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POLITICAL SCIENCE (1010 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 5 6     

Showing 201 - 281 of 281 Journals sorted alphabetically
Decolonization : Indigeneity, Education & Society     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Defence Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Defense & Security Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Democracy & Education     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Democratic Communiqué     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Democratic Theory     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Democratization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Democrazia e diritto     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Demokratie und Geschichte     Hybrid Journal  
Demokratizatsiya: The Journal of Post-Soviet Democratization     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Der Donauraum     Hybrid Journal  
Desafíos     Open Access  
Development and Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63)
Digest of Middle East Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Digital Government : Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Diplomacy & Statecraft     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Diritto, immigrazione e cittadinanza     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Discurso     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Dissent     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Diversité urbaine     Full-text available via subscription  
Dynamics of Asymmetric Conflict: Pathways toward terrorism and genocide     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Earth System Governance     Open Access  
East European Jewish Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
East European Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
East/West : Journal of Ukrainian Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Eastern African Literary and Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal  
Eastern Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Economia Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Ecopolítica     Open Access  
eJournal of eDemocracy and Open Government     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Ekonomi, İşletme, Siyaset ve Uluslararası İlişkiler Dergisi     Open Access  
El Banquete de los Dioses     Open Access  
El Cotidiano     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Electoral Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Em Pauta : Teoria Social e Realidade Contemporânea     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Encuentro     Open Access  
Entramados y Perspectivas     Open Access  
Environment and Planning C : Politics and Space     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 53)
Environmental Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Equal Opportunities International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Espacios Públicos     Open Access  
Estudios digital     Open Access  
Estudios Políticos     Open Access  
Estudios Políticos     Open Access  
Estudos Avançados     Open Access  
Ethical Theory and Moral Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Ethics & International Affairs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Ethics & Global Politics     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Ethics in Science and Environmental Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Éthique publique     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Études internationales     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Eunomia. Rivista semestrale del Corso di Laurea in Scienze Politiche e delle Relazioni Internazionali     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Eureka Street     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
European Integration Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
European Journal for Security Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
European Journal of American Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
European Journal of Cultural and Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
European Journal of Government and Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
European Journal of International Relations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68)
European Journal of Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
European Journal of Political Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 96)
European Journal of Political Research : Political Data Yearbook     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
European Journal of Politics and Gender     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
European Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
European Political Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
European Politics and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
European Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
European Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
European Union Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
European Yearbook of Minority Issues Online     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Eurostudia     Open Access  
Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Evaluation and Program Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Evidence Base : A journal of evidence reviews in key policy areas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Exchange : The Journal of Public Diplomacy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
E|mporium     Open Access  
Fascism     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Federal Governance     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Federalism-E     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Fédéralisme Régionalisme     Open Access  
Feminist Encounters : A Journal of Critical Studies in Culture and Politics     Open Access  
FEU Academic Review     Open Access  
Fijian Studies: A Journal of Contemporary Fiji     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Financial Times     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
Foreign Policy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 58)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Foreign Policy Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Foro Interno. Anuario de Teoría Política     Open Access  
French Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Frontiers in Political Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Gaceta Laboral     Open Access  
Genocide Studies International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Geographische Zeitschrift     Full-text available via subscription  
Geopolítica(s). Revista de estudios sobre espacio y poder     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Geopolitics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Geopolitics under Globalization     Open Access  
German Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
German Politics and Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Germinal : Marxismo e Educação em Debate     Open Access  
Gestão & Regionalidade     Open Access  
Ghana Journal of Development Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Ghana Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Global Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Global Change, Peace & Security: formerly Pacifica Review: Peace, Security & Global Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 411)
Global Discourse : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Current Affairs and Applied Contemporary Thought     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Global Environmental Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Global Governance: A Review of Multilateralism and International Organizations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 52)
Global Journal of Peace Research and Praxis     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Global Justice : Theory Practice Rhetoric     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Media Journal : African Edition     Open Access  
Global Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Global Public Policy and Governance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Global Societies Journal     Open Access  
Global Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Global South, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Global War Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Göç Dergisi     Full-text available via subscription  
Good Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Governare la paura. Journal of interdisciplinary studies     Open Access  
Government : Annual Research Journal of Political Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Government and Opposition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Granì     Open Access  
Greek Political Science Review     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Group Processes & Intergroup Relations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Hague Journal of Diplomacy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Hegel Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Helsinki Monitor     Hybrid Journal  
Hic Rhodus : Crisis capitalista, polémica y controversias     Open Access  
Historia i Polityka     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
History of Communism in Europe     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Hommes & Migrations     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
HONAI : International Journal for Educational, Social, Political & Cultural Studies     Open Access  
Horyzonty Polityki     Open Access  
Human Relations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66)
Human Rights Case Digest     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 71)
Human Rights Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 78)
Human Rights Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Icelandic Review of Politics and Administration     Open Access  
Idäntutkimus     Open Access  
identidade!     Open Access  
Identities : Journal for Politics, Gender and Culture     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Identities: Global Studies in Culture and Power     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Identity Papers : A Journal of British and Irish Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IDP. Revista de Internet, Derecho y Politica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ids Practice Papers     Hybrid Journal  
IKAT : The Indonesian Journal of Southeast Asian Studies     Open Access  
Indes : Zeitschrift für Politik und Gesellschaft     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Index on Censorship     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
India Quarterly: A Journal of International Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
India Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Indialogs : Spanish Journal of India Studies     Open Access  
Indonesia Prime     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Journal of Community Engagement     Open Access  
Innovation Policy and the Economy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Innovations : Technology, Governance, Globalization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Insight on Africa     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
InSURgência : revista de direitos e movimentos sociais     Open Access  
Intelligence & National Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Interdisciplinary Political Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Interdisziplinäre Zeitschrift für Südasienforschung     Open Access  
Interest Groups & Advocacy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Interfaces Brasil/Canadá     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 75)
International Area Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Communication of Chinese Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Critical Thought     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Gramsci Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Interactions: Empirical and Theoretical Research in International Relations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal : Canada's Journal of Global Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of African Renaissance Studies - Multi-, Inter- and Transdisciplinarity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Area Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Children's Rights     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
International Journal of Diplomacy and Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of E-Politics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of East Asian Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Electronic Government Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Environmental Policy and Decision Making     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Group Tensions     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Human Rights     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63)
International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 606)
International Journal of Intercultural Relations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Law and Politics Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Peace Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Politics, Culture, and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Press/Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
International Journal of Sexuality and Gender Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
International Journal of Social Quality     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Journal on Minority and Group Rights     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Migration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
International Migration Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 186)
International Negotiation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
International NGO Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Organization     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 117)
International Peacekeeping     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 475)
International Political Science Abstracts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
International Political Science Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 96)

