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CRIMINAL LAW (28 journals)

Showing 1 - 26 of 26 Journals sorted alphabetically
American Criminal Law Review     Free   (Followers: 9)
Anuario Iberoamericano de Derecho Internacional Penal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bergen Journal of Criminal Law & Criminal Justice     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Berkeley Journal of Criminal Law     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Cambridge journal of evidence-based policing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60)
Derecho Penal y Criminología     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
European Criminal Law Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Howard Journal of Crime and Justice The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Indonesian Journal of Criminal Law     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Digital Crime and Forensics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Criminal Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 416)
Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 51)
Justitiële verkenningen     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Legal and Criminological Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Monatsschrift für Kriminologie und Strafrechtsreform / Journal of Criminology an Penal Reform     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Money Laundering Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
New Journal of European Criminal Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
PROCES     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Psychiatry, Psychology and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 459)
Revista Eletrônica de Direito Penal e Política Criminal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
SASI     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Sexual Abuse A Journal of Research and Treatment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Strafverteidiger     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Te Wharenga : New Zealand Criminal Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tidsskrift for strafferett     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Tijdschrift voor Criminologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Sexual Abuse A Journal of Research and Treatment
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.314
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 47  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1079-0632 - ISSN (Online) 1573-286X
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1143 journals]
  • Understanding the Latent Structure of Dynamic Risk: Seeking Empirical
           Constraints on Theory Development Using the VRS-SO and the Theory of
           Dynamic Risk
    • Authors: Mark E. Olver, David Thornton, Sarah M. Beggs Christofferson
      Abstract: Sexual Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      The present study is part of a larger project aiming to more closely integrate theory with empirical research into dynamic risk. It seeks to generate empirical findings with the dynamic risk factors contained in the Violence Risk Scale—Sexual Offense version (VRS-SO) that might constrain and guide the further development of Thornton’s theoretical model of dynamic risk. Two key issues for theory development are (a) whether the structure of pretreatment dynamic risk factors is the same as the structure of the change in the dynamic risk factors that occurs during treatment, and (b) whether theoretical analysis should focus on individual dynamic items or on the broader factors that run through them. Factor analyses and item-level prediction analyses were conducted on VRS-SO pretreatment, posttreatment, and change ratings obtained from a large combined sample of men (Ns = 1,289–1,431) convicted and treated for sexual offenses. Results indicated that the latent structure of pretreatment dynamic risk was best described by a three-factor model while the latent structure of change items was two dimensional. Prediction analyses examined the degree to which items were predictive beyond prediction obtained from the broader factor that they loaded on. Results showed that for some items, their prediction appeared to be largely carried by the three broad factors. In contrast, other items seem to operate as funnels through which the broader factors’ predictiveness flowed. Implications for theory development implied by these results are identified.
      Citation: Sexual Abuse
      PubDate: 2021-04-05T07:24:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10790632211002858
  • Why Men (Don’t) Buy Sex: Purity Moralization and Perceived Harm as
           Constraints on Prostitution Offending
    • Authors: Jasmine R. Silver, Justin T. Pickett, J. C. Barnes, Stephanie R. Bontrager, Dominique E. Roe-Sepowitz
      Abstract: Sexual Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      This study explores the moralization of purity and perceptions of harm as constraints on sex buying among men. Purchasing sex has long been considered an offense against public morality. While personal morality provides a powerful constraint on offending, and people may vary in the extent to which they experience moral intuitions about bodily and spiritual purity, research has so far neglected the role of purity moralization in understanding sex buying behavior. We hypothesize specifically that moral intuitions about purity constrain sex buying by leading people to perceive it as inherently wrong and by eliciting perceptions that sex buying is harmful to prostitutes. We test these hypotheses in a nationally representative survey of U.S. men (N = 2,525). Results indicate that purity moralization is associated with reduced sex buying, and that this relationship is mediated fully by perceptions of sex buying as harming prostitutes.
