Subjects -> POLITICAL SCIENCE (Total: 1214 journals)
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    - POLITICAL SCIENCE (1010 journals)
    - POLITICAL SCIENCES: GENERAL (35 journals)

POLITICAL SCIENCE (1010 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 5 6     

Showing 201 - 281 of 281 Journals sorted alphabetically
Demokratie und Geschichte     Hybrid Journal  
Demokratizatsiya: The Journal of Post-Soviet Democratization     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Der Donauraum     Hybrid Journal  
Desafíos     Open Access  
Development and Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64)
Digest of Middle East Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Digital Government : Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Diplomacy & Statecraft     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Diritto, immigrazione e cittadinanza     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Discurso     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Dissent     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Diversité urbaine     Full-text available via subscription  
Dynamics of Asymmetric Conflict: Pathways toward terrorism and genocide     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Earth System Governance     Open Access  
East European Jewish Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
East European Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
East/West : Journal of Ukrainian Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Eastern African Literary and Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal  
Eastern Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Economia Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Ecopolítica     Open Access  
eJournal of eDemocracy and Open Government     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
El Banquete de los Dioses     Open Access  
El Cotidiano     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Electoral Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Em Pauta : Teoria Social e Realidade Contemporânea     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Encuentro     Open Access  
Entramados y Perspectivas     Open Access  
Environment and Planning C : Politics and Space     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 53)
Environmental Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Equal Opportunities International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Espacios Públicos     Open Access  
Estudios digital     Open Access  
Estudios Políticos     Open Access  
Estudios Políticos     Open Access  
Estudos Avançados     Open Access  
Ethical Theory and Moral Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Ethics & International Affairs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Ethics & Global Politics     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Ethics in Science and Environmental Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Éthique publique     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Études internationales     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Eunomia. Rivista semestrale del Corso di Laurea in Scienze Politiche e delle Relazioni Internazionali     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Eureka Street     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
European Integration Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
European Journal for Security Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
European Journal of American Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
European Journal of Cultural and Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
European Journal of Government and Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
European Journal of International Relations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68)
European Journal of Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
European Journal of Political Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 96)
European Journal of Political Research : Political Data Yearbook     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
European Journal of Politics and Gender     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
European Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
European Political Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
European Politics and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
European Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
European Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
European Union Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Eurostudia     Open Access  
Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Evaluation and Program Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Evidence Base : A journal of evidence reviews in key policy areas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Exchange : The Journal of Public Diplomacy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
E|mporium     Open Access  
Federal Governance     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Federalism-E     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Fédéralisme Régionalisme     Open Access  
Feminist Encounters : A Journal of Critical Studies in Culture and Politics     Open Access  
FEU Academic Review     Open Access  
Fijian Studies: A Journal of Contemporary Fiji     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Financial Times     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42)
Foreign Policy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 59)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Foreign Policy Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Foro Interno. Anuario de Teoría Política     Open Access  
French Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Frontiers in Political Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Gaceta Laboral     Open Access  
Genocide Studies International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Geographische Zeitschrift     Full-text available via subscription  
Geopolítica(s). Revista de estudios sobre espacio y poder     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Geopolitics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Geopolitics under Globalization     Open Access  
German Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
German Politics and Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Germinal : Marxismo e Educação em Debate     Open Access  
Gestão & Regionalidade     Open Access  
Ghana Journal of Development Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Ghana Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Global Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Global Change, Peace & Security: formerly Pacifica Review: Peace, Security & Global Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 413)
Global Discourse : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Current Affairs and Applied Contemporary Thought     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Global Environmental Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Global Governance: A Review of Multilateralism and International Organizations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 52)
Global Journal of Peace Research and Praxis     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Global Justice : Theory Practice Rhetoric     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Media Journal : African Edition     Open Access  
Global Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Global Public Policy and Governance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Global Societies Journal     Open Access  
Global Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Global South, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Global War Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Göç Dergisi     Full-text available via subscription  
Good Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Governare la paura. Journal of interdisciplinary studies     Open Access  
Government : Annual Research Journal of Political Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Government and Opposition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Granì     Open Access  
Greek Political Science Review     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Group Processes & Intergroup Relations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Hegel Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Hic Rhodus : Crisis capitalista, polémica y controversias     Open Access  
Historia i Polityka     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
History of Communism in Europe     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Hommes & Migrations     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
HONAI : International Journal for Educational, Social, Political & Cultural Studies     Open Access  
Horyzonty Polityki     Open Access  
Human Relations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 71)
Human Rights Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 78)
Human Rights Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Icelandic Review of Politics and Administration     Open Access  
Idäntutkimus     Open Access  
identidade!     Open Access  
Identities : Journal for Politics, Gender and Culture     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Identities: Global Studies in Culture and Power     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Identity Papers : A Journal of British and Irish Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IDP. Revista de Internet, Derecho y Politica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ids Practice Papers     Hybrid Journal  
IKAT : The Indonesian Journal of Southeast Asian Studies     Open Access  
Indes : Zeitschrift für Politik und Gesellschaft     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Index on Censorship     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
India Quarterly: A Journal of International Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
India Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Indialogs : Spanish Journal of India Studies     Open Access  
Indonesia Prime     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Journal of Community Engagement     Open Access  
Innovation Policy and the Economy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Innovations : Technology, Governance, Globalization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Insight on Africa     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
InSURgência : revista de direitos e movimentos sociais     Open Access  
Intelligence & National Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Interdisciplinary Political Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Interdisziplinäre Zeitschrift für Südasienforschung     Open Access  
Interest Groups & Advocacy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Interfaces Brasil/Canadá     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 75)
International Area Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Communication of Chinese Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Critical Thought     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Gramsci Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Interactions: Empirical and Theoretical Research in International Relations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal : Canada's Journal of Global Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of African Renaissance Studies - Multi-, Inter- and Transdisciplinarity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Area Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Diplomacy and Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of E-Politics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of East Asian Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Electronic Government Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Environmental Policy and Decision Making     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Group Tensions     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Human Rights     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63)
International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 610)
International Journal of Intercultural Relations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Law and Politics Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Peace Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Politics, Culture, and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Press/Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
International Journal of Sexuality and Gender Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
International Journal of Social Quality     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Migration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
International Migration Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 184)
International NGO Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Organization     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 117)
International Peacekeeping     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 473)
International Political Science Abstracts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
International Political Science Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 96)
International Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
International Quarterly for Asian Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Regional Science Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Relations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
International Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
International Review of Public Policy     Open Access  
International Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 87)
International Socialism     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Spectator : Italian Journal of International Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
International Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
International Theory: A Journal of International Politics, Law and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Irish Political Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Israel Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Israel Journal of Foreign Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)

  First | 1 2 3 4 5 6     

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Group Processes & Intergroup Relations
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.004
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 7  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1368-4302 - ISSN (Online) 1461-7188
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1143 journals]
  • “United in diversity”: The interplay of social network characteristics
           and personality in predicting outgroup attitudes
    • Authors: Magdalena Bobowik, Verónica Benet-Martínez, Lydia Repke
      Abstract: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, Ahead of Print.
      Diversity in social relations is important for reducing prejudice. Yet, the question of when this occurs remains open. Using a social network approach, we test whether the link between outgroup attitudes and number of intra- and intergroup contacts is moderated by type of relationship (strong vs. weak ties) and personality (openness to experience) while also considering network structure (connections between contacts). In a culturally diverse sample of 122 immigrants residing in Barcelona, positive outgroup attitudes were predicted by several network characteristics: low proportion of intragroup contacts and high proportion of intergroup contacts among strong ties, high ethnic diversity among strong ties, low connectedness among contacts in the country of origin, and high connectedness between coethnic local and host national contacts. Openness to experience moderated these effects. These results affirm the intergroup benefits of having compositionally and structurally diverse networks, and the gain in examining intergroup dynamics at the meso level of analysis.
      Citation: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations
      PubDate: 2021-04-27T09:28:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13684302211002918
       
  • Prejudice confrontation styles: A validated and reliable measure of how
           people confront prejudice
    • Authors: Kimberly E. Chaney, Diana T. Sanchez
      Abstract: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, Ahead of Print.
      While research has demonstrated that confrontations of prejudice serve as effective prejudice reduction tools and as a coping mechanism for targets of prejudice, research has yet to identify a validated measurement of prejudice confrontation styles. The present research develops the Prejudice Confrontation Styles (PCS) Scale, which includes five styles of prejudice confrontation: Educational, Argumentative, Help-seeking, Empathy, and Humor. The factor structure of the PCS Scale is identified across two diverse samples employing exploratory (Study 1) and confirmatory (Study 2) factor analyses. Moreover, the PCS Scale demonstrates construct validity, predicting imagined confrontation styles two weeks later among women confronting prejudice, and prejudice confrontation styles moderated autonomy, rumination, and perceived effectiveness of prejudice confrontations (Study 3). Thus, the present research identifies and develops a tool to measure prejudice confrontation styles and demonstrates that prejudice confrontation styles are associated with divergent psychological health outcomes.
      Citation: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations
      PubDate: 2021-04-26T05:02:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13684302211005841
       
  • “Past injustice and present prejudice”: Reducing racial bias and
           increasing sympathy by framing historical racism as recent
    • Authors: Mason D. Burns, Erica L. Granz
      Abstract: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, Ahead of Print.
      Racial privity judgments – or the perceived causal connection between historical racial discrimination and current suffering among Black Americans – predicts sympathy for the victims of past injustices and perceptions of contemporary racial inequality. Four studies investigated the ideological roots of privity judgments; focusing on subjective temporal perceptions associated with privity judgments (e.g., subjective perceptions that past discrimination occurred more, versus less, recently). Study 1 revealed that liberals perceived historical instances of racial discrimination as having occurred more recently than conservatives, and that temporal perceptions of recency were associated with less anti-Black bias. Studies 2–4 manipulated temporal perceptions of recency by framing past discrimination as having occurred more recently. Results revealed that increasing perceived temporal recency resulted in reduced anti-Black bias and greater sympathy for present-day victims of racial discrimination across political ideology. Discussion surrounds how framing historical information as subjectively recent has implications for prejudice reduction.
      Citation: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations
      PubDate: 2021-04-24T05:51:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13684302211005852
       
  • Adolescents’ and emerging adults’ judgments and justifications for
           social inclusion or exclusion of language-outgroup members: Language is
           just part of the story
    • Authors: Jiali Zheng, Ning Jiang, Kelly Lynn Mulvey
      Abstract: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, Ahead of Print.
      Language becomes an important intergroup category for children from early on in their lives; however, few studies have examined the role language plays in social inclusion and exclusion. This study examines how adolescents and emerging adults in China make inclusion judgments of language-outgroup members and what reasons they use to justify their inclusion judgments. High school and university students (N = 376, 63.3% female) were recruited to complete a survey designed to examine their inclusion judgments and justifications. Our findings indicate that participants made different inclusion judgments toward speakers of different languages, and language was the most frequently used justification. They also used group identity, personal choice, and autonomy, group functioning, nationality, moral, and political/historical reasons as justifications. Adolescents were found to be more exclusive than emerging adults and used group identity and political/historical reasons more often to justify their inclusion judgments. The findings add to our understanding of the sophisticated ways in which adolescents and emerging adults make social decisions.
      Citation: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations
      PubDate: 2021-04-22T12:45:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13684302211005845
       
  • Membership change, idea generation, and group creativity: A motivated
           information processing perspective
    • Authors: Suqing Wu, Bernard A. Nijstad, Yingjie Yuan
      Abstract: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, Ahead of Print.
      Membership change has been found to stimulate collective idea generation but to not always benefit group creativity—the generation of final outcomes that are novel and useful. Based on motivated information processing theory, we propose that membership change challenges group members to generate more ideas, but that this only contributes to group creativity when members have high levels of prosocial motivation and are willing to process and integrate each other’s ideas. In a laboratory study of 56 student groups, we found that incremental, but not radical, idea generation mediated the positive effect of membership change on group creativity, and only when group members were prosocially motivated. The present study points to different roles of incremental versus radical ideas and underscores the importance of accounting for prosocial motivation in groups for reaping the benefits of membership change in relation to group creativity.
      Citation: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations
      PubDate: 2021-04-21T07:11:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1368430221999457
       
  • Perceived warmth of offending group moderates the effect of intergroup
           apologies
    • Authors: Arya Awale, Christian S. Chan, Katy Y. Y. Tam, Minoru Karasawa
      Abstract: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, Ahead of Print.
      The stereotype content model provides a framework for understanding contextual and relational factors that may explain why some intergroup apologies are ineffective. Using actual and fictional scenarios, we examined whether the apology–forgiveness relationship and the apology–remorse relationship were dependent on the victim-group members’ perceived warmth of the offending group. Studies 1 (N = 101) and 2 (N = 109) demonstrated that the perceived warmth of the offending group moderated the influence of apology on forgiveness. The interaction effect between apology and forgiveness and that between apology and perceived remorse were qualified in three-way interactions in Studies 3 (N = 235) and 4 (N = 586). The warmth-by-apology interaction was detectable among those who were highly offended by the incident. In all four experiments, we found an indirect effect of perceived warmth on forgiveness through perceived remorse. The perceived lack of warmth associated with offending groups may help explain the muted effectiveness of intergroup apologies.
      Citation: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations
      PubDate: 2021-04-16T11:59:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1368430220961844
       
  • We will rescue Italy, but we dislike the European Union: Collective
           narcissism and the COVID-19 threat
    • Authors: Magdalena Żemojtel-Piotrowska, Jarosław Piotrowski, Artur Sawicki, Peter K. Jonason
      Abstract: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, Ahead of Print.
      Collective narcissists are hostile towards outgroup members, especially in response to threats against the ingroup. In the current study (N = 662; Polish community sample), we examined the associations between collective narcissism and intergroup relations using the agency–communion model of collective narcissism during the initial weeks of the COVID-19 threat in Poland. Assuming the COVID-19 threat is agentic (i.e., related to biological and economic danger), we expected it to be unrelated to collective narcissism’s communal aspect. We also expected that collective narcissists would enhance their ingroup image to modify the effects of the COVID-19 threat on intergroup relations. In general, collective narcissism was related to less favorable attitudes toward the European Union, more favorable attitudes toward China, and a willingness to help Italians. The agentic aspect of narcissism was unrelated to intergroup prosocialness, while the communal aspect of narcissism was unrelated to attitudes toward the European Union. The COVID threat suppressed unfavorable attitudes towards the European Union among collective narcissists. Therefore, the COVID threat has limited yet unexpected effects on attitudes toward outgroups among collective narcissists.
      Citation: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations
      PubDate: 2021-04-15T10:26:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13684302211002923
       