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Journal Cover
European Integration Studies
Number of Followers: 14  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1822-8402 - ISSN (Online) 2335-8831
Published by Kaunas University of Technology Homepage  [11 journals]
  • Fostering European Identity

    • Authors: Friedrich Heinemann, Clemens Fuest, Sarah Ciaglia
      Pages: 9 - 25
      Abstract: Over recent years, the concept of ‘European identity’ has received increasing scholarly attention. Despite this progress, political initiatives to foster a shared feeling of Europeanness still appear to be designed largely ad hoc. This contribution aims at providing a link between the existing state of knowledge and policy approaches to promote European identity. With a target group perspective, we develop a classification of measures to promote European identity. This classification is based on the distinctions between a ‘civic’ and a ‘cultural’ European identity. Within this framework, we assess seven proposals: transnational party lists for the European Parliament, an EU Citizens’ Assembly, EU consular offices, a Pensioners’ Erasmus, a ‘European Waltz’ program, an EU public service broadcaster, and a European bank holiday. We conclude that current identity strategies suffer from too narrow target groups that already tend to have a European perspective.
      PubDate: 2020-10-22
      DOI: 10.5755/j01.eis.1.14.25492
  • Exploring Tendencies in Migrants’ Legal Consciousness Research and
           Uncovering Factors for Socio-Legal Integration

    • Authors: Ramunė Miežanskienė
      Pages: 26 - 38
      Abstract: The current state of scientific discourse on legal consciousness occurs within a range of topics of enquiry. In this scope of research, a trendline of publications emerged which employs a narrower focus on the aspects of migrants‘ legal consciousness. As there were no systematic research aspirations in this particular field, this research explores the current scientific discourse, addresses factors for sociolegal integration and uncovers further paths for scientific enquiry as well. The following investigation adopts a method of systematic literature review which covers the time frame of research of three decades - since 1990 and introduces the main tendencies in scientific research on migrants’ legal consciousness. It addresses their geographical spectrum and reasoning that lead to scientific research. The other task was set to highlight the main factors which were identified to be affecting migrant’s legal consciousness and socio-legal integration as equally. The results of the investigation revealed a relatively small, but growing body of literature exploring migrants’ legal consciousness with a considerably narrow geographical division of the research, concentrating mainly to one continent, and with a dominant focus to national (versus comparative) context. Therefore the current field of scientific literature on migrants’ legal consciousness could benefit from the dissemination of investigations in the varied cultural environments and legal systems, as well as launching comparative studies while addressing a varying legal status. This research indicates a range of factors which plays a role in shaping migrants‘ consciousness, though few of them come into frontline while referring different migrants’ legal status. These include, but are not limited to the list, covering legal framework and social norms or ideals of the host country, as well as the encounter with the institutional sector and cultural heritage.
      PubDate: 2020-10-22
      DOI: 10.5755/j01.eis.1.14.26774
  • Immigrant Integration: the Role of NGO’s in Lithuania for Upholding
           Immigrant Assimilation

