Subjects -> POLITICAL SCIENCE (Total: 1097 journals)
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    - POLITICAL SCIENCE (898 journals)
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POLITICAL SCIENCE (898 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 5     

Showing 601 - 281 of 281 Journals sorted alphabetically
Polar Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Policy & Governance Review     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Policy and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Policy Design and Practice     Open Access  
Polis : Investigacion y Análisis Sociopolitico y Psicosocial     Open Access  
Polisemia     Open Access  
Polish Political Science Review     Open Access  
Politai     Open Access  
Politeja     Open Access  
Política     Open Access  
Política común     Open Access  
Política y Cultura     Open Access  
Política y Gobierno     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Política y sociedad     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Política, Globalidad y Ciudadanía     Open Access  
Political Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65)
Political Anthropological Research on International Social Sciences     Full-text available via subscription  
Political Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Political Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Political Insight     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Political Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Political Research Exchange     Open Access  
Political Research Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
Political Science Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Political Science Research and Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Political Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Political Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Political Theology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Políticas de la Memoria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Politics & Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Politics and Governance     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Politics and the Life Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Politics in Central Europe     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Politics, Groups, and Identities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Politics, Philosophy & Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Politics, Religion & Ideology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Politiikka     Open Access  
Politik     Open Access  
Politika : Jurnal Ilmu Politik     Open Access  
Politique et Sociétés     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Politische Vierteljahresschrift     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Politologija     Open Access  
Polity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Populism     Full-text available via subscription  
Post-Soviet Affairs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Pouvoirs     Full-text available via subscription  
Presidential Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Problems of Post-Communism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Produção Acadêmica     Open Access  
Progress in Development Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Przegląd Politologiczny     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
PS: Political Science & Politics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
PSAKU International Journal of Interdisciplinary Research     Hybrid Journal  
Public Policy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Pyramides     Open Access  
Québec français     Full-text available via subscription  
Race & Class     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Raven : A Journal of Vexillology     Hybrid Journal  
Recherches féministes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Recherches sociographiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Redescriptions : Political Thought, Conceptual History and Feminist Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Refleksje. Pismo naukowe studentów i doktorantów WNPiD UAM     Open Access  
Reflexion Politica     Open Access  
Refuge : Canada's Journal on Refugees / Revue canadienne sur les réfugiés     Open Access  
Region : Regional Studies of Russia, Eastern Europe, and Central Asia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Regional & Federal Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Regional Formation and Development Studies     Open Access  
Regional Research of Russia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Regional Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Regional Studies Journal     Open Access  
Regional Studies, Regional Science     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Regulation & Governance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
Religion and Human Rights     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Representation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Research & Politics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Resilience : International Policies, Practices and Discourses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Review of African Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Review of Environmental Economics and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Review of Evolutionary Political Economy     Hybrid Journal  
Review of Faith & International Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Review of International Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Review of International Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Review of Middle East Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Review of World Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Revista Ágora     Open Access  
Revista Agulhas Negras     Open Access  
Revista Amauta     Open Access  
Revista Ambivalências     Open Access  
Revista Aportes para la Integración Latinoamericana     Open Access  
Revista Argentina de Ciencia Política     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Ciência Política     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Brasileira de Desenvolvimento Regional     Open Access  
Revista Ciencias Humanas     Open Access  
Revista Compolítica     Open Access  
Revista de Administração IMED     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista de Ciencia Politica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista de Derecho     Open Access  
Revista de Direito Sociais e Políticas Públicas     Open Access  
