents was analysed using multivariate regressions. Results The proportion of respondents reporting problems ranged from 8 to 44% (self-care to pain/discomfort) on the EQ-5D-5L, 39–94% (physical function to sleep) on PROPr and 38–87% (role limitations to vitality) on the SF-6D. Problems related to physical function, self-care, usual activities/role limitations and pain increased with age, while mental health problems decreased in all three measures. In almost all corresponding domains, respondents indicated the fewest problems on the EQ-5D-5L and the most problems on the SF-6D. The mean EQ-5D-5L, PROPr and SF-6D utilities were 0.900, 0.535 and 0.755, respectively. Female gender (PROPr, SF-6D), a lower level of education (EQ-5D-5L, PROPr), being unemployed or a disability pensioner (EQ-5D-5L), being underweight or obese (SF-6D), lack of physical exercise (all) and polypharmacy (all) were associated with significantly lower utilities. PROPr yielded the lowest and EQ-5D-5L the highest mean utilities in 28 of 30 chronic health conditions. Conclusions This study presents the first set of Hungarian population norms for the EQ-5D-5L, PROPr and SF-6D. Our findings can serve as reference values in clinical trials and observational studies and contribute to the monitoring of population health and the assessment of disease burden in Hungary.
      PubDate: 2024-02-28
       
  • Exploring the Use of Pictorial Approaches in the Development of Paediatric
           Patient-Reported Outcome Instruments: A Systematic Review

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      Abstract: Introduction Children may find self-reporting health-related quality of life (HRQoL) using patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) presented in text-based formats difficult, particularly younger children and children with developmental delays or chronic illness. In such cases, pictorial PROMs (where pictorial representations are used alongside or to replace text) may offer a valid alternative. Aim This systematic literature review focused on identifying and describing paediatric PROMs that incorporate pictorial approaches, providing children with more effective means to express their HRQoL. Methods Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines were followed. Seven electronic databases were searched from inception to 1 March 2022. There were no country restrictions applied to the search; all English-language studies were considered for inclusion in the review. Characteristics and development methods of the identified pictorial PROMs were evaluated against context-specific good practice guidelines published by The Professional Society for Health Economics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Results A total of 22 paediatric pictorial PROMs, comprising 28 unique versions, were identified. These PROMs were predominantly developed in the USA and the UK, targeting children aged 3–18 years. Likert scales with pictorial anchors, particularly happy–sad faces, were commonly used for response options, appearing in 15 (54%) of the PROMs. Various graphic methods, such as happy–sad faces, cartoons, and thermometers, were adapted to specific content domains. These PROMs covered a wide range of domains, including physical and emotional health and social functioning. Emphasis was placed on content validity, including active child participation in developing pictorial elements. Notably, children's participation was sought during the development of the pictorial elements for 13 (46%) of the PROMs. Various development methods were employed, with 43% of paediatric PROMs using literature reviews, 43% using focus groups, and 32% involving expert consultation. Interviews emerged as the primary method, being employed in 61% of the studies. Additionally, three measures specifically addressed cross-cultural considerations. Conclusion Paediatric pictorial PROMs offer child-friendly tools for assessing HRQoL for application with children who find reading and understanding text-based PROMs challenging. There is some evidence that pictorial PROMs facilitate self-report in this population and improve measurement properties compared to text-only PROMs. Further research is needed to develop, validate, and test paediatric pictorial PROMs, with an emphasis on including children from the inception in the co-design process.
      PubDate: 2024-02-13
       
  • Content Comparison of Quality-of-Life Instruments Used in Economic
           Evaluations of Sleep Disorder Interventions: A Systematic Review