  • The imaginary friends of my friends: Imagined contact interventions which
           highlight supportive social norms reduce children’s antirefugee bias
    • Authors: Elaine M. Smith, Anca Minescu
      Abstract: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, Ahead of Print.
      Fostering inclusive attitudes among children in host classrooms is key to integrating refugee children. A field experiment tests the prejudice reduction effects of a teacher-led activity integrating imagined intergroup contact and normative influence. To enhance the effectiveness of imagined contact, scenarios include supportive ingroup norms. In 29 classes, 545 children (Mage = 10.88, SD = 0.96) were randomly assigned to one of five conditions: standard imagined contact, imagined contact encouraged by family, class peers, or religious ingroups, or a control. Children in all norm-framed imagined contact conditions had significantly less antirefugee bias compared with the control. The class-peer norm frame significantly reduced affective and cognitive facets of bias. The family norm frame reduced affective bias, and the religious norm frame reduced cognitive bias. Standard imagined contact did not differ from the control. Potential mediating pathways are explored. These findings illustrate the utility of incorporating norms into imagined contact interventions to reduce antirefugee bias among schoolchildren.
      Citation: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations
      PubDate: 2021-04-15T10:26:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13684302211002899
       
  • My way or the highway: Narcissism and dysfunctional team conflict
           processes
    • Authors: Jennifer Lynch, Alexander McGregor, Alex J. Benson
      Abstract: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, Ahead of Print.
      Individuals higher in grandiose narcissism strive to create and maintain their inflated self-views through self-aggrandizing and other-derogating behaviors. Drawing from the dual-process model of narcissistic admiration and rivalry, we proposed that individuals higher in narcissism may contribute to more competitive and less cooperative conflict processes. We tracked over 100 project design teams from inception to dissolution, gathering data at three time points. We evaluated how team levels of narcissism (i.e., maximum team score, team mean, and team variance) related to latent team means of cooperative and competitive conflict processes. Team mean scores of narcissistic rivalry corresponded to less cooperative and more competitive team conflict processes as teams approached their final project deadline. Our results show how narcissistic rivalry (but not admiration) alters the types of team conflict processes that arise within groups, and is particularly consequential as teams approach major project deadlines.
      Citation: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations
      PubDate: 2021-04-15T10:25:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13684302211001944
       
  • When women support the status quo: Gender moderates the relationship
           between openness to experience and system-justifying beliefs
    • Authors: Chloe Howard, Chris G. Sibley, Danny Osborne
      Abstract: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, Ahead of Print.
      Although epistemic needs motivate the endorsement of system-justifying beliefs, few studies have investigated moderators of this association. Here, we argue that because being the target of discrimination should undermine one’s sense of control, the association between epistemic needs and system-justifying beliefs should be stronger for disadvantaged (vs. advantaged) groups. As hypothesized, analyses of a nation-wide random sample of adults (N = 14,929) revealed that the negative relationship between openness to experience (i.e., an indicator of low epistemic needs) and multiple system-justifying beliefs (i.e., gender-based system justification, right-wing political preference, and conservative party support) was stronger for women (vs. men), and that these moderated associations were mediated by perceptions of gender discrimination. Our results suggest that women may sometimes endorse beliefs that conflict with their self and group interests in order to satisfy their epistemic needs.
      Citation: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations
      PubDate: 2021-04-15T10:25:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13684302211001935
       
  • Feeling out of (existential) place: Existential isolation and nonnormative
           group membership
    • Authors: Elizabeth C. Pinel, Peter J. Helm, Geneva C. Yawger, Anson E. Long, Liz Scharnetzki
      Abstract: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, Ahead of Print.
      Literature devoted to understanding the experiences of individuals who do not fit the cultural mold—those who belong to minority, stigmatized, or underrepresented groups—demonstrates that nonnormative status goes hand in hand with a range of negative outcomes. The current research considers a heretofore unstudied correlate of nonnormative status: existential isolation (the feeling of being alone in one’s subjective experience), which differs from feelings of interpersonal isolation (feeling alone with regard to the quantity or quality of one’s relationships). Normative, or mainstream, society may not acknowledge the experiences of those holding a nonnormative status, rendering such individuals at risk of developing heightened feelings of existential isolation. Across Studies 1a and 1b, we found consistently higher trait levels of existential isolation (but not interpersonal isolation) among people with a nonnormative group status than among their normative counterparts. This effect appeared whether we looked at nonnormativeness with regard to race, ethnicity, sexual orientation, citizenship, native language, body weight, religious affiliation, or socioeconomic status. Study 2 highlights one correlate of the existential isolation that accompanies nonnormativeness: decreased certainty with respect to judgments of racism. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed, including addressing the correlational nature of this research and testing potential mechanisms to explain the link between nonnormative status and existential isolation.
      Citation: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations
      PubDate: 2021-04-15T10:25:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1368430221999084
       
  • (Un)masking threat: Racial minorities experience race-based social
           identity threat wearing face masks during COVID-19
    • Authors: Kimberly Barsamian Kahn, Emma E. L. Money
      Abstract: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, Ahead of Print.
      During the COVID-19 pandemic, racial minorities in the United States were left in a double bind when deciding to wear face masks to prevent the spread of the virus: risk being racially profiled or risk COVID-19. Two studies examine Black and Asian individuals’ experiences of race-related social identity threat wearing face masks during COVID-19, and its impact on safety and health behaviors. Black, Asian, and White participants in the United States responded to surveys (S1: N = 776; S2: N = 534) on their experiences wearing masks early in the pandemic (May 2020) and 3 months later (August 2020). Across both studies, results indicated that, compared to White individuals, Black and Asian participants reported experiencing mask-related, race-based social identity threat from both the public and police, with Black individuals particularly concerned about mask-related threat in police interactions. Mediational analyses demonstrated that mask-related social identity threat led to avoidance of police when help was needed at both time points, and decreased face mask usage early in the pandemic for both Black and Asian people. Results highlight these unique social identity concerns faced by racial minorities and have implications for protecting racial minorities’ health and safety during the pandemic.
      Citation: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations
      PubDate: 2021-04-15T10:24:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1368430221998781
       
  • Gender/sex diversity beliefs: Scale construction, validation, and links to
           prejudice
    • Authors: Zach C. Schudson, Sari M. van Anders
      Abstract: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, Ahead of Print.
      Prejudice against or affirmation of gender/sex minorities is often framed in terms of beliefs about the ontology of gender/sex (i.e., what gender/sex is), or gender/sex diversity beliefs. We constructed the Gender/Sex Diversity Beliefs Scale (GSDB) to assess ontological beliefs about the nature of gender/sex, including essentialist and social constructionist beliefs, and validated the GSDB across a series of studies. In Study 1 (N = 304), we explored the factor structure of the GSDB and found evidence of associations with prejudice against transgender and/or nonbinary people. In Study 2 (N = 300), we assessed the stability of the factor structure of the GSDB and examined its criterion-related validity, including its relationship to feelings toward multiple gender/sex groups. In Studies 3a (N = 48) and 3b (N = 500), we established test–retest reliability. We conclude that gender/sex diversity beliefs are important for understanding contemporary attitudes about gender/sex, including prejudice against gender/sex minorities, and that the GSDB is a reliable and valid way to measure them.
      Citation: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations
      PubDate: 2021-04-12T07:24:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1368430220987595
       
  • The impact of social norms on navigating race in a racially diverse
           context
    • Authors: Chanel Meyers, Amanda Williams, Kristin Pauker, Evan P. Apfelbaum
      Abstract: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, Ahead of Print.
      To date, research has primarily focused on the colorblind norms and behaviors of majority-White participants in majority-White contexts. Extending this work to more diverse samples and contexts, across four studies, we examine whether colorblind norms link to the colorblind behavior of racially diverse participants living in a racially diverse (i.e., heterogeneous) context. Findings suggest that participants living in a racially diverse context did not endorse colorblind beliefs (Study 1) and norms (Study 2), and instead behaved in race-conscious ways and overwhelmingly used race in a photo identification task. Furthermore, in Study 3, we find that colorblind norms are largely activated by the belief that talking about race is prejudiced. When participants were exposed to a social norm that linked talking about race to prejudice, colorblind behavior became more prevalent. Finally, in Study 4, we see that greater diversity of one’s context is correlated to less endorsement of colorblindness.
      Citation: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations
      PubDate: 2021-04-10T11:01:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1368430220984228
       
  • No country for old gay men: Age and sexuality category intersection
           renders older gay men invisible
    • Authors: Andrea Carnaghi, Patrice Rusconi, Mauro Bianchi, Fabio Fasoli, Rosandra Coladonato, Peter Hegarty
      Abstract: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, Ahead of Print.
      Four studies analyzed how sexual orientation (heterosexual vs. gay) and age categories (young vs. elderly) referring to men are cognitively combined. In Study 1, young gay men were judged as more prototypical of gay men than adult or elderly gay men, while young, adult, and elderly heterosexual men were perceived as equally prototypical of heterosexual men. In Study 2, gay men were stereotyped more by young rather than elderly stereotypical traits, while heterosexual men were not stereotyped in terms of age. In Study 3, elderly men were stereotyped more by heterosexual than gay-stereotypical traits, while young men were not stereotyped in terms of sexual orientation. In Study 4, gay men were judged to be young rather than elderly, while elderly men were judged to be heterosexual rather than gay. Overall, elderly gay men were overlooked when processing their constituent categories, “gay” and “elderly” men. Implications for models of intersectionality are discussed.
      Citation: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations
      PubDate: 2021-04-03T08:54:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1368430220987606
       
  • It’s their fault: Partisan attribution bias and its association with
           voting intentions
    • Authors: Ethan Zell, Christopher A. Stockus, Michael J. Bernstein
      Abstract: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, Ahead of Print.
      This research examined how people explain major outcomes of political consequence (e.g., economic growth, rising inequality). We argue that people attribute positive outcomes more and negative outcomes less to their own political party than to an opposing party. We conducted two studies, one before the 2016 U.S. presidential election (N = 244) and another before the 2020 election (N = 249 registered voters), that examined attributions across a wide array of outcomes. As predicted, a robust partisan attribution bias emerged in both studies. Although the bias was largely equivalent among Democrats and Republicans, it was magnified among those with more extreme political ideology. Further, the bias predicted unique variance in voting intentions and significantly mediated the link between political ideology and voting. In sum, these data suggest that partisan allegiances systemically bias attributions in a group-favoring direction. We discuss implications of these findings for emerging research on political social cognition.
      Citation: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations
      PubDate: 2021-04-02T05:37:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1368430221990084
       
  • Ingroup norms shape understanding of outgroup prosocial behaviors
    • Authors: Islam Borinca, Luca Andrighetto, Giulia Valsecchi, Jacques Berent
      Abstract: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, Ahead of Print.
      This research investigated whether ingroup norm moderates the effect of positive or prosocial interactions on the understanding of intergroup prosocial behaviors. Among four experiments in three different cultural samples (U.S. Americans, Kosovan Serbs, and Kosovan Albanians; N = 808), results showed that participants attributed fewer prosocial motives and reported less willingness to accept help when the helper was an outgroup than an ingroup member. However, these effects were weaker or nonsignificant in the tolerant norm condition, as compared to the intolerant norm or control conditions. In addition, participants were more willing to interact with the outgroup (vs. ingroup) helper in the tolerant norm condition, as compared to the intolerant norm or control conditions. Finally, normative expectations, the attribution of prosocial motives to the helper, and the anticipated quality of the interaction with the helper sequentially explained the observed effects. The theoretical and practical implications of these results for intergroup help and intergroup contact literature are discussed.
      Citation: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations
      PubDate: 2021-04-02T05:35:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1368430220987604
       
  • Mindfulness and intergroup bias: A systematic review
    • Authors: Danielle L. Oyler, Mollie A. Price-Blackshear, Steven D. Pratscher, B. Ann Bettencourt
      Abstract: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, Ahead of Print.
      People’s proclivity for favoring their ingroups over outgroups has negative consequences for individuals, groups, and societies. Social psychologists have explored a variety of techniques to reduce these intergroup biases. Emerging research suggests that mindfulness may be effective for this purpose. Mindfulness is defined as present-moment attention and awareness with an accepting attitude, and it is often cultivated through meditation. Our systematic review of the mindfulness-intergroup literature suggests that, across the heterogeneity of paradigms, mindfulness attenuates intergroup bias. Supporting this supposition, for all studies in the current review, regardless of operationalization of mindfulness (i.e., mindfulness-based intervention, brief mindfulness induction, expert meditators, dispositional mindfulness), the overall effect size was g = +.29 (k-number of studies = 36; 95% CI [0.20, 0.39]; Z = 5.94, p < .0001), suggesting a small but significant effect of mindfulness on improved levels of intergroup bias. In the current work, we review the eligible studies and their findings in detail and conclude by discussing critical issues and implications for future research.
      Citation: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations
      PubDate: 2021-04-01T04:56:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1368430220978694
       
  • National identity exploration attenuates the
           identification–prejudice link
    • Authors: Olivia Spiegler, Oliver Christ, Maykel Verkuyten
      Abstract: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, Ahead of Print.
      Social identity exploration is a process whereby individuals actively seek information about their group membership and show efforts to understand its meaning. Developmental theory argues that exploration-based ingroup commitment is the basis for outgroup positivity. We tested this notion in relation to national identity and attitudes towards immigrants. The results of five experimental studies among German adolescents and early adults (N = 1,146; 16–25 years) and one internal meta-analysis suggest that the positive identification–prejudice link is weaker when participants are instructed to explore the meaning of their identity (Study 1). This is not mediated via self-uncertainty (Study 2), but via a reduction in intergroup threat (Study 3) and an increase in deprovincialization (Study 4). In addition, identity exploration enabled strong identifiers to oppose descriptive ingroup norms (Study 5). We conclude that identity exploration can contribute to a further understanding of the identification–prejudice link.
      Citation: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations
      PubDate: 2021-03-31T05:13:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1368430221990093
       
  • Perceived discrimination and psychological distress among immigrants to
           Canada: The mediating role of bicultural identity orientations
    • Authors: Mustafa Firat, Kimberly A. Noels
      Abstract: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, Ahead of Print.
      Bicultural identity orientations have rarely been examined in relation to both perceived discrimination and psychological distress. Furthermore, these constructs have usually been studied in isolation, but their intersection is essential for understanding intercultural relations in multicultural societies. Using cross-sectional data from 1,143 Canadian undergraduate students from immigrant families, this study explored the relationship between perceived discrimination and psychological distress, and how bicultural identity orientations might mediate this relationship. The structural equation modeling results indicated that perceived discrimination was associated with higher levels of psychological distress and hybrid, monocultural, alternating, and conflicted orientations, but lower levels of complementary orientation. Alternating and conflicted orientations were related to higher psychological distress, whereas the other orientations were not. Alternating and conflicted orientations mediated the relationship between perceived discrimination and psychological distress, whereas the other orientations did not. The findings are discussed in light of theories on identity integration, rejection–identification, and acculturation.
      Citation: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations
      PubDate: 2021-03-27T12:04:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1368430221990082
       
