Subjects -> POLITICAL SCIENCE (Total: 1097 journals)
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POLITICAL SCIENCE (898 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 5     

Showing 601 - 281 of 281 Journals sorted alphabetically
Polar Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Policy & Governance Review     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Policy and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Policy Design and Practice     Open Access  
Polis : Investigacion y Análisis Sociopolitico y Psicosocial     Open Access  
Polisemia     Open Access  
Polish Political Science Review     Open Access  
Politai     Open Access  
Politeja     Open Access  
Política     Open Access  
Política común     Open Access  
Política y Cultura     Open Access  
Política y Gobierno     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Política y sociedad     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Política, Globalidad y Ciudadanía     Open Access  
Political Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65)
Political Anthropological Research on International Social Sciences     Full-text available via subscription  
Political Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Political Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Political Insight     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Political Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Political Research Exchange     Open Access  
Political Research Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
Political Science Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Political Science Research and Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Political Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Political Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Political Theology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Políticas de la Memoria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Politics & Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Politics and Governance     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Politics and the Life Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Politics in Central Europe     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Politics, Groups, and Identities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Politics, Philosophy & Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Politics, Religion & Ideology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Politiikka     Open Access  
Politik     Open Access  
Politika : Jurnal Ilmu Politik     Open Access  
Politique et Sociétés     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Politische Vierteljahresschrift     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Politologija     Open Access  
Polity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Populism     Full-text available via subscription  
Post-Soviet Affairs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Pouvoirs     Full-text available via subscription  
Presidential Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Problems of Post-Communism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Produção Acadêmica     Open Access  
Progress in Development Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Przegląd Politologiczny     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
PS: Political Science & Politics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
PSAKU International Journal of Interdisciplinary Research     Hybrid Journal  
Public Policy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Pyramides     Open Access  
Québec français     Full-text available via subscription  
Race & Class     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Raven : A Journal of Vexillology     Hybrid Journal  
Recherches féministes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Recherches sociographiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Redescriptions : Political Thought, Conceptual History and Feminist Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Refleksje. Pismo naukowe studentów i doktorantów WNPiD UAM     Open Access  
Reflexion Politica     Open Access  
Refuge : Canada's Journal on Refugees / Revue canadienne sur les réfugiés     Open Access  
Region : Regional Studies of Russia, Eastern Europe, and Central Asia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Regional & Federal Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Regional Formation and Development Studies     Open Access  
Regional Research of Russia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Regional Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Regional Studies Journal     Open Access  
Regional Studies, Regional Science     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Regulation & Governance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
Religion and Human Rights     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Representation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Research & Politics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Resilience : International Policies, Practices and Discourses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Review of African Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Review of Environmental Economics and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Review of Evolutionary Political Economy     Hybrid Journal  
Review of Faith & International Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Review of International Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Review of International Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Review of Middle East Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Review of World Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Revista Ágora     Open Access  
Revista Agulhas Negras     Open Access  
Revista Amauta     Open Access  
Revista Ambivalências     Open Access  
Revista Aportes para la Integración Latinoamericana     Open Access  
Revista Argentina de Ciencia Política     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Ciência Política     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Brasileira de Desenvolvimento Regional     Open Access  
Revista Ciencias Humanas     Open Access  
Revista Compolítica     Open Access  
Revista de Administração IMED     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista de Ciencia Politica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista de Derecho     Open Access  
Revista de Direito Sociais e Políticas Públicas     Open Access  
Revista de Estudios Hispánicos     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Revista de Estudios Políticos     Open Access  
Revista de Estudos e Pesquisas sobre as Américas     Open Access  
Revista de Estudos Institucionais     Open Access  
Revista de Filosofía y Teoría Política     Open Access  
Revista de Humanidades     Open Access  
Revista de Investigações Constitucionais     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista de la Facultad de Derecho y Ciencias Políticas     Open Access  
Revista del CESLA     Open Access  
Revista Desenvolvimento Social     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista do CEAM     Open Access  
Revista dos Estudantes de Públicas : REP     Open Access  
Revista Economía y Política     Open Access  
Revista Educação e Políticas em Debate     Open Access  
Revista Eletrônica do Curso de Direito - PUC Minas Serro     Open Access  
Revista Epistemologias do Sul     Open Access  
Revista Española de Ciencia Política     Open Access  
Revista Espirales : Revista para a integração da América Latina e Caribe     Open Access  
Revista Finanzas y Política Económica     Open Access  
Revista Ibero-Americana de Estratégia     Open Access  
Revista Internacional de Pensamiento Político     Open Access  
Revista Internacional de Relaciones Públicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Latinoamericana de Antropología del Trabajo     Open Access  
Revista Maracanan     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Análisis Político y Administración Pública     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Politicas y Sociales     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Opinión Pública     Open Access  
Revista Neiba, Cadernos Argentina Brasil     Open Access  
Revista Nuevo Humanismo     Open Access  
Revista Orbis Latina     Open Access  
Revista Política Hoje     Open Access  
Revista Política y Estrategia     Open Access  
Revista Processus de Políticas Publicas e Desenvolvimento Social     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Psicologia Política     Open Access  
Revista Republicana     Open Access  
Revista Sinais     Open Access  
Revista Sul-Americana de Ciência Política     Open Access  
Revista SURES     Open Access  
Revista Textos Graduados     Open Access  
Revista Uruguaya de Ciencia Política     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revue Française de Civilisation Britannique     Open Access  
Revue Gouvernance     Open Access  
Revue Interventions économiques     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revue Sciences Humaines     Open Access  
Rhetoric & Public Affairs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
RIPS. Revista de Investigaciones Politicas y Sociologicas     Open Access  
Rocznik Integracji Europejskiej     Open Access  
RUDN Journal of Political Science     Open Access  
Rule of Law and Anti-Corruption Center Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Russian Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Russian Politics & Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
SAIS Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Scandinavian Political Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
School of Public Policy Publications     Open Access  
Scottish Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Scottish Journal of Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Secrecy and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Security and Defence Quarterly     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Security and Human Rights     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Security Dialogue     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Security Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Seqüência : Estudos Jurídicos e Políticos     Open Access  
Serbian Studies: Journal of the North American Society for Serbian Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
SINTESA : Jurnal Ilmu Sosial dan Ilmu Politik     Open Access  
SİYASAL / Journal of Political Sciences     Open Access  
Slovak Journal of Political Sciences     Open Access  
Small Wars & Insurgencies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 250)
Small Wars Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Social Development & Security : Journal of Scientific Papers     Open Access  
Social Identities: Journal for the Study of Race, Nation and Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Social Inclusion     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Social Movement Studies: Journal of Social, Cultural and Political Protest     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Social Philosophy Today     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Social Research : An International Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Social Science Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Social Sciences in China     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Social Service Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Socialism and Democracy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Socialist Studies / Études Socialistes     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Sociedad y Discurso     Open Access  
Society     Open Access  
Sociologie et sociétés     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Soft Power     Open Access  
Somatechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Sospol : Jurnal Sosial Politik     Open Access  
Soundings : An Interdisciplinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
South African Journal of International Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
South Asia Multidisciplinary Academic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
South East European University Review (SEEU Review)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
South European Society and Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Southeast Asian Affairs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Southeast European and Black Sea Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Southeastern Europe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Special Operations Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
SPICE : Student Perspectives on Institutions, Choices & Ethic     Open Access  
Sprawy Narodowościowe     Open Access  
Środkowoeuropejskie Studia Polityczne     Open Access  
Stability : International Journal of Security and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
State Politics & Policy Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Statistics and Public Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Stato, Chiese e pluralismo confessionale     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