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      Abstract: Background Assessment of quality of life (QoL) in people living with sleep disorders using questionnaires is necessary to compare intervention benefits. Knowledge of the content and concepts covered by specific QoL instruments is essential to determine which instruments are best suited for conducting economic evaluations of sleep-related interventions. Objectives This review aims to identify the QoL instruments that have been applied in economic evaluations of sleep disorder interventions and compare their conceptual overlap and content coverage using the framework of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Methods A systematic review of full economic evaluations in sleep published in peer-reviewed journals from conception to 30 May, 2023 was conducted. MEDLINE, PsychInfo, ProQuest, Cochrane, Scopus, CINAHL, Web of Science and Emcare were searched for eligible studies. Studies incorporating either generic or sleep-specific QoL instruments as the primary or secondary measures of effectiveness within a full economic evaluation were included. Quality appraisal against the JBI Critical Appraisal Checklist for Economic Evaluations and EURONHEED checklists and mapping of QoL items to ICF categories were performed by two reviewers, with a third helping settle any potential differences. Results Sixteen instruments were identified as having been used in sleep health economic evaluations. The EQ-5D-3L, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, and Insomnia Severity Index were the most widely used, but the latter two are predominantly diagnostic tools and not specifically designed to guide economic evaluations. Other instruments with broader ICF content coverage have been least used, and these include the Sleep Apnea Quality of Life Index, Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire, 15 Dimensions, Short-Form 6 Dimensions, 12-item Short Form Survey, 36-item Short Form Survey and the GRID Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression. Conclusions This study provides an overview of current QoL instruments used in economic evaluations of sleep with respect to their content coverage. A combination of generic and sleep-specific instruments with broader ICF content coverage is recommended for such evaluations.
      PubDate: 2024-02-10
       
  • Comparing the Psychometric Performance of Generic Paediatric
           Health-Related Quality of Life Instruments in Children and Adolescents
           with ADHD, Anxiety and/or Depression

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      Abstract: Objective The aim of this study was to examine the validity, reliability and responsiveness of common generic paediatric health-related quality of life (HRQoL) instruments in children and adolescents with mental health challenges. Methods Participants were a subset of the Australian Paediatric Multi-Instrument Comparison (P-MIC) study and comprised 1013 children aged 4–18 years with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (n = 533), or anxiety and/or depression (n = 480). Participants completed an online survey including a range of generic paediatric HRQoL instruments (PedsQL, EQ-5D-Y-3L, EQ-5D-Y-5L, CHU9D) and mental health symptom measures (SDQ, SWAN, RCADS-25). A subset of participants also completed the HUI3 and AQoL-6D. The psychometric performance of each HRQoL instrument was assessed regarding acceptability/feasibility; floor/ceiling effects; convergent validity; known-group validity; responsiveness and test–retest reliability. Results The PedsQL, CHU9D, EQ-5D-Y-3L and EQ-5D-Y-5L showed similarly good performance for acceptability/feasibility, known-group validity and convergent validity. The CHU9D and PedsQL showed no floor or ceiling effects and fair–good test–retest reliability. Test–retest reliability was lower for the EQ-5D-Y-3L and EQ-5D-Y-5L. The EQ-5D-Y-3L showed the highest ceiling effects, but was the top performing instrument alongside the CHU9D on responsiveness to improvements in health status, followed by the PedsQL. The AQoL-6D and HUI3 showed good acceptability/feasibility, no floor or ceiling effects, and good convergent validity, yet poorer performance on known-group validity. Responsiveness and test–retest reliability were not able to be assessed for these two instruments. In subgroup analyses, performance was similar for all instruments for acceptability/feasibility, known-group and convergent validity, however, relative strengths and weaknesses for each instrument were noted for ceiling effects, responsiveness and test–retest reliability. In sensitivity analyses using utility scores, performance regarding known-group and convergent validity worsened slightly for the EQ-5D-Y-3L and CHU9D, though improved slightly for the HUI3 and AQoL-6D. Conclusions While each instrument showed strong performance in some areas, careful consideration of the choice of instrument is advised, as this may differ dependent on the intended use of the instrument, and the age, gender and type of mental health condition of the population in which the instrument is being used. Trial Registration ANZCTR—ACTRN12621000657820.
      PubDate: 2024-02-08
       
