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POLITICAL SCIENCE (991 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 5     

Showing 201 - 281 of 281 Journals sorted alphabetically
Defense & Security Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Democracy & Education     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Democratic Communiqué     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Democratic Theory     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Democratization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Democrazia e diritto     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Demokratie und Geschichte     Hybrid Journal  
Demokratizatsiya: The Journal of Post-Soviet Democratization     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Der Donauraum     Hybrid Journal  
Desafíos     Open Access  
Development and Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62)
Digest of Middle East Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Digital Government : Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Diplomacy & Statecraft     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Diritto, immigrazione e cittadinanza     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Discurso     Open Access  
Dissent     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Diversité urbaine     Full-text available via subscription  
Dynamics of Asymmetric Conflict: Pathways toward terrorism and genocide     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Earth System Governance     Open Access  
East European Jewish Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
East European Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
East/West : Journal of Ukrainian Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Eastern African Literary and Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal  
Eastern Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Economia Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Ecopolítica     Open Access  
eJournal of eDemocracy and Open Government     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Ekonomi, İşletme, Siyaset ve Uluslararası İlişkiler Dergisi     Open Access  
El Banquete de los Dioses     Open Access  
El Cotidiano     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Electoral Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Em Pauta : Teoria Social e Realidade Contemporânea     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Encuentro     Open Access  
Entramados y Perspectivas     Open Access  
Environment and Planning C : Politics and Space     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43)
Environmental Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Espacios Públicos     Open Access  
Estudios digital     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Estudios Políticos     Open Access  
Estudios Políticos     Open Access  
Estudos Avançados     Open Access  
Ethical Theory and Moral Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Ethics & International Affairs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Ethics & Global Politics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Ethics in Science and Environmental Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Éthique publique     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Études internationales     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Eunomia. Rivista semestrale del Corso di Laurea in Scienze Politiche e delle Relazioni Internazionali     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Eureka Street     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
European Integration Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
European Journal for Security Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
European Journal of American Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
European Journal of Cultural and Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal  
European Journal of Government and Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
European Journal of International Relations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63)
European Journal of Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60)
European Journal of Political Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 88)
European Journal of Political Research : Political Data Yearbook     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
European Journal of Politics and Gender     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
European Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal  
European Political Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
European Politics and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
European Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
European Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
European Union Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
European Yearbook of Minority Issues Online     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Eurostudia     Open Access  
Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Evaluation and Program Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Evidence Base : A journal of evidence reviews in key policy areas     Open Access  
Exchange : The Journal of Public Diplomacy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
E|mporium     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Fascism     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Federal Governance     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Federalism-E     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Fédéralisme Régionalisme     Open Access  
FEU Academic Review     Open Access  
Fijian Studies: A Journal of Contemporary Fiji     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Financial Times     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38)
Foreign Policy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 55)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Foreign Policy Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Foro Interno. Anuario de Teoría Política     Open Access  
French Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Frontiers in Political Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Gaceta Laboral     Open Access  
Genocide Studies International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Geographische Zeitschrift     Full-text available via subscription  
Geopolítica(s). Revista de estudios sobre espacio y poder     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Geopolitics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Geopolitics under Globalization     Open Access  
German Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
German Politics and Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Germinal : Marxismo e Educação em Debate     Open Access  
Gestão & Regionalidade     Open Access  
Ghana Journal of Development Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Ghana Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Global Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Global Change, Peace & Security: formerly Pacifica Review: Peace, Security & Global Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 417)
Global Discourse : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Current Affairs and Applied Contemporary Thought     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Global Environmental Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Global Governance: A Review of Multilateralism and International Organizations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 51)
Global Journal of Peace Research and Praxis     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Global Justice : Theory Practice Rhetoric     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Media Journal : African Edition     Open Access  
Global Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Global Societies Journal     Open Access  
Global Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Global South, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Global War Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Göç Dergisi     Full-text available via subscription  