  First | 1 2 3 4 5     

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
School of Public Policy Publications
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2560-8320
Published by U of Calgary Homepage  [18 journals]
  • Organizing Canadian Local Government

    • Authors: Zachary Spicer
      Abstract: Finding the right organizational structure to govern local communities is a long-standing concern amongst municipal decision-makers. Canada provides a range of local governance arrangements, including service cooperation, single-tier and two-tier models. These types of arrangements have implications for how a municipality is governed and financed. Underlying these concerns, are factors such as local identity, culture and values.
      PubDate: 2022-05-06
      DOI: 10.11575/sppp.v15i1.74147
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Canadian Agriculture: Policies and Reduction
           Measures

    • Authors: Ymène Fouli, Margot Hurlbert, Roland Kröbel
      Abstract: Despite numerous national and international climate conferences, meetings
      and workshops leading to various greenhouse gas (GHG) emission targets and agreements since the 1970s, total GHG emissions in Canada continue to increase. They reached 729 megatonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent (Mt CO2 eq) in 2018, with the Canadian agricultural sector contributing approximately 10 per cent of total GHGs emitted. Different regions of the country contribute different levels, face different challenges and have different capacities to address their GHG emissions. Designing climate guidelines, programs, policies and adopting best management practices (BMPs) that promote relevant local and regional adaptation and mitigation efforts is important. Mechanisms such as setting a carbon price, cap- and-trade systems and tax-based policies contribute to decreased GHG emissions. GHG emissions in Canada are regulated at the federal level via a national carbon pricing policy and provinces have set limitations on GHG emissions via pricing or taxation. Agriculture has the potential to mitigate GHG emissions by applying BMPs that reduce emissions and increase carbon storage in soils. Meanwhile, the pressure is increasing on the agricultural sector to increase production, both for local commodities and those destined for export, to feed a growing population. This paper explores agricultural policies and measures that encourage farmers and producers across Canada to reduce their GHG emissions. Specifically, national and provincial measures and implications are presented and compared to international measures and outcomes. Finally, recommendations are made for future climate policy research and adoption.
      PubDate: 2022-05-04
      DOI: 10.11575/sppp.v15i1.74843
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Social Policy Trends: Family Homelessness