      Citation: Sexual Abuse
      PubDate: 2021-04-02T10:45:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10790632211002859
  • Public Attitudes Toward Institutional Child Sexual Abuse in Israel: The
           Case of Malka Leifer
    • Authors: Efrat Lusky-Weisrose, Amitai Marmor, Dafna Tener
      Abstract: Sexual Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      This study examined Israeli public perceptions of institutional child sexual abuse (CSA) in the Malka Leifer case. Leifer is a Jewish ultra-Orthodox former Melbourne school principal who is wanted in Australia on CSA charges, after fleeing to Israel. Based on a qualitative analysis of 2,451 reader comments retrieved from four Israeli news websites and six public Facebook pages, the findings indicated diverse attitudes toward the alleged perpetrator, the ultra-Orthodox Jewish community, state authorities, and victims. All parties involved were criticized, but less so the victims. Criticisms included sociopolitical and gender stereotypes, and demonic attributions. Positive comments were directed at all involved, even the alleged perpetrator, and especially the victims. The results demonstrate the need to better understand CSA portrayals in cyberspace, as they affect both public and policymaker attitudes, and the importance of fighting prejudicial discourse about the ultra-Orthodox community, especially in light of its changing attitudes regarding CSA.
      Citation: Sexual Abuse
      PubDate: 2021-03-17T12:35:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10790632211000368
  • A Systematic Review of Professionals’ Views About Community Management
           Policies for Individuals Convicted of Sexual Offenses
    • Authors: Larissa S. Christensen, Olga Sánchez de Ribera, Nicolás Trajtenberg
      Abstract: Sexual Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      A contentious criminal justice policy issue in recent times has been community management policies for individuals convicted of sexual offenses. This systematic review attained professionals’ views, areas of concern, and recommendations for community management policies. It went beyond the extant literature by exploring perceptions of heterogenous professional groups involved in the criminal justice system. Of the 25 studies, 12 were quantitative, nine qualitative, and four mixed methods, and included custodial and community correctional officers, probation officers, psychologists, police officers, prosecutors, lawmakers, and academics. Overall, professionals mostly supported the policies, but had less support for public registries and community notification. Four key issues associated with the policies were apparent: problems with actuarial risk assessment tools, difficulties accessing information with partner agencies, limited resources, and lack of education among the public. Within this, four recommendations were identified. These findings offer a valuable resource for researchers, along with government and policy professionals tasked with overseeing community management policies.
      Citation: Sexual Abuse
      PubDate: 2021-03-16T11:34:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10790632211000369
  • Is There an “Expert” Stranger Rapist'
    • Authors: Julien Chopin, Sarah Paquette, Eric Beauregard
      Abstract: Sexual Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      The concept of expertise applied to the criminal context assumes that offenders are driven by the abilities to both maximize the payoffs and minimize the risks associated with the crime-commission. This study tested the articulation between these two types of decisions taken by stranger rapists to successfully commit their crime. Specifically, this study aims to identify whether offenders whose modus operandi is indicative of criminal expertise are more likely to use forensic awareness strategies. Multivariate analyses conducted on 1,551 cases showed that stranger rapists who adopted behaviors indicative of expertise were more likely to use forensic awareness strategies to decrease the risk of police detection. Mixed associations were found between the number of forensic awareness strategies and their nature (i.e., protecting identity vs. destroying evidence) and rapists’ expertise, thus leading to a four-type theoretical classification of expertise: novice, bold, opportunistic, and expert stranger rapists. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
      Citation: Sexual Abuse
      PubDate: 2021-02-15T10:04:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1079063221993478
  • “I Would Report It Even If They Have Not Committed Anything”: Social
           Service Students’ Attitudes Toward Minor-Attracted People
    • Authors: Allyn Walker, Robert P. Butters, Erin Nichols
      Abstract: Sexual Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      This study explores future mental health providers’ assumptions about minor-attracted people, using data from a survey of 200 students preparing for entry into social service professions at a public university in the state of Utah. Survey results show that more than half of the students believe clients who identify themselves as pedophiles must be automatically reported to the police, which has implications for providers’ understandings about the term “pedophile,” as well as their knowledge of guidelines for when clinicians may break client confidentiality. This belief was not significantly affected by taking ethics courses, nor courses that discussed mandated reporting guidelines. Despite this finding, 91% of students did not believe that they would need to report a client who had attractions to children, but who had never committed a sexual offense against a child. The majority of students indicated a willingness to work with minor-attracted clients, and commonly indicated in comments that they wanted more information about MAPs and when to break client confidentiality in their programs of study. Study results indicate a need for education among social service students about these issues.