Revista de Estudios Hispánicos     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Revista de Estudios Políticos     Open Access  
Revista de Estudos e Pesquisas sobre as Américas     Open Access  
Revista de Estudos Institucionais     Open Access  
Revista de Filosofía y Teoría Política     Open Access  
Revista de Humanidades     Open Access  
Revista de Investigações Constitucionais     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista de la Facultad de Derecho y Ciencias Políticas     Open Access  
Revista del CESLA     Open Access  
Revista Desenvolvimento Social     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista do CEAM     Open Access  
Revista dos Estudantes de Públicas : REP     Open Access  
Revista Economía y Política     Open Access  
Revista Educação e Políticas em Debate     Open Access  
Revista Eletrônica do Curso de Direito - PUC Minas Serro     Open Access  
Revista Epistemologias do Sul     Open Access  
Revista Española de Ciencia Política     Open Access  
Revista Espirales : Revista para a integração da América Latina e Caribe     Open Access  
Revista Finanzas y Política Económica     Open Access  
Revista Ibero-Americana de Estratégia     Open Access  
Revista Internacional de Pensamiento Político     Open Access  
Revista Internacional de Relaciones Públicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Latinoamericana de Antropología del Trabajo     Open Access  
Revista Maracanan     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Análisis Político y Administración Pública     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Politicas y Sociales     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Opinión Pública     Open Access  
Revista Neiba, Cadernos Argentina Brasil     Open Access  
Revista Nuevo Humanismo     Open Access  
Revista Orbis Latina     Open Access  
Revista Política Hoje     Open Access  
Revista Política y Estrategia     Open Access  
Revista Processus de Políticas Publicas e Desenvolvimento Social     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Psicologia Política     Open Access  
Revista Republicana     Open Access  
Revista Sinais     Open Access  
Revista Sul-Americana de Ciência Política     Open Access  
Revista SURES     Open Access  
Revista Textos Graduados     Open Access  
Revista Uruguaya de Ciencia Política     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revue Française de Civilisation Britannique     Open Access  
Revue Gouvernance     Open Access  
Revue Interventions économiques     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revue Sciences Humaines     Open Access  
Rhetoric & Public Affairs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
RIPS. Revista de Investigaciones Politicas y Sociologicas     Open Access  
Rocznik Integracji Europejskiej     Open Access  
RUDN Journal of Political Science     Open Access  
Rule of Law and Anti-Corruption Center Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Russian Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Russian Politics & Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
SAIS Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Scandinavian Political Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
School of Public Policy Publications     Open Access  
Scottish Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Scottish Journal of Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Secrecy and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Security and Defence Quarterly     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Security and Human Rights     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Security Dialogue     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Security Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Seqüência : Estudos Jurídicos e Políticos     Open Access  
Serbian Studies: Journal of the North American Society for Serbian Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
SINTESA : Jurnal Ilmu Sosial dan Ilmu Politik     Open Access  
SİYASAL / Journal of Political Sciences     Open Access  
Slovak Journal of Political Sciences     Open Access  
Small Wars & Insurgencies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 250)
Small Wars Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Social Development & Security : Journal of Scientific Papers     Open Access  
Social Identities: Journal for the Study of Race, Nation and Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Social Inclusion     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Social Movement Studies: Journal of Social, Cultural and Political Protest     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Social Philosophy Today     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Social Research : An International Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Social Science Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Social Sciences in China     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Social Service Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Socialism and Democracy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Socialist Studies / Études Socialistes     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Sociedad y Discurso     Open Access  
Society     Open Access  
Sociologie et sociétés     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Soft Power     Open Access  
Somatechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Sospol : Jurnal Sosial Politik     Open Access  
Soundings : An Interdisciplinary Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
South African Journal of International Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
South Asia Multidisciplinary Academic Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
South East European University Review (SEEU Review)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
South European Society and Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Southeast Asian Affairs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Southeast European and Black Sea Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Southeastern Europe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Special Operations Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
SPICE : Student Perspectives on Institutions, Choices & Ethic     Open Access  
Sprawy Narodowościowe     Open Access  
Środkowoeuropejskie Studia Polityczne     Open Access  
Stability : International Journal of Security and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
State Politics & Policy Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Statistics and Public Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Stato, Chiese e pluralismo confessionale     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