    • Authors: Vishnu Muraleedharan
      Pages: 39 - 54
      Abstract:  Migration and migrant movement are one of the most contested phenomena in the contemporary world due to the large-scale displacement of the people across the globe due to socio-political unrest in the form of wars, internal rebellions, and political upheaval. It led to the scenario of people’s movement across the borders in search of better living conditions and safety. However, the aspect of immigration and immigrant integration and assimilation is not a conducive process, and the immigrants must overcome a lot of socio-political hurdles and hardships for the assimilation and integration into the host society. Regarding the actors facilitating immigrant integration, one of the significant actors is the NGOs, which facilitates the integration of the immigrants into society. These facilitate through the mechanisms of advocacy measures. In this scenario, this article tries to find out how the NGO’s facilitates immigrant integration and assimilation in Lithuania and what are the mechanisms they employ for immigrant integration and assimilation. The task includes analyzing the qualitative interview conducted with NGO Europos Namai, who are voicing for the rights of immigrants and envisaging measures for migrant integration through their lobbying, education, awareness, cultural integration, and media mechanisms. By analyzing the interview and data sets on immigration in Lithuania, this paper aims to find out how does the NGOs act as a facilitating force for political debates, communication, political decision making, and to create a favourable environment for immigration integration into the Lithuanian society. The primary interpretation is that the third sector organizations play a significant role in the migrant integration into the society, and these possible findings could be made useful for other regions and countries where they are migrant influx and still lack conducive mechanisms for immigrant integration.  
      PubDate: 2020-10-22
      DOI: 10.5755/j01.eis.1.14.26371
  • Legal and politological aspects of competition in Bosnia and Herzegovina
           as a paradigm of the European integration process

    • Authors: Kanita Imamović-Čizmić, Samir Sabljica
      Pages: 55 - 68
      Abstract: As a country in transition and development, committed to the path towards membership in the European Union, Bosnia and Herzegovina encounters many challenges and obstacles in terms of fulfilling the tasks set before it. Quite complicated governmental and legal arrangement determines the pace of achieving the tasks that are prerequisites for the European Union membership status. By signing the Stabilisation and Association Agreement, Bosnia and Herzegovina assumed the obligation to gradually harmonise the national legislation with the EU legislation in the most important areas related to the internal market. In this context, one of highly important ones is the area of competition law. This paper analyses the quality of solutions provided by the normative and institutional framework of the market competition protection in Bosnia and Herzegovina by using the normative, historical, comparative, and content analysis methods. Basic features of the Stabilisation and Association Agreement between Bosnia and Herzegovina and the EU are presented through a chronological summary of the integration process of BiH into the EU. The primary hypothesis of the paper is that recent legal solutions in the area of competition do not follow the current legal standards of the competition regulations in the EU. Analytical overview of annual reports on the operation of the Council of Competition as regulatory body in Bosnia and Herzegovina shows that competition is a typical example of the ‘crawling’ integration of Bosnia and Herzegovina to the EU. It is quite obvious that the lack of political will of the ruling structures slows the integration processes down. This area requires an efficient enforcement of competition regulations whose implementation enables the companies to act in line with the law. Without adequate and prompt amending of the Law on Competition and related by-laws there can be no positive evaluation of the European Commission concerning the progress of Bosnia and Herzegovina.   
      PubDate: 2020-10-22
      DOI: 10.5755/j01.eis.1.14.25287
  • Cost-effectiveness of prison system development - comparison of the
           European countries

    • Authors: Elina Kruze, Janis Priede
      Pages: 69 - 79
      Abstract: The possibility to achieve successful resocialization of former prisoners back into society is an ongoing public debate, making it challenging for policymakers to implement prisoner rehabilitation programs capable of maintaining the public safety while allocating public funds in the most efficient way. The main aim of this study is to examine what is necessary for an investment in prison system development to be justified. The hypothesis of this study suggests that such investment can be cost-effective by reducing crime and recidivism rates in the long term by ensuring proper rehabilitation of prisoners. Accordingly, this research compares various European countries regarding their imprisonment standards and costs in order to conclude which countries operate in the most effective way and what is crucial to obtain a decrease in the reoffending rates. The key results suggest that it is possible to find a correlation between such variables as the imprisonment costs, incarceration rates and the recidivism rates. It is possible to draw parallels between the amount of money countries spend on one prisoner a year and the recidivism rates of such countries, suggesting that the reoffending rates can be reduced by increasing the amount of resources allocated for the improvement of prisoner’s lives. Furthermore, such an investment should not only take the form of establishment of a proper environment for successful rehabilitation – prisoners should be provided with education and work possibilities to prepare them for life outside the prison walls. Moreover, the study highlights the need for post-release support mechanisms capable of re-integrating former convicts back into society, since such mechanisms could reduce the likelihood of re-offending.  
      PubDate: 2020-10-22
      DOI: 10.5755/j01.eis.1.14.26384
  • Enhancement of Retail Consumer Loyalty in Latvia by Means of Social Media