      Citation: Sexual Abuse
      PubDate: 2021-02-13T10:34:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1079063221993480
  • Trauma and Maternal Caregivers as Risks for Executive Function Deficits
           Among Youth Who Have Sexually Harmed
    • Authors: Adam Brown, Jamie Yoder, Kristina Fushi
      Abstract: Sexual Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Despite robust research linking trauma events to the commission of sexual harm by youth, the majority of victims do not become victimizers, imploring us to study potential interceding influences. Some research indicates that intermediary factors like attachment characteristics, trauma symptomatology, and executive functioning may be critical in understanding sexual harm committed by youth. This study explored relationships between trauma events, trauma symptoms, and attachment characteristics, and their relationship to executive functioning in a sample of 196 youth who committed sexual harm. Results revealed bivariate associations between trauma events, symptomatology, and maternal attachment characteristics. Structural equation modeling revealed numerous direct and indirect effects on the path to deficits in executive functioning, and that sexual abuse, above and beyond other forms of traumatic events, contributed to executive functioning deficits via trauma symptoms. The results are contextualized and implications are discussed.
      Citation: Sexual Abuse
      PubDate: 2021-02-04T09:14:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1079063220988289
  • Toward a Focused Conceptualization of Collateral Consequences Among
           Individuals Who Sexually Offend: A Systematic Review
    • Authors: Emma Hamilton
      Abstract: Sexual Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Despite speculation regarding the role of collateral consequences of sexual offender policies in psychosocial and criminogenic outcomes, there has been no empirical analysis in the extant literature examining these links. Lack of conceptual underpinnings and no psychometrically valid measure of collateral consequences has limited study in this area. A systematic literature review was conducted to assess the state of measurement in terms of conceptual and operational definitions, populations sampled, domains assessed, items used, and scale properties reported. Nineteen studies met inclusion criteria. Themes emerged regarding commonly assessed collateral consequences, the misconnect between legal and psychological conceptualizations of collateral consequences, the division between external (i.e., social) and internal (i.e., affective) collateral consequences, as well as a trend toward emphasizing the psychological damages (in addition to discrete experiences of loss) associated with a sexual offense. Findings are discussed, and a unifying definition of collateral consequences is proposed to guide future scale development.
      Citation: Sexual Abuse
      PubDate: 2020-12-25T06:56:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1079063220981906
  • A Crime Script Analysis of Child Sexual Exploitation Material Fora on the
    • Authors: Madeleine van der Bruggen, Arjan Blokland
      Abstract: Sexual Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      This study’s aim is to contribute to the knowledge on the steps involved in child sexual exploitation material (CSEM) crimes committed in Darkweb CSEM communities. Due to the anonymous and illegal nature of these communities, academic research is scarce. This study provides a crime script analysis of member communication data from four CSEM Darkweb fora obtained by law enforcement. For cross-validation, suspect interviews from a relevant case file were analyzed. A step-by-step description of the crime process, starting with the preparations necessary to access Darkweb CSEM fora and ending with the postactivity behaviors of exiting the crime scene and preventing detection, is given, focusing on the casts, activities, probs, and personal and contextual requirements at each stage. The findings highlight the scope of the CSEM problem, as well as the influence the Darkweb has on the way the crime is committed. Suitable targets for law enforcement intervention are discussed.
      Citation: Sexual Abuse
      PubDate: 2020-12-23T06:00:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1079063220981063
  • Disentangling Cognitions About Sexual Aggression
    • Authors: Chloe I. Pedneault, Chantal A. Hermann, Kevin L. Nunes
      Abstract: Sexual Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      We examined the extent to which evaluative attitudes toward sexual aggression are distinct from other cognitions regarding sexually aggressive behavior. Evaluative attitudes toward sexual aggression refer to the extent to which sexual aggression is viewed negatively or positively. In a secondary analysis of online survey data from 495 community men, exploratory factor analysis revealed that items from a measure of evaluative attitudes formed a distinct factor from items designed to measure cognitive distortions regarding rape. These findings suggest that evaluative attitudes may be distinct from cognitive distortions. Furthermore, hierarchical regression analyses indicated that evaluative attitudes explained unique variance in self-reported past sexual aggression, proclivity for sexually aggressive behavior, and likelihood to rape. If future research finds support for a causal relationship between evaluative attitudes and sexual aggression, well-established evaluative-attitude-change procedures from the social psychological literature could be adapted to address evaluative attitudes toward sexual aggression in interventions aimed at reducing sexually aggressive behavior.