  • Incorporating Real Option Value in Valuing Innovation: A Way Forward

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      Abstract: Background Considerable progress has been made in defining and measuring the real option value (ROV) of medical technologies. However, questions remain on how to estimate (1) ROV outside of life-extending oncology interventions; (2) the impact of ROV on costs and cost effectiveness; and (3) potential interactions between ROV and other elements of value. Methods We developed a ‘minimal modeling’ approach for estimating the size of ROV that does not require constructing a full, formal cost-effectiveness model. We proposed a qualitative approach to assessing the level of uncertainty in the ROV estimate. We examined the potential impact of ROV on the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio as well as on the potential interactions between ROV and other elements of value. Lastly, we developed and presented a 15-item checklist for reporting ROV in value assessment. Results The minimal modeling approach uses estimates on the efficacy of current treatment and potential future innovation, as well as success rate and length of new treatment development, and can be applied to all types of ROV across disease areas. ROV may interact with the conventional value, value of hope, productivity effects, and insurance value. The impact of ROV on cost effectiveness can be evaluated via threshold analysis. Conclusion The minimal modeling approach and the checklist developed in this paper simplifies and standardizes the estimation and reporting of ROV in value assessment. Systematically including and reporting ROV in value assessment will minimize bias and improve transparency, which will help improve the credibility of ROV research and acceptance by stakeholders.
      PubDate: 2024-02-04
       
  • Budget Impact of Introducing Fixed-Duration Mosunetuzumab for the
           Treatment of Relapsed or Refractory Follicular Lymphoma After Two or More
           Lines of Systemic Therapy in the USA

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      Abstract: Objective This study aimed to assess the budget impact of introducing fixed-duration mosunetuzumab as a treatment option for adult patients with relapsed or refractory follicular lymphoma after at least two prior systemic therapies and to estimate the total cumulative costs per patient in the USA. Methods A 3-year budget impact model was developed for a hypothetical 1-million-member cohort enrolled in a mixed commercial/Medicare health plan. Comparators were: axicabtagene ciloleucel, tisagenlecleucel, tazemetostat, rituximab plus lenalidomide, copanlisib, and older therapies (rituximab or obinutuzumab ± chemotherapy). Costs per patient comprised treatment-associated costs including the drug, its administration, adverse events, and routine care. Dosing and safety data were ascertained from respective package inserts and clinical trial data. Drug costs (March 2023) were estimated based on the average wholesale acquisition cost reported in AnalySource®, and all other costs were based on published sources and inflated to 2022 US dollars. Market shares were obtained from Genentech internal projections and expert opinion. Budget impact outcomes were presented on a per-member per-month basis. Results Compared with a scenario without mosunetuzumab, its introduction over 3 years resulted in a budget increase of $69,812 (1% increase) and an average per-member per-month budget impact of $0.0019. Among the newer therapies, mosunetuzumab had the second-lowest cumulative per patient cost (mosunetuzumab = $202,039; axicabtagene ciloleucel = $505,845; tisagenlecleucel = $476,293; rituximab plus lenalidomide = $263,520; tazemetostat = $250,665; copanlisib = $127,293) and drug costs, and its introduction only increased total drug costs by 0.1%. By year 3, the cumulative difference in the per patient cost with mosunetuzumab was −$303,805 versus axicabtagene ciloleucel, −$274,254 versus tisagenlecleucel, −$61,481 versus rituximab plus lenalidomide, −$48,625 versus tazemetostat, and $74,747 versus copanlisib. Older therapies were less costly with 3-year cumulative costs that ranged from $36,512 to $147,885. Conclusions Over 3 years, the estimated cumulative per patient cost of mosunetuzumab is lower than most available newer therapies, resulting in a small increase in the budget after its formulary adoption for the treatment of relapsed or refractory follicular lymphoma.
      PubDate: 2024-02-01
       
  • A Systematic Review of Methods Used by Pediatric Cost-Utility Analyses to
           Include Family Spillover Effects