    • Authors: Iveta Linina, Velga Vevere
      Pages: 80 - 89
      Abstract: Social media communication has become an important tool both in relying information to potential consumers, as well as in creating experience sharing opportunities. The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of’ social media communication on the loyalty formation in retailing. The tasks to be carried out are: (1) to research theoretical framework of social media communication and loyalty; (2) to work out methodology for empirical research; (3) to carry out research on consumers’ perception of retail stores online communication. Within the framework of the current study the authors employed a method of customer survey. Applying the non-probability snowball sampling method the questionnaire was distributed via e-mails and Facebook groups (n=327). The general population in this research  consisted of the economically active Latvia residents in 2020. The authors used 5-point Likert scale (1-low evaluation, 5 – very high evaluation). The SPSS program was used for this purpose, the following indicators were calculated: arithmetic mean (X ̅), Median (Me); Mode (Mo); Variation; Standard Deviation; Variation Coefficient. The research question posed in the article was the following: What role does social media play in enhancing consumer loyalty in retailing' Findings: 87% of all respondents have noticed the communication of Latvian retail store networks on social media and 60% of all respondents have chosen to follow the profile of social networks to one of them, which indicates the untapped opportunities of companies in this respect. Evaluating the communication of Latvian retail store chains, the arithmetic average is 2.68, but for communication on social media - 2.72.  It means that in order to increase these indicators, Latvian retail store chains must develop a communication strategy taking into account both the values of the target audience and the basic principles of building relationships with customers. The current research results can serve as grounds for the strategy development.
      PubDate: 2020-10-22
      DOI: 10.5755/j01.eis.1.14.26829
  • Between the state and the kin: one-person household social security in

    • Authors: Kristīne Rolle, Agita Lūse
      Pages: 90 - 102
      Abstract: One-person household is the dominant type of household in today’s Latvia. Research on kinship in contemporary Europe suggests that weak kinship ties are characteristic of institutionally strong countries that provide an individual with social security when he or she becomes incapacitated. However, the statistical data on Latvia show that of all household types, one-person households are the most exposed to the risk of poverty, especially those of people over 64 years of age. The article provides an insight into the ways in which the policies implemented by various political regimes in Latvia over the last one hundred years have promoted the formation of an economically independent individual, thus directly and indirectly weakening family and kinship ties. Drawing on our ethnographic data, we explore the situations when the state's welfare system no longer ensures an individual's social security: are family and kinship ties likely to be re-established in such circumstances' The fieldwork findings suggest that those whose next of kin needs additional assistance or care, face a dilemma: either to provide support to the vulnerable relative while compromising their own economic stability, or to delegate their responsibility for the relative to the state. However, our data also show: while the state does not guarantee social security for some vulnerable groups, its social insurance system nevertheless has to a great degree impacted the sense of moral obligation in intergenerational relationships.
      PubDate: 2020-10-22
      DOI: 10.5755/j01.eis.1.14.26375

    • Authors: Pawel Mlodkowski
      Pages: 104 - 116
      Abstract: The purpose of the study is to discuss consequences of pandemic events for estimating the economic growth mechanism in the European Union. The most recent COVID-19 growing death toll has drawn the attention to impact such unexpected, but not unprecedented situations have on society and economy. In the current study the focus is on estimating economic effects of a disease, which reduces the working population. It turns out that the prominent basic production function framework may fail to deliver consistent results, when analyzing transformation of labor and capital into output in all 27-EU Member countries. This is because of asymmetric impact of COVID-19 on each individual EU-country. A historical perspective on epidemic death toll shows that Europe experienced numerous periods of a similar demographic developments. Those were individual countries, regions, or most recently the whole continent (and the world) that suffered from outbreaks of a deadly disease. The paper offers a meta-analysis, and draws from numerous sources to provide as wide as possible coverage on population-decreasing events. Due to similarity in their economic consequences, information about death toll of wars and genocide cases supplements the narration. Conclusions draw the attention to the fact that in the post-COVID-19 era any growth related studies will suffer from the lack of time series that describe the new underlying transformation mechanism that is responsible for generating the GDP at country and EU-level. The contribution of the paper is in offering a point of reference for any future studies that will try to assess pandemic effects in regard to economic growth, economies of scale or any other production function framework element.
      PubDate: 2020-10-22
      DOI: 10.5755/j01.eis.1.14.26367
  • The shift of the policy towards FDI in European Union: determinants and