      Citation: Sexual Abuse
      PubDate: 2020-12-23T05:41:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1079063220981066
  • The Victim–Offender Overlap in Sexual Offending: Exploring a
           Community-Based Sample of Young Adults in Hong Kong
    • Authors: Heng Choon (Oliver) Chan
      Abstract: Sexual Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      This study examines the overlap between sexual offending perpetration and victimization among 1,171 participants (18–40 years) in Hong Kong. Testing the theoretical propositions of several criminological theories (i.e., self-control, general strain, routine activity, and social learning), the participants’ prevalence of general, penetrative, and nonpenetrative sexual offending perpetration and victimization are explored. The findings indicated that sexual offending perpetration and victimization are generally positively correlated, and further tests using multivariate analyses confirmed the relationship between these two experiences. Less than 5% of the sample had both sexual offending perpetration and victimization experience. The results of logistic regression indicated that participants who engaged in sexual offending were 1.67 times more likely to fall prey to sexual victimization. Similar odds ratio (1.67 times) was true for sexual victimization in predicting sexual offending perpetration. A bivariate probit model confirmed the sexual victim–offender overlap, with the Spearman’s rho correlation from the unadjusted model suggesting significant overlap with general sexual offending (79%). Having a high level of risky sexual behavior was found to be a general risk factor for engaging in sexual offending behavior and for falling prey to sexual victimization.
      Citation: Sexual Abuse
      PubDate: 2020-12-23T05:41:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1079063220981889
  • Race, Ethnicity, and Punishment for Federal Sex Offenses: Changing
           Composition in Child Pornography and Sex Abuse Cases and Temporal
           Disparity in Sentencing Over Time
    • Authors: Richard D. Hartley, Alexander Testa, Erika Martinez
      Abstract: Sexual Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      In response to several high-profile violent offenses against children over the past two decades, Congress has enacted several pieces of legislation aimed at increasing punishment for those convicted of federal sex offenses. Coinciding with these enhanced penalties was a demographic shift in the composition of those prosecuted for these offenses. In the federal criminal justice system, sex offenses fall into two main categories: child pornography and sexual abuse. The racial and ethnic makeup of individuals charged for federal sex offenses has significantly changed over the past 15 years. The current study utilizes federal sentencing data from the United States Sentencing Commission for the years 2006 to 2017 to explore the nature of punishment for these offenses over time. We also employ multivariate analyses to examine differences in punishment for the two types of offenses and employ disaggregated analyses by offense type to examine temporal change in racial/ethnic disparities in sentence length and departures from the federal sentencing guidelines. Findings demonstrate that convicted individuals who are Black and Hispanic are receiving harsher sentences over time net of controls for other key predictors such as age, sex, criminal history, and presumptive sentence length. Implications for how legislatively enhanced penalties and changing demographic makeup of those convicted for these offenses may have introduced extra-legal disparity into federal sentencing are further discussed.
      Citation: Sexual Abuse
      PubDate: 2020-12-21T10:13:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1079063220981062
  • Sexual Offending Pathways and Chat Conversations in an Online Environment
    • Authors: Manon Kleijn, Stefan Bogaerts
      Abstract: Sexual Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      People from all over the world pay for live streaming video images of minors, also called webcam child sex tourism (WCST). Although there is an increase in research about online sexual offending, relatively few studies have investigated the approaches used by people who have committed WCST offenses (PWCST). In addition, these studies describe these approaches as active-orientated without mentioning an avoidant pathway. The aim of the study was to investigate whether PWCST use similar pathways as the four offending pathways identified by Ward and Hudson. Using qualitative thematic analysis, 195 cases of online chat conversations between PWCST and operators posing as a minor were analyzed. The Ward and Hudson pathways model was partially replicable. Evidence was found for an approach and avoidant pathway. The data also suggest three other sub-pathways and a mixed pathway. Most PWCST in this study used an approach pathway to immediately approach minors for sex, which provides important insight into the diverse nature of sexual grooming.