  First | 1 2 3 4 5     

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TalTech Journal of European Studies
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.199
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2228-0596 - ISSN (Online) 2674-4619
Published by Sciendo Homepage  [370 journals]
  • The Polish Experience in the Development of Smart Cities

    • Abstract: In recent years, Poland has seen an increased migration of people to cities, which translates into significant urban population growth. This, in turn, raises new challenges in the performance of cities’ tasks and responsibilities. Additionally, climate changes and the depletion of natural resources necessitate the modification of existing urban practices. Polish cities seek solutions which would enable social, economic and environmental demands to be reconciled so that urban spaces become friendly for the city’s inhabitants and investors. Some Polish cities have applied the smart city concept to solve their problems. Despite the fact that the concept has been the subject of scientific research for many years, no universal definition of the smart city has been agreed upon. Analyzed assumptions of the smart city concept as well as the Polish experiences in the implementation indicate that the concept is dynamic and changes over time. It should be considered as a perpetual process unrestricted by a specific timeframe. This impedes the formulation of uniform, generally accepted assumptions of the concept since its existence is inscribed in the change related to urban development. This article claims that this would be a beneficial approach for formulating the general characteristics of the smart city that could be applicable to any city, and that could be employed regardless of the present challenges cities may face.
      PubDate: Mon, 15 Nov 2021 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Personal Data Protection in the Decision-Making of the CJEU Before and
           After the Lisbon Treaty

    • Abstract: Personal data protection is one of the important areas of the EU’s operation and the general public is especially aware of the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR). However, personal data protection has been an issue in the EU for a long time. The Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) plays a major role in personal data protection as their function is to interpret EU law and thus also EU legislation related to personal data protection. Until now, research papers have tackled specific issues related to interpreting EU legislation or analyses of specific decisions made by the CJEU. However, no comprehensive empirical legal study has been published so far which would evaluate the decision-making of the CJEU in the area of personal data protection using a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods. Therefore, no analysis has been carried out to determine how many decisions of the CJEU have been related to personal data protection, how their number has increased, or which participants and from which areas have participated in the proceedings. The results of the analysis presented here can be used as a basis for studying the future development of the CJEU’s decision-making in the area of personal data protection in relation to digitization and especially to the COVID-19 pandemic, which undoubtedly has contributed to a significant increase in online communication, posing new challenges towards a more efficient personal data protection in the online world.
      PubDate: Mon, 15 Nov 2021 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Enhanced Digitalisation and Competition Law Enforcement in Slovakia

    • Abstract: Digitalisation is a challenge from the regulatory point of view. Competition law, as a special type of regulation, is no exception to this. The article explores the risks of digitalisation, especially the ones related to the enhanced use of pricing algorithms. In theory, pricing algorithms are not easily assessed from the perspective of competition law, let alone its application in practice. The prohibition of anticompetitive agreements (pursuant to Article 101 of the Treaty on Functioning of the European Union (TFEU)) is applied with certain difficulty to agreements created by using pricing algorithms. This is an unfortunate situation, as horizontal agreements represent one of the worst infringements of EU competition law, including price cartels or bid rigging. Apart from presenting a theoretical background, the article dives into the practice of the Antimonopoly Office of the Slovak Republic (AMO) in order to assess which practical issues the AMO might face when applying the theoretical concepts. In sum, the article asks from a theoretical perspective which issues of competition law have been introduced (or deepened) by the enhanced digitalisation, looking in particular to pricing algorithms. On top of that, the article explores the issues which may be encountered in practice, taking the Slovak jurisdiction as the example. The willingness and feasibility of the AMO to enforce digital issues such as pricing algorithms is assessed based on the previous acts of the AMO as well as the new Act on Protection of Competition, adopted by the Slovak parliament on 11 May 2021.
      PubDate: Mon, 15 Nov 2021 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Data Protection in Law Enforcement and Judicial Cooperation in Criminal
           Matters

    • Abstract: The redesign of data protection in the police and judicial area is intended to create uniformity at the European level for the citizens of EU Member States. This scientific article analyses the subject of data protection in law enforcement and judicial cooperation in criminal matters. The focus is primarily on the existing provisions and the latest developments of the EU with regard to Directive (EU) 2016/680 on the protection of natural persons with regard to the processing of personal data by competent authorities for the purposes of the prevention, investigation, detection or prosecution of criminal offences or the execution of criminal penalties, and on the free movement of such data, and repealing Council Framework Decision 2008/977/JHA. The international level with regard to data protection in the police and judicial area and possible changes due to the developments in data protection under European law are also examined in more detail.
      PubDate: Mon, 15 Nov 2021 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Legal Engineering of the Anti-Abuse Rule in ATAD: Architecture of the
           Regression Tree Model