    • Authors: Aleksandra Borowicz
      Pages: 117 - 124
      Abstract: Since 2016, a change in the policy on foreign direct investment (FDI) can be observed in the European Union. This change was significantly influenced by global processes, which resulted in a particular interest in direct investments carried out by transnational corporations from China, India or Russia. In particular, countries such as France, Germany and the United Kingdom, observed a significant increase in the number of mergers and acquisitions of domestic enterprises in 2010-2016. Therefore, in 2018 the process of creating a European Screening Mechanism was initiated, which entered into force in March 2019. At the same time, at the end of 2019, the outbreak of a COVID-19 virus pandemic stopped the process of further globalization by breaking global supply chains, and by restricting the flow of goods, people and capital. Keywords: FDI, screening mechanism, European Union, globalization, COVID-19.
      PubDate: 2020-10-22
      DOI: 10.5755/j01.eis.1.14.27556
  • International Finance Trilemma as a Tool for Balanced Development of an

    • Authors: Ilja Arefjevs, Olga Bogdanova
      Pages: 125 - 136
      Abstract: International financial trilemma is a challenge of balancing the governmental policies ensuring healthy financial sector for facilitating economic development of a country. The scientific purpose of the paper is to develop a model of the international financial trilemma, defining the three key pillars of the international financial trilemma, the corresponding relevant metrics of economy, as well as describing expansion of financial technology as a disruptive element on a trilemma balance. Taking into account the experience of other researches of trilemma concept, analogically to the Energy Trilemma index, the authors developed the trilemma concept for the financial sector. The paper proposes determining the Financial trilemma index basing it on the following pillars: financial stability, financial inclusion and transparency. The authors analyse FinTech services as disruptive element affecting the International Financial trilemma index.  As statistical basis of the financial trilemma and its building blocks the set of data from publicly available databases, such as the Global Competitiveness index, the Financial Development index, Global Findex and Doing Business is determined. The generally accepted quantitative and qualitative methods of economic science, inter alia comparative analysis, parameter estimation, grouping, economically mathematical modelling, synthesis, inductive, deductive and logically constructive methods have been used for the research. The financial trilemma index could be used as a tool for modelling an impact assessment of planned policy actions, as well as for developing determined steps for rising values of particular trilemma elements.
      PubDate: 2020-10-22
      DOI: 10.5755/j01.eis.1.14.26318

    • Authors: Agata Maria Gorniak
      Pages: 137 - 145
      Abstract: The main objective of the paper is to examine the potential factors which, according to the literature, may be impacting the structure of exports by allowing more exports from high and medium-high research and development intensive sectors. In the paper, particular emphasis is put on the foreign direct investment’s role in export advancement. Apart from foreign direct investment inflows, the research examines the impact of trade openness, gross capital formation, gross domestic savings together with research and development and human capital related factors, on the phenomenon. The research group consists of eight Central – Eastern European economies, accessed to the European Union in 2004. The statistical data utilized in the research is retrieved from commonly available statistical databases. In the study ordinary least squares panel data regression is applied. Three separate models are estimated for three varying time frames (within the years 2000 – 2018), depending on the variables data availability. Obtained results suggest a strong positive correlation between trade openness, investment factors (savings and capital formation) expressed in growth rates, and high and medium-high research and development intensive manufacturing exports. Even though foreign direct investment inflows are identified as statistically significant in two of the estimated models, the coefficient for the variable is low. The results are partially consistent with the literature on the topic. Trade openness and foreign direct investment inflows have both been identified as relevant factors in the previously conducted studies. In contrary to previous findings, the investment-related macroeconomic factors, such as gross domestic savings and gross capital formation appear as significant variables. Also, in the estimated models, factors related to research and development have no relevance.   Keywords: Foreign Direct Investment, International Business, International Trade, Exports, High Technology Exports
      PubDate: 2020-10-22
      DOI: 10.5755/j01.eis.1.14.27557
  • Tax Incentives as a Part of Governments’ Applied Mechanisms for the
           Third Pension Pillar in Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania

    • Authors: Evija Dundure, Biruta Sloka
      Pages: 146 - 155
      Abstract: The main objective of the improvements to public pension systems is to create a balanced three-pillar pension structure and increase public accountability for pension capital formation. Most pension systems are based on the first two pension system pillars – mandatory contributions in the state compulsory unfunded pension scheme and the state-funded or accumulated pension scheme in pension funds. However, the pension level adequacy has been reached by adding the third pension system pillar - voluntary investments in private pension funds. Governments are private pension system policymakers by defining a legal framework and providing tax incentives for voluntary investments for retirement. In the Baltic countries – Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania, the third pension pillar is at an early stage of its development, and as such, should be particularly stimulated. This research focuses on the tax incentives utilized by the governments of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania and aims to ascertain and compare the effectiveness of the tax incentive policies applied to the third pension pillar by the governments of the three Baltic countries. It questions the effectiveness of the incentive mechanisms the governments of the Baltic countries have chosen, which include involving most of the population in the private pension saving programs. The research methods used are the analysis of scientific publications on the previously conducted research, acts of legislation of Baltic countries, as well as an analytical study of statistical data on the development of voluntary pension fund contributions in Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. The research results indicate that the tax incentives are the mechanism to motivate the population to create savings in the third pension pillar in all three Baltic countries. However, Latvia being the country with the highest coverage rate of the third pension pillar has the most unfavorable conditions for creating savings. There are no tax incentives on returns on investment and tax-exempt withdrawals in Latvia, while Estonia and Lithuania have all positions tax-exempt. A more detailed analysis of the tax incentives at the contribution stage explains the underdeveloped third pension pillar in Lithuania, as Lithuanian personal income tax reliefs are targeted at low or medium wages or gross income. The research has highlighted the impact of tax incentives on voluntary savings for retirement in the three Baltic countries, opening a discussion about the effectiveness of governments' applied mechanisms.
      PubDate: 2020-10-22
      DOI: 10.5755/j01.eis.1.14.26379
  • Trade in Services in the European Union

    • Authors: Ines Kersan Skabic
      Pages: 156 - 171
      Abstract: Services dominate in creation of value added in national economies, especially in developed countries and they have growing trend in developing (emerging) economies. They cover four modes of trade (according to GATS), that makes their calculation complex and a part of services is hidden in the value of production/trade of manufactured goods. Their importance in foreign trade, despite the increasing trend, is still three times smaller that the value of trade in goods, but also it is under-valuated. This paper explains specific characteristics of services foreign trade, provides analysis of structure of services trade but also pointed the limitation of wider trade expansion (i.e. liberalization of trade). The analysis employ statistical tools and secondary data and covers the EU member states. The EU is very important player in the global arena and it is net exporter of services, where richer member states are oriented to the other business sector while the Central, East and South members are focused to travel. The EU members mainly traded between them selves. Services trade faced higher barriers in cross-border trade. OECD measures these restriction by Services Trade Restrictiveness Index. EU common market provides better condition for the intra- EEA trade in services even the protection differs between countries and it is more liberal for computer and telecom sectors while in accounting services and legal services the protection is high due to national legislations.
      PubDate: 2020-10-22
      DOI: 10.5755/j01.eis.1.14.25587
  • Public Financing Support Options to Micro-Enterprises for Innovation

    • Authors: Ilona Beizitere, Ieva Brence, Biruta Sloka
      Pages: 172 - 184
      Abstract: Innovation related to the technological advances of entrepreneurship are essential in Industry 4.0. The availability of sufficient funding is one of the factors promoting innovations in companies. Therefore the issue of access to finance remains relevant. The study investigates the availability of public financial support for micro-enterprises - the largest enterprise category in Latvia (approximately 94%), focusing on those for whom the introduction of innovations is essential for their growth. In an ad hoc survey of companies registered in Latvia in nationally defined sectors, entrepreneurs disclosed their sources of funding over the three-year period: 2015-2017. Valid responses from 2511 companies, of them 1879 were micro-enterprises, revealed not only the diversity of their financial sources but also the reluctance of external financiers to support companies willing to innovate. Out of the micro-enterprises surveyed, which required new or additional funding during the three-year period in question, 21% stated that the goal of funding was “the development and introduction of new products or services”. Innovation as an important factor was stated by 28%  micro-enterprises. According to the data processed by SPSS, micro-enterprises still prefer internal financing (64%) among many sources, whereas only 11% of the respondents used public funding. The micro-enterprises, for which innovation is important, relied solely on internal finance (65%), while public support was used by 13%. Based on the results of the study of Latvian companies, the need to improve the availability of financing for micro-enterprises is highlighted by creating a targeted\external funding offer in the form of a financial instrument based on public finance support.
      PubDate: 2020-10-22
      DOI: 10.5755/j01.eis.1.14.26569
  • Requirements for CFO Within The Business Model