  • Comparing relations of ethnic-racial public regard, centrality, and
           intergroup contact attitudes among ethno-racially diverse adolescents
    • Authors: Kristia A. Wantchekon, Adriana J. Umaña-Taylor, Elana R. McDermott, Michael R. Sladek, Deborah Rivas-Drake, Abunya C. Agi, Megan Satterthwaite Freiman
      Abstract: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, Ahead of Print.
      The current cross-sectional study examined how adolescents’ appraisal of how positively others viewed their ethnic-racial group (i.e., public regard) and how integral their ethnic-racial background was to their self-concept (i.e., centrality) related to their intergroup contact approach and avoidance attitudes. Participants were Black, Latinx, and White high school students (N = 2,609; Mage = 16.39, SD = 1.16; 52% female) from the U.S. Southwest and Midwest. Utilizing multigroup structural equation modeling, results indicated that across all ethnic-racial backgrounds, and regardless of geographical context, public regard was positively associated with approach attitudes. Conversely, findings for avoidance attitudes varied by ethnic-racial background. Specifically, public regard was negatively associated with avoidance attitudes for White adolescents, whereas this relation was null for Black and Latinx adolescents. Additionally, although centrality was positively associated with avoidance attitudes among all adolescents, the relation was stronger among White adolescents than among Black and Latinx adolescents.
      Citation: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations
      PubDate: 2021-03-27T12:01:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1368430220987599
       
  • National identity and beliefs about historical linguicide are associated
           with support for exclusive language policies among the Ukrainian
           linguistic majority
    • Authors: Maria Chayinska, Anna Kende, Michael J. A. Wohl
      Abstract: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, Ahead of Print.
      We examined the idea that endorsement of state-level restrictive language policies can be understood as an ingroup-preserving behaviour driven by majority group members’ experiences of linguistic-based collective angst (i.e., concern about the future vitality of the ingroup’s language). We did so in the context of legislative reform aimed to enforce monolinguistic public education in Ukraine – a linguistically heterogeneous nation-state with a history of a foreign ethno-political domination. Specifically, we hypothesized that collective angst is most likely to be experienced when majority group members feel higher attachment to Ukraine (vs. glorification) and shared beliefs about historical linguicide of the Ukrainian language. Using data from a public opinion survey (N = 774), we found support for the mediation model – higher attachment and beliefs about historical linguicide predicted increased support for restrictive policies directly and through collective angst, whereas glorification was found to be a non-significant predictor in this relation. Our results highlight the role of the specific content of protagonists’ social identities in predicting their support for cultural assimilation of ethnic minority groups within heterogeneous societies.
      Citation: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations
      PubDate: 2021-03-27T11:58:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1368430220985911
       
  • People from lower social classes elicit greater prosociality: Compassion
           and deservingness matter
    • Authors: Niels J. Van Doesum, Paul A. M. Van Lange, Joshua M. Tybur, Ana Leal, Eric Van Dijk
      Abstract: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, Ahead of Print.
      People are quick to form impressions of others’ social class, and likely adjust their behavior accordingly. If social class is linked to prosociality, as literature suggests, then an interaction partner’s class should affect prosocial behavior, especially when costs or investments are low. We test this expectation using social mindfulness (SoMi) and dictator games (DG) as complementary measures of prosociality. We manipulate target class by providing information regarding a target’s (a) position on a social class ladder, and (b) family background. Three studies using laboratory and online approaches (Noverall = 557) in two nations (the Netherlands [NL], the UK), featuring actual and hypothetical exchanges, reveal that lower class targets are met with greater prosociality than higher class targets, even when based on information about the targets’ parents (Study 3). The effect of target class was partially mediated by compassion (Studies 2 and 3) and perceived deservingness of the target (Study 3). Implications and limitations are discussed.
      Citation: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations
      PubDate: 2021-03-27T11:53:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1368430220982072
       
  • The flexible impact of member affect in groups performing complex
           decision-making tasks
    • Authors: Young-Jae Yoon, James R. Larson, Jeffrey R. Huntsinger
      Abstract: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, Ahead of Print.
      Positive and negative affect are often thought to influence the quality of group decision-making by prompting different cognitive processing styles: a less effortful heuristic style in the case of positive affect, and a more detail-oriented systematic style in the case of negative affect, with the latter yielding better group decisions than the former. By contrast, we argue that rather than prompting a specific cognitive processing style, positive affect encourages the maintenance of whatever style is currently in use, while negative affect encourages a change in style. Consequently, both positive and negative affect can result in either better or worse group decisions, depending on which cognitive processing style was at play just prior to the affect’s arousal. To test this idea, we conducted three experiments, and found that when heuristic processing was initially primed, subsequently inducing a sad mood resulted in better decisions by both individuals and groups than did subsequently inducing a happy mood. The reverse occurred when systematic processing was initially primed. In groups, these effects were mediated by the relative focus, during group discussion, on critical decision-relevant information. Implications of these findings and future directions for research are discussed.
      Citation: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations
      PubDate: 2021-03-26T06:31:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1368430220985601
       
  • Why we can’t talk openly about race: The impact of race and partisanship
           on respondents’ perceptions of intergroup conversations
    • Authors: Osei Appiah, William P. Eveland, Olivia M. Bullock, Kathryn D. Coduto
      Abstract: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, Ahead of Print.
      Conversations about race-specific issues with interracial conversation partners can be important to combat prejudice and foster mutual understanding. Using a national U.S. sample of 201 Black Democrats, 199 Black Republicans, 200 White Democrats, and 200 White Republicans, this study examined the role that race and partisanship play in individuals’ desire to have political discussions about race-specific topics with racial outgroups. Findings indicate that Blacks in general expected more negative outcomes of race talk with racial outgroups, and Republicans were more likely to attempt to avoid interracial conversations about race. However, these findings were qualified by an interaction between race and partisanship such that White Democrats anticipated fewer negative outcomes from cross-race conversations about race than all other subgroups, and Black Democrats expected more negative outcomes than all other subgroups. Black and White Republicans did not differ from one another and fell roughly between the two Democratic subgroups. Nonetheless, it was White Republicans who were most likely to want to avoid race-specific conversations with cross-race discussion partners, rating significantly more avoidant than Black Republicans and White Democrats, but not Black Democrats.
      Citation: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations
      PubDate: 2021-02-25T06:43:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1368430220967978
       
  • Collective angst and group continuity as predictors of collective action
           for progressive city policies
    • Authors: Michał Jaśkiewicz, Tomasz Besta, Judyta Borchet
      Abstract: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, Ahead of Print.
      Paweł Adamowicz, the liberal mayor of Gdańsk, Poland, died on January 14, 2019, after being stabbed by a man who rushed onstage during a charity event. Four studies were carried out to analyze the predictors of willingness to engage in collective action in support of the progressive city policies he initiated. In Study 1 (N = 214), collective angst was related to collective action intention. Identification with Gdańsk mediated this relation. In the next two studies, we tested the role of the perceived continuity of the in-group. The relationship between collective angst and willingness to support collective actions was mediated by perceived essentialist continuity of the group (Study 2, on snap election day, N = 121). Moreover, results confirmed that collective angst predicted strength of identification with Gdańsk. This identification was related to the perceived essentialist continuity of the group, which in turn was linked to willingness to engage in collective actions in support of progressive policies (Study 3, N = 98). In Study 4 (N = 456), conducted within a few days before the presidential election in Poland, we replicated the model of mediation obtained in Study 3, and showed that contextualized collective angst also predicted collective action intentions.
      Citation: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations
      PubDate: 2021-02-15T10:52:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1368430220987603
       
  • Formation of an emergent protestor identity: Applying the EMSICA to the
           Gezi Park protests
    • Authors: Mete Sefa Uysal, Serap Arslan Akfırat
      Abstract: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, Ahead of Print.
      Recent research on collective action indicates the importance of dynamic and culturally diverse perspectives. One of these models, the encapsulated model of social identity in collective action (EMSICA), claims that perceived injustice and group efficacy shape the emergence of novel forms of identity during protests. An emergent social identity is a strong predictor of collective action participation, as recent studies have demonstrated. In this study we aim to test the tenets of the EMSICA in a non-WEIRD context, the Gezi Park protests in Turkey. We conducted a retrospective survey study with 345 activists who participated in the Gezi Park protests. Findings showed that increased perception of injustice of the government’s totalitarian policies, the decision to demolish Gezi Park, police brutality, as well as group efficacy beliefs predicted the Gezi Park protestor identity. Moreover, the emergent Gezi Park protestor identity directly predicted participation in the protests. Our findings highlight that the EMSICA has important predictive power in a non-WEIRD context, the Gezi Park protests, and showed that perceived injustices and group efficacy became facilitators of the emergence of an overarching protestor identity. We believe that the core drivers of collective action should be understood and tested as context-sensitive, and we should extend our understanding about core motivations from global categories to contextual outcomes of intergroup encounters. In conclusion, we hope this study pave the way for understanding dynamics of collective action participation in repressive contexts, demonstrating how injustices such as totalitarian policies and police brutality along with group efficacy become facilitators of the emergence of an overarching protestor identity.
      Citation: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations
      PubDate: 2021-02-01T05:39:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1368430220983597
       
  • Losing what is OURS: The intergroup consequences of collective ownership
           threat
    • Authors: Tom Nijs, Maykel Verkuyten, Borja Martinovic
      Abstract: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, Ahead of Print.
      Collective ownership threat is the fear of losing control over what is perceived to be owned. In two experimental studies, we examined the intergroup consequences of collective ownership threat in relation to perceived owned territories. First, among a sample of Dutch adolescents (N = 227), we found that infringement of a hangout place owned by a group of friends led to more perceived collective ownership threat (and not symbolic threat), which was in turn related to more marking and anticipatory defending behavior. Second, among a sample of native Dutch adults (N = 338), we found that framing Turkish EU accession as an infringement of the collective ownership of the country led to more perceived collective ownership threat (and not symbolic and economic threat), which was in turn related to more opposition to Turkey’s possible accession. Our findings indicate that collective ownership threat is an important construct to consider in intergroup research.
      Citation: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations
      PubDate: 2021-02-01T05:23:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1368430220980809
       
  • Protecting America’s borders: Christian nationalism, threat, and
           attitudes toward immigrants in the United States
    • Authors: Rosemary L. Al-Kire, Michael H. Pasek, Jo-Ann Tsang, Joseph Leman, Wade C. Rowatt
      Abstract: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, Ahead of Print.
      Attitudes toward immigrants and immigration policies are divisive issues in American politics. These attitudes are influenced by factors such as political orientation and religiousness, with religious and conservative individuals demonstrating higher prejudice toward immigrants and refugees, and endorsing stricter immigration policies. Christian nationalism, an ideology marked by the belief that America is a Christian nation, may help explain how religious nationalist identity influences negative attitudes toward immigrants. The current research addresses this through four studies among participants in the US. Across studies, our results showed that Christian nationalism was a significant and consistent predictor of anti-immigrant stereotypes, prejudice, dehumanization, and support for anti-immigrant policies. These effects were robust to inclusion of other sources of anti-immigrant attitudes, including religious fundamentalism, nationalism, and political ideology. Further, perceived threats from immigrants mediated the relationship between Christian nationalism and dehumanization of immigrants, and attitudes toward immigration policies. These findings have implications for our understanding of the relations between religious nationalism and attitudes toward immigrants and immigration policy in the US, as well as in other contexts.
      Citation: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations
      PubDate: 2021-01-19T07:01:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1368430220978291
       
  • Corrigendum to “Assessing the Evidence of Perspective Taking on
           Stereotyping Reduction and Negative Evaluations: A p-Curve Analysis”
    • Abstract: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations
      PubDate: 2021-01-19T06:29:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1368430220985097
       
  • Hated but still human: Metadehumanization leads to greater hostility than
           metaprejudice
    • Authors: Alexander P. Landry, Elliott Ihm, Jonathan W. Schooler
      Abstract: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, Ahead of Print.
      Metadehumanization, the perception that members of an outgroup dehumanize your group, has been found to exacerbate intergroup conflict by inspiring reciprocal dehumanization of the offending outgroup. Moreover, metadehumanization is distinct from metaprejudice (i.e., the perception that an outgroup hates your group). Given the mutual animosity reported in public opinion polls toward the other side, we believed US–Russia relations would be a worthwhile context in which to extend this model. Therefore, we measured Americans’ levels of metadehumanization and metaprejudice of Russians to determine the association between these perceptions and their hostility toward Russians (Study 1). In this novel intergroup conflict, metadehumanization remained a consequential predictor of outgroup hostility over and above metaprejudice, suggesting that it can exacerbate a broader range of intergroup conflicts than those heretofore examined. Given these findings, we then sought to experimentally differentiate between metadehumanization and metaprejudice. In Study 2, we manipulated both metadehumanization and metaprejudice to (a) determine whether one or both cause greater outgroup hostility and (b) elucidate the underlying mechanisms by which they may produce this effect. Whereas metadehumanization produced greater hostility, metaprejudice did not. Moreover, although both metaperceptions inspired greater prejudice, only metadehumanization led to greater dehumanization. We conclude that metadehumanization may be a particularly potent fomenter of hostility because it inspires reciprocal dehumanization over and above more general negative bias.
      Citation: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations
      PubDate: 2021-01-09T10:06:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1368430220979035
       