    • Abstract: Every taxable arrangement is subject to an anti-abuse test. Abusive arrangements are treated as not valid for tax purposes, which is similar to the treatment of artificial arrangements in civil law. The European Union has introduced in its Anti-Tax Avoidance Directive a general anti-abuse test which must be transposed into the domestic laws of Member States. Such a test has its inner structure, consisting of an elimination and requalification stage, while the elimination stage entails genuineness and a tax benefit test. The general anti-abuse test has a great potential (or scalability when speaking in the language of start-ups) of being automated and integrated into different legal application processes (such as taxpayer self-assessment systems, transactions certified by public notary or merger and acquisition deals) to discover debt push down abuses or other arrangement structures which may have abusive content. While the best method for create a reliable algorithm is a decision tree type model, the inner ambiguity of the general anti-abuse test prevents using the full benefits of automation of tax laws. The purpose of this article is to design a decision tree type model for the test and address the main challenges of such a model, both from the perspective of the clarity of concepts and the quality of input information such an engine would use.
      PubDate: Mon, 15 Nov 2021 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • A Different Approach to the Evaluation of Smart Cities’ Indicators

    • Abstract: The article aims to propose a different approach to assessing smart cities which combines some commonly used indicators with several new ones in line with the concept of sustainability. The aspect of sustainable development as an essential driver for the smart city and the combination of indicators for sustainable and smart city concepts have been analysed fragmentarily so far. There are many different approaches to evaluate the indicators of city smartness; however, very little attention is paid to the analysis of the reciprocal importance of the indicators. Ten indicators representing a smart city were selected that would be keep in line all the three pillars of sustainability—environmental, social, and economic. An expert survey was conducted to assign the weights of indicators using the pairwise comparison approach. The results were processed by utilising the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (AHP), which reduces the subjectivity in the experts’ answers. The presented approach differs from the ones commonly used and while it does not cover a wide range of usual indicators, it proposes some new ideas for further research. Some represent cities to attract young and intelligent citizens, others relate to comfortable and safe living conditions and the environmental situation. The results revealed that the most vital smartness indicators are foreign direct investments, pollutant emission, and the share of people registered as unemployed among the working-age population. These indicators cannot be easily identified as ones representing a smart city, but rather as indicators representing investment and environmental, sustainable aspects. Hence, finding a balance between the indicators related to sustainable and smart city is what highlights the need for further research.
      PubDate: Mon, 15 Nov 2021 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Those Who Shall Be Identified: The Data Protection Aspects of the Legal
           Framework for Electronic Identification in the European Union

    • Abstract: The article focuses on the intersections of the regulation of electronic identification as provided in the eIDAS Regulation and data protection rules in the European Union. The first part of the article is devoted to the explanation of the basic notions and framework related to the electronic identity in the European Union— the eIDAS Regulation. The second part of the article discusses specific intersections of the eIDAS Regulation with the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), specifically scope, the general data protection clause and mainly personal data processing in the context of mutual recognition of electronic identification means. The article aims to discuss the overlapping issues of the regulation of the GDPR and the eIDAS Regulation and provides a further guide for interpretation and implementation of the outcomes in practice.
      PubDate: Mon, 15 Nov 2021 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • 5G and Digital Sovereignty of the EU: The Slovak Way

    • Abstract: Some recent views question the concept of sovereignty (especially the sovereignty of states), arguing that sovereignty is to be abandoned as a historical concept, because it existed in the world of the Westphalian system (created after 1648), where states were the major players, centers of power and objects of interest. Instead, we suggest that sovereignty should be perceived again as a “supreme power” (summa potestas), meaning a return to the pre-Bodinian concept of sovereignty and perceive it as a “power to exert control”. With regard to cyberspace, this does not mean direct control of all entities in the cyberspace, but only those that provide services which are perceived as “essential” or “critical” for the security and interests of the state. That is actually the approach taken with regard to ensuring the safety of 5G networks—through control imposed on the network operators, as required by the respective EU legislation and the EU Toolbox on 5G Networks specifically.
      PubDate: Mon, 15 Nov 2021 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • The Legal Implications of Public Support Policies Targeting Research,
           Development and Innovation in the European Union