    • Authors: Rosita Zvirgzdina, Helena Skadina, Alida Vane
      Pages: 186 - 191
      Abstract: The concept “Business modeling” has become commonplace in everyday business due to the rapidly changing market situation, fierce competition and digital transformation trend that affects every business. Other player can appear unexpectedly and bring a new business model to the market, typically fueled by innovative technologies and ideas, and render everyone else obsolete. To remain successful shifting of business environment is required as well as an updated management capability not only to modernize processes, but also to select, empower and appreciate workforce. One of the key roles in any business organization plays the Chief Financial Officer (CFO) that contributes and determines the wellbeing of the business. The role has become more important because of the new technological influence and therefore is more needed by business organizations. This paper aims to formulate requirements for CFO for companies that are going to establish a new business model or to reinvent the existing one. The result of this paper forms the basis for conclusions about the role of the CFO while modelling business, contribution to the modelling success and about requirements that the CFO has to meet.
      PubDate: 2020-10-22
      DOI: 10.5755/j01.eis.1.14.27558
  • Idea Management System Application Type Impact on Idea Quantity

    • Authors: Elina Mikelsone, Aivars Spilbergs, Tatjana Volkova, Elita Liela, Janis Frisfelds
      Pages: 192 - 206
      Abstract: Idea management system application considers idea quantity as the key to idea management success. The purpose of this paper is to examine how different idea management system application types impact idea management system results. The authors conducted empirical research by conducting a survey based on adaptive structuration theory framework. In the research paper, an analysis of 447 responses was included. The study shows how to separate idea management system application types impact by idea quantity The target group consisting of commercially available web-based idea management system applied enterprises bias present in the survey research may limit the generalisability of the results. The study contributes to the discussion about the idea management system application type impact on the idea management results by showing that different idea management system application types lead to different idea management results.
      PubDate: 2020-10-22
      DOI: 10.5755/j01.eis.1.14.26381
  • Factors Contributing to the Development of E-Commerce by the Degree of use
           in Latvia

    • Authors: Inga Jekabsone, Ina Gudele
      Pages: 207 - 216
      Abstract: Several studies have recognized that e-commerce can have a positive impact on any type of business, making enterprises work faster, more efficient and more economical. Taking into account different degrees of e-commerce use, it is important to analyse the factors contributing to the development of the e-commerce in respective enterprises, so decision-makers can develop the strategy accordingly. Purpose of the study is to analyse the factors contributing to the development of the e-commerce in Latvia by the degree of use of e-commerce. The tasks of the study: 1) to review theoretical background of factors contributing to the development of the e-commerce depending on the degree of use of e-commerce in the enterprise; 2) to review existing research of factors contribution to the development of the e-commerce in EU; 3) to analyse the results of conducted survey among Latvian entrepreneurs in context of factors contributing to the development of the e-commerce depending on the degree of use of e-commerce in the respective enterprises. Research methods used in preparation of the paper: scientific publication and previous conducted research results analysis, analysis of the results of the survey on Latvian entrepreneurs. Survey results are analysed using indicators of descriptive statistics (indicators of central tendency or location - arithmetic mean, mode, median), indicators of variability (indicators of dispersion - range, standard deviation and standard error of mean), analysis of variance - ANOVA are used. The survey showed that there are significant differences in the assessment of the groups of factors “Social factors” and “Regulatory factors” between entrepreneurs who take full advantage of e-commerce opportunities and those who do not use them at all. In order to promote the use of e-commerce possibilities, different trainings and programmes  are expected to be development to improve the  knowledge, skills and competences of  employers and employees  in the area of e-commerce.      
      PubDate: 2020-10-22
      DOI: 10.5755/j01.eis.1.14.26385
  • Contemporary Innovation Challenges – Future of Adoption Artificial
           Intelligence: Case of Estonia