    • Authors: Ronald Kneebone
      Abstract: It is not just adults who experience homelessness. Their children do as well. This creates challenges for providers of emergency shelter for families.
      PubDate: 2022-04-21
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Energy & Environmental Policy Trends: Why Are Power Prices So Darn
           High'

    • Authors: Blake Shaffer
      Abstract: It’s a question we keep hearing from Albertans. In this Policy Trends, we leverage new research to break down what’s behind Alberta’s rising power prices.
      PubDate: 2022-04-20
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Carbon Credit Systems in Agriculture: A Review of Literature

    • Authors: Nimanthika Lokuge, Sven Anders
      Abstract: Carbon-credit systems allow agricultural producers to earn an extra revenue through selling their surplus of carbon credits to producers who emit higher amounts of greenhouse gases (GHGs). However, agricultural carbon-credit systems are still at early stage; hence, these benefits cannot be guaranteed due to their uncertain nature and the paucity of scientific evidence about agricultural carbon credits. The objective of this study is to provide a comprehensive literature review to highlight the gaps in existing knowledge related to agricultural carbon credits/offsets. Our particular interest is on Alberta because the province indicates the highest agricultural GHG emissions from 1990 to 2019 and, therefore, developing strategies to reduce the sector’s carbon intensity without compromising its economic contribution to the provincial economy poses a challenge. Literature is evident for promising GHG-mitigation strategies such as adoption of 4R practices (the right source at the right rate, right time and right place) as a package and improved efficiency in cattle farm management. Reduced tillage has been found to be less efficient. Researchers favour the concept of regenerative agriculture, which is more likely to return better outcomes compared to tillage practices. Moreover, ranchers are willing to upgrade their farms with efficient cattle breeds to take advantage of decreased feed costs. Conversely, farmers are reluctant to participate in the Alberta Emission Offset System unless rewarded with incentives. However, carbon-credit markets are still growing; consequently, farmers may have more opportunities in the future. If the Alberta credit price continues to grow with no expected increase in transaction costs, agricultural producers would be more attracted to participate in the Alberta Emission Offset System. Moreover, endorsing farmers for carbon-crediting mechanisms by emphasizing the co-benefits and associated economic incentives is recommended, instead of prioritizing its potential financial gains. Nevertheless, due to the scarcity of published studies, it is too early to project the economic and climate-mitigative potential of carbon-offset–credit markets for Canadian farmers. Literature suggests farmers wait until the carbon market becomes more stable before making a decision. Future research and scientific evidence will be crucial to filling these gaps and to guaranteeing future protocols.
      PubDate: 2022-04-14
      DOI: 10.11575/sppp.v15i1.74591
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Reducing Transaction Costs on Infrastructure Corridor Projects in Canada

    • Authors: André Le Dressay
      Abstract: Infrastructure corridors are among the most complicated transactions in Canada. Establishing a pre-determined corridor and completing linear infrastructure projects within it requires transactions related to property rights, infrastructure planning, design, construction, financing, operation and maintenance, securing public support or social license, and because of the long overdue recognition of Indigenous rights and title, informed support from impacted Indigenous communities. This paper uses a comparative systems analysis to identify specific transaction costs in four areas – historic, infrastructure development process, fiscal and economic systems. We argue these transaction costs can be significantly reduced by systematically implementing Indigenous fiscal, infrastructure and lands jurisdictions because this will permanently ensure that Indigenous communities and people are able to receive similar fiscal and economic benefits generated from infrastructure corridor projects as those enjoyed by other Canadians and other governments.
      PubDate: 2022-03-31
      DOI: 10.11575/sppp.v15i1.73464
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Social Policy Trends: Material Deprivation and Low Income

    • Authors: Geranda Notten
      Abstract: Measures of material deprivation show that the experience of poverty may coincide with an income that is both below and above the poverty line.
      PubDate: 2022-03-24
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Social Policy Trends: Falling Fertility in Canadian Cities

    • Authors: Robert Falconer
      Abstract: Since 2009, the fertility rate in all Canadian cities has fallen below the replacement rate. Without immigration city populations will shrink, and economic growth in those cities will slow.
      PubDate: 2022-03-24
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • The Sensitivity of Food Bank Visits to Social Assistance, Housing and
           Labour Market Conditions in Toronto