    • Abstract: The research problem of this article focuses on how the public support system in Estonia can help small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) to acquire and commercialise their intellectual property rights (IPR) in a sustainable and legally permissible manner. The study aims to analyse and determine which specific public support measures are needed by SMEs for acquiring and commercialising IPR and how to design such public support within the legal boundaries set under European Union (EU) laws. The theoretical framework used in this study is built around the social system as defined by Parsons. The 4S Model (based on scope, scale, skill and social networking) derived by researchers from the said social system is considered. Further, 19 key attributes were devised by the authors in conjunction with the role of motivation to form a revised framework. The analysis employs qualitative research methods. To apply the framework of social systems theory, the authors used semi-structured interviews as a method to study the public support measures required by Estonian stakeholders. This was also analysed in the framework of EU State aid law, which poses both restrictions and exemptions. This research presents several desired support measures. Although the public support systems for acquiring and commercialising IPR by SMEs are restrained by legal frameworks within the EU, the analysis of the relevant laws and cases shows that State aid for RDI purposes is legally permissible within the EU, depending on the state’s willingness and availability of funds.
      PubDate: Mon, 15 Nov 2021 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Interpretable Machine-Learning Approach in Estimating FDI Inflow:
           Visualization of ML Models with LIME and H2O

    • Abstract: In advancement of interpretable machine learning (IML), this research proposes local interpretable model-agnostic explanations (LIME) as a new visualization technique in a novel informative way to analyze the foreign direct investment (FDI) inflow. This article examines the determinants of FDI inflow through IML with a supervised learning method to analyze the foreign investment determinants in Hungary by using an open-source artificial intelligence H2O platform. This author used three ML algorithms—general linear model (GML), gradient boosting machine (GBM), and random forest (RF) classifier—to analyze the FDI inflow from 2001 to 2018. The result of this study shows that in all three classifiers GBM performs better to analyze FDI inflow determinants. The variable value of production in a region is the most influenced determinant to the inflow of FDI in Hungarian regions. Explanatory visualizations are presented from the analyzed dataset, which leads to their use in decision-making.
      PubDate: Wed, 26 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • An Honourable U-Turn' Finland and New Europe after the End of the
           First World War

    • Abstract: The article deals with the situation of a small, newly- and uncertainly independent country that had a peculiar experience in the year 1918. The country had declared its independence in December 1917, had received the recognition from Soviet Russia, the Nordic countries, Germany and its allies, and France in January 1918. Almost simultaneously, it drifted to a civil war, in which both the Germans and the Russians participated. However, the Civil War was mainly a domestic concern, and the outcome was the defeat of an attempt at a socialist revolution and the victory of an extremely pro-German government that even elected a German king in Finland in October 1918. The project was never fulfilled, but the experience left an exceptional, pro-German mental heritage, to which the terms of the armistice of November 1918 was a shock. They were seen as unjust, revengeful and even petty—both by the Finnish “Whites” (non-socialists) and the “Reds” (socialists).The Versailles Treaty in 1919 did not directly concern Finland. However, it might have done so in the question of Finnish borders, which was still partly unresolved—both in the west (a strife with Sweden over the Åland Islands) and in the east (ethnically Finnish Eastern Karelia). Moreover, the Allies were uncertain whether Finland should be considered Scandinavian or Baltic. Britain and the United States had not yet recognized Finland’s independence, so in order to secure independence and territorial integrity, the Finns had to adjust to the Allies’ demands and actively drive a Western-oriented policy. This was done for the same reason why the German orientation had been previously adapted—the threat of Russia and revolution—but it was psychologically strenuous for some political circles because they felt that there was an element of dishonorable opportunism to it. However, they could offer no alternative in a situation in which a newborn state had to secure its independence and legitimacy in New Europe, adjusting to disappointments and demands.
      PubDate: Wed, 26 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Not All Past is Legacy: Echoes of 1917–1923 in Contemporary East
           Central Europe