Good Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Governare la paura. Journal of interdisciplinary studies     Open Access  
Government and Opposition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Granì     Open Access  
Greek Political Science Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Group Processes & Intergroup Relations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Hague Journal of Diplomacy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Hegel Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Helsinki Monitor     Hybrid Journal  
Hic Rhodus : Crisis capitalista, polémica y controversias     Open Access  
Historia i Polityka     Open Access  
History of Communism in Europe     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Hommes & Migrations     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
HONAI : International Journal for Educational, Social, Political & Cultural Studies     Open Access  
Horyzonty Polityki     Open Access  
Human Relations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Human Rights Case Digest     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68)
Human Rights Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 77)
Human Rights Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Icelandic Review of Politics and Administration     Open Access  
Idäntutkimus     Open Access  
identidade!     Open Access  
Identities : Journal for Politics, Gender and Culture     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Identities: Global Studies in Culture and Power     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Identity Papers : A Journal of British and Irish Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IDP. Revista de Internet, Derecho y Politica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ids Practice Papers     Hybrid Journal  
IKAT : The Indonesian Journal of Southeast Asian Studies     Open Access  
Indes : Zeitschrift für Politik und Gesellschaft     Hybrid Journal  
Index on Censorship     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
India Quarterly: A Journal of International Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
India Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Indialogs : Spanish Journal of India Studies     Open Access  
Indonesia Prime     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Journal of Community Engagement     Open Access  
Innovation Policy and the Economy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Innovations : Technology, Governance, Globalization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Insight on Africa     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
InSURgência : revista de direitos e movimentos sociais     Open Access  
Intelligence & National Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Interdisciplinary Political Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Interdisziplinäre Zeitschrift für Südasienforschung     Open Access  
Interest Groups & Advocacy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Interfaces Brasil/Canadá     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 73)
International Area Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Communication of Chinese Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Critical Thought     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Gramsci Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Interactions: Empirical and Theoretical Research in International Relations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal : Canada's Journal of Global Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of African Renaissance Studies - Multi-, Inter- and Transdisciplinarity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Area Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Children's Rights     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
International Journal of Diplomacy and Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of E-Politics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of East Asian Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Electronic Government Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Environmental Policy and Decision Making     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Group Tensions     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Human Rights     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62)
International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 592)
International Journal of Intercultural Relations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Peace Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Politics, Culture, and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Press/Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
International Journal of Sexuality and Gender Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
International Journal of Social Quality     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal on Minority and Group Rights     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Migration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
International Migration Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 181)
International Negotiation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
International NGO Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Organization     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 111)
International Peacekeeping     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 481)
International Political Science Abstracts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
International Political Science Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 98)
International Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
International Quarterly for Asian Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Regional Science Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Relations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
International Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
International Review of Public Policy     Open Access  
International Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 81)

  First | 1 2 3 4 5     

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
European Review
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.131
Number of Followers: 19  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1062-7987 - ISSN (Online) 1474-0575
Published by Cambridge University Press Homepage  [387 journals]
  • ERW volume 28 issue 4 Cover and Front matter
    • PubDate: 2020-08-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1062798720001222
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 4 (2020)
  • ERW volume 28 issue 4 Cover and Back matter
    • PubDate: 2020-08-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1062798720001234
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 4 (2020)
  • University Rankings: Quality, Size and Permanence
    • Authors: Adrian Bejan; Umit Gunes, Bahri Sahin
      Pages: 537 - 558
      Abstract: Why are the rankings of universities not changing' Why is the demographic composition of top universities the same' In this review, these questions are addressed based on physics. Although size matters, higher ranks do not correlate with bigger sizes. The higher ranks belong to universities that have more authors who receive more citations. Citations are a record of how ideas spread from the source to the whole globe, in accordance with the physics of the logistics S-curve phenomenon. The spreading occurs in three periods – slow, fast, slow – and the population served by each idea during its lifetime depends on the size of the first big channel that carries the idea. An idea from a famous university has a larger spreading territory around it than an idea from a lesser-known university. Creativity is key: rankings come from visibility through citations, and, in turn, visibility for an author is aided by the higher visibility of the university. The demographic composition of the top universities is the same: for instance, the percentage of female authors and authors of East Asian origin among the 200 most cited authors does not vary significantly over the 20 highest ranked universities.
