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INTERNATIONAL COMMERCE (145 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 136 of 136 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Economica Et Turistica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
African Journal of Economic and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Amnis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Antitrust Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asia and the Global Economy     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Shipping and Logistics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Botswana Journal of Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Career Development International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
China Business Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
China Economic Quarterly International     Open Access  
Competition and Regulation in Network Industries     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Critical Perspectives on International Business     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Crossroads     Hybrid Journal  
Digital Finance : Smart Data Analytics, Investment Innovation, and Financial Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
East Asian Community Review     Hybrid Journal  
EC Tax Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Economic Journal of Emerging Markets     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Economics Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ekonomia Międzynarodowa     Open Access  
EMAJ : Emerging Markets Journal     Open Access  
Emerging Markets Finance and Trade     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Estudos Internacionais : revista de relações internacionais da PUC Minas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Business Law Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
European Company Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
European Journal of International Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Expert Journal of Business and Management     Open Access  
Foreign Trade Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Global & Strategis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Summitry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Global Trade and Customs Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Human Resource Development International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Human Resource Management International Digest     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
IMF Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
IN VIVO     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Information Resources Management Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Information Technologies & International Development     Open Access   (Followers: 81)
International Advances in Economic Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Business Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Commerce Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Economic Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
International Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Economics and Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
International Insolvency Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Applied Behavioral Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
International Journal of Asian Business and Information Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Commerce and Management     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Export Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Governance and Financial Intermediation     Hybrid Journal  
International Labor and Working-Class History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
International Labour Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 60)
International Marketing Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Public Management Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Review of Applied Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Review of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Review of Economics & Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
International Review of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Review of Financial Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Review of Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Review of Social History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
International Review on Public and Nonprofit Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Small Business Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Studies of Management and Organization     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
International Trade Journal : Western Hemispheric Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Transactions In Operational Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Intertax     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Japanese Political Economy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal for International Business and Entrepreneurship Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Accounting and Finance in Emerging Economies     Open Access  
Journal of Advanced Research in Economics and International Business     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Antitrust Enforcement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Chinese Economic and Foreign Trade Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Chinese Human Resource Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Comparative International Management     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Contemporary European Research     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Economics and International Finance     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of International Accounting, Auditing and Taxation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of International Business Policy     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of International Business Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Journal of International Commerce, Economics and Policy     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of International Consumer Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of International Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Journal of International Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Journal of International Entrepreneurship     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of International Financial Management & Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of International Food & Agribusiness Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of International Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of International Marketing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Journal of International Money and Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Journal of International Trade & Economic Development: An International and Comparative Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of International Trade Law and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Korea Trade     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Monetary Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 95)
Journal of Revenue and Pricing Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Reviews on Global Economics     Open Access  
Journal of the Association for Consumer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of the Japanese and International Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Theoretical and Applied Electronic Commerce Research     Open Access  
Journal of World Trade     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Jurnal Hubungan Internasional     Open Access  
Jurnal Ilmu Ekonomi Terapan     Open Access  
L'Année du Maghreb     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Management international / International Management / Gestiòn Internacional     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Management International Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
MEED Middle East Economic Digest     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Monthly Statistics of International Trade - Statistiques mensuelles du commerce international     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
PharmacoEconomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Proceedings of the International Conference on Business Excellence     Open Access  
Qualitative Research in Financial Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Quarterly Journal of Political Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Regional Formation and Development Studies     Open Access  
Relações Internacionais (R:I)     Open Access  
Research World     Hybrid Journal  
Review of International Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Review of International Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Revista Brasileira de Gestão de Negócios     Open Access  
Revista Multiface Online     Open Access  
Revue internationale de l'économie sociale     Full-text available via subscription  
Revue Internationale du Travail     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Revue internationale P.M.E. : économie et gestion de la petite et moyenne entreprise     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
South African Journal of International Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
South American Development Society Journal     Open Access  
Studies in Comparative International Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Syracuse Journal of International Law and Commerce     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
TDM Transnational Dispute Management Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Transnational Corporations Review     Hybrid Journal  
World Competition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
World Food Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
World Oil Trade     Hybrid Journal  
World Trade and Arbitration Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)

           

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PharmacoEconomics
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.998
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 26  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 1170-7690 - ISSN (Online) 1179-2027
Published by Adis Homepage  [21 journals]
  • Evaluating the Individual Healthcare Costs and Burden of Disease
           Associated with RSV Across Age Groups