    • Abstract: The article discusses parallelisms between the social and political realities of East Central Europe around 1917–1923 and the current state of affairs. It starts with an analysis of the dynamic social relations in the final year of the Great War to follow with the question of their impact on politics and a short outline of the region’s history after 1918. While in terms of political and social reality there is little to invite comparison between these two periods under scrutiny, the language of politics and popular sentiments do. Most importantly, and similarly to East Central Europe in the interwar period, fear of a radical change (be it Bolshevism as in 1917–1923 or the cultural revolution) is the main tool of conservative mobilization which represents the sole actual danger to the existing social and political order.
      PubDate: Wed, 26 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • A Case in Relations between Great Powers and Small States—France’s
           Recognition of Finnish Independence, 1917–1918

    • Abstract: What are the most important variables explaining the 4 January 1918 decision by the French Government to recognise Finland’s independence' This short contribution to the Special Issue aims at giving a broad overview of developments explaining this decision. It will first of all introduce general notions concerning France’s relation with “nationalities” during the First World War. It will more specifically describe the geopolitical environment of the winter 1917–1918, when France looked for ways to react to the crumbling of its Russian ally against Germany. It will also emphasise the way domestic developments and the long-term action of Finnish national networks helped in shaping up this decision. Finally, based on this example, it will consider various ways for small states to try and influence their international environment.
      PubDate: Wed, 26 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • The Emergence and Restoration of the State: Latvia in 1918 and 1990

    • Abstract: On 18 November 1918, the independent Republic of Latvia was declared in an extremely complicated international and domestic environment—the First World War was still going on, empires were collapsing, and ethnically and ideologically diverse military troops were fighting within the boundaries of Latvian territory. Despite the historical context of a previously tense relationship between Latvians and other ethnic groups, representatives of all minorities fought next to Latvians against the enemies of the Latvian state. Up until 11 August 1920, when the Peace Treaty with the Soviet Russia was signed, the prospects of de jure recognition of the newly established state were blurred; yet, the defeat of the White forces in the Russian Civil War opened the long awaited “window of opportunity”, as a result of which Latvia managed to achieve its international recognition on 26 January 1921. More than seventy years later, on 4 May 1990, when the Declaration of Independence was adopted by the Supreme Council of the Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic (SSR), the international and domestic situation was no less complicated. Latvia was forcefully incorporated into the Soviet Union in 1940 and became part of it, yet the economic and political deterioration of the Soviet Union, the national awakening in the Baltic States and other Soviet republics alongside the fall of the Berlin Wall gave momentum for the regime to change. On 21 August 1991, after the barricades and bloody clashes with the Soviet Special Purpose Police Units (OMON) in Riga on January and the failed coup d’état in Moscow in August, Latvia’s independence once again became a reality.In the events of the 1990s, the memories of 1918 and Latvia’s independence in the period between the two world wars were crucial. It is manifested by the fact that Latvian statehood in 1991 was not established anew but restored. Acknowledging the importance of history on contemporary identification and policy-making, this article aims to provide an insight into the history of 1917–1922 and its resonance in the contemporary situation. Using the methodology of literature analysis and historical process-tracing it will reveal the complicated process of the state’s formation and recognition in the period of 1917–1922, paying particular attention to the role of the minorities and diplomatic efforts. It will also uncover the resonance of the events of 1918–1922 in the 1990s, when Latvia’s independence from the Soviet Union was declared, focusing in particular on aspects defining the statehood of Latvia and its citizenship. In this part, it will be argued that the history of 1917–1922 was brought back when the statehood of Latvia was concerned, while overshadowed by fifty years of the Soviet occupation, when the citizenship issue was on the agenda. Indeed, not only ethnic Latvians but also minorities living in Latvia played a decisive role in the efforts of restoring Latvia’s independence. However, as a result of the Citizenship Law,1 adopted in 1994, more than one-fourth of the population—in most cases, representatives of the Russian-speaking community—were denied citizenship. This practice contrasts the Act that had been adopted in the interwar period, when Latvian citizenship was granted to all ethnic groups who were living within the borders of the then agreed Latvian territory, notwithstanding their diverse ideological background. Given this fact, the article provides future research opportunities related to perceptions of history in contemporary policy-making.
      PubDate: Wed, 26 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • The Common European Investment Policy and Its Perspectives in the Context
           of the Case Law