      PubDate: 2020-08-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S106279872000006X
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 4 (2020)
  • A Canon' Yes, But What are We Going to Do with It'
    • Authors: Jan Baetens; Theo D’haen
      Pages: 559 - 564
      Abstract: This article deals with the age-old problem of the literary canon, from a perspective that tries to supersede the still dominating questions of nation building or mainstream versus minorities culture. Taking stock from the observation that recent debates have moved the question to the field of the creative industries as well as that of cultural policy, it asks instead questions on the actual use and use-value of the canon, which is here reframed from the point of view of both writers and policy makers.
      PubDate: 2020-08-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1062798720000174
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 4 (2020)
  • Artistic Work as Symbolic Capital
    • Authors: Barbara Orel
      Pages: 565 - 572
      Abstract: Female artists and performers are at the top of the scale of precarious work relations in post-Fordist society. Their work is undervalued and seldom paid. This article deals with the issues arising from the controversial relations between the cultural, social and economic value of their work. How to re-valorize artistic work performed by women' In providing the answer to this central question, the value of artworks will be defined in terms of Bourdieu’s concept of symbolic capital and in the context of Marx’s theory of commodity fetishism. The article argues that a contemporary alternative can be sought in the new chain of value accumulation, in which the surplus-value of the artwork is created by shifting its symbolic value into a direct relationship to the material resources. This point will be illustrated with the art projects presented at City of Women, an international festival of contemporary arts based in Ljubljana, Slovenia.
      PubDate: 2020-08-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1062798720000113
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 4 (2020)
  • The Political Economy of Restructuring in Science and Technology in Turkey
    • Authors: Itir Ozer-Imer; S. Tugrul Imer
      Pages: 573 - 586
      Abstract: This study aims to analyse the policies with respect to, and structuring of, science and technology in Turkey from a historical perspective, and to evaluate the restructuring currently going on, from the viewpoint of institutions on science and technology. Such restructuring has undergone many transformations throughout Turkish history, and has been influenced directly by both internal and external dynamics. From the examples of other countries, we learn that success in high technology production results from well-established and sound industrial and scientific infrastructures. It would be useful to set forth such a vision for Turkey as well.
      PubDate: 2020-08-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1062798720000083
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 4 (2020)
  • Accademia+Arcadia+as+a+Legacy+of+the+Olympic+Idea+between+the+Seventeenth+and+the+Eighteenth+Centuries&rft.title=European+Review&rft.issn=1062-7987&łodarczyk&rft.aufirst=Arkadiusz&łodarczyk&">Games in the Accademia Arcadia as a Legacy of the Olympic Idea between the
           Seventeenth and the Eighteenth Centuries
    • Authors: Arkadiusz Włodarczyk; Mateusz Rozmiarek
      Pages: 587 - 598
      Abstract: In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries a specific type of games took place in the Roman Academy of Arcadia. These games were a major cultural event in the academy and were a type of poetry competition which, in many aspects, was similar to the ancient Olympic Games. Therefore, they are a perfect example of the heritage of the Olympic spirit of the given era.
      PubDate: 2020-08-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1062798720000186
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 4 (2020)
  • The Ethos of Science and the Perception of the Polish System of Financing
    • Authors: Marzena Feldy; Barbara Kowalczyk
      Pages: 599 - 616
      Abstract: The reforms of the Polish system of science emphasise the importance of research and the international activity of Polish scientists. Optimal allocation of funds, taking into account the needs of researchers, is one of the current key objectives of research policy in Poland. The aim of this article is to discover values that Polish researchers identify with as well as defining their approach to the current system of research financing in Poland. The results presented here come from a nationwide study implemented at the turn of 2016. In total, we surveyed 800 randomly selected researchers. The interviewees had at least a PhD degree and were employed in Polish research institutions. The results of the study confirm that the researchers who identify with different ethoses of science have varied approaches to the Polish system of research financing. The scientists who take the least favourable view of the system are those who identify with the academic tradition. Compared with the scientists with deeply-rooted academic values, those in favour of a post-academic ethos more appreciate the available funding opportunities as well as the features of competition-based research funding. They also more often claim that the rules of financing research institutions in Poland have a positive impact on the development of science.