      Citation: Sexual Abuse
      PubDate: 2020-12-17T11:03:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1079063220981061
  • Adverse Childhood Experiences Among Sexual Offenders: Associations With
           Sexual Recidivism Risk and Psychopathology
    • Authors: Rachel E. Kahn, Krystine Jackson, Kerry Keiser, Gina Ambroziak, Jill S. Levenson
      Abstract: Sexual Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are increasingly recognized as a public health crisis. Cumulative effects of these experiences lead to a wide range of deleterious physical and psychological outcomes. Prior research has identified higher prevalence rates of ACEs and increased criminal behavior in samples of individuals who have committed sexual offenses. In a sample of civilly committed individuals who have committed sexual offenses (N = 317), we examined the prevalence of ACEs (cumulative scores and the two components of child harm and family dysfunction) and their association with risk for sexual recidivism and adult psychopathology. ACEs were much more prevalent in this sample compared with the general population and to lower risk samples of individuals who had committed sexual offenses. Although ACE scores were unrelated to risk for sexual recidivism, higher ACE scores were associated with increased risk of psychopathology, including anxiety disorders, depressive disorders, substance use disorders, and Antisocial Personality Disorder. ACEs related to family dysfunction were uniquely associated with Alcohol Use Disorder and the presence of a dual diagnosis of a paraphilia and personality disorder. Results suggest that higher risk individuals who commit sexual offenses may have greater need for trauma-informed models of care that recognize the effect of these experiences on their mental health and offense-related behavior.
      Citation: Sexual Abuse
      PubDate: 2020-11-07T07:43:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1079063220970031
  • Convergent and Predictive Associations of Three Measures of Pedophilic
    • Authors: Ian V. McPhail, Mark E. Olver, Terry P. Nicholaichuk, Andy Haynes
      Abstract: Sexual Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Pedophilic interest is a central risk factor for sexual offending against children. Multiple measures exist to assess pedophilic interest, and the present study aims to provide validity evidence for three of these measures in a sample of men convicted of sexual offenses. The association between a phallometric test for pedophilic interest, the Screening Scale for Pedophilic Interest (SSPI), and the sexual deviance factor of the Violence Risk Scale–Sexual Offense (VRS-SO) version was examined in a sample of 261 men who participated in sexual violence reduction services. The association between these measures and sexual recidivism, both as sole predictors and while controlling for static risk, was also assessed. The second aim of the study was to examine the validity of different methods for modeling the distribution of pedophilic interests, using phallometric test scores, based on the findings in recent taxometric research. The measures generally showed a positive and moderate relationship with each other and predicted sexual recidivism. However, the SSPI did not significantly predict sexual recidivism, and when controlling for static risk, only the VRS-SO Sexual Deviance factor significantly predicted this outcome. Modeling phallometric test scores continuously and trichotomously produced significant associations with sexual recidivism; however, only a trichotomous model with two levels remained predictive after controlling for static risk. The results are broadly supportive of measures of pedophilic interest and underscore the importance of appropriately modeling the latent structure of pedophilic interest.
      Citation: Sexual Abuse
      PubDate: 2020-10-27T06:19:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1079063220968042
  • Identifying the Coping Strategies of Nonoffending Pedophilic and
           Hebephilic Individuals From Their Online Forum Posts
    • Authors: Sarah J. Jones, Caoilte Ó Ciardha, Ian A. Elliott
      Abstract: Sexual Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Individuals who identify as pedophilic or hebephilic, and who do not offend, are increasingly visible in online discourse and as a focus of research. Developing knowledge about this population will offer insights into their psychological needs and, potentially, into the mechanisms and strategies individuals use to live offense-free lives. This study examined coping strategies among members of an online forum supporting pedohebephilic individuals who do not wish to offend. Forum users’ posts were analyzed using thematic analysis. Eleven themes emerged, which were classifiable into three superordinate themes around (a) the acceptance of pedophilia, (b) strategies to stay safe, and (c) dealing with sexual arousal. These themes offer insight into the varying strategies used by these individuals to cope with stress and/or to remain offense-free. Understanding whether these strategies are adaptive or maladaptive may help develop better support services for those who have not offended and may inform prevention efforts.