    • Authors: Ronald Kneebone, Margarita Wilkins
      Abstract: We make use of monthly data describing the number of visits to food banks operated by the Daily Bread Food Bank in Toronto. We identify the extent to which food bank visits may be associated with changes to public policies, to changes in the cost of shelter and to changes in labour market conditions. Our measures of these changes are those that are relevant to individuals and families with limited incomes and limited abilities to borrow or save. We find that the number of visits to food banks is sensitive to measures of all three of these types of changes; food bank visits increase with increases in rent, with falls in the minimum wage and with reductions in the disability benefits available to people requiring social assistance.
      PubDate: 2022-03-23
      DOI: 10.11575/sppp.v15i1.73848
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Energy and Environmental Policy Trends: The accelerating pace of electric
           vehicle adoption

    • Authors: Sara Hastings-Simon
      Abstract: Sales of electric cars are taking off. In this policy trends we look at global progress in the context of a net zero target.
      PubDate: 2022-03-23
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • AN OVERVIEW AND ASSESSMENT OF KEY CONSTITUTIONAL ISSUES RELEVANT TO THE
           CANADIAN NORTHERN CORRIDOR

    • Authors: Dwight Newman
      Abstract: This report considers at a high level a number of constitutional issues associated with the development of the proposed Northern Corridor, seeking to flag areas for further examination.  It seeks to show how the Canadian Constitution offers mechanisms for such a multi-modal corridor but also poses barriers.  In some ways, the challenge the Northern Corridor seeks to overcome is the presence of too many decision-makers on each individual transportation infrastructure project.  The Canadian Constitution both offers ways past this problem and also replicates it.  The first part of the paper examines constitutional rules relating to inter-delegation between the federal and provincial governments and suggests that cooperation and inter-delegation, drawing on models of past infrastructure projects, may offer a constitutional mechanism toward development of the Northern Corridor but that they require leadership and a lot of support from different actors.  The second part considers what powers the federal government has on its own in relation to transportation infrastructure and concludes that these are very significant in the context of interprovincial/international transportation infrastructure but that unilateral federal action may still be undesirable for other reasons and that this power may just signal the role of federal leadership on the file.  The third part considers the implications of constitutionalized Indigenous rights and suggests that there will be a need for close examination of various contexts and early engagement of Indigenous peoples in a project that could be beneficial for northern Indigenous communities, with many legal complexities otherwise present, including implications from Canada’s new legislation on the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP).  A concluding section draws together key implications and suggests that the constitutional landscape calls for federal leadership but extensive engagement and cooperation with other actors, even while there remain many constitutional and legal issues that would warrant closer examination.
      PubDate: 2022-03-15
      DOI: 10.11575/sppp.v15i1.72946
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Energy and Environmental Policy Trends: Making Sense of Alberta’s Fuel
           Tax Holiday and Electricity Bill Credit

    • Authors: Jennifer Winter, Trevor Tombe
      Abstract: On March 7, 2022 — in response to rapidly rising crude oil and gas prices (and therefore utility costs) following Russia’s invasion of Ukraine and inflation at generational highs — the Government of Alberta announced it will suspend provincial fuel taxes effective April 1, 2022. In addition, it will provide a $150 credit on households’ electricity bills. What will this mean for Alberta families' Will it “reverse” the federal carbon tax, as Premier Kenney claimed when announcing the new policy'
      PubDate: 2022-03-11
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Infrastructure Policy Trends: Global Rare Earth Elements Market

    • Authors: Alaz Munzur
      Abstract: The use of REEs (rare earth elements) has become fundamental to many high- technology end-use applications including the electronics and transportation sectors, but manufacturers may face significant challenges to procuring sufficient REE supplies due to supply-chain disruptions and long project lead times for new mines. A strong policy agenda is needed if Canada is to position itself as the “global supplier of choice” for these minerals.
      PubDate: 2022-03-04
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • How Governments Could Best Engage Community Organizations to Co-Design
           COVID-19 Pandemic Policies for Persons with Disabilities