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      Abstract: Background A child’s health condition affects family members’ health and well-being. However, pediatric cost-utility analysis (CUA) commonly ignores these family spillover effects leading to an incomplete understanding of the cost and benefits of a child’s health intervention. Methodological challenges exist in assessing, valuing, and incorporating family spillover effects. Objective This study systematically reviews and compare methods used to include family spillover effects in pediatric CUAs. Methods A literature search was conducted in MEDLINE, Embase, EconLit, Cochrane collection, CINAHL, INAHTA, and the Pediatric Economic Database Evaluation (PEDE) database from inception to 2020 to identify pediatric CUAs that included family spillover effects. The search was updated to 2021 using PEDE. The data describing in which family members spillover effects were measured, and how family spillover effects were measured, incorporated, and reported, were extracted. Common approaches were grouped conceptually. Further, this review identified theories or theoretical frameworks used to justify approaches for integrating family spillover effects into CUA. Results Of 878 pediatric CUAs identified, 35 included family spillover effects. Most pediatric CUAs considered family spillover effects on one family member. Pediatric CUAs reported eight different approaches to measure the family spillover effects. The most common method was measuring the quality-adjusted life years (QALY) loss of the caregiver(s) or parent(s) due to a child’s illness or disability using an isolated approach whereby family spillover effects were quantified in individual family members separately from other health effects. Studies used four approaches to integrate family spillover effects into CUA. The most common method was to sum children’s and parents/caregivers’ QALYs. Only two studies used a theoretical framework for incorporation of family spillover effects. Conclusions Few pediatric CUAs included family spillover effects and the observed variation indicated no consensus among researchers on how family spillover effects should be measured and incorporated. This heterogeneity is mirrored by a lack of practical guidelines by Health Technology Assessment (HTA) agencies or a theoretical foundation for including family spillover effects in pediatric CUA. The results from this review may encourage researchers to develop a theoretical framework and HTA agencies to develop guidelines for including family spillover effects. Such guidance may lead to more rigorous and standardized methods for including family spillover effects and better–quality evidence to inform decision-makers on the cost-effectiveness of pediatric health interventions.
      PubDate: 2024-02-01
       
  • Cost-Effectiveness Modeling of Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen Positron
           Emission Tomography with Piflufolastat F 18 for the Initial Diagnosis of
           Patients with Prostate Cancer in the United States

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      Abstract: Background and objectives Piflufolastat F 18 is a novel prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-targeted positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracer that is superior to standard of care (SOC) imaging for the initial staging of prostate cancer and the detection of biochemical recurrence. As piflufolastat F 18 has been approved in the United States (US) for this indication, this modeling study assessed the cost effectiveness of piflufolastat F 18 versus fluciclovine F-18, gallium68-PSMA-11 (PSMA 11), and SOC imaging (a mix of bone scans, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging) for the diagnosis and staging of prostate cancer from a US healthcare system perspective. Perspective A US third-party payer perspective was used, which for this population reflects a mix of commercial and Medicare, considering only direct healthcare costs. Setting This study utilized a tertiary healthcare setting. Methods A decision tree was used to map the diagnostic/treatment pathway, consisting of the proportion of patients with local, regional, distant, or no disease; prostate-specific antigen (PSA) ≤ 1.0 or > 1.0; and accuracy of imaging modalities. A Markov model predicted the long-term outcomes of disease progression according to treatment decisions. Inputs to the model were informed by data from the OSPREY and CONDOR clinical trials, public data, and the literature. Treatment mix included active surveillance, radiation therapy, prostatectomy, androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), and radiation therapy + ADT, informed by expert opinion. Outcomes included life-years (LY), quality-adjusted life-years (QALY), and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). All costs were reported in 2021 US dollars, using the US Bureau of Labor Statistics Consumer Price Index. A willingness-to-pay (WTP) threshold of $150,000 was considered cost effective, consistent with the upper range used as the standard for price benchmarks by the Institute for Clinical and Economic Review. The robustness of the base-case results was assessed in deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Results Over a lifetime horizon, piflufolastat F 18 had the greatest effectiveness in terms of LYs (6.80) and QALYs (5.33); for the comparators, LYs ranged from 6.58 (SOC) to 6.76 (PSMA 11) and QALYs ranged from 5.12 (SOC) and 5.30 (PSMA 11). Piflufolastat F 18 was more cost effective compared with fluciclovine F 18, PSMA 11, and SOC, with ICERs of $21,122, $55,836, and $124,330 per QALY gained, respectively. Piflufolastat F 18 was associated with the greatest net monetary benefit ($627,918) compared with the other options at a WTP threshold of $150,000. The results of the deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses supported the robustness of the base-case results. Conclusions This study suggests that piflufolastat F 18 is a cost-effective diagnostic option for men with prostate cancer in the US, with higher associated LY, QALY, and greater net monetary benefit than fluciclovine F 18, PSMA 11, and SOC imaging.
      PubDate: 2024-02-01
       