      Citation: Sexual Abuse
      PubDate: 2020-10-21T10:47:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1079063220965953
  • A Delicate Dance: Ethical and Systemic Issues in Providing Community-Based
           Sex Offender Treatment
    • Authors: Andrea M. Walker
      Abstract: Sexual Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Sex offender treatment providers are ethically responsible for their client’s treatment; yet they are morally bound to protect society. Those who treat court-mandated clients are required to violate client confidentiality and report to authorities any disclosures made by clients during the treatment process. Using in-depth interviews (n = 22), this study focused on the perceptions of community-based sex offender treatment providers to explore ethical issues stemming from balancing a duty of care to the client with the mandated reporting requirements of the criminal justice system, and the difficulties of working within two bureaucratic systems (i.e., correctional and health systems). Results are discussed, followed by study limitations, suggestions for future research, and policy recommendations.
      Citation: Sexual Abuse
      PubDate: 2020-10-19T10:55:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1079063220965946
  • Testing the Static-99R as a Global Screen for Risk of Sex Crime Recidivism
           in a Norwegian Routine Sample
    • Authors: Ingeborg Jenssen Sandbukt, Torbjørn Skardhamar, Ragnar Kristoffersen, Christine Friestad
      Abstract: Sexual Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      The Static-99R has been recommended for use as a first global screen for sorting out sex-convicted persons who are in need of further risk assessment. This study investigated the Static-99R’s predictive validity based on a nonselected Norwegian sample (n = 858) of persons released from prison after having served a sex crime sentence. After a mean observation period of 2,183 days, 3.4% (n = 29) had recidivated to a new sex offense. A higher number of recidivists were found among those with higher Static-99R total scores. The predictive contribution from each of the ten Static-99R risk items was investigated using standard logistic regression, proportional hazard regression, and random forest classification algorithm. The overall results indicate that the Static-99R is relevant as a risk screen in a Norwegian context, providing similar results concerning predictive accuracy as previous studies.
      Citation: Sexual Abuse
      PubDate: 2020-08-22T10:49:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1079063220951194
  • Using Graphs in Sexual Violence Risk Communication: Benefits May Depend on
           the Risk Metric
    • Authors: N. Zoe Hilton, L. Maaike Helmus
      Abstract: Sexual Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Actuarial scales provide a relatively objective and reliable assessment of individuals’ risk of recidivism. Recent research has explored how graphs can improve quantitative risk communication. We tested whether graphs can improve understanding and perception of sexual violence risk when matched with risk metric. Participants (N = 676) were recruited from Amazon’s MTurk platform and read a brief description of a man convicted of a sexual offense, including results of a fictional sexual recidivism risk scale. In Study 1, absolute risk of recidivism enabled participants to distinguish between individuals with relatively high and low risk of sexual recidivism. In Study 2, this distinction was enhanced by adding a graph, especially when percentiles were communicated. Risk ratios increased perceived risk. Objective numeracy increased understanding and reduced perceived risk. We recommend that risk communication assumes limited statistical numeracy, and further research with practitioners to test the effect of graphs and risk metrics on forensic/judicial decisions.
      Citation: Sexual Abuse
      PubDate: 2020-08-17T01:12:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1079063220951191
  • Exploring Hostility Toward Women in High-Risk Rapists: The Relevance of
           Ambivalence and Relational Experience
    • Authors: Eveline E. Schippers, Wineke J. Smid
      Abstract: Sexual Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Hostility toward women is an established risk factor for sexual violence and is often found to be present in men prone to sexual transgression. There are also clinical indications that high-risk rapists may have more ambivalent attitudes toward women, including the strong desire to be positively evaluated by women. We investigated attitudes toward women in high-risk male rapists (n = 42), nonsexual male offenders (n = 65), and matched male community controls (n = 42), by means of self-report (hostility toward women, benevolent sexism, hostile sexism) and implicit measures assessing associations (Implicit Association Test [IAT]) with “women are deceitful” and “women are prestige objects,” and the approach tendency (Approach–Avoidance Task [AAT]) toward women. Results showed that high-risk rapists had a lesser implicit notion of women as deceitful and more explicit benevolent sexism than the community controls. These differences seemed most prevalent in the subgroup of high-risk rapists without any relationship history. It is hypothesized that unrealistically positive attitudes toward women may lead to rejection and frustration, which may influence sexual offending.