  • A threat in the network: STEM women in less powerful network positions
           avoid integrating stereotypically feminine peers
    • Authors: Hilary B. Bergsieker, Matthew O. Wilmot, Emily N. Cyr, Charnel B. Grey
      Pages: 321 - 349
      Abstract: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, Volume 24, Issue 3, Page 321-349, April 2021.
      Integrating social identity threat and structural hole theories, this work examines how social network positions affect group-based identity threats. For individuals less well positioned to bridge (or “broker”) relations between unconnected friends, stigma-by-association concerns may constrain affiliation with stereotypic targets. Three experiments (Ns = 280, 232, 553) test whether women (vs. men) in male-dominated STEM (vs. female-dominated) majors avoid befriending a female target with feminine-stereotypic (vs. STEM-stereotypic) interests. Only STEM women with less brokerage (i.e., less ability to manage introductions to unconnected friends) in their existing friendship networks avoided befriending (pilot experiment) and socially integrating (Experiments 1 and 2) feminine- (vs. STEM-) stereotypic targets, despite standardized target similarity and competence. STEM women in particular anticipated steeper reputational penalties for befriending stereotypically feminine peers (Experiment 2). Social identity threat may lead women in STEM—especially those lacking brokerage—to exclude stereotypically feminine women from social networks, reinforcing stereotypes of women and STEM fields.
      Citation: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations
      PubDate: 2020-01-03T01:54:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1368430219888274
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • Everyone should get the same, but we should get more: Group entitlement
           and intergroup moral double standard
    • Authors: Kinneret Endevelt, Noa Schori-Eyal, Eran Halperin
      Pages: 350 - 370
      Abstract: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, Volume 24, Issue 3, Page 350-370, April 2021.
      Double standard—that is, employing a separate set of norms according to the actor’s and observer’s identity—is common in various contexts, but has not been given much empirical attention in the context of violent conflicts. We introduce group entitlement as a predictor of moral double standard in intergroup conflict. Three studies were conducted to test our research hypothesis. In Study 1, (Jewish Israelis) group entitlement predicted more lenient punishment for ingroup transgressors compared with unspecified outgroup transgressors. In Study 2, (Jewish Israelis) group entitlement predicted lower support for basic human rights for outgroup members compared with ingroup members. Study 3 replicated the results of Study 2 in the context of White Americans and African Americans, and showed that when presented with false feedback indicating substantial double standard among White Americans, high-group-entitlement participants experienced lower levels of moral emotions regarding the purported gap and were less willing to amend their responses compared with low-group-entitlement respondents. Implications of group entitlement in various contexts, its relation to existing constructs, and potential implications are discussed.
      Citation: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations
      PubDate: 2020-02-28T09:16:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1368430219896618
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • Basking in detected vice: Outgroup immorality enhances self-view
    • Authors: Simona Sacchi, Marco Brambilla, Verena Graupmann
      Pages: 371 - 387
      Abstract: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, Volume 24, Issue 3, Page 371-387, April 2021.
      In the last decade, a growing body of research has revealed that morality is the most important driver of impression formation. As such, social targets lacking morality are disliked and kept at distance, while moral targets are liked and respected. Here, we investigated whether social targets lacking morality elicit positive reactions in the observer. Study 1 revealed that participants reported an enhanced self-view when confronted with an immoral (vs. moral) behavior performed by a political opponent. Study 2 revealed the key role of morality in this process, as differential perceptions of the target’s incompetence had no comparable effect on the observer self-view. Importantly, such results emerged when participants were highly identified with their ingroup. Taken together, these findings suggest that outgroup immorality can elicit positive self-related responses in the observer. Results are discussed in terms of their theoretical and practical implications for social judgment and intergroup relations.
      Citation: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations
      PubDate: 2020-01-30T07:31:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1368430219895320
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • The last acceptable prejudice in Europe' Anti-Gypsyism as the obstacle
           to Roma inclusion
    • Authors: Anna Kende, Márton Hadarics, Sára Bigazzi, Mihaela Boza, Jonas R. Kunst, Nóra Anna Lantos, Barbara Lášticová, Anca Minescu, Monica Pivetti, Ana Urbiola
      Pages: 388 - 410
      Abstract: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, Volume 24, Issue 3, Page 388-410, April 2021.
      National and European policies aim to facilitate the integration of Roma people into mainstream society. Yet, Europe’s largest ethnic group continues to be severely discriminated. Although prejudice has been identified to be at the core of this failure, social psychological research on anti-Gypsyism remains scarce. We conducted a study in six countries using student and community samples (N = 2,089; Hungary, Romania, Slovakia, Norway, Italy, Spain) to understand how anti-Gypsyism among majority-group members predicts unfavorable acculturation preferences toward Roma people. Openly negative stereotypes predicted acculturation preferences strongly across the countries. However, stereotypes about the Roma receiving undeserved benefits were also relevant to some degree in East-Central Europe, implying that intergroup relations are framed there as realistic conflict. Stereotypes about traditional Roma culture did not play a central role in acculturation preferences. Our findings highlighted that anti-Gypsyism may be an impediment to integration efforts, and efforts should be context-specific rather than pan-national.
      Citation: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations
      PubDate: 2020-05-01T11:18:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1368430220907701
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • How intergroup social connections shape immigrants’ responses to
           social exclusion
    • Authors: Marco Marinucci, Paolo Riva
      Pages: 411 - 435
      Abstract: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, Volume 24, Issue 3, Page 411-435, April 2021.
      K. D. Williams (2009) theorized that chronic social exclusion would inescapably lead to a detrimental stage of resignation, characterized by depression, alienation, unworthiness, and helplessness. However, few studies empirically addressed this assumption. Considering immigrants as a population at risk of persistent exclusion, we investigated how social connections with the native-born majority and other immigrant minorities moderate the exclusion–resignation link. In Study 1 (N = 112 asylum seekers), participants mainly connected with other immigrants showed a significant association between chronic exclusion and resignation. Crucially, this link vanished for people with social connections mainly composed of native people. In Study 2, we replicated and extended these results running secondary analyses on a data set of 2,206 immigrants (CILS4EU). This work, suggesting that the exclusion–resignation link can be moderated by social factors, highlighted the relevance of immigrants’ connections with the native majority for counteracting the risk of segregation when tackling the social issue of immigrants’ everyday exclusion.
      Citation: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations
      PubDate: 2020-01-22T11:17:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1368430219894620
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • Seeing and treating the out-group like family: Transference effects in an
           ethnic context
    • Authors: Lukas J. Wolf, Johan Karremans, Gregory R. Maio
      Pages: 436 - 452
      Abstract: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, Volume 24, Issue 3, Page 436-452, April 2021.
      Transference effects occur when our impressions are guided by our mental representations of significant others. For instance, if a target resembles an individual’s significant other, then that person’s feelings toward their significant other will be transferred onto the target. The present research examines whether transference effects emerge even when the target belongs to an ethnic out-group. In two experiments, participants received descriptions of in-group and out-group targets who partly resembled their own (or another’s) positive significant other. The findings showed that resemblance to one’s own significant other improves attitudes and behavior toward both in-group and ethnic out-group targets, as found across 2 nations and 3 different ethnic out-groups. The present research hence provides evidence of robust transference effects across ethnic group boundaries.
      Citation: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations
      PubDate: 2020-02-04T10:38:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1368430219897117
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • Racial minorities’ attitudes toward interracial couples: An
           intersection of race and gender
    • Authors: Roxie Chuang, Clara Wilkins, Mingxuan Tan, Caroline Mead
      Pages: 453 - 467
      Abstract: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, Volume 24, Issue 3, Page 453-467, April 2021.
      Four studies examined racial minorities’ attitudes toward interracial couples. Overall, Asian and Black Americans indicated lower warmth towards interracial than same-race couples. We hypothesized that perceived competition for same-race partners would predict attitudes toward particular pairings. Consistent with predictions, attitudes towards interracial couples varied based on the societal prevalence of particular types of couples. Black American women (but not men) indicated more negative attitudes toward the more common Black male–White female pairing than toward White male–Black female couples. Asian American men (but not women) reported more negative attitudes toward White male–Asian female couples than toward Asian male–White female couples. Furthermore, perceived competition with White men predicted Asian American men’s attitudes toward White male–Asian female couples. Perceived competition with White women drove Black women’s attitudes toward Black male–White female couples. This research highlights the importance of adopting an intersectional approach (examining both race and gender) to understand attitudes toward interracial couples.
      Citation: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations
      PubDate: 2020-03-02T04:43:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1368430219899482
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • Antiprejudice norms and ethnic attitudes in preadolescents: A matter of
           stimulating the “right reasons”
    • Authors: Maria Jargon, Jochem Thijs
      Pages: 468 - 487
      Abstract: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, Volume 24, Issue 3, Page 468-487, April 2021.
      The present study examined the effects of antiprejudice norms on children’s ethnic attitudes by taking their antiprejudice motivations into account. In a sample of 767 native Dutch preadolescents we found evidence for both an internal and an external motivation to be nonprejudiced which were, respectively, positively versus negatively related to children’s out-group attitudes. Overall, children’s norm perceptions were linked to more positive ethnic attitudes, and this relation was partly explained by their internal antiprejudice motivation. Some normative aspects were found be less effective (moral rule to be nice and honest) than others (equality message) by stimulating an external motivation rather than undermining it and stimulating an internal one. Distinguishing between different normative sources further showed that parents and peers were more influential than teachers. Our findings underline the importance of including motivations in research on norms and out-group attitudes.
      Citation: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations
      PubDate: 2020-03-23T11:05:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1368430220902535
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • Little “we’s”: How common identities improve behavior differently
           for ethnic majority and minority children
    • Authors: Rita Guerra, Sven Waldzus, Diniz Lopes, Maria Popa-Roch, Beatriz Lloret, Samuel L. Gaertner
      Pages: 488 - 510
      Abstract: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, Volume 24, Issue 3, Page 488-510, April 2021.
      This field experiment tested whether inducing common inclusive representations (i.e., one group, dual identity) during contact influences intergroup relations differently for ethnic majority and minority children by changing their metaperceptions and intergroup emotions differently. White (N = 113) and Black (N = 111) 8- to 10-year-old children were exposed to interactive mixed-ethnicity sessions in schools emphasizing either categorization as one group (national group), dual identity (national group with ethnic subgroups), or two ethnic groups. Overall, as predicted, for White children, one-group, but not dual-identity perceptions, improved behavioral intentions by influencing metaperceptions. For Black children, dual-identity, but not one-group, perceptions improved behavioral intentions through metaperceptions. Contrary to the expected, both dual-identity and one-group perceptions were associated with White and Black children’s intergroup emotions.
      Citation: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations
      PubDate: 2020-04-04T05:44:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1368430220902533
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 3 (2020)
       
  • We are “the Resistance”: Predictors and consequences of
           self-categorization into the emerging movement to oppose Trump
    • Authors: Samuel Hansen Freel, Rezarta Bilali, Erin Brooke Godfrey
      Abstract: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, Ahead of Print.
      In a three-wave longitudinal study conducted in the first 100 days of Trump’s presidency, this paper examines how people come to self-categorize into the emerging social movement “the Resistance,” and how self-categorization into this movement influences future participation in collective action and perceptions of the movement’s efficacy. Conventional collective action (e.g., protest, lobby legislators)—but not persuasive collective action (e.g., posting on social media)—and perceived identity consolidation efficacy of the movement at Wave 1 predicted a higher likelihood of self-categorization into the movement 1 month later (Wave 2) and 2 months later (Wave 3). Self-categorization into the Resistance predicted two types of higher subsequent movement efficacy perceptions, and helped sustain the effects of conventional collective action and movement efficacy beliefs at Wave 1 on efficacy beliefs at Wave 3. Implications for theory and future research on emerging social movements are discussed.
      Citation: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations
      PubDate: 2020-12-31T06:56:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1368430220974758
       
  • The “ironic” fair process effect: A perceived fair naturalization
           procedure spurs anti-immigration attitudes through increased host national
           identification among naturalized citizens
    • Authors: Kim Dierckx, Emanuele Politi, Barbara Valcke, Jasper van Assche, Alain Van Hiel
      Abstract: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, Ahead of Print.
      A growing body of research has shown that naturalized citizens’ attitudes towards immigration worsen following citizenship acquisition. Accordingly, these socially mobile individuals tend to distance themselves from their former immigrant ingroup. The present contribution explains such self–group distancing coping strategy in terms of an “ironic” procedural fairness effect. Study 1 (N = 566), a survey conducted among naturalized Swiss citizens, showed that fairness perceptions with respect to the naturalization process were indeed associated with stronger anti-immigration attitudes, and that this relationship was mediated by identification with the host nation. Next, two experiments were conducted to demonstrate the causality of the hypothesized mediation model. In Study 2 (Experiment 1; N = 248), fairness of the admission procedure (accurate vs. inaccurate) increased identification with a desirable group. In Study 3 (Experiment 2; N = 141), administration of a national identity prime evoked stronger anti-immigration attitudes. Taken together, our findings highlight a somewhat “dark side” of procedural fairness.
      Citation: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations
      PubDate: 2020-12-26T06:25:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1368430220975480
       
  • The impact of fleeting exposure to female exemplars of success in STEM
    • Authors: Megan K. McCarty, Janice R. Kelly, Kipling D. Williams
      Abstract: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, Ahead of Print.
      Two studies tested the impact of subtle cues that associate masculinity with science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) success on women’s STEM experiences. Study 1 was a field study conducted in a university campus engineering building where photos of graduating classes were displayed. In Study 2, STEM majors viewed a mock website that depicted either exclusively male or mixed-gender STEM students. Across both studies, women reported greater fundamental need threat—a composite of threats to belonging, self-esteem, control, and meaningful existence—after viewing photos of exclusively male STEM students than did men. This gender effect disappeared when photos included female STEM students. Direct effects of gender and photo condition on career intentions were not observed, but indirect effects were obtained through need threat. Thus, because fleeting exposure to subtle background images associating STEM success with masculinity can negatively impact women’s fundamental needs, cues in academic environments should be carefully considered.
      Citation: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations
      PubDate: 2020-12-26T06:23:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1368430220975475
       
  • An ally you say' Endorsing White women as allies to encourage
           perceptions of allyship and organizational identity-safety among Black
           women
    • Authors: India R. Johnson, Evava S. Pietri
      Abstract: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, Ahead of Print.
      Black women often question their belonging in organizational environments, and exposure to an allyship cue, such as a White woman endorsed as an ally, may help mitigate such concerns. We examine whether ally endorsement can help a White female employee cue allyship, and in turn, serve as an effective organizational identity-safety cue for Black women high in stigma consciousness. We found that, relative to viewing a White female employee, Black women that viewed a White female employee endorsed as an ally reported greater perceptions of allyship, which had important downstream consequences for organizational identity-safety. Specifically, perceptions of allyship predicted greater anticipated trust and belonging within the organization among participants both high (Experiments 1 and 2) and low (Experiment 2) in stigma consciousness. The present studies demonstrate that ally endorsement effectively cues allyship, and in turn, signals organizational identity-safety for Black women across varying levels of stigma consciousness.
      Citation: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations
      PubDate: 2020-12-23T09:27:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1368430220975482
       
  • Feeling correct is feeling prejudiced: The differential effects of
           attitude correctness and attitude clarity on evaluations of outgroups
    • Authors: Zachary C. Roth, Kimberly Rios
      Abstract: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, Ahead of Print.
      Global attitude certainty consists of two subconstructs: attitude clarity—certainty that one is aware of one’s true attitudes—and attitude correctness, certainty that one’s attitudes are morally correct and valid. Attitude correctness is more often associated with group-related psychological and behavioral outcomes than attitude clarity. As such, we expected that attitude correctness, but not attitude clarity, would be associated with more negative attitudes toward outgroups when group boundaries are defined by attitudes. Across four studies, greater attitude correctness related to more negative attitudes toward attitudinal outgroups regardless of context (e.g., political, religious); attitude clarity’s relationship to prejudice was inconsistent (Studies 1a and 2: positive or no relationship; Study 3: negative; Studies 1b and 4: no relationship). In Studies 2 and 3, mediational analyses showed that greater attitude correctness was associated with stronger beliefs that group boundaries are sharp and distinct (i.e., discreteness beliefs), which in turn was associated with greater prejudice. Finally, Study 4 demonstrated that the attitude correctness–prejudice link was associated with greater intention to engage in competitive behaviors in a conflict resolution scenario with an outgroup member.
      Citation: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations
      PubDate: 2020-12-15T08:51:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1368430220972756
       