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      Abstract: Background Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of acute respiratory infection (ARI), with high morbidity and mortality worldwide. RSV costing and burden estimates can highlight the potential benefits of future vaccination programs and are essential for economic evaluations. Objective We aimed to determine RSV healthcare costs across age groups and the overall disease burden of medically attended RSV in Canada. Methods We conducted a retrospective case–control study to estimate the attributable healthcare costs per RSV case in Alberta. We used two case definitions to capture diversity in case severity: laboratory-confirmed RSV and ARI attributable to RSV. Matching occurred on five criteria: (1) age, (2) urban/rural status, (3) sex, (4) prematurity and (5) Charlson Comorbidity Index score. We calculated the age-specific burden of medically attended RSV in Canada from 2010 to 2019 by multiplying the weekly age-specific incidence of medically attended ARI with the RSV positivity rate. Results Costs per laboratory-confirmed RSV case were (in Canadian dollars [CAD], year 2020 values) $CAD12,713 and 40,028 in the first 30 and 365 days following diagnosis, respectively, whereas a case of ARI potentially attributable to RSV cost $CAD316 and 915, in 30 and 365 days, respectively. Older (aged ≥ 65 years) and younger (aged < 90 days) age groups had the highest case costs. The average medically attended RSV incidence rate across nine seasons was 1743 cases per 100,000 people per year. Conclusions RSV is a common and expensive infection at the extremes of life, and the development of immunization programs targeting older and younger ages may be important for the reduction of RSV burden and cost.
      PubDate: 2022-05-13
       
  • Addressing Challenges to Alternative Payment Models for New Alzheimer’s
           Disease Therapies for US Commercial Payers

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      Abstract: Abstract Commercial payers that ultimately decide to cover aducanumab or other Alzheimer’s disease therapies may require innovative payment tools to minimize their financial risk given the uncertain benefits and high cost of such treatments. Drawing on the published evidence, we propose two different types of payment models applicable to disease-modifying therapies in Alzheimer’s disease, and suggest four strategies to overcome challenges in their implementation. Such strategies range from developing best practices for outcome measurement in Alzheimer’s disease, investing in infrastructure to collect real-world data, increasing representativeness of registry data in Alzheimer’s disease, and integrating the diagnostic, treatment, and payment landscape. These important steps could make access to emerging therapies in Alzheimer’s disease more sustainable in the long term, and could serve as a blueprint for better access to novel therapies in other indications in the future.
      PubDate: 2022-05-13
       
  • Modeling the Ex Ante Clinical Real Option Value in an Innovative
           Therapeutic Area: ALK-Positive Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

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      Abstract: Objectives A drug that improves survival and/or disease progression can create real option value (ROV)—the additional health gain from future innovations enabled by a longer survival. ROV can be a relevant consideration for both clinical and payer decision-makers. We aimed to estimate the ex ante ROV for first-line (1L) alectinib in anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods We developed a Markov model to estimate life-years (LYs) and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) gained with 1L alectinib versus 1L crizotinib due to potential future second-line (2L) drugs. Transition probabilities were derived from the phase 3 trial of 1L alectinib and phase 2 trial of 2L brigatinib. We identified drugs being studied in phase 2 and 3 trials in ALK-positive NSCLC at the time of alectinib’s 1L approval and projected the likelihood and timing of their arrival and their potential efficacy based on publicly available data. Results The discounted incremental LYs and QALYs for alectinib increased by 12.9% (95% CR − 2.96%, 34.82%; 1.25 vs. 1.11) and 11.2% (95% CR − 2.14%, 29.29%; 1.03 vs. 0.92), respectively, after accounting for ROV. The incremental ROV of alectinib was sensitive to the projected efficacy of future drugs, uptake level, and the hazard ratio of progression-free survival of alectinib (vs. crizotinib). Conclusions Ex ante ROV can be a significant value consideration in therapeutic areas with high levels of expected innovation. The potential efficacy of future drugs and incremental survival with alectinib at the projected time of arrival are important considerations in assessing ROV.
      PubDate: 2022-05-09
       
  • Exploring the Issues of Valuing Child and Adolescent Health States Using a
           Mixed Sample of Adolescents and Adults