    • Authors: Valeria Gavrilova, Natalie Aleksandra Gurvitsh-Suits
      Pages: 217 - 225
      Abstract: Nowadays artificial intelligence is gaining popularity and brings changes into everyday lives and business. Latest research outline various options and challenges related to the implementation of artificial intelligence in different fields (Garbuio&Lin, 2019; Kumar, 2019; Tambe 2019). It is obvious that its adoption will have a notable significant impact on certain industries. However, it also requires complete understanding and awareness of main constraints and benefits. The aim of the present research is to find out the possibilities of adoption of the artificial intelligence in accounting industry in case of Estonia and its impact on the role of the accountant in the future. The main research question focuses on whether Estonian accountants are aware of the new opportunities related to the implementation of artificial intelligence and their openness to these challenges.
      Authors conducted a survey among Estonian accounting professionals and the results revealed limited knowledge, with people being aware of the meaning but having little or no idea about the basic components of artificial intelligence and wide range of a potential application. During the research, it became obvious that only few companies in Estonia are already using artificial intelligence: among the main reasons of non-adoption are lack of experience, lack of qualified professionals and the general complexity.
      Authors believe that the results of this study provide a starting point for companies involved in providing various modern technical support for accounting industry and may contribute to the raising awareness and further development of active successful adoption of artificial intelligence in Estonia.
      PubDate: 2020-10-22
      DOI: 10.5755/j01.eis.1.14.26143
  • Marketing Communications of Latvian Social Enterprises from a Consumer

    • Authors: Kristīne Casno, Daina Šķiltere, Biruta Sloka
      Pages: 226 - 237
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is twofold - to contribute to the further understanding of social enterprises’ marketing by providing a consumers’ perspective on the content that social enterprises generate in order for them be to be able to better understand their strengths and weaknesses and to establish a reference point with regards the current situation to be able to compare and measure improvement in with regards social enterprise marketing in the future and, if needed, provide fact-based evidence to assist social enterprises in their call for support from public authorities. Among tasks of research are 1) analysis of recent scientific publications associate with social enterprises, their challenges in Europe and in Latvia and specifically with regards social enterprise marketing 2) analysis of online survey, filled out by 329 respondents and conducted by Kristīne Casno in 2019. For data anlysis such quantitative research methods were used as analysis of descriptive statistics (indicators or central tendency or location (arithmetic mean, mode, median), indicators or variability (range, standard deviation and standard error or mean), testing of statistical hypothesis with t-test and analysis or variance - ANOVA.
      Authors highlight that social enterprise consumers are supportive of social enterprises and their cause and are also interested in the marketing content provided, however, the full potential of word-of-marketing is not used, suggesting that there is significant room for improvement. With regards marketing communication content, social enterprises are most appreciated by consumers for aesthetic and interesting content. On the drawback side – the greatest challenges for social enterprises are to provide content on a regular basis and achieve visibility. Since the comparatively lower evaluations for aforementioned characteristics may be directly associated with lack of financial resources and skills,
      Authors recommend greater support from Ministry of Welfare of Republic of Latvia for development of support programs with the aim of increasing the marketing skills of social enterprises as well as promoting close win-win cooperation between commercial outdoor, print and online media holders and social enterprises (e.g. in the form of subsidized advertisement spaces while they are not used by commercial clients in return for lower taxes) in order to help social enterprises reach higher visibility.
      PubDate: 2020-10-22
      DOI: 10.5755/j01.eis.1.14.26373
  • Restrictive Factors for Micro-Company Growth in Latvia

    • Authors: Ilona Beizitere, Biruta Sloka, Ieva Brence
      Pages: 238 - 248
      Abstract: Every country is interested in entrepreneurship development as entrepreneurs form the basis for economic development, so academic researchers are looking for supportive and restrictive factors in business development. In Latvia, the majority of companies are micro and small enterprises. The aim of the paper is to investigate the restrictive factors related to the successful development of the company in Latvia, depending on the number of employees. Tasks of the research - evaluate the limiting factors influencing the development of micro-companies; find the most important factors that limit the involvement of employees and experienced managers in companies in the country, regions; compare the impact on companies by number of employees. Applied research methods: scientific publications and previous research analysis; survey of companies related of different aspects of business development; deeper analysis on factors limiting entrepreneurship development. The general population consists of all active companies registered in the Register of Enterprises of the Republic of Latvia in strategically important sectors. A questionnaire of our survey was developed for companies selected at random and the replies of 2511 companies, of which 1879 were micro-enterprises, were considered valid. The technical fieldwork of the survey was conducted by the Marketing and Public Opinion Research Center (SKDS) (interviewers conducted as CAWI - computerized web interviews). Data analysis was performed by SPSS, the main indicators of descriptive statistics were used for the analysis of survey data: indicators of central tendency or location - arithmetic mean, mode, median; indicators of variability - standard deviation, standard error of mean, range; cross-tabulations by regions and by number of employees, analysis of variance - ANOVA and factor analysis with varimax rotation. The results point to the main restrictions on business growth: increase of expenses on labour or production and unavailability of qualified employees or experienced managers.
      PubDate: 2020-10-22
      DOI: 10.5755/j01.eis.1.14.26567
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