  • “Historia est magistra vitae”' The impact of historical victimhood
           on current conspiracy beliefs
    • Authors: Myrto Pantazi, Theofilos Gkinopoulos, Marta Witkowska, Olivier Klein, Michal Bilewicz
      Abstract: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, Ahead of Print.
      Conspiracy beliefs constitute a propensity to attribute major events to powerful agents acting against less powerful “victims”. In this article we test whether collective victimhood facilitates conspiracy thinking. Study 1 showed that perceived group victimhood is associated with generic and group-specific conspiracy beliefs, but only for individuals who identify highly with their ingroup. Study 2 employed an experimental design to show that experimentally increased group victimhood leads to increased endorsement of conspiracy beliefs among high ingroup identifiers, but decreases endorsement of conspiracy beliefs among low identifiers. This effect was mediated by lack of trust towards outgroup members. Study 3 sought to replicate Study 2 in a different socio-political context. While Study 3 did not directly support the relationship between victimhood, group identification and conspiracy beliefs, an integrated meta-analysis of all three studies provides evidence for a significant interaction of victimhood and group identification in predicting conspiracy beliefs.
      Citation: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations
      PubDate: 2020-12-11T05:32:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1368430220968898
       
  • Cultural intelligence and social distance among undergraduate students in
           clinical professions
    • Authors: Ronen Segev, Shira Mor, Ronit Even-Zahav, Efrat Neter
      Abstract: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, Ahead of Print.
      Cultural competence, also known as cultural intelligence (CQ), is considered a necessary skill in the clinical professions and for resolving intergroup conflict, yet it has not been examined within the framework of the contact hypothesis. The aim of the present research is to extend CQ theory from management to the clinical professions and examine it in a context of intergroup conflict. The present study examined CQ and social distance among entering undergraduate majority (Jewish) and minority (Arab) students in clinical study domains, hypothesizing that CQ will be negatively associated with social distance towards outgroup members and that minority students will report higher CQ than majority students. First-year students (N = 180) from diverse demographic and study domains (social work, nursing, behavioral sciences) were surveyed. The results reveal a novel negative association between CQ and outgroup social distance, and higher CQ among minority-group students. The finding that students from minority backgrounds were more receptive to intercultural exchange at the outset of their training suggests that CQ theory could be used in training and evaluation criteria of students entering clinical professional training.
      Citation: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations
      PubDate: 2020-12-10T09:45:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1368430220975476
       
  • An intergroup approach to collective narcissism: Intergroup threats and
           hostility in four European Union countries
    • Authors: Rita Guerra, Kinga Bierwiaczonek, Marina Ferreira, Agnieszka Golec de Zavala, Georgios Abakoumkin, Tim Wildschut, Constantine Sedikides
      Abstract: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, Ahead of Print.
      Although it is known that collective narcissism is associated with problematic intergroup relations, its predictors are less well understood. Two studies, conducted in four European Union countries (Germany, Greece, Portugal, the United Kingdom [UK]), tested the hypotheses that integrated (i.e., realistic and symbolic) threat (Study 1, N = 936) as well as distinctiveness threat (Study 2, N = 434) positively predict national collective narcissism and national ingroup satisfaction, but that only national collective narcissism predicts problematic intergroup relations in reference to threatening outgroups. The results were consistent with those hypotheses. The two types of threat predicted increased national collective narcissism and national ingroup satisfaction. However, only national collective narcissism was associated with negative emotions and hostile behavioral intentions toward the threatening outgroups, when its overlap with national ingroup satisfaction was partialled out. These cross-national findings advanced knowledge of predictors, as well as consequences, of collective narcissism.
      Citation: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations
      PubDate: 2020-11-26T06:24:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1368430220972178
       
  • The role of national identification in explaining political and social
           civic engagement
    • Authors: Mirjana Rupar, Maciej Sekerdej, Katarzyna Jamróz-Dolińska
      Abstract: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, Ahead of Print.
      The present research examines the relationship between distinct forms of national identification—constructive patriotism, conventional patriotism, and glorification—and both political and social engagement. Three correlational studies were conducted in Poland. In Study 1 (N = 234) and Study 2 (N = 316), using self-report measures, it was found that constructive patriotism positively predicts both forms of civic engagement. Conventional patriotism positively predicted social engagement (Studies 1 and 3). Glorification negatively predicted political engagement. Study 3 (N = 969) supported the link between these different forms of national identification and political and social engagement, using both self-report and behavioural measures of civic engagement. The findings suggest that national identification can both promote and deter civic engagement.
      Citation: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations
      PubDate: 2020-11-20T06:24:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1368430220967975
       
  • Economic inequality affects perceived normative values
    • Authors: Ángel Sánchez-Rodríguez, Rosa Rodríguez-Bailón, Guillermo B. Willis
      Abstract: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, Ahead of Print.
      The degree of economic inequality may lead to different environments where people develop motives and behaviours that lend them higher chances of survival. However, the specific features attributed to an environment with a particular level of economic inequality have received little research attention. In this research, we explored how perceived economic inequality may influence the values inferred as normative in society. Results from three studies, one correlational and two experimental, showed that perceived normative values change according to the degree of perceived economic inequality in a given context: higher levels of perceived economic inequality are related to normative self-enhancement values, whereas lower levels of perceived economic inequality are related to normative self-transcendence values. These results are discussed in terms of how information on economic inequality is used to build a general perception of the normative climate in society and, accordingly, of the values that would best guide behaviours.
      Citation: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations
      PubDate: 2020-11-17T09:57:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1368430220968141
       
  • The dangers of distrustful complacency: Low concern and low political
           trust combine to undermine compliance with governmental restrictions in
           the emerging Covid-19 pandemic
    • Authors: Fanny Lalot, Maria S. Heering, Marika Rullo, Giovanni A. Travaglino, Dominic Abrams
      Abstract: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, Ahead of Print.
      People comply with governmental restrictions for different motives, notably because they are concerned about the issue at hand or because they trust their government to enact appropriate regulations. The present study focuses on the role of concern and political trust in people’s willingness to comply with governmental restrictions during the Covid-19 pandemic. We conducted a survey amongst Italian and French participants (N = 372) in March 2020 while both countries had imposed full lockdown. Moreover, a subsample of participants reported on their actual levels of compliance one week later (N = 130). We hypothesised that either concern or trust should be sufficient to sustain participants’ willingness to comply and actual behaviour, but that the absence of both (distrustful complacency) would reduce compliance significantly. Results supported this hypothesis. We discuss implications of the interaction between concern and trust for public behaviour strategies as the pandemic progresses.
      Citation: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations
      PubDate: 2020-10-30T11:59:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1368430220967986
       
  • Intergroup contact fosters more inclusive social identities
    • Authors: Nils Karl Reimer, Shanmukh Vasant Kamble, Katharina Schmid, Miles Hewstone
      Abstract: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, Ahead of Print.
      We examined how people construct their social identities from multiple group memberships—and whether intergroup contact can reduce prejudice by fostering more inclusive social identities. South Indian participants (N = 351) from diverse caste backgrounds viewed 24 identity cards, each representing a person with whom participants shared none, one, two, or all of three group memberships (caste, religion, nationality). Participants judged each person as “us” or “not us,” showing whom they included in their ingroup, and whom they excluded. Participants tended to exclude caste and religious minorities, replicating persistent social divides. Bridging these divides, cross-group friendship was associated with more inclusive identities which, in turn, were associated with more positive relations between an advantaged, an intermediate, and a disadvantaged caste group. Negative contact was associated with less inclusive identities. Contact and identity processes, however, did not affect entrenched opposition to (or undermine support for) affirmative action in advantaged and disadvantaged groups.
      Citation: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations
      PubDate: 2020-10-23T07:34:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1368430220960795
       
  • Verification of ingroup morality promotes willingness to participate in
           collective action for immigrants’ rights
    • Authors: Alexandra Vázquez, Lucía López-Rodríguez, Ángel Gómez, Marco Brambilla
      Abstract: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, Ahead of Print.
      Three experiments tested whether verification of ingroup morality increases engagement in collective action in favor of immigrants’ rights. To that end, participants were exposed to (a) verifying, (b) negatively discrepant, (c) enhancing, or (d) no feedback about the morality of their group in general (Studies 1–2) or specifically in matters of corruption (Study 3). Results show that those who received verifying feedback of their group’s morality were more willing to engage in collective action than those who received negative or no feedback. These effects seemed to be mediated by increased anger over immigrants’ disadvantage and positive attitudes towards them. Critically, enhancing feedback exerted similar effects as verifying feedback, although the latter yielded more stable and consistent results across the studies. These results suggest that appeals to collective ingroup morality can be effective to promote immigrants’ rights, especially when members of the host society feel that others consider them as moral as they perceive themselves.
      Citation: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations
      PubDate: 2020-10-21T05:23:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1368430220963820
       
  • Direct and indirect dimensional compensation: Is there a difference
           between observers and group members'
    • Authors: Mathias Schmitz, Vincent Yzerbyt
      Abstract: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, Ahead of Print.
      Dimensional compensation takes place when perceivers judge one of two social targets higher on one of the two fundamental dimensions while judging the other target higher on the second dimension. Interestingly, the majority of studies on the dimensional compensation effect focused on direct measures, with almost no attempt to rely on more indirect measures. We tested whether dimensional compensation also takes place at a more indirect level (Brief-IAT). In Experiment 1, observers presented with unknown groups dimensionally compensated both directly and indirectly. Experiment 2 had participants assigned to one of two novel groups. Whereas low-competence group members dimensionally compensated on both direct and indirect measures, high-competence group members dimensionally compensated at the direct level but did not conceed any advantage to the low-competence group at the indirect level. As a set, our findings shed new light on direct and indirect dimensionally compensatory judgments as a function of perceivers’ vantage points as observers and group members.
      Citation: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations
      PubDate: 2020-10-21T05:23:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1368430220963176
       
  • The subtle spreading of sexist norms
    • Authors: Namkje Koudenburg, Amke Kannegieter, Tom Postmes, Yoshihisa Kashima
      Abstract: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, Ahead of Print.
      Even when overt sexism and prejudice become rarer, social norms that perpetuate inequality are remarkably persistent. The present research lays out one of the subtle ways in which sexist norms may spread through society, by pointing to the role of responses to sexism. We investigate how third parties infer social norms about sexism when observing social interactions. In three studies among male students (Studies 1 and 2) and male and female students (Study 3), we demonstrate that subtle variations in how people respond to a sexist statement can have a substantial influence on inferences third parties make about sexist norms. Specifically, when a sexist statement is made and the conversation continues in a smoothly flowing fashion, third parties infer that this opinion is shared among interaction partners, perceived as appropriate, and that sexism is normative among them. However, when a sexist statement is followed by a brief silence that disrupts the flow of the conversation, observers think that it is contentious and that sexism is neither shared nor normative. Importantly, the effects of the manipulation generalized to the perception of sexist descriptive norms among male students in general. We conclude that social and cultural norms are not just inferred from conversation content, but also from conversational flow.
      Citation: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations
      PubDate: 2020-10-21T05:21:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1368430220961838
       
  • The psychological antecedents of resistance to humanitarian aid
    • Authors: Ali Mashuri, Esther van Leeuwen, Esti Zaduqisti, Fitri Sukmawati, Halimatus Sakdiah, Ika Herani
      Abstract: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, Ahead of Print.
      Victims of natural or humanitarian disasters sometimes resist aid offered to them, resulting in slower recovery among victims, and feelings of rejection among aid offerers. We present two studies conducted in Indonesia that investigated motives for spurning offers of humanitarian aid. Both studies showed that beliefs in developed countries’ conspiracies lead participants to see humanitarian aid as guided by strategic rather than prosocial motives. Perceived strategic motives in turn enhanced aid resistance, whereas perceived prosocial motives decreased resistance. Conspiratorial beliefs and aid resistance were positively predicted by national collective narcissism (Study 1) and intergroup conflict (Study 2). Together, these findings show that humanitarian aid resistance arises from the recipients’ beliefs in malignant intentions of the providers.
      Citation: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations
      PubDate: 2020-10-21T04:39:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1368430220962179
       
  • The effect of perceived threat on human rights: A meta-analysis
    • Authors: Kevin R. Carriere, Anna Hallahan, Fathali M. Moghaddam
      Abstract: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, Ahead of Print.
      Individuals express support for civil liberties and human rights, but when threatened tend to restrict rights for both others and themselves. However, the question of whether or not rights are restricted to punish others or protect ourselves remains unclear. This meta-analysis integrates the findings of the effect of perceived threats on support for restrictions of civil liberties from 1997 to 2019. It includes 163 effect-size estimates from 46 different articles involving 91,716 participants. The presence of threat increased support for restrictions against outgroup members significantly more than ingroup members, providing a possible punitive explanation for support for restrictions of civil liberties. These findings contribute to the debate on rights and their relationship with deservingness, suggesting that we delineate those who deserve human rights and those who do not.
      Citation: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations
      PubDate: 2020-10-17T11:13:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1368430220962563
       
  • “Welcome to our neighbourhood”: Collective confidence in contact
           facilitates successful mixing in residential settings
    • Authors: Clifford Stevenson, Rhiannon Turner, Sebastiano Costa
      Abstract: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, Ahead of Print.
      Over the past decade, increasing attention has been paid to the antecedents of intergroup contact and, in particular, self-efficacy to engage in intergroup encounters. Contact self-efficacy has been shown to reduce intergroup anxiety and increase willingness to engage in future contact, and is influenced by the positive contact experiences of other group members. However, this work has neglected the collective nature of self-efficacy and, indeed, has typically counterposed the effects of contact and collective efficacy upon group behaviour. We highlight the potential role that collective efficacy can play in facilitating intergroup contact and propose a new concept to capture this phenomenon: collective confidence in contact (CCIC). Using data from two neighbourhood surveys in contrasting areas of Nottingham City, (UK), we show in our first survey (n = 124) that CCIC is predicted by group identity and that this, in turn, predicts intergroup contact and feelings. In a second survey (n = 232), we show that the effects of identity and support on CCIC are further mediated by a reduction in intergroup anxiety. We propose that the concept of CCIC returns the understanding of contact to the intergroup level, thereby allowing issues of group identity and the generalisation of contact effects to be investigated more directly.
      Citation: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations
      PubDate: 2020-10-14T05:49:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1368430220961151
       