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      Abstract: Abstract Preferences for child and adolescent health states used to generate health state utility values can be elicited from adults, young adults, adolescents, or combinations of these. This commentary paper provides a critical overview of issues and implications arising from valuing child and adolescent health states using a novel approach of a mixed sample of adolescents and adults. The commentary is informed by critical analysis of normative, ethical, practical and theoretical arguments in the health state valuation literature. Discussion focusses upon adolescent empowerment, understanding and psychosocial maturity; ethical concerns; elicitation tasks; perspective; and selection of sample proportions across adolescents and adults. It is argued that valuation of child and adolescent health states by both adolescents and adults could involve all participants completing the same preference elicitation task using the same perspective (e.g. time trade-off imagining they are living in the health state), and all preferences being modelled to generate a combined value set that reflects both adolescent and adult preferences. It is concluded that the valuation of child and adolescent health states by a mixed adolescent and adult sample appears feasible and has the advantage that it includes some of the population who can potentially experience the health states, thus enabling adolescents to express their views around matters that may affect them, and the population that are taxpayers and voters. However, both the relative proportion of adults and adolescents to include in a valuation sample and the elicitation technique require careful consideration.
      PubDate: 2022-05-01
       
  • Cost‑Effectiveness Risk‑Aversion Curves: Comparison of Risk-Adjusted
           Performance Measures and Expected-Utility Approaches

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      Abstract: Abstract Accounting for risk attitudes in medical decision making under uncertainty has attracted little research. A recent proposal recommended using the results of a cost-effectiveness analysis to construct a cost-effectiveness risk-aversion curve (CERAC) to inform risk-averse decision makers choosing among healthcare programs with uncertain costs and effects. The CERAC is based on a risk-adjusted performance measure widely used in financial economics called the Sortino ratio. This paper evaluates the CERAC based on the Sortino ratio, derives its various properties, discusses the implications of using it to inform decision making under uncertainty, and compares it with the expected-utility approach. Analytic formulae for the CERAC, relating it to the means and standard deviations of costs and effects of a healthcare program, are derived for both approaches. Compared with the expected-utility approach, the CERAC based on the Sortino ratio implicitly assumes that the decision maker is highly risk averse.
      PubDate: 2022-05-01
       
  • Mogamulizumab for Previously Treated Mycosis Fungoides and Sézary
           Syndrome: An Evidence Review Group Perspective of a NICE Single Technology
           Appraisal

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      Abstract: Abstract The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) invited the manufacturer (Kyowa Kirin) of mogamulizumab (Poteligeo®), as part of the single technology appraisal process, to submit evidence for its clinical and cost-effectiveness for previously treated mycosis fungoides (MF) and Sézary syndrome (SS). Kleijnen Systematic Reviews Ltd, in collaboration with Maastricht University Medical Centre, was commissioned to act as the independent evidence review group (ERG). This paper summarises the company submission (CS), presents the ERG’s critical review of the clinical and cost-effectiveness evidence in the CS, highlights the key methodological considerations and describes the development of the NICE guidance by the Appraisal Committee. Based on a systematic literature review, one randomised controlled trial, MAVORIC, was identified showing favourable results in patients with MF and SS. However, MAVORIC compared mogamulizumab to vorinostat, which is not standard care in the NHS, and there is uncertainty due to the study design, specifically crossover of patients. Based on a “naïve comparison of results from the vorinostat arm of the MAVORIC study and the physician’s choice arm (methotrexate or bexarotene i.e. United Kingdom [UK] standard treatments) of the ALCANZA study as well as comparison to Phase II bexarotene data”, the company considered vorinostat to be “a reasonable proxy for current standard of care in the NHS”. The ERG considered, based on the limited data available, that the comparability of vorinostat (MAVORIC) and physician’s choice (ALCANZA) could not be established. In response to the Appraisal Consultation Document, the company provided an unanchored matched adjusted indirect comparison (MAIC) of mogamulizumab with UK standard care by analysing Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) data. However, given the high risk of bias of an unanchored MAIC, these results needed to be regarded with a considerable degree of caution. The economic analysis suffered from uncertainty because there was no trial evidence on the comparator in the England and Wales National Health Service (NHS), and it was unclear to what extent the trial (MAVORIC) comparator (vorinostat) was comparable to standard care, referred to as established clinical management (ECM) in the NHS. The evidence for overall survival had not reached maturity and was confounded by treatment switching, for which different crossover adjustment methods produced large variations in life years. Caregiver utilities were applied in the analysis, but there was a lack of guidance on their application and whether these were indicated in this appraisal. After consultation, the company updated the economic analysis with the MAIC. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios comparing mogamulizumab against ECM were (depending on whether the HES or MAVORIC comparison were used) £31,030 or £32,634 per quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained according to the company’s base case and £38,274 or £80,555 per QALY gained according to the ERG’s base case. NICE did not recommend mogamulizumab for treating MF or SS in adults who have had at least one previous systemic treatment. This decision was subsequently appealed, and an appeal decision has been reached.
      PubDate: 2022-05-01
       