  • Systematic Review of the Relative Social Value of Child and Adult Health

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      Abstract: Objectives We aimed to synthesise knowledge on the relative social value of child and adult health. Methods Quantitative and qualitative studies that evaluated the willingness of the public to prioritise treatments for children over adults were included. A search to September 2023 was undertaken. Completeness of reporting was assessed using a checklist derived from Johnston et al. Findings were tabulated by study type (matching/person trade-off, discrete choice experiment, willingness to pay, opinion survey or qualitative). Evidence in favour of children was considered in total, by length or quality of life, methodology and respondent characteristics. Results Eighty-eight studies were included; willingness to pay (n = 9), matching/person trade-off (n = 12), discrete choice experiments (n = 29), opinion surveys (n = 22) and qualitative (n = 16), with one study simultaneously included as an opinion survey. From 88 studies, 81 results could be ascertained. Across all studies irrespective of method or other characteristics, 42 findings supported prioritising children, while 12 provided evidence favouring adults in preference to children. The remainder supported equal prioritisation or found diverse or unclear views. Of those studies considering prioritisation within the under 18 years of age group, nine findings favoured older children over younger children (including for life saving interventions), six favoured younger children and five found diverse views. Conclusions The balance of evidence suggests the general public favours prioritising children over adults, but this view was not found across all studies. There are research gaps in understanding the public’s views on the value of health gains to very young children and the motivation behind the public’s views on the value of child relative to adult health gains. Clinical Trial Registration The review is registered at PROSPERO number: CRD42021244593. There were two amendments to the protocol: (1) some additional search terms were added to the search strategy prior to screening to ensure coverage and (2) a more formal quality assessment was added to the process at the data extraction stage. This assessment had not been identified at the protocol writing stage.
      PubDate: 2024-02-01
       
  • Surrogacy and the Valuation of ATMPs: Taking Our Place in the Evidence
           Generation/Assessment Continuum

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      Abstract: Abstract Medical technology is advancing rapidly, but established methods for health technology assessment are struggling to keep up. This challenge is particularly stark for the assessment of advanced therapy medicinal products—therapies often launched on the basis of single-arm studies powered to a surrogate primary endpoint. The most robust surrogacy methods investigate trial-level correlations between the treatment effect on the surrogate and the outcome of ultimate interest. However, these methods are often impossible with the evidence usually available for advanced therapy medicinal products at the time of the launch (randomized controlled trials are necessary for these advanced methods). Additionally, these surrogacy relationships are usually considered to be technology specific, adding uncertainty for any approach that primarily relies on historic data to estimate the surrogacy relationship for novel interventions such as advanced therapy medicinal products. The literature has already highlighted the need for early dialogue, staged assessment processes, and pricing arrangements that responsibly share the risk between the manufacturer and payer. However, it is our view that in addition to these critical developments, the modeling methods employed could also improve. Currently, health technology assessment practitioners typically either ignore the surrogate and simply extrapolate the endpoint of greatest patient relevance irrespective of the degree of maturity or assume historic surrogate relationships apply to the novel technology. In this opinion piece, we outline an additional avenue. By drawing on the understanding of the mechanism of action and insights generated earlier in the evidence generation/assessment continuum, cost-effectiveness modelers can make better use of the wider data available. These efforts are expected to reduce uncertainty at the time of the initial launch of pharmaceutical products and increase the value of subsequent data collection efforts.
      PubDate: 2024-02-01
       