    • Abstract: Current developments in the field of international investment relations are influenced by the ruling of the Court of Justice in the Achmea case, when de facto European law became superior to international law. The verdict of the Court of Justice changes the usual legal procedures and customs in the field of bilateral investment agreements. However, the impact of this court decision is an almost unexplored area due to the lack of interest of legal theorists, and it is relatively difficult to find answers to the ambiguities and problems that have arisen. The scientific study analyses the current process of introducing new rules in the field of investment policy within the European Union, which means the end of bilateral investment agreements within the European Union. It also examines the European Union’s activities in the field of foreign direct investment and the development of a stable European investment policy. Determining the goal of the scientific study is based directly on current needs and emerging practical problems in practice. Their correct understanding and application has a fundamental impact on the possibilities of rules in the field of investment policy. Due to the nature of the researched topic, we applied selected qualitative methods suitable for recognising the law. However, we also analysed scientific literature, case-law and the analogy of law, thus providing qualified answers to the application pitfalls of legal practice.
      PubDate: Wed, 26 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • The Emergence of New States in Eastern Europe after World War I: The
           German Impact

    • Abstract: After World War I, many borders in Europe were redrawn, especially in the northeast and southeast of Germany. Almost all political forces in Germany strived to restore the prewar German borders, especially towards Poland. Even Poland’s very existence was denied by many German political forces. The Baltic States were less important for Germany in this respect. Here the relationship with the Baltic Germans and trade relations prevailed. The independence of these states was in the eyes of German elite subordinated to the relations with Russia. The article presents this pattern of German policy until the Treaty of Rapallo in 1922.
      PubDate: Wed, 26 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Cross-Border Capacity-Building for Port Ecosystems in Small and
           Medium-Sized Baltic Ports

    • Abstract: One of the key challenges related to the threat posed by the COVID-19 pandemic is preservation of employment and protecting staff who are working in port operations and struggling to keep ports operating for ship calls. These activities performed by port labour are deemed to be crucial for the EU and European ports, since 75% of the EU external trade and 30% of intra-EU transport goods are moved by waterborne transport. As a response to the global lockdown and the vulnerability of global supply chains, the majority of international organisations and maritime ports networks have shortlisted measures necessary to keep the severe effects of the lockdown to a minimum. One of the key measures identified is how to limit physical interaction. As an effect, millions of people and organisations across the globe have had to use and/or increase their deployment of digital technologies, such as digital documentation, tracing information systems and digital group-working platforms. Hence, blockchain and data-enabling systems have become to be recognised as a core element maintaining the uninterrupted flow of goods and services at ports.In pursuing uninterrupted trade and keeping ports open and running, this research paper addresses how the current situation afflicts the small and medium-sized ports located on the Baltic Sea which are argued to be critical actors of the port-centric logistics’ ecosystem. Given the topicality of this research and addressing the research gap, the authors suggest a conceptual capacity-building framework for port employees. This suggested framework is based on empirical insights: primary and secondary data collected from the project Connect2SmallPorts, part-financed by the Interreg South Baltic Programme 2014–2020 from the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF). The conceptual framework aims towards a practical training programme dedicated to fill in the missing skills or expand the limited competence of human resources and ports’ capacity when adapting or advancing digitalisation in the ports’ ecosystems. In particular, specific areas of capacity building are addressed and individual solutions suggested to foster a digital transformation of ports. The conceptual training framework is designed as a training tool indicating opportunities to help ports upgrade their competences with the blockchain technology, and to advance their transportation, environmental and economic performance with improved digitalisation. For this purpose, the conducted research employed mixed methods and applied concepts and approaches based on the field of management. For example, the construct of absorptive capacity, organisational learning, transformation, resource-based view and the concept of dynamic capabilities are included in the ecosystem discourse and are linked with open innovation and service design. The research presented in this article provides both theoretical and practical contributions, in which the affected stakeholders can test and utilise the developed tool as well as transfer it to other regions.
      PubDate: Wed, 26 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • The Emergence of New States in Eastern Europe in 1918—Lessons for
           All of Europe