  • Assessments of the Value of New Interventions Should Include Health Equity
           Impact

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      Abstract: Abstract A formal evaluation of the health equity impact of a new intervention is hardly ever performed as part of a health technology assessment to understand its value. This should change, in our view. An evidence-based quantitative assessment of the health equity impact can help decision makers develop coverage policies, programme designs, and quality initiatives focused on optimizing both total health and health equity given the treatment options available. We outline the conceptual basis of how a new intervention can impact health equity and adopt distributional cost-effectiveness analysis based on decision-analytic models to assess this quantitatively, using a newly US FDA-approved drug for Alzheimer’s disease (aducanumab) as an example. We argue that gaps in the evidence base for the new intervention, for example, due to limited clinical research participation among racial and ethnic minority groups, do not preclude such an evaluation. Understanding these uncertainties has implications for fair pricing, decision making, and future research. If we are serious about population-level decision making that not only is focused on improving total health but also aims to improve health equity, we should consider routinely assessing the health equity impact of new interventions.
      PubDate: 2022-05-01
       
  • Economic and Humanistic Burden of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: A
           Systematic Literature Review

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      Abstract: Background Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) accounts for 10–20% of all breast cancers (BCs). It is more commonly diagnosed in younger women and often has a less favorable prognosis compared with other BC subtypes. Objective The objective of this study was to provide a literature-based extensive overview of the economic and humanistic burden of TNBC to assist medical decisions for healthcare payers, providers, and patients. Methods A systematic literature review was performed using multiple databases, including EMBASE, MEDLINE, Econlit, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, from database inception to 16 May 2021. In addition, a targeted search was performed in the Northern Light Life Sciences Conference s database from 2016 through June 2021. The bibliographies of included articles were reviewed to identify other potentially relevant publications. Quality assessment of the included studies was conducted. Results The review identified 19 studies assessing the economic burden and 10 studies assessing the humanistic burden of TNBC. Studies varied widely in study design, settings, patient populations, and time horizons. The estimates of mean per-patient annual direct medical costs ranged from around $20,000 to over $100,000 in stage I–III TNBC and from $100,000 to $300,000 in stage IV TNBC. Healthcare costs and resource utilization increased significantly with disease recurrence, progression, and increased cancer stage or line of therapy. Compared with the costs of systemic anticancer therapy, cancer management costs comprised a larger portion of total direct costs. The estimates of indirect costs due to productivity loss ranged from $207 to $1573 per patient per month (all costs presented above were adjusted to 2021 US dollars). Cancer recurrence led to significantly reduced productivity and greater rates of leaving the workforce. A rapid deterioration of health utility associated with disease progression was observed in TNBC patients. Treatment with pembrolizumab or talazoparib showed significantly greater improvements in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) compared with chemotherapy, as measured by EORTC QLQ-C30, QLQ-BR23, and FACT-B. Conclusion TNBC is associated with a substantial economic burden on healthcare systems and societies and considerably reduced productivity and HRQoL for patients. This study synthesized the published literature on the economic and humanistic burden of TNBC and highlighted the need for continued research due to the rapidly changing landscape of TNBC care.
      PubDate: 2022-05-01
       
  • The Cost Effectiveness of Levodopa-Carbidopa Intestinal Gel in the
           Treatment of Advanced Parkinson’s Disease in England