  • A Framework for the Fair Pricing of Medicines

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      Abstract: Abstract As high-cost medicines put increasing pressure on public health care budgets, the need to identify ‘fair’ prices for medicines has never been greater. This paper proposes a framework, built upon fundamental economic principles, that allows for the consideration of ‘fair’ prices for medicines. The framework incorporates key considerations from conventional supply-side and demand-side approaches for specifying a cost-effectiveness ‘threshold’, including the health opportunity cost borne by other patients ( \(k\) ) and society’s willingness to pay for marginal improvements in population health ( \(v\) ). The costs incurred by manufacturers in developing and supplying new medicines are also considered, as are the incentives for manufacturers to strategically price up to any common price per unit of benefit (cost-effectiveness ‘threshold’) specified by the payer. The framework finds that, at any ‘fair’ price, a medicine’s dynamically calculated incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) lies below \(k\) . When pricing medicines collectively, the framework finds that a common price below \(k\) is required to maximize population health (consumer surplus) or to maximize total welfare (consumer and producer surplus). This framework has important policy implications for payers who wish to improve population health outcomes from constrained health care budgets. In particular, existing approaches to ‘value-based pricing’ should be reconsidered to ensure that patients receive a ‘fair’ share of the resulting economic surplus.
      PubDate: 2024-02-01
       
  • Transporting Comparative Effectiveness Evidence Between Countries:
           Considerations for Health Technology Assessments

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      Abstract: Abstract Internal validity is often the primary concern for health technology assessment agencies when assessing comparative effectiveness evidence. However, the increasing use of real-world data from countries other than a health technology assessment agency’s target population in effectiveness research has increased concerns over the external validity, or “transportability”, of this evidence, and has led to a preference for local data. Methods have been developed to enable a lack of transportability to be addressed, for example by accounting for cross-country differences in disease characteristics, but their consideration in health technology assessments is limited. This may be because of limited knowledge of the methods and/or uncertainties in how best to utilise them within existing health technology assessment frameworks. This article aims to provide an introduction to transportability, including a summary of its assumptions and the methods available for identifying and adjusting for a lack of transportability, before discussing important considerations relating to their use in health technology assessment settings, including guidance on the identification of effect modifiers, guidance on the choice of target population, estimand, study sample and methods, and how evaluations of transportability can be integrated into health technology assessment submission and decision processes.
      PubDate: 2024-02-01
       
  • Making Decision Models Fit for Purpose: The Importance of Ensuring
           Stakeholder Involvement

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      PubDate: 2024-01-18
       
 
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Journal of Monetary Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 100)
Information Technologies & International Development     Open Access   (Followers: 86)
International Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64)
International Labour Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 61)
IMF Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Journal of International Business Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Review of International Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Journal of International Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Journal of International Money and Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Journal of International Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
International Review of Social History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
International Review of Economics & Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
International Review of Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
International Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Journal of International Marketing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
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Human Resource Development International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Human Resource Management International Digest     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
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Ekonomia Międzynarodowa     Open Access  
Jurnal Ilmu Ekonomi Terapan     Open Access  
Jurnal Hubungan Internasional     Open Access  
Journal of Advanced Research in Economics and International Business     Full-text available via subscription  
Proceedings of the International Conference on Business Excellence     Open Access  
Journal of Accounting and Finance in Emerging Economies     Open Access  
International Journal of Governance and Financial Intermediation     Hybrid Journal  
South American Development Society Journal     Open Access  
Revista Multiface Online     Open Access  
Revue internationale de l'économie sociale     Full-text available via subscription  
Expert Journal of Business and Management     Open Access  
Crossroads     Hybrid Journal  
Relações Internacionais (R:I)     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Gestão de Negócios     Open Access  
Journal of Theoretical and Applied Electronic Commerce Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Commerce and Management     Hybrid Journal  
EMAJ : Emerging Markets Journal     Open Access  
Journal of International Commerce, Economics and Policy     Hybrid Journal  
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