    • Abstract: The year of 1918 was a crucial point in the history of Europe. Its importance does not only stem from the end of World War I, but also from the establishment of new states. Eastern Europe was particularly an arena where many new states emerged after the dissolution of tsarist Russia. The abovementioned process was correlated with the outcome of World War I (the defeat of the Central Powers on the Western Front and their victory on the Eastern Front against the tsarist Russia resulting in imposing their protectorate over Eastern Europe) but simultaneously it was influenced by the 1917 Bolshevik Revolution originating from a structural crisis of Russia.The legacy of nation-building processes, taking place in the period of 1917–1921 in the European part of the tsarist Russia— even when some of the states did not manage to survive— occupies a key role in the historical memories of those countries. The importance of this legacy originates from the fact that these states often constituted the most progressive nation-building efforts in the world. The wider context of these developments and the important interlinkages existing between them are very often unfamiliar to many Europeans today. Despite that, the state-building attempts, undertaken in Eastern Europe between 1917 and 1921, had a huge impact on the trajectory of European history. Contextualising this particular academic enquiry with the events of 1918 and benefiting from methodological advantages of process tracing, our project represents an attempt to restore (or, if necessary, build from scratch) a communicational system for sending a historical message to a wider Europe. A century after, while celebrating the Finnish, Estonian, Latvian, Lithuanian and Polish truly big anniversaries in 2017–2018, Europeans have already forgotten how interconnected and interlinked the 1918-bound events had been and by how much those events had affected the entire European continent as well as the international system.
      PubDate: Wed, 26 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Normativity in the EU’s Approach towards Disinformation

    • Abstract: With the rapid growth of disinformation, two major steps were taken to battle the phenomenon in the online environment—first on the global level, and second on the European Union level. The first step is the Joint Declaration on Freedom of Expression and “Fake News”, Disinformation and Propaganda, which provides a general overview of possible actions to be taken to fight disinformation, and how “things should be”. The steps are connected to following human rights standards, promoting the diversity of media, and paying special attention to intermediaries and media outlets. The second one is the Code of Practice on Disinformation, which is a self-regulatory document that can be voluntarily signed by major social media platforms and advertising bodies, and its main focus is making political advertising coherent and clear, preventing the creation of fake accounts, providing users with tools to report disinformation, and promote further research. Nevertheless, based on the reports and criticism from stakeholders, the Code of Practice has not reached a common ground regarding definitions, it has provided no mechanism to access the development, and has had several other drawbacks which need additional attention and discussion. The article is devoted to identifying gaps in the Code of Practice on Disinformation based on the reports and criticism provided by the stakeholders and elaborating on possible practices to regulate the legal issues raised by disinformation on the European Union level. We use doctrinal and comparative methods in the work.The doctrinal method targets the cluster that was identified in order to analyze the Code of Practice, identifies weak spots and inconsistencies, and offers solutions from different areas of law. The comparative method was selected since in several areas of law, such as human rights and consumer protection law, the previously identified approaches will be addressed to find the best outcomes. This combination of methods allows an in-depth understanding of legal documents and identifying successful solutions, which can influence further development based on efficient examples.
      PubDate: Wed, 26 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • The Attitude of the United States to the Baltic Region in 1918–1922:
           The Example of Latvia

    • Abstract: The article discusses the attitude of the USA towards the newborn independent Baltic States in 1918–1922 using the most devastated of them—Latvia—as an example. Relations between Latvia and the United States in 1918–1922 reflect Latvia’s intense foreign policy efforts to ensure its political and social development through relations with one of the world’s most influential and powerful economies in spite of the United States’ reserved behavior. In addition, this unique era in Latvia and the Baltic States as a whole (influenced by the Soviet Russian and German factors, war and its aftermath, and the ethnically diverse and complicated social situation) illustrates the specifics of US policy towards Eastern Europe and Russia.
      PubDate: Wed, 26 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
       
 
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