  • Ritual, fusion, and conflict: The roots of agro-pastoral violence in rural
           Cameroon
    • Authors: Michael D. Buhrmester, David Zeitlyn, Harvey Whitehouse
      Abstract: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, Ahead of Print.
      Herder–farmer conflicts in West Africa have caused thousands of deaths in recent years. Many conflicts are triggered by localized events that rapidly spiral out of control. What leads specific interpersonal conflicts to scale up into intergroup violence' We propose that such conflicts are rooted in identity and ritual dynamics. We present evidence that participants in Mambila traditions of masquerade initiation in Cameroon report especially strong identity fusion, a visceral sense of oneness with the ingroup. Results showed that men strongly fused to their ethnic ingroup were especially willing to fight and die for it. Overall, our findings provide evidence that when ordinary conflicts develop between groups that differ sharply on ethnic and religious lines, there is grave risk that fused persons will escalate violence. Understanding these processes may inform future development of new strategies to prevent or ameliorate intergroup conflicts of this kind.
      Citation: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations
      PubDate: 2020-10-13T08:58:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1368430220959705
       
  • The perceived threat of demographic shifts depends on how you think the
           economy works
    • Authors: Krystal M. Perkins, Alexia Toskos Dils, Stephen J. Flusberg
      Abstract: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, Ahead of Print.
      Research shows that people exhibit a conservative shift in their politics when their majority group status is threatened. We reasoned that perceptions of threat posed by shifting demographics might depend on individuals’ folk economic beliefs. Across three experiments, White Americans read about projected demographic changes (“threat”) or changes in online dating (“control”) before expressing support for political policies. They also indicated whether they viewed the U.S. economy as a zero- or non-zero-sum system. Relative to controls, participants in the threat condition expressed more support for conservative policies, but only if they conceptualized the economy in zero-sum terms; those who conceptualized the economy in non-zero-sum terms actually endorsed slightly more liberal positions under “threat.” However, these effects obtained only when participants expressed their economic views before their political attitudes. This suggests folk economic beliefs shape how people respond to threats to their majority status, provided those beliefs are first made explicit.
      Citation: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations
      PubDate: 2020-09-26T10:08:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1368430220951621
       
  • Can past intergroup contact shape support for policies in a pandemic'
           Processes predicting endorsement of discriminatory Chinese restrictions
           during the COVID-19 crisis
    • Authors: Lisa Alston, Rose Meleady, Charles R. Seger
      Abstract: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, Ahead of Print.
      A survey of 340 UK residents was conducted when the COVID-19 virus first reached the UK in February 2020. We measured past experiences of positive and negative intergroup contact with Chinese people as predictors of intergroup threat and emotions in the context of the pandemic; and how these processes in turn predicted support for discriminatory policies designed to restrict the freedom of Chinese people in the UK. We tested a novel threat-matching hypothesis which draws upon models of outgroup-specific social perception to predict that the emotional processes underlying contact effects will depend on the specific threat posed by the outgroup. In the present epidemiological context, Chinese people posed a salient threat to individuals’ physical health and welfare. Accordingly, we show that whilst intergroup contact predicted both fear and anger towards the outgroup, the indirect effect of contact on support for Chinese restriction policies via fear was significantly stronger than the indirect effect via anger. Our findings provide a more nuanced understanding of how specific threat and emotions drive intergroup contact effects, and offer important insights for efforts to maintain positive intergroup relations in the face of the crisis.
      Citation: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations
      PubDate: 2020-09-26T10:06:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1368430220959710
       
  • Being the minority hurts or helps' A moderated mediation model of
           group membership, cross-cultural acceptance, and school adjustment
    • Authors: Kathy Kar-man Shum, Winnie Wai Lan Chan, Emily Wing See Tsoi, Shui-fong Lam
      Abstract: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, Ahead of Print.
      This study examined the relations between majority/minority group membership and cross-cultural acceptance, and their linkage to school adjustment. A total of 2,016 students (ethnic minority [EM]: 51%; boys: 50%) at Grades 2, 5, 8, and 11 from 15 schools in Hong Kong participated in the study. These schools were either of low (below 30%) or high EM concentrations (over 70%). EM students at low-EM-concentration schools and Chinese students at high-EM-concentration schools both belonged to the minority groups in their respective schools. Moderated mediation analyses showed that being the numerical minority in school predicted higher school engagement and more positive affect. The associations between numerical group membership and adjustment outcomes were each mediated by the intention to accept outgroup members. In other words, higher cross-cultural acceptance was found among students who were themselves the minority in school, and stronger outgroup acceptance, in turn, predicted better adjustment.
      Citation: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations
      PubDate: 2020-09-17T09:58:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1368430220952137
       
  • Assessing the evidence of perspective taking on stereotyping and negative
           evaluations: A p-curve analysis
    • Authors: Qian Huang, Wei Peng, Jazmyne V. Simmons
      Abstract: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, Ahead of Print.
      Perspective taking is conceptualized as the ability to consider or adopt the perspective of another individual who is perceived to be in need; it has shown mixed results in stereotype reduction and intergroup attitude change across many social science disciplines. The inconsistent results raise concerns about the robustness of the perspective-taking phenomenon. The present study uses p-curve analysis to examine whether evidential value existed among two sets of published experimental studies where perspective taking was operationalized in two different paradigms. Despite low statistical power, we found that both sets of studies revealed some evidential value of the effects of perspective taking. The theoretical and methodological implications of perspective-taking studies are discussed as well.
      Citation: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations
      PubDate: 2020-09-15T06:06:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1368430220957081
       
  • Stereotypes in the face of reality: Intergroup contact inconsistent with
           group stereotypes changes attitudes more than stereotype-consistent
           contact
    • Authors: Tibor Zingora, Loris Vezzali, Sylvie Graf
      Abstract: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, Ahead of Print.
      In a longitudinal two-wave study we examined the effects of positive and negative intergroup contact on outgroup attitudes in participants who perceived positive, negative, or ambivalent group stereotypes. We focused on stereotype-consistent contact, occurring when the valence of participants’ contact matches the valence of the perceived group stereotype (e.g., negative–negative), and on stereotype-inconsistent contact, occurring when the valence of contact contradicts the valence of the group stereotype (e.g., positive–negative). In relations of the Czech majority (N = 890) with two distinctly stereotyped minorities, the Roma and the Vietnamese, stereotype-inconsistent contact predicted changes in attitudes better than stereotype-consistent contact. In the case of negatively stereotyped groups, positive intergroup contact is a viable way to improve attitudes. For positively stereotyped groups, negative contact can worsen attitudes, while positive contact does not have any attitude-improving effect. Interventions aimed at improving outgroup attitudes need to be applied with caution, considering the valence of group stereotypes.
      Citation: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations
      PubDate: 2020-09-02T06:07:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1368430220946816
       
  • White parents’ racial socialization and young adults’ racial
           attitudes: Moral reasoning and motivation to respond without prejudice as
           mediators
    • Authors: Erin Pahlke, Meagan M. Patterson, Julie Milligan Hughes
      Abstract: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, Ahead of Print.
      This study examined relations between parental racial socialization messages (i.e., egalitarianism, racemute, and preparation for bias) and racial attitudes in a sample of 282 White young adults (ages 18–22) in the United States. Egalitarianism messages were positively related to warmth toward racial outgroup members, whereas preparation for bias was negatively related to warmth toward racial outgroup members. In both cases the relation between racial socialization and racial attitudes was mediated by internal motivation to respond without prejudice and fairness/reciprocity moral orientation. Contrary to our expectations, racemute socialization messages were not directly related to participants’ warmth toward racial outgroup members. However, racemute socialization predicted internal motivation to respond without prejudice and fairness/reciprocity moral orientation, which in turn predicted outgroup warmth. These findings suggest possible mechanisms by which parents’ messages about race and racism may shape youths’ racial attitudes.
      Citation: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations
      PubDate: 2020-08-20T10:22:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1368430220941065
       
  • Does classroom diversity improve intergroup relations' Short- and
           long-term effects of classroom diversity for cross-ethnic friendships and
           anti-immigrant attitudes in adolescence
    • Authors: Andrea Bohman, Marta Miklikowska
      Abstract: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, Ahead of Print.
      This study examined short- and long-term effects of ethnic classroom diversity for intergroup relations in adolescence. Using a five-year panel of Swedish majority youth (MageT1 = 13.40, MageT5 = 17.30), we found only limited direct effects of classroom diversity on anti-immigrant attitudes. However, classroom diversity increased the likelihood of cross-ethnic friendships, which in turn was associated with lower levels of anti-immigrant attitudes. Moreover, we found that the effect of classroom diversity on friendships remained also after adolescents transitioned to new schools. The findings highlight the importance of longitudinal analyses and contribute to a deeper understanding of how intergroup relations develop during adolescence. It brings new insights related to the longevity of classroom effects and to cross-ethnic friendships’ ability to mediate the diversity–attitudes relationship.
      Citation: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations
      PubDate: 2020-08-20T10:22:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1368430220941592
       
  • Self- and group-focused internalized racism, anxiety, and depression
           symptoms among African American adults: A core self-evaluation mediated
           pathway
    • Authors: Drexler James
      Abstract: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, Ahead of Print.
      Internalized racism (IR) is a form of racism that leads people to internalize stereotypes about their racial/ethnic group (i.e., group-focused IR) and/or about themselves because of their racial/ethnic group membership (i.e., self-focused IR). However, although IR is associated with poor mental health, little is known about the underlying mechanisms of these associations. To address this limitation, this research investigates the core self-evaluation (CSE; a person’s fundamental evaluations about themselves, their own abilities, and their own control) mediated pathway as one potential pathway. CSE consists of four traits: self-esteem (SE), locus of control (LoC), emotional stability (ES), and generalized self-efficacy (GSE). With a sample of 780 Black/African American adults (Mage = 37.68 years, % Female = 57.6), this study investigated the independent direct and indirect effects of group- and self-focused IR on depression and anxiety symptoms via CSE using structural equation modeling. Confirming predictions, self- and group-focused IR predicted greater anxiety and depression symptoms and lower SE and ES. However, against predictions, both forms of IR were associated with increased internal LoC and were not associated with GSE. Last, results show partial support for the CSE mediated pathway, such that SE and ES (but not LoC or GSE) mediated the relationship between both self- and group-focused IR and anxiety and depression symptoms. Results suggest that IR is indirectly related to mental health via the more affective (SE, ES) relative to motivational (LoC, GSE) components of CSE, which has implications for understanding underlying mechanisms associating IR with poor mental health among racial/ethnic minorities.
      Citation: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations
      PubDate: 2020-08-14T11:26:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1368430220942849
       
  • Conditional secondary transfer effect: The moderating role of moral
           credentials and prejudice
    • Authors: Inga Jasinskaja-Lahti, Loris Vezzali, Mona Ranta, Maria Giuseppina Pacilli, Mauro Giacomantonio, Stefano Pagliaro
      Abstract: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, Ahead of Print.
      This survey experiment examined the role of prejudice and moral licensing as two moderators of the secondary transfer effect (STE) of positive and negative intergroup contact. We collected a quota-randomized sample of 299 majority Finns (52.6% female; experimental condition: n = 118, control condition: n = 181) in order to test whether moral credentials prevent attitude generalization (from primary towards secondary outgroup), particularly among prejudiced individuals. The results showed that STEs of both positive and negative contact were prevented among more prejudiced majority group members who had the possibility to obtain moral credentials in the moral licensing task. These results point at the unstable nature of attitude generalization in STE among prejudiced individuals and at the potential of a normative moral act to intervene into the generalization of intergroup attitudes following intergroup contact. We discuss these findings in relation to the literature on moral licensing and moral reinforcement, framing them in the context of an integration of contact research and research on morality in general.
      Citation: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations
      PubDate: 2020-08-14T11:26:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1368430220940401
       
  • Cardiovascular, behavioral, and psychological responses to organizational
           prodiversity messages among racial/ethnic minorities
    • Authors: Tessa L. Dover, Brenda Major, Cheryl R. Kaiser
      Abstract: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, Ahead of Print.
      Despite the widespread assumption that prodiversity values make companies more attractive workplaces for underrepresented groups, few experiments have tested this assumption. Two experiments investigated the impact of prodiversity messages in organizational recruitment materials for racial/ethnic minorities. In Study 1 (N = 399), racial/ethnic minority MTurk workers imagined applying for a position at a prodiversity (vs. neutral) company, then imagined receiving acceptance or rejection feedback. In Study 2 (N = 179), Latino men engaged in a realistic hiring simulation while cardiovascular and behavioral responses were recorded. They then received acceptance or rejection feedback. Both experiments found that the presence (vs. absence) of prodiversity messages had no significant effect on anticipated belonging, anticipated fairness, or concerns about discrimination at the company. Study 2 also found that the presence (vs. absence) of prodiversity messages had no effect on interview performance or on cardiovascular responses during the interview. Moreover, following feedback, the presence (vs. absence) of prodiversity messages led participants to attribute their feedback more to illegitimate factors, and to rate themselves as less competent/deserving. Implications for organizations and minority job candidates are discussed.
      Citation: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations
      PubDate: 2020-08-14T11:25:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1368430220944222
       
  • A four-dimensional model of Asian American stereotypes
    • Authors: Wen Bu, Eugene Borgida
      Abstract: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, Ahead of Print.
      The content of the Asian American model minority stereotype is important for understanding how Asian American individuals are perceived. Existing theories about stereotype content may not capture the unique historical and cultural context that could affect perceptions of Asian American individuals. We have identified a more differentiated underlying structure with four dimensions—warmth, competence, self-centeredness, and submissiveness—that differ in their rated typicality and desirability for Asian and White Americans. We then developed the 16-item Asian American Stereotypes Scale to measure perceptions of Asian Americans on these four dimensions. Ratings on the different dimensions predict unique variance in attitudes toward Asian Americans and other minority groups, contact with Asians or Asian Americans, perceptions of size of the Asian American population, and system justification. The four-dimensional model and the Asian American Stereotypes Scale allow us to predict and examine the unique impacts of Asian American stereotypes in a way that differs from more general models.
      Citation: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations
      PubDate: 2020-08-13T09:44:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1368430220936360
       
  • How to be “groupy” matters: Groups with shared traits and shared goals
           engender distinct patterns of social judgments
    • Authors: Jianning Dang, Li Liu
      Abstract: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, Ahead of Print.
      By bringing in the Big-Two model of social perception, the present research extended previous literature regarding how people perceive homogeneous and cohesive groups from the process level to the content level. We compared the effects of intragroup similarity and interaction on warmth and competence judgments about groups. The similarity or interaction (high or low) of the novel groups (Study 1) and an international group (Study 2) was manipulated by descriptions. Participants were asked to rate the target groups on warmth- and competence-related traits. Consistent with our hypotheses, similarity polarized both warmth and competence judgments, whereas interaction polarized warmth judgments but enhanced competence judgments. The current research not only advances group perception research but also provides practical implications for improving group image and intergroup relations.
      Citation: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations
      PubDate: 2020-08-06T05:56:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1368430220942294
       