      PubDate: 2020-08-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1062798720000101
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 4 (2020)
  • Research Infrastructures in Europe: The Hype and the Field
    • Authors: Olof Hallonsten
      Pages: 617 - 635
      Abstract: Research Infrastructures (RIs) are tools for scientific research that have received increased attention in science policy in Europe in recent years, including the launch of specific governance bodies and a structured process of prioritization and organization of RI projects in the making. But there is no commonly accepted definition of what RIs are, and the category is both very varied and lacks historical roots. This article provides a historical contextualization of this policy area and discusses, in some detail, different ways of categorizing the 60 RIs identified by EU-level governance bodies as strategically important for Europe as a whole. Showing that the concept of RIs is a political construct with little analytical value for assessing the role and function of RIs in science and innovation systems, the article paves the way for more conceptually and analytically stringent studies of the politics of RIs in Europe.
      PubDate: 2020-08-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1062798720000095
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 4 (2020)
  • Artistic Research in the SATORI Common Ethical Framework
    • Authors: Lucille Holmes
      Pages: 636 - 647
      Abstract: It is well known that academic research which includes human participants undergoes an ethical review which, in many countries today, includes all academic disciplines and not only medical science. But what about those disciplines with the least experience of ethical codes for research, such as the visual and performing arts' How are they defined and positioned in ethical codes and guidelines that are intended to apply to all disciplines' What are the challenges to ethical frameworks which aim to be inclusive of the visual and performing arts' This article examines the European Commission-funded SATORI project (Stakeholders Acting Together On the ethical impact assessment of Research and Innovation) in its aim to produce the first comprehensive, international standard for the ethical assessment of research in all fields including the arts.
      PubDate: 2020-08-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1062798720000125
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 4 (2020)
  • Oxford University and Globalisation: Rebranding the Dreaming Spires
    • Authors: Douglas Mark Ponton
      Pages: 648 - 667
      Abstract: Oxford currently finds itself in the process of an upheaval, provoked by the need to respond to the inroads made by globalising forces, which require all British universities to take on some of the characteristics of business organisations. Its distinguished academic reputation can no longer be entrusted to word of mouth, but instead the university must compete with other similar institutions through advertising and an energetic policy of rebranding. The principal communicative genre involved in this rebranding is the website, and this article explores the semiotic construction of webpages relating to Oxford’s ‘international mission’ in which, it is suggested, a covert attempt to attract foreign students is presented in the guise of a text whose ostensible purpose is to provide information.
      PubDate: 2020-08-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1062798720000150
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 4 (2020)
  • Education and Social Participation of Polish Youth
    • Authors: Alina Szczurek-Boruta
      Pages: 668 - 677
      Abstract: Based on two studies carried out in the school years 2003/2004 and 2016/2017, this article looks into what knowledge and research experience young Poles have concerning education and the social participation of Polish youngsters. Referring to Robert Havighurst’s concept of developmental tasks and Jerzy Modrzewski’s concept of social participation, the author of the current paper shows Polish youth to be deficient in knowledge of how to fulfil life’s tasks and participate in society, and of the duties of education in the field of shaping and activating social and public engagement. These deficiencies show that the Polish school system is dominated by education detached from practice and that learners are not prepared for undertaking adult social roles through active participation in public life. This lack results from a process of legitimizing, which ensures ‘the loyalty of the masses’ and perpetuates existing cultural patterns without co-participation in social or public life. The ensuing analysis provides educators with knowledge of the developmental needs of Polish youth, makes the numerous determinants of developmental tasks more transparent, and allows for specifying the results of socialization processes (including educational socialization).