    • Authors: Ash Seth, Meaghan Edwards, Katrina Milaney, Jennifer Zwicker
      Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic and the policy measures adopted in response have disproportionately impacted persons with disabilities. Given the increased risk of COVID-19 and the resulting health impact for this vulnerable population, governments must engage stakeholders such as community organizations to co-design pandemic response plans. Collaboration with key stakeholders could assist in transforming services in crucial areas, such as health, where emergency policies are organized around the needs of persons with disabilities. Unfortunately, there is inadequate data collection and insufficient emergency preparedness planning and responses for persons with disabilities. This knowledge gap means consideration of health and social policy implications specific to the needs and experiences of persons with disabilities is lacking. This research study aimed to evaluate strategies through which decision-makers could engage stakeholders, such as community organizations, to co-design disability-inclusive policy responses during the COVID-19 outbreak in Alberta. Through interviews, the study focused on understanding the level of engagement, barriers to community organizations’ engagement and participatory policy aspects best suited for co-design. Key findings from the research highlighted the participants’ viewpoints on barriers, facilitators, preferences and other critical approaches through which decision-makers engage with community organizations. Results highlighted that top-down and tokenistic consultation approaches limit community organizations’ engagement in designing pandemic planning and response. Inaccessible ways of consultation and navigation barriers exacerbate obstacles to stakeholder engagement. Stakeholder engagement in data surveillance efforts was unclear, and the impact assessment process needs strengthening. The study results also showed that having COVID-19 disability advisory groups at the federal and provincial levels are a robust mechanism to connect communities with the government. However, the process of influencing government decision-making and policy actions needs to be openly communicated to civil society. Solutions are achievable. Political commitment, long-term investments and an accessible engagement environment would significantly improve stakeholder engagement. Governments must transition from traditional consultative methods to sustainable engagement practices while sharing how public policies reflect communities’ input. Financial investments must create an accessible consultation environment for designing participatory pandemic policies that reflect the priorities of persons with disabilities. Some key recommendations emerging from our analysis include:
      Invest financially to create an accessible consultation environment for co- designing policies.
      Consult stakeholders to develop new regulations or adjust existing ones to create inclusive pandemic response plans.
      Inform how pandemic response plans include and address community inputs and concerns in a transparent manner.
      Professionally contract stakeholders to co-design and communicate pandemic information.
      Engage with multiple stakeholders to evaluate the impact of pandemic response plans.
      PubDate: 2022-02-16
      DOI: 10.11575/sppp.v15i1.73020
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • A Proposal for a “Big Bang” Corporate Tax Reform

    • Authors: Jack Mintz
      Abstract: In the 2020 Tax Competitiveness report (Bazel and Mintz 2021), four conclusions were reached about Canada’s investment climate and corporate tax system.   
      Despite accelerated depreciation and other tax preferences introduced in recent years, the existing corporate income tax is failing to spur Canada’s investment performance, which has been virtually flat since 2015 even before the pandemic.Overall, business investment has lagged most countries even in some resource-based economies with 2015-19 investment cumulative increases being stronger in Norway (16 percent), New Zealand (14 percent) and Russia (8 percent).  As a result of weak labour productivity and per capita GDP growth in Canada, companies pay lower labour compensation. 
      Canada’s corporate tax system is attractive to encourage investment in marginal projects although it has become much more distortionary and non-neutral due to incentives, thereby undermining the productive use of resources.
      Canada has a relatively high corporate income tax rate than most countries, thereby making Canada less attractive for greenfield projects with high economic rents from intangible or resource investments.
      Some countries have benefited from significant growth in capital investment from 2015 to 2019 especially Ireland (112 percent) Hungary (40 percent) and Estonia (37 percent) with competitive corporate tax systems that are quite different than other countries.Major tax reforms have also spurred stronger investment responses from 2015 to 2019 including France (16 percent), United States (14 percent) and India (24 percent).   Canada could pursue further its corporate tax reforms by lowering rates and broadening tax bases to reflect economic income. However, this common approach to reform, which has been focus for Canada since 1985, seems to have reached its limit in reducing corporate tax distortions.   Instead, a fundamental tax reform could help tilt the playing field towards Canada to boost investment, reduce tax distortions and simplify administration and compliance, without a significant loss in revenue.  I call this a “big-bang reform”.  As explained below, the basic proposal is to convert the corporate tax into a tax on distributed profits that would improve static and dynamic efficiency in the corporate tax system.[1] It is not a perfect system, but it could be a practical approach to boost growth and make the corporate tax more efficient and fairer.   As shown below, there are some important advantages to the approach, particularly reducing tax distortions that discourage investment especially for the service sectors in the economy.  The proposed structure would also be compatible with international tax systems and continue support for small businesses.  It does have one disadvantage – it would potentially be distortionary in financing decisions by favouring retained earnings over other funding sources.  Recommendations will be made to the taxation of share buybacks and capital gains that would create potentially greater neutrality among financing sources compared to the existing system.   Much of this detail will be explained further below.  The paper begins with a discussion of the current problems with the corporate income tax in Canada. This will be followed by a description of the proposed corporate tax on distributed profits, including a review of both the positive and negative aspects of the proposal. A rent-based approach to the taxation of corporate distributions is considered, which would be consistent with a personal tax reform along the lines of the expenditure approach, as explained below.   [1] Our proposal could also be adjusted to tax only corporate rents by redefining the tax base as distributed profits net of the new equity financing (although this would require a substantially higher corporate income tax rate to make up for the loss of revenues).  This approach would be appropriate if the personal income tax is also reformed to remove the tax on savings.  We will discuss this further below.  
      PubDate: 2022-02-08
      DOI: 10.11575/sppp.v15i1.73545
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Canadian Arctic Marine Transportation Issues, Opportunities and Challenges