  • Evidence of a dynamic association between intergroup contact and
           intercultural competence
    • Authors: Rose Meleady, Charles Seger, Marieke Vermue
      Abstract: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, Ahead of Print.
      Three studies explored the association between intergroup contact and intercultural competence. Study 1 and Study 2 provided evidence of a cross-sectional association between intergroup contact and intercultural competence in which positive contact was associated with increased intercultural competence and negative contact was associated with reductions in this outcome. In Study 3, longitudinal data allowed us to test the possibility of mutual influence between these variables whereby intercultural competence is not only a consequence of intergroup contact but is also predictive of the quality of future intergroup contact. Results showed that positive contact was longitudinally associated with improvements in intercultural competence, and that higher intercultural competence was associated with a reduction in future negative contact. Findings speak to the importance of taking a dynamic outlook on contact effects. The beneficial consequences of positive contact may be the same variables capable of transforming future contact encounters and reducing the likelihood of negative interactions.
      Citation: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations
      PubDate: 2020-08-06T05:55:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1368430220940400
       
  • Prejudice toward Christians and atheists among members of nonreligious
           groups: Attitudes, behaviors, and mechanisms
    • Authors: Patty Van Cappellen, Jordan P. LaBouff
      Abstract: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, Ahead of Print.
      Much research demonstrates that people high in religiosity tend to be prejudiced against value-threatening groups. Therefore, some researchers have suggested that people who are not religious may be less prejudiced. Are nonreligious people characterized by general tolerance' If not, what are the bases of their prejudices' This research investigated prejudice toward Christians and atheists among people who identify as nonreligious (atheist, agnostic, and spiritual-but-not-religious), documented this prejudice in the form of exclusion behaviors (Study 1) and self-report of affect and social distance (Studies 2–3), and explored potential mechanisms of nonreligious prejudice toward Christians: individual differences in belief style and biases against Christians (Studies 2–3). Results showed the nonreligious are not generally tolerant and that differences among these groups in belief superiority, feelings of distrust, and fear of contamination by unpalatable ideas all explained differences in prejudice toward Christians. These findings help provide a more comprehensive picture of religious intergroup prejudice.
      Citation: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations
      PubDate: 2020-08-06T05:55:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1368430220906860
       
  • Dual cues: Women of color anticipate both gender and racial bias in the
           face of a single identity cue
    • Authors: Kimberly E. Chaney, Diana T. Sanchez, Jessica D. Remedios
      Abstract: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, Ahead of Print.
      Integrating past research on women of color, stigma transfers, and generalized prejudice, the present research examined the extent to which threats and safety cues to one identity dimension (e.g., gender) results in threat or safety to women of color’s other stigmatized identity dimension (e.g., race). Across three experimental studies (Total N = 638), the present research found support for a dual cue hypothesis, such that Black and Latina women anticipated gender bias from a racial identity threat (Studies 1 and 2) and anticipated racial bias from a gender identity threat (Study 2) resulting in greater overall anticipated bias compared to White women (Study 3). Moreover, Black and Latina women anticipated racial identity safety from a gender identity safety cue (Study 3) supporting a dual safety hypothesis. These studies add to work on double jeopardy by extending a dual threat framework to anticipation of discrimination and highlighting the transferability of threat and safety cues for women of color.
      Citation: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations
      PubDate: 2020-08-06T05:55:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1368430220942844
       
  • Shared social identity transforms social relations in imaginary crowds
    • Authors: Fergus G. Neville, David Novelli, John Drury, Stephen D. Reicher
      Abstract: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, Ahead of Print.
      In this paper we present three studies that address the difference between physical and psychological groups, the conditions that create a transformation from the one into the other, and the psychological processes underlying this transformation. In Study 1 we demonstrate correlations between shared social identity, desired physical proximity to others, and positive emotions in the company of others. Study 2, employing a between-subjects design, finds that an event that creates shared fate, such as the breakdown of a train, leads to greater comfort in social interactions (e.g., ease of conversation) and comfort in sensual interactions (e.g., tolerance of physical touch) with other passengers, and that this occurs through an increase in shared social identity but not through social identification. Study 3 obtains similar findings using a within-subjects design. In combination, these studies provide consistent evidence for the role of shared social identity in the emergence of psychological groups from physical groups.
      Citation: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations
      PubDate: 2020-08-06T05:55:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1368430220936759
       
  • Does perceived normativity of intergenerational contact enhance the
           effects of imagined intergenerational contact'
    • Authors: Craig Fowler, Jake Harwood
      Abstract: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, Ahead of Print.
      Two experiments investigated effects of imagined intergroup contact (IIC) on young adults’ stereotypical perceptions of and intention to communicate with older adults. Both studies tested a third-person variant of IIC (extended IIC). Also, Study 1 explicitly manipulated the perceived normativity of intergenerational contact by providing relevant information, and Study 2 implicitly manipulated perceived normativity via task repetition. In Study 1, IIC (including extended IIC) had few effects. However, the explicit norms manipulation changed perceptions of norms, which improved perceptions of older adults and increased desire for future intergenerational communication. In Study 2, some forms of IIC reduced intergenerational anxiety, which translated into more positive intergenerational perceptions. Moreover, repeated IIC had positive effects on intergenerational perceptions that were mediated by perceptions of norms and that persisted for a week. We advocate more attention to the effect of IIC on norms, and to the conditions under which IIC works (and does not).
      Citation: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations
      PubDate: 2020-07-29T08:04:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1368430220934548
       
  • Promoting reconciliation in separatist conflict: The effect of morality
           framing
    • Authors: Ali Mashuri, Esther van Leeuwen
      Abstract: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, Ahead of Print.
      In separatist conflict, the majority group and the separatist group alternate in their roles as victim and perpetrator. We examined how framing prior ingroup wrongdoings in terms of violations of moral ideals or violations of moral obligations affects the majority’s willingness to reconcile with the separatist group. We conducted a field experiment (N = 208) in the Republic of Indonesia, where separatist conflict is rife. As expected, among members of the majority who were high in national identification, a moral ideals violation frame produced stronger positive intergroup orientations (e.g., perspective-taking, intergroup trust) and collective emotions of guilt and shame, whereas a moral obligations violation frame produced stronger positive intergroup orientations and collective emotions among low identifiers. In turn, positive intergroup orientations and collective emotions promoted reconciliatory attitudes (e.g., willingness to apologise, support for intergroup cooperation). These findings suggest that policymakers can gain a better insight into the effect of framing ingroup wrongdoings as violations of either moral ideals or moral obligations when taking national identification into account.
      Citation: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations
      PubDate: 2020-07-24T11:22:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1368430220934856
       
  • Affective generalization from intergroup contact: Associations between
           contact-related and outgroup-related empathy, anxiety, and trust
    • Authors: Giulia Fuochi, Alberto Voci, Jessica Boin, Miles Hewstone
      Abstract: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, Ahead of Print.
      This paper studied affective generalization from intergroup contact, namely when and how affective empathy, anxiety, and trust-related feelings towards specific outgroup members (contact-related affective variables) generalize to the whole outgroup (outgroup-related affective variables). We analysed affective generalization using multilevel models, with items of each affective variable nested within the individual, to avoid aggregation bias due to averaging across items, hence false positives. As hypothesized, we found strong associations, but not perfect correspondence, between contact-related and outgroup-related affective variables. Moreover, we found that category salience facilitated the affective generalization of affective empathy and trust, whereas the quantity of intimate contact facilitated the generalization of anxiety. These findings suggest that affective intergroup climate hinges upon specific contact interactions, and that it is vital to promote positive affective reactions during contact and the formation of more intimate relationships with outgroup members.
      Citation: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations
      PubDate: 2020-07-17T01:57:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1368430220932662
       
  • Interracial contact at work: Does workplace diversity reduce bias'
    • Authors: Sean Darling-Hammond, Randy T. Lee, Rodolfo Mendoza-Denton
      Abstract: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, Ahead of Print.
      Research suggests that anti-Black bias among White Americans is persistent, pervasive, and has powerful negative effects on the lives of both Black and White Americans. Research also suggests that intergroup contact in workplaces can reduce bias. We seek to address two limitations in prior research. First, the workplaces reviewed in prior studies may not be typical. Second, previously observed relationships between workplace contact and bias may stem from selection bias—namely, that White individuals who tend to work with Black individuals are systematically different from those who do not, and those systematic differences explain lower bias levels. To address these issues, we review records (N = 3,359) of White, non-Hispanic, working adults in a nationally representative survey to examine the relationship between workplace contact and racial closeness bias after adjusting for an exhaustive set of potential confounders. Using propensity score matching, we compare individuals who work with Black individuals with their “virtual twins”—individuals who have the same propensity of working with Black individuals but do not. We estimate that having a Black coworker causes a statistically significant reduction in racial closeness bias for White, non-Hispanic adults.
      Citation: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations
      PubDate: 2020-07-03T07:28:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1368430220932636
       
  • The Olympic paradox: The Olympics and intergroup biases
    • Authors: Youngju Kim, Jinkyung Na
      Abstract: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, Ahead of Print.
      The Olympics aim to promote peace and unity across the globe through sports. Ironically, however, we predicted that the Olympics could be associated with intergroup biases because the Olympics not only activate social/national identity as a citizen, but also highlight intense competition between countries. In support of this prediction, attitudes toward outgroups were negatively associated with international sporting events like the Olympics (Studies 1–2). Moreover, both behavioral intentions (Study 3) and actual behaviors (Study 4) toward outgroups were more negative during the Olympics than before the Olympics. During the Olympics, Koreans were less willing to donate money to help migrant workers and showed a tendency to discriminate against Southeast Asian job applicants. Interestingly, the association was observed for negatively stereotyped outgroups (e.g., Southeast Asians and Chinese), but not for favorably stereotyped outgroups (e.g., Canadians).
      Citation: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations
      PubDate: 2020-06-26T12:42:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1368430220931160
       
  • Values and attitudes towards cultural diversity: Exploring alternative
           moderators of the value–attitude link
    • Authors: Lusine Grigoryan, Shalom H. Schwartz
      Abstract: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, Ahead of Print.
      We study relations of two value dimensions—self-enhancement versus self-transcendence and conservation versus openness to change—with attitudes to cultural diversity. We examine two potential moderators of the value–attitude link, the meaning and the level of cultural diversity. We operationalize the meaning as the perceived consequences of cultural diversity for attaining value-relevant goals. We hypothesize that the perceived consequences depend on a group’s status: majority versus minority and high versus low. We test these hypotheses on representative samples from 25 regions of Russia (N = 1,934). As hypothesized, the self-enhancement/self-transcendence link to attitude, though negative in all groups, was most negative in the low-status group. The conservation/openness link to attitude was negative for majority Russians, as in past research, but it was positive among minorities. Level of cultural diversity had no moderating effect. This study highlights the importance of group differences in the meaning of attitude objects for understanding attitude predictors.
      Citation: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations
      PubDate: 2020-06-18T03:47:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1368430220929077
       
  • Detecting changes between two strangers: Insight from a classic change
           blindness paradigm
    • Authors: Alexandra R. Marquis, Nicole A. Sugden, Margaret C. Moulson
      Abstract: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, Ahead of Print.
      The current study aims to investigate what factors influence whether adults detect a change between social partners in a brief interaction. In two experiments, we examined whether locale diversity, a stranger’s marginalized minority status (e.g., minority race, minority religious affiliation), and race congruence (e.g., own or other race) influenced the likelihood of being differentiated. Using a change blindness paradigm, an experimenter approached pedestrians asking for directions, then surreptitiously changed places with a confederate. After the switch, we measured whether pedestrians noticed if the person had changed. In Experiment 1, noticing rates were significantly lower for confederates belonging to a minority race compared to White confederates, but only in the more homogenous location and not in the highly diverse location. In Experiment 2, pedestrians were least likely to detect a change when confederates belonged to a religious minority and a racial minority. We discuss the important implications for prejudicial behaviour and eyewitness identification, as well as the utility of performing psychological research outside of the lab.
      Citation: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations
      PubDate: 2020-06-17T12:02:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1368430220929402
       
  • Women’s perceived contributions to diversity: The impact of target race
           and contextual gender salience
    • Authors: Danielle M. Geerling, Jacqueline M. Chen
      Abstract: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, Ahead of Print.
      Diversity is a desired attribute for many organizations. Yet, there is limited scientific understanding of what leads people to perceive diversity, and past studies focus on racial diversity to the exclusion of other social identities. We investigated how an individual’s race and gender conjointly impact their perceived contributions to organizational diversity and whether context-driven gender salience affects these judgments. Study 1 established that, in the absence of an organizational context, women of color are considered to contribute more to diversity than men of color, White women, and White men. In Studies 2A–2C, we manipulated an organization’s demographic composition and found that female representation affected White women’s perceived contributions to diversity more than Black women’s perceived contributions to diversity. Similarly, in Study 3, we found that an organization’s history of gender discrimination increased White women’s, but not Black women’s, perceived contributions to diversity. This research has implications for diversity-related hiring decisions.
      Citation: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations
      PubDate: 2020-06-17T12:01:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1368430220930077
       
  • Crossing back over the Rubicon: Collectivistic value orientation and
           independent self-concept jointly promote effective goal revision in task
           groups
    • Authors: Hoon-Seok Choi, Sun Young Kim
      Abstract: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, Ahead of Print.
      When the ultimate goal of the group is found to be unattainable via the chosen means (i.e., a subgoal), effective goal management requires group members to disengage from that failing subgoal and reengage with a feasible alternative. The present study investigated the combined role of group members’ value orientation and their self-concept in collective goal revision in task groups. In a laboratory experiment involving 55 three-person groups, we induced either a collectivistic or individualistic value orientation and made salient either an independent or interdependent self-concept. As expected, groups that combined a collectivistic value orientation and an independent self-concept were less likely to be entrapped in a failing subgoal and more likely to reengage with the ultimate group goal via an available alternative. Also as expected, this effect was mediated by the degree of goal-related reflection among the members during group interaction. Implications of these findings and directions for future research are discussed.
      Citation: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations
      PubDate: 2020-06-15T11:53:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1368430220928123
       
  • Lay theory of generalized prejudice moderates cardiovascular stress
           responses to racism for White women
    • Authors: Kimberly E. Chaney, Diana T. Sanchez, Mary S. Himmelstein, Sara K. Manuel
      Abstract: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, Ahead of Print.
      Research on stigma by prejudice transfer has demonstrated that White women anticipate sexism when interacting with a racist individual due to a belief that prejudices stem from an underlying ideology of group inequality. The present research proposes that individuals’ lay theory of generalized prejudice (LTGP) varies across individuals and examines cardiovascular stress responses (high frequency heart rate variability [HF-HRV] and preejection period [PEP]). White women who held a lay theory of generalized prejudice and were evaluated by a White man with negative attitudes towards Black Americans demonstrated greater cardiovascular reactivity (decreases in parasympathetic activity [Studies 1 and 2] and shortened PEP [Study 2] from baseline to evaluation) than White women being evaluated by a neutral evaluator or who did not hold a lay theory of generalized prejudice. The present studies are the first to demonstrate cardiovascular stress responses to stigma by prejudice transfer and to highlight LTGP as a key individual difference in stigma by prejudice transfer.
      Citation: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations
      PubDate: 2020-06-11T05:55:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1368430220929078
       