      PubDate: 2020-08-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1062798720000162
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 4 (2020)
  • Capacities for the Development of Creative Capital in Lithuanian Counties
    • Authors: Katarzyna Szara; Bogusław Ślusarczyk
      Pages: 678 - 692
      Abstract: The concept of a creative class was introduced by Richard Florida in 2002 in his book The Rise of the Creative Class. The creative class consists of people involved in occupations recognised as inventive. This study is designed to identify capacities for the development of creative capital in the counties of Lithuania. Florida’s methodology for his creative model refers to the three powers of talent, technology and tolerance, which are determinants of development. The present assessment is based on generally available data acquired from the Statistical Yearbook of Lithuania. It takes into account information related to all the counties of the Republic of Lithuania. The accumulated data described are, at a relative level, the areas of talent, tolerance, technology and cultural amenities.
      PubDate: 2020-08-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1062798720000137
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 4 (2020)
  • The Selective Harmonization Impact of the Coordination Policy
    • Authors: Magdalena Skowron-Kadayer
      Pages: 693 - 706
      Abstract: The strong interdependence of Member States’ legal orders was the reason why Member States decided for coordination and for monitoring each other’s legislative activity. Over the years, the Contracting States and the Union legislature have established more and more obligations referring to national legislatures in this respect. The most common of these are the well-known duties to transpose directives into national law. These EU legal acts contain substantive law, rights and/or obligations for individuals, and thus encompass material provisions that can be subject to a transposition process. However, this EU-wide harmonization is not the only way to influence national legal orders. This article deals with the kind of formal obligations which compel Member States to consult EU institutions on draft laws during their national legislative procedures. These obligations are of a procedural nature, with the outcome of the consultation procedure resulting in substantive law. This article shows that in respect to the Information Directive, the Court applies different criteria of inapplicability than it does for ‘typical’ or harmonizing directives. The Court examines the breach of the obligation to notify contained in the Information Directive, particularly if the criterion constituting a ‘substantial procedural defect’ renders such technical regulations inapplicable so that they may not be enforced against individuals. The Information Directive used to enjoy great attention from legal scholars and national courts as well as the Court of Justice of the European Union. The latter confirmed the Information Directive’s direct applicability in several cases. Sometimes it did not heed opinions of the General Advocates and established settled case law in this regard. In other cases, however, it declined the enforcement of this directive in proceedings between private parties. The goal was to avoid disruptions of the internal market. It thus limited the impact of the unconditional procedural obligations resulting from the Information Directive to cases impacting the internal market only. This may have been necessary since obligations to consult constitute unconditional duties and all Member States’ draft laws are supposed to be notified with no difference as to whether they refer to the internal market or not. The wording of the obligations to consult EU institutions rules that the Member State issuing a new law may act and – if it so desires – enforce the new national law. However, the state is not completely free in doing so: it cannot conduct the legislative process from beginning to end.
      PubDate: 2020-08-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1062798720000149
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 4 (2020)
  • A Critique of Islamophobia – in Defence of European Culture
    • Authors: Aleš Črnič
      Pages: 707 - 720
      Abstract: The fear of refugees and migrants that has flooded Europe in the last few years emphasises the threat posed to contemporary European culture by the supposedly radically different Islamic culture. However, the roots of European Islamophobia reach far beyond that, all the way back to the Crusades; while Central and parts of Eastern Europe have mostly been feeding these roots with memories of Ottoman invasions. After inspecting these roots, this article sheds light on the irrefutable Christian sources of European culture, but also exposes other influences without which the culture would not exist today – especially the antecedent Greco-Roman antiquity, and the subsequent Renaissance, Humanism and Enlightenment. This outlines modern European and Western culture, characterised mainly by secularity, which is the precondition for religious freedom of non-Christian, alternative, and ‘non-native’ religions as well. This article emphasises that it would be difficult to include Islam amongst these latter religions since it has been an important contribution to the shaping of European culture for centuries. The old antagonisms between European and Islamic cultures therefore do not stem from their irreconcilable differences but from their resemblances – in other words: in the West, we are not afraid of Muslims because they are so radically different but because they are strikingly similar. The real threat to European and Western culture is therefore not Muslim migrants but a demagogic fuelling of the fears of the supposed Islamic threat.
      PubDate: 2020-08-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1062798720000071
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 4 (2020)
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Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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