    • Authors: Frédéric Lasserre, Kristin Bartenstein
      Abstract: Melting sea ice Although ice will always be present in the Arctic in winter, global warming induces a steady decline of the extent of sea ice and a rapid decrease in the share of multi-year ice, giving way to younger, thinner sea ice and giving credit to modelled scenarios of ice-free summers during the 21st century. However, ice remains a hazard and an impediment to navigation. Thinner and more fragmented ice moves faster and in patterns that are difficult to predict. It also seems more prone to building compression ridges. Ice arches preventing hard multi-year ice of the Arctic Ocean basin from penetrating into the Canadian Archipelago are weakening. In Baffin Bay, accelerated iceberg calving from Greenland is likely to increase the number of growlers, which pose a serious risk for navigation. From this emerges a nuanced picture of shipping conditions in the Canadian Arctic. Expanding commercial shipping Shipping in the Canadian Arctic is mainly driven by fishing, mining activities and community resupply, while transit shipping remains marginal. Fishing, mostly carried out by vessels based in Newfoundland and still less developed than in Greenland, is gradually moving north to Baffin Bay. As extraction sites are opening up, mining generates heavy traffic, in terms of both voyages and tonnage. Inland mining sites, faced with complex and costly land transportation due to melting permafrost, may further drive marine transportation. However, fluctuating world prices for commodities, not the extent of sea ice, are the main driver – or constraint – of mining activities. Community resupply is expanding as well, but strategies pursued by the four shipping companies involved differ. MTS took over from bankrupt NTCL in 2016 with a more limited service. Coastal Shipping Ltd, Desgagnés and NEAS all expanded westwards and opted for larger, heavier vessels without, however, expanding frequency of service. Regulatory framework Canada’s regulatory framework on Arctic was overhauled in 2018 to incorporate the Polar Code and modernize the regime. As IMO negotiations are ongoing, new regulatory adjustments are foreseeable. Area-based protection efforts are underway, but shipping needs and rights are considered carefully. Overall, Canada’s shipping regulation is not seen as an unnecessary impediment, but as warranted by prevailing shipping conditions. Future Shipping Trends Due to the constraints to shipping, destinational traffic is likely to remain dominant in the foreseeable future. Traffic generated by mining activities is likely to keep expanding provided no severe collapse of world commodity prices occurs. Community resupply may also experience continued expansion, partly fueled by mining ventures, provided operators can take advantage of improved port facilities in the Canadian archipelago.
      PubDate: 2022-02-08
      DOI: 10.11575/sppp.v15i1.72626
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • EXISTING AND PLANNED INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS: IMPACTS AND POTENTIAL
           COMPATIBILITY WITH THE CANADIAN NORTHERN CORRIDOR

    • Authors: Alaz Munzur
      Abstract: Rigorous planning of a multi-modal corridor at a national scale involves identifying current and future infrastructure needs and determining opportunities for co-location of linear infrastructure. Ensuring compatibility of such a major and complex infrastructure expansion with existing and planned projects is necessary to avoid potential redundancies, minimize environmental impact, optimize resource allocation and enable long-term, sustainable economic growth. For this purpose, this paper reviews linear infrastructure projects in Canada’s North and Near-North that could feasibly constitute a segment of the Canadian Northern Corridor (CNC). The CNC concept connects Canada’s Atlantic, Pacific and Arctic coasts and Hudson Bay through a linear infrastructure corridor. In accordance with the aims and scope of the CNC, this assessment covers linear infrastructure modes like rail, road, pipeline, electrical transmission and communications infrastructure, and ports as supporting infrastructure and gateways to the rest of the world. The assessment reviews infrastructure projects in two categories: existing and planned. For each infrastructure project reviewed under these categories, geographical characteristics, compatibility with the CNC in terms of purpose and scope, and details about funding and regulatory processes are provided. Corridor development is a lengthy, costly and complex process. Planning stages often involve a risky assessment of possible future changes in economic activity, regional priorities, land use and environmental conditions (like changing needs for climate adaptation strategies). However, there is no universal methodology for the design and development phases of corridors. Determining the regions to be served by the CNC requires a comprehensive investigation of the needs and priorities of the stakeholders and economic potential of the areas to be served. Adopting this basic principle, the assessment in this paper serves as a step towards determining a multi-modal route for a corridor with a northern focus that efficiently and purposefully integrates the existing infrastructure network of Canada. There is also no single rule for determining the level of compatibility of an existing piece of infrastructure with a planned corridor project. Although integrating previously independent sets of infrastructure potentially eliminates redundancies, saves time and resources, and reduces habitat fragmentation, aiming for achieving full integration can also result in inefficient outcomes by creating bottlenecks and delays in the movement of goods and services. Successful integration of infrastructure primarily depends on the design principles and priorities determined and agreed upon by the stakeholders in the planning and design phases of a corridor. In this preliminary assessment, I rely on the following key considerations which ensures widespread benefits for all Canadians, and evaluate the potential compatibility of existing and planned infrastructure projects with the objectives of the CNC concept: a. Improve transportation infrastructure (like road, rail, marine, aviation and commodity pipelines) b. Improve access to utilities (like electricity and broadband infrastructure) c. Improve access to resources The projects included in this paper does not represent an exhaustive list but are chosen based on the potential level of compatibility with the notional route of the CNC. Technical feasibility and engineering challenges should be extensively investigated in future research. Although this paper only discussed a selected set of infrastructure projects, a database of all relevant existing and planned infrastructure projects will be provided as an online resource for interested stakeholders.
      PubDate: 2022-01-26
      DOI: 10.11575/sppp.v15i1.72528
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Social Policy Trends: Types of Homelessness