  • Are we really better together' A bottom-up aggregation of communal
           orientation and its effect on interdependent decision-making
    • Authors: Bret Sanner, Hassan Ziauddin, Eileen Chou
      Abstract: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, Ahead of Print.
      Though communal orientation impacts how people interact, and members’ interactions influence interdependent decision-making, communal orientation’s impact on interdependent decision-making has received little attention. We address this by applying interdependence theory to take a bottom-up approach across three studies. We find that individuals who are higher on communal orientation are less likely to use prohibitive voice. We also show that dyadic communal orientation harms interdependent decision performance by lowering the amount of prohibitive voice used. At the team level, we find that team communal orientation is negatively related to interdependent decision performance unless the team is also high on relationship orientation diversity, which has a positive effect on interdependent decision performance. Combined, these studies contribute to the communal orientation literature by extending it to an important context—interdependent decision-making—and helping it be more balanced by demonstrating communal orientation’s downside.
      Citation: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations
      PubDate: 2020-06-11T05:54:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1368430220930410
       
  • Hostile and benevolent sexism: The differential roles of human supremacy
           beliefs, women’s connection to nature, and the dehumanization of women
    • Authors: Alina Salmen, Kristof Dhont
      Abstract: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, Ahead of Print.
      Scholars have long argued that sexism is partly rooted in dominance motives over animals and nature, with women being perceived as more animal-like and more closely connected to nature than men. Yet systematic research investigating these associations is currently lacking. Five studies (N = 2,409) consistently show that stronger beliefs in human supremacy over animals and nature were related to heightened hostile and benevolent sexism. Furthermore, perceiving women as more closely connected to nature than men was particularly associated with higher benevolent sexism, whereas subtle dehumanization of women was uniquely associated with higher hostile sexism. Blatant dehumanization predicted both types of sexism. Studies 3 and 4 highlight the roles of social dominance orientation and benevolent beliefs about nature underpinning these associations, while Study 5 demonstrates the implications for individuals’ acceptance of rape myths and policies restricting pregnant women’s freedom. Taken together, our findings reveal the psychological connections between gender relations and human–animal relations.
      Citation: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations
      PubDate: 2020-06-07T06:54:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1368430220920713
       
  • A way forward' The impact of interculturalism on intergroup relations
           in culturally diverse nations
    • Authors: Kumar Yogeeswaran, Maykel Verkuyten, Breanne Ealam
      Abstract: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, Ahead of Print.
      Various diversity ideologies including assimilation, colorblindness, and multiculturalism have been promoted with mixed results about their costs and benefits. In the current research, we consider the impact of a new diversity ideology, interculturalism, discussed and debated by political philosophers and policy-makers as the “way forward.” Across three experiments (N = 1230) in two ethnically diverse nations, we examined the causal impact of promoting interculturalism on intergroup relations. Data revealed that interculturalism reduced outgroup prejudice, increased willingness to engage in intergroup contact, improved implicit attitudes, and increased behavioral trust and cooperation relative to controls. Reductions in essentialist beliefs partially mediated the impact of interculturalism, highlighting one psychological mechanism underlying the benefits of interculturalism. However, interculturalism was found to be no better than multiculturalism in its impact on intergroup relations in two of three experiments. Collectively, these studies suggest that interculturalism may be a promising new diversity strategy for improving intergroup relations.
      Citation: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations
      PubDate: 2020-06-07T06:53:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1368430220918651
       
  • The contact hypothesis during the European refugee crisis: Relating
           quality and quantity of (in)direct intergroup contact to attitudes towards
           refugees
    • Authors: David De Coninck, Isabel Rodríguez-de-Dios, Leen d’Haenens
      Abstract: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, Ahead of Print.
      Research shows that direct and indirect intergroup contact reduces levels of prejudice towards immigrants. However, no research so far has explored the association of these different forms of contact with attitudes towards refugees. The present study analyses the relationship between the frequency and valence of direct intergroup contact with people with a migration background, the frequency of indirect contact with news on refugees, and the perception of realistic and symbolic threat, and attitudes towards refugees among adults in four European countries (Belgium, France, the Netherlands, Sweden). Data were collected in 2017 via online questionnaires (N = 6,000). Using structural equation modelling, findings indicate that interethnic contact is positively related to attitudes towards refugees. Moreover, valence of direct contact is found to be more important to attitude formation than its frequency. Regarding indirect contact, exposure to news on refugees and public news consumption are positively related to attitudes, while commercial news consumption is negatively related to attitudes.
      Citation: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations
      PubDate: 2020-06-07T06:53:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1368430220929394
       
  • Giving the right direction: Predictive action cues during an attentional
           task reduce prejudice
    • Authors: Roberta Capellini, Simona Sacchi
      Abstract: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, Ahead of Print.
      The current work aims to investigate if social cueing during an attentional task is likely to influence prejudice. In three studies we adopted a Posner-like task whereby participants observed an outgroup (vs ingroup) member performing a reach-to-grasp movement. The individual’s action, oriented rightward or leftward toward an object, preceded a peripheral target stimulus requiring a simple categorization response. The action direction could be congruent or incongruent with target location. Unbeknownst to the participants, the action direction predicted the target location with different validities. We measured the identification with the ingroup (i.e., Italians) and the prejudice toward the outgroup (i.e., Iraqi). Results showed that, for highly identified participants, explicit prejudice toward Arabs was lower after predictive-congruent social cues provided by an outgroup member than after predictive-incongruent cues. Thus, these findings suggest that positive experience with an outgroup member, even when subtle, might be effective in changing attitudes toward the entire social category.
      Citation: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations
      PubDate: 2020-06-07T06:49:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1368430220917217
       
  • A video intervention for every straight man: The role of preattitudes and
           emotions in vicarious-contact effects
    • Authors: Sabine Preuß, Melanie C. Steffens
      Abstract: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, Ahead of Print.
      Research has shown that vicarious contact can help to reduce prejudice. We tested the effect of a controlled, video-based vicarious-contact intervention on straight men’s (implicit and explicit) attitudes toward gay men. Findings of Experiment 1 (n = 99 German participants) failed to show direct effects but were in line with the idea that negative (situation-specific) emotions mediate the intervention effect. Experiment 2 (n = 108 U.S. participants) expanded findings: straight men with antigay preattitudes reported less negative intergroup emotions toward gay men after watching the vicarious-contact video (compared to the control condition); and less negative intergroup emotions were related to more positive attitudes toward gay men. For straight men with positive preattitudes, findings were in line with the hypothesis that positive intergroup emotions toward gay men were the relevant mediator. We discuss the moderating role of preattitudes to explain processes underlying vicarious-contact effects.
      Citation: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations
      PubDate: 2020-06-07T06:48:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1368430220910462
       
  • Explaining third-party reactions in interpersonal conflicts: A role-taking
           approach
    • Authors: Johannes Schwabe, Mario Gollwitzer
      Abstract: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, Ahead of Print.
      When people witness conflicts in their group, they can react in one of the following ways: (a) support one of the involved parties, (b) reconcile the conflict, (c) escalate the conflict, or (d) remain neutral and passive. These reactions can be conceptualized as social roles. Building on the assumption that role-taking in conflicts is intricately intertwined with the moral self-concept, the present research aims at testing three empirical hypotheses. First, taking a moral role is predicted by individual differences in the general relevance of a moral self-concept. Second, taking a moral role increases the situational moral self-concept. Third, the more relevant the general moral self-concept for an actor, the higher the situational moral self-concept increase after moral role-taking. Results from three studies using both experimental and correlational designs (N = 961) support these hypotheses.
      Citation: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations
      PubDate: 2020-06-05T08:38:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1368430220908328
       
  • Fighting death with health inequality: The role of mortality cognition and
           shifting racial demographics in policy attitudes
    • Authors: Tyler Jimenez, Peter J. Helm, Jamie Arndt
      Abstract: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, Ahead of Print.
      White Americans are predicted to soon comprise less than half of the U.S. population. Such demographic changes can affect political attitudes by threatening group status. The present studies built from this literature to examine a process in which information about such demographic shifts can also affect health policy attitudes, in part by increasing death-related thoughts, and that health inequalities may in turn buffer such cognitions. Three experiments (N = 1,651) adopted a causal chain approach to test these ideas. In Study 1, exposure to demographic changes decreased support for equitable health policies. In Study 2, the demographic manipulation increased death-thought accessibility, unless paired with information about worsening health inequalities. In Study 3, contemplation of mortality lessened both support for equitable health policies and resources allocated to health equity. Health inequalities may mitigate existential concerns raised by shifting racial demographics.
      Citation: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations
      PubDate: 2020-06-01T08:32:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1368430220920375
       
  • You’re making us all look bad: Sexism moderates women’s experience of
           collective threat and intra-gender hostility toward traditional and
           non-traditional female subtypes
    • Authors: Morgana Lizzio-Wilson, Barbara M. Masser, Matthew J. Hornsey, Aarti Iyer
      Abstract: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, Ahead of Print.
      Across two studies (Ns = 265 and 735), we investigated whether women’s endorsement of hostile (HS) and benevolent sexism (BS) moderates their experience of collective threat and subsequent hostility toward traditional and non-traditional female subtypes. As expected, HS was positively associated with intra-gender hostility toward the non-traditional subtype, and these effects were mediated by collective threat. HS was negatively associated with collective threat and hostility toward the traditional subtype, but only when the target endorsed prescriptive gender beliefs that explicitly reinforced gender inequality. BS was associated with collective threat and hostility toward the non-traditional subtype, but these effects did not emerge consistently across both studies. These results suggest that women are not a homogeneous group whose members all find the same subtypes collectively threatening. Rather, the extent to which women internalize patriarchal attitudes and stereotypes influences the behaviors they find threatening and deserving of hostility.
      Citation: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations
      PubDate: 2020-05-27T09:06:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1368430220913610
       
  • How do conflict narratives shape conflict- and peace-related outcomes
           among majority group members' The role of competitive victimhood in
           intractable conflicts
    • Authors: Özden Melis Uluğ, Brian Lickel, Bernhard Leidner, Gilad Hirschberger
      Abstract: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, Ahead of Print.
      Previous research in the Turkish–Kurdish conflict context highlighted two opposing conflict narratives: (a) a terrorism narrative and (b) an independence narrative. In this article, we argue that these narratives are relevant to protracted and asymmetrical intergroup conflict (e.g., independence struggles), and therefore have consequences for conflict- and peace-related outcomes regardless of conflict contexts. We tested this generalizability hypothesis in parallel studies in the context of Turkish–Kurdish (Study 1) and Israeli–Palestinian relations (Study 2) among majority group members (Turks and Jewish Israelis, respectively). We also investigated competitive victimhood as a potential mediating variable in the relationship between conflict narratives on the one side and support for non-violent conflict resolution, forgiveness, and support for aggressive policies on the other, in parallel studies with the two aforementioned contexts. We argue that the terrorism narrative is essentially a negation of the narrative of the other group, and the independence narrative is a consideration of that narrative; therefore, competitive victimhood would be lower/higher when the narrative of the other is acknowledged/denied. Results point to the crucial relationship between endorsing conflict narratives and conflict- and peace-related outcomes through competitive victimhood, and to the possibility that these conflict narratives may show some similarities across different conflict contexts.
      Citation: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations
      PubDate: 2020-05-16T06:34:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1368430220915771
       
  • The conflict-cooperation effect persists under intragroup payoff asymmetry
    • Authors: Maik M. P. Theelen, Robert Böhm
      Abstract: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, Ahead of Print.
      In real-world intergroup conflict, not all in-group members are equally threatened by the out-group. Yet, the impact of intragroup payoff asymmetry on the inclination to mutually cooperate during intergroup conflict and therefore to protect against out-group attacks, i.e., the “conflict-cooperation effect,” has not been investigated so far. In Study 1, we replicate previous research by using a novel experimental game paradigm, showing increased intragroup cooperation in the presence (vs. absence) of out-group threat under intragroup payoff symmetry. In Study 2, we find a conflict-cooperation effect among group members who are threatened (victims) as well as among group members who are not threatened (helpers) by the out-group. Intragroup cohesiveness, i.e., perceived closeness among in-group members, mediates the conflict-cooperation effect, particularly among selfishly-oriented individuals. Our results support the notion that intergroup conflict may have favored the evolutionary adaption of intragroup cooperation even when the in-group members were asymmetrically threatened by intergroup conflict.
      Citation: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations
      PubDate: 2020-05-14T07:21:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1368430220910795
       
  • Non-stereotype-based threat in gender-imbalanced work groups: Mismatched
           self-construal erodes self-esteem and promotes performance-avoidance goals
           
    • Authors: Heike Heidemeier, Sabine Otten, Anja S. Göritz
      Abstract: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, Ahead of Print.
      The present studies investigated whether the gender composition of a group represents a sufficient situational cue for creating a mismatch between situationally accessible and ideal self-views. A longitudinal study of 333 employees revealed that being in the numerical minority implied a mismatch with ideal self-views among those who de-emphasized independence in their chronic self-construal, whereas being in the numerical majority constituted a mismatch with ideal self-views among those who emphasized independence. Both types of employees suffered a drop in self-esteem and adopted maladaptive motivational states, namely performance-avoidance goals. The observed deleterious effect of mismatched self-construal on goal pursuit was fully mediated by a perceived lack of acceptance (low social self-esteem). We replicated these findings in a laboratory study with 268 unacquainted individuals who collaborated in small groups on a non-gender-typed group task.
      Citation: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations
      PubDate: 2020-05-14T07:18:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1368430220916551
       
  • Concealment of nonreligious identity: Exploring social identity threat
           among atheists and other nonreligious individuals
    • Authors: Cameron D. Mackey, Christopher F. Silver, Kimberly Rios, Colleen M. Cowgill, Ralph W. Hood
      Abstract: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, Ahead of Print.
      Negative attitudes toward the nonreligious persist in America. This may compel some nonreligious individuals to conceal their identity to manage feelings of social identity threat. In one correlational study and one experiment, we found evidence of social identity threat and concealment behavior among nonreligious Americans. Our first study showed that Southern nonreligious individuals reported higher levels of stigma consciousness and self-reported concealment of nonreligious identity, which in turn predicted lower likelihood of self-identifying as “atheist” in public settings than in private settings. Our second study successfully manipulated feelings of social identity threat by showing that atheists who read an article about negative stereotypes of their group subsequently exhibited higher concealment scores than did atheists who read one of two control articles. Implications for how nonreligious individuals negotiate social identity threat and future directions for nonreligion research are discussed.
      Citation: Group Processes & Intergroup Relations
      PubDate: 2020-04-17T09:56:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1368430220905661
       
 
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