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      Abstract: Background Parkinson’s disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disease, which significantly impacts patients’ quality of life and is associated with high treatment and direct healthcare costs. In England, levodopa/carbidopa intestinal gel (LCIG) is indicated for the treatment of levodopa-responsive advanced Parkinson’s disease with troublesome motor fluctuations when available combinations of medicinal products are unsatisfactory. Objective We aimed to determine the cost effectiveness of LCIG compared to the standard of care for patients with advanced Parkinson’s disease in England, using real-world data. Methods A Markov model was adapted from previous published studies, using the perspective of the English National Health System and Personal and Social Services to evaluate the cost effectiveness of LCIG compared to standard of care in patients with advanced Parkinson’s disease over a 20-year time horizon. The model comprised 25 health states, defined by a combination of the Hoehn and Yahr scale, and waking time spent in OFF-time. The base case considered an initial cohort of patients with an Hoehn and Yahr score of ≥ 3, and > 4 h OFF-time. Standard of care comprised standard oral therapies, and a proportion of patients were assumed to be treated with subcutaneous apomorphine infusion or injection in addition to oral therapies. Efficacy inputs were based on LCIG clinical trials where possible. Resource use and utility values were based on results of a large-scale observational study, and costs were derived from the latest published UK data, valued at 2017 prices. The EuroQol five-dimensions-3-level (EQ-5D-3L) instrument was used to measure utilities. Costs and quality-adjusted life-years were discounted at 3.5%. Both deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted. Results Total costs and quality-adjusted life-years gained for LCIG vs standard of care were £586,832 vs £554,022, and 2.82 vs 1.43, respectively. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for LCIG compared to standard of care was £23,649/quality-adjusted life-year. Results were sensitive to the healthcare resource utilisation based on real-world data, and long-term efficacy of LCIG. Conclusions The base-case incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was estimated to be within the acceptable thresholds for cost effectiveness considered for England.
      PubDate: 2022-05-01
       
  • A Comparison of Methods for Identifying Informal Carers: Self-Declaration
           Versus a Time Diary

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      Abstract: Objectives Two main methods for identifying whether an individual is an informal carer are self-declaration and the use of a time diary. We analysed the level and predictors of agreement between these two methods among co-residential informal carers of adult recipients. Methods We used the 2014/15 UK Time Use Survey, which is a large-scale household survey for those aged 8 years old and over. It contains an individual questionnaire for self-declaration and a time diary for activity-based identification that records all activity in 10-min slots for two 24-h periods. Our analysis: (i) assesses the degree of overlap across approaches; (ii) explores the differences in characteristics between carers identified via one approach relative to non-carers using a bivariate probit estimator; and (iii) shows what factors are associated with being identified by both approaches using two independent probit estimators. Results Out of 6301 individuals, we identified 545 carers (8.6%) by at least one method and only 104 (19.1% of 545 carers) by both methods. We found similar factors predicted caregiving using either method but the magnitudes of the effects of these factors were larger for self-declared carers. Activity-based carers who provided more activities to a dependent adult and spent more time caregiving were more likely to also self-declare. Conclusions Our results show low levels of agreement between the two main methods used to identify informal carers. Any assessment of current caregiving research or future means to collect caregiving information should pay particular attention to the identification method as it may only relate to certain carer groups.
      PubDate: 2022-04-08
       
  • Correction to: Systematic Review of Conceptual, Age, Measurement and
           Valuation Considerations for Generic Multidimensional Childhood
           Patient-Reported Outcome Measures

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      PubDate: 2022-04-01
       
  • Economic Evaluation of Digital Health Interventions: Methodological Issues
           and Recommendations for Practice

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      Abstract: Abstract Health care interventions are increasingly being delivered through digital technologies, offering major opportunities for delivering more health gains from scarce health care resources. Digital health interventions (DHIs) raise distinct challenges for economic evaluations compared with drugs and medical devices, not least due to their interacting, evolving features. The implications of the distinctive nature of DHIs for the methodological choices underpinning their economic evaluation is not well understood. This paper provides an in-depth discussion of distinct features of DHIs and how they might impact the design, measurement, analysis and reporting of cost-effectiveness analysis conducted alongside both randomised and non-randomised studies. These include aspects related to choice of comparator, costs and benefits assessment, study perspective and type of economic analysis. We argue that typical methodological standpoints, such as taking a health service perspective, focusing on health-related benefits and adopting cost-utility analyses, as typically adopted in the economic evaluation of non-digital technologies (pharmaceutical drugs and medical devices), are unlikely to be appropriate for DHIs. We illustrate how these methodological aspects can be appropriately addressed in an evaluation of a digitally supported, remote rehabilitation programme for patients with Long Covid in England. We highlight several methodological considerations for improving practice and areas where further methodological work is required.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
       