    • Authors: Ronald Kneebone
      Abstract: People who experience homelessness do so in many ways. Staying in an emergency shelter is just one of those ways.
      PubDate: 2022-01-19
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • From National Accords to Bilateral Agreements: Transforming Canadian
           Health Care Intergovernmentalism

    • Authors: Tom McIntosh , Alanna DeCorby
      Abstract: This paper examines the transition from the “era of the health accords” (from 2000 to 2017) to the new regime of individual bilateral agreements between Ottawa and each of the provinces and territories, allocating federal health transfers and setting agreed-upon health-reform priorities in each jurisdiction. The paper argues that the health accords of 2000, 2003 and 2004 were essentially unsuccessful for a number of reasons. First, they tended to raise expectations among the public, health system actors and health policy experts about the ability to transform health care in Canada in a relatively short period of time. This was, in part, a result of the accords’ very broad and general commitments to change, but also their lack of recognition of the barriers to change that exist within the system. Second, and related to the first, attention was paid mostly to the amount of the transfer from the federal government to the provinces and territories, rather than to how those dollars were to be spent. At best, governments bought only a modest amount of change in the system, despite the billions of dollars of new investment. Unlike other industrialized federations, Canada appears to be the only one that relies on an ongoing, highly politicized process of intergovernmental diplomacy to negotiate the fiscal relationship in health care. This, combined with a somewhat amorphous and changeable understanding of the federal government’s overall role in health care, complicates the process of reform and heightens the political stakes around the negotiations. The new model of bilateral agreements negotiated under an umbrella statement
      of common principles around health-reform priorities may yet prove to be an improvement in both process and outcomes. Bilateralism can serve to de-escalate the political stakes inherent in the federal-provincial diplomacy around Canada’s most popular social program, by moving away from the “grand bargains” that characterized the accords. In short, there will be less opportunity for the kind of political rhetoric that unduly raises expectations of rapid change. More importantly, the bilateral agreements, although far from perfect, may actually better serve to focus attention on the specific health-service organization and delivery issues the provinces and territories intend to improve, restructure or expand. Under very broad principles such as “improving access to mental health and community care,” the bilateral agreements articulate some very clear plans about specific approaches, programs and policies on which the transfers will be spent. This should provide a
      much greater opportunity for the Canadian public to hold governments to account for progress in those areas, something the accords never really managed to do. Going forward, there is still room for improvement. Some provincial plans are decidedly vague, and governments should be urged to be more specific in their commitments and intentions. Common indicators continue to be difficult to develop, although big strides have been made in recent decades. Governments would be well advised to talk seriously and openly about the challenges and barriers to change that exist within the system and, in doing so, marshal public support to dismantle them. And the federal government itself needs to actively engage in assisting jurisdictions in learning from and adapting the successful reforms and initiatives of other jurisdictions. This could be an act of true system stewardship.
      PubDate: 2022-01-18
      DOI: 10.11575/sppp.v15i1.74113
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Innovation in the U.S. Health Care System’s Organization and
           Delivery