  • Calibrating Natural History of Cancer Models in the Presence of Data
           Incompatibility: Problems and Solutions

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      Abstract: Abstract The calibration of cancer natural history models is often challenged by a lack of representative calibration targets, forcing modellers to rely on potentially incompatible datasets. Using a microsimulation colorectal cancer model as an example, the purposes of this paper are to (1) highlight the reasons for uncertainty in calibration targets, (2) illustrate practical and generalisable approaches for dealing with incompatibility in calibration targets, and (3) discuss the importance of future research in the area of incorporating uncertainty in calibration. The low quality of data and differences in populations, outcome definitions, and healthcare systems may result in incompatibility between the model and the data. Acknowledging reasons for data incompatibility allows assessment of the risk of incompatibility before calibrating the model. Only a few approaches are available to address data incompatibility, for instance addressing biases in calibration targets and their adjustment, relaxing the goodness-of-fit metric, and validation of the calibration targets to the data not used in the calibration. However, these approaches lack explicit comparison and validation, and so more research is needed to describe the nature and causes of indirect uncertainty (i.e. uncertainty that cannot be expressed in absolute quantitative forms) and identify methods for managing this uncertainty in healthcare modelling.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
       
  • Dramatic Innovations in the Treatment of Spinal Muscular Atrophy, But Many
           Unknowns Remain

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      PubDate: 2022-04-01
       
  • Importance of Patient Involvement in the Value Assessment Process: On the
           Way Towards Personalised Treatments

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      PubDate: 2022-04-01
       
  • Patient and Caregiver Treatment Preferences in Type 2 and Non-ambulatory
           Type 3 Spinal Muscular Atrophy: A Discrete Choice Experiment Survey in
           Five European Countries

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      Abstract: Background Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a rare neuromuscular disease that affects motor neurons, resulting in progressive skeletal muscle weakness and atrophy. Objective The aim of this study was to examine treatment preferences of patients and caregivers of patients with Type 2 and non-ambulatory Type 3 SMA in the Netherlands, Belgium, Finland, Ireland and Portugal. Methods A discrete choice experiment (DCE) survey was developed to elicit the preferences of adult patients and caregivers regarding different treatment aspects of SMA. This survey built on the design of a similar study undertaken in the UK. The DCE described choice questions in terms of attributes and levels combined using a D-efficient design. The attributes described improvements or worsening in motor and breathing function. The mode of treatment administration (intrathecal injection, single intravenous infusion or regular oral therapy) was described. Treatment risks and side effects related to currently available treatments including risk of liver injury, fatigue, headache, nausea, diarrhoea and rash were described. Lastly, an attribute described whether a treatment had evidence of treatment effectiveness in different SMA types. Participants were recruited via patient advocacy associations to complete an online survey. A clustered conditional logit model was used to estimate treatment preferences. Results Participants (n = 65) were 4.8 times and 8.1 times more likely to choose a treatment with stable or improved (vs worse) motor function, respectively. Similarly, participants were 4.3 times and 5.8 times more likely to choose stable or improved (vs worse) breathing function, respectively. Treatments with a risk of liver injury, fatigue, headache and nausea were 1.6 times less likely to be chosen than treatments with a risk of diarrhoea and rash. Treatments with demonstrated effectiveness in Type 1 SMA only were 2.3 times less likely to be chosen than those with demonstrated effectiveness in Types 1–3 SMA. Treatments administered via intrathecal injections were also 1.8 times less likely to be chosen than daily oral treatments. Discussion Study results show the importance of improvement as well as stabilisation of motor and breathing function to patients and caregivers, and a preference for oral treatments, treatments with demonstrated effectiveness in Types 2–3 SMA, and avoidance of liver injury risk.
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
       
  • Correction to: Mogamulizumab for Previously Treated Mycosis Fungoides and
           Sézary Syndrome: An Evidence Review Group Perspective of a NICE Single
           Technology Appraisal

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      PubDate: 2022-04-01
       
  • PharmacoEconomics

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      PubDate: 2022-03-28
       
  • Correction to: Systematic Literature Review to Assess Economic Evaluations
           in Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA)

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      PubDate: 2022-02-26
       
  • Correction to: Dramatic Innovations in the Treatment of Spinal Muscular
           Atrophy, But Many Unknowns Remain

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      PubDate: 2022-02-25
       
 
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