    • Authors: Michael DiStefano, So-Yeon Kang , Mariana Socal, Gerard Anderson
      Abstract: Over the past decades, the U.S. has attempted a wide array of innovations in the areas of health care organization and delivery. Canadian policy makers may be interested in some of the successes and failures in the United States health care system. This briefing summarizes recent trends in six areas: fiscal federalism, expanding benefits, payment reform, virtual and digital health, supply chain reforms and healthcare workforce. The federal government allocates money to the states based on per capita income in that state to support state health care programs such as the Medicaid program and Children’s Health Insurance Program. Additional fiscal transfers are also used to incentivize states to provide other services. Benefit expansion currently focuses on expanding Medicare to include hearing care, broadening the benefits covered by Medicare Advantage (managed care plans) plans, and using Medicaid waiver programs to expand eligibility and benefits for low-income individuals. Alternative Payment Models and expanding Medicare Advantage are transforming the system from fee-for-service toward a value-based system. Accelerated use of digital and virtual care is being promoted by waiving restrictions on coverage of telehealth services for acute and chronic conditions and primary care. Shortages of health care inputs, especially pharmaceuticals, were a chronic problem exacerbated by COVID-19. In response, onshoring of pharmaceutical production and expanding drug shortage surveillance and transparency in the drug supply chain is starting. Finally, the federal government has established research centers to track the number of primary care doctors and improve the distribution of physicians in the most disadvantaged areas. 
      PubDate: 2022-01-18
      DOI: 10.11575/sppp.v14i1.74116
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • The CHA and Beyond The Role of Legislation in National Reform in Health
           Care

    • Authors: Pierre-Gerlier Forest, Lori Stoltz
      Abstract: This paper is centred on the use of legislation as a tool of public action in health policy. We suggest that as with the Canada Health Act of 1984, this option should be considered to direct future reform efforts and pursue our collective aims of health and wellness.   The CHA is the legislative expression of the federal government’s exercise of its spending power, serving to consolidate key national agreements governing the circumstances under which the federal government contributes to the costs of medically necessary health services delivered by the provinces and territories.   Two features of the CHA merit highlighting. The first is that its core provisions – in particular, the five criteria often referred to as Canada’s “national standards” for health care – were not new or original to the CHA. The CHA was nonetheless an important step in the development of Canada’s health system because it enshrined together, in one statute, longstanding commitments. A second feature of the CHA worth highlighting is that it does not stand alone. The CHA is one of 13 statutes across the country, including one in each province and territory, that serve together to establish the basic legal infrastructure of Canada’s health insurance system.   The CHA’s powers to make regulations and issue policy interpretation letters offer important potential to achieve needed health system reforms without needing to “open” the Act.  Even where these powers are unrestricted by an express requirement for consultation with the provinces and territories, however, this would undoubtedly be required given the fundamentally consensual nature of the CHA.   Finally, the federal government’s legislative options are not limited to the CHA.  Jurisdiction over health and health care in Canada is shared between the federal and provincial and territorial governments. The various federal powers with health aspects allocated by the Constitution Act, 1867 are significant, including the residual “federal health power” to make laws “for the peace, order and good government of Canada” (POGG).  It therefore makes good sense to consider federal policy objectives in the health domain with regard for the full spectrum of federal legislative competence.  
      PubDate: 2022-01-18
      DOI: 10.11575/sppp.v15i1.74114
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Advancing Supply Chain Resilience for Canadian Health Systems

    • Authors: Anne Snowdon
      Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has exposed significant fragilities in the current capacity and function of global healthcare supply chains. During the first wave of the pandemic, long, undiversified, and lean global supply chains were destabilized by a massive surge in demand for care, that required high volumes of critical health products for care delivery (Snowdon, Saunders & Wright, 2021). China, the primary manufacturer of a number of critical health products and the first site of a COVID-19 outbreak, temporarily shuttered its manufacturing capacity. As a result, there were severe product shortages across every global health system. Manufacturers were unable to rapidly scale their production capacity to meet the sudden and dramatic increase in the demand for critical products, which resulted in a destabilizing “ripple effect” across global healthcare supply chains. The COVID-19 pandemic, and the surge in supply demands it created, exposed the fragility that rapidly destabilized these global healthcare supply chains. This destabilization of healthcare supply chains impacted every jurisdiction in Canada and touched the lives of healthcare workers, patients, citizens, and non-permanent residents (such as temporary foreign workers).  
      PubDate: 2022-01-18
      DOI: 10.11575/sppp.v15i1.74115
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • ENERGY & ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY TRENDS : WHAT’S DRIVING THE COST
           OF DRIVING'

    • Authors: G. Kent Fellows, Gregory Galay
      Abstract: The price of gasoline has returned to pre-pandemic levels and the U.S. Energy Information Administration’s October Short-term Energy Outlook (STEO) suggests prices could remain at these levels for the rest of 2021 and throughout 2022.
      PubDate: 2022-01-18
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • International Policy Trends: Travel Bans and Omicron

    • Authors: Robert Falconer
      Abstract: Since the identification of the Omicron variant (B.1.1.529) of SARS-CoV-2, the Canadian Government has banned travel from several African countries, even as the variant spreads in other countries globally.
      PubDate: 2022-01-06
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2022)
       
 
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