      Citation: Sexual Abuse
      PubDate: 2020-07-31T11:19:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1079063220946039
  • A Comparison of Risk Factors Among Discharged Military Veterans and
           Civilians Involuntarily Hospitalized Under California’s Sexually Violent
           Predator Act
    • Authors: Sarah G. Paden, Allen Azizian, Shoba Sreenivasan, Jim McGuire, Stephanie Brooks Holliday, Michael C. Seto
      Abstract: Sexual Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      While military veterans have a lower overall rate of incarceration for criminal offenses than civilians, they have a higher rate of incarceration for violent sexual offenses. Despite military veteran overrepresentation among individuals adjudicated for violent sexual offenses, little is known about their risk factors for sexual offending. This study compared military veterans and civilians who had been involuntarily hospitalized and discharged pursuant to California’s Sexually Violent Predator Act. Pedophilic disorder appeared nearly twice as often among veterans than civilians (62.7% vs. 38.7%), whereas antisocial personality disorder was twice as common among civilians compared to veterans (48.1% vs. 23.9%). Consistent with the result for pedophilic disorder, veterans were more likely to target male victims age 13 and below, while civilians tended to target female victims over the age of 13. The results suggest different risk profiles for veterans compared to civilians who have been convicted of sexually violent offenses.
      Citation: Sexual Abuse
      PubDate: 2020-07-22T11:40:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1079063220940305
  • Incidents of Sexual Assault Against Older Adults: A Comparison Study
    • Authors: Kristen M. Budd, Morgan A. Liddic
      Abstract: Sexual Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Sexual assault perpetrated against older adults remains understudied. This research examined sexual assault incidents perpetrated against older women and men (aged 60+) reported to law enforcement. It compared these sexual assault incidents with those committed against middle-age (aged 40–59) and younger (aged 18–39) women and men. National Incident-Based Reporting System data (1992–2015) were analyzed using multinomial logistic regression models. Findings showed incidents involving an older woman, relative to a middle-age and/or younger woman, were significantly more likely to involve stranger perpetrators, occur at a private location, and involve additional violent crime or property crime. Incidents involving an older man, relative to a middle-age and/or younger man, were significantly more likely to involve offenders of more than one sex, older offenders, stranger perpetrators, and additional violent crime or property crime. Results are discussed in relation to prior work and future directions.
      Citation: Sexual Abuse
      PubDate: 2020-07-17T05:59:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1079063220940298
  • The Static-99R Is Not Valid For Women: Predictive Validity in 739 Females
           Who Have Sexually Offended
    • Authors: Ethan Marshall, Holly A. Miller, Franca Cortoni, L. Maaike Helmus
      Abstract: Sexual Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Although many instruments have been validated to assess risk of sexual recidivism among men, no similar tool exists for women who have sexually offended. As a result, some jurisdictions use male-based instruments to assess women despite the lack of validation research examining the predictive utility for this subgroup. This study examined the utility of the Static-99R in predicting sexual recidivism among women. Based on a sample of 739 women convicted of sexual offenses in Texas, findings show that the total score was not significantly associated with sexual recidivism. When looking at individual items, other than a history of prior sexual offenses and noncontact sexual offenses, no item of the Static-99R was significantly associated with sexual recidivism among women. Furthermore, only three items (female victims/solo offender, 4+ sentencing dates, and having not lived with a romantic other for 2+ years) were significantly associated with nonsexual recidivism. These findings indicate that the Static-99R is not suitable to assess risk of recidivism among women convicted of sexual offenses.
      Citation: Sexual Abuse
      PubDate: 2020-07-13T09:17:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1079063220940303
  • Indirect and Neuropsychological Indicators of Pedophilia
    • Authors: Timm Rosburg, Marlon O. Pflueger, Andreas Mokros, Coralie Boillat, Gunnar Deuring, Thorsten Spielmann, Marc Graf
      Abstract: Sexual Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      The present study aimed to differentiate pedophilic child sex offenders (CSOs) from nonoffending controls (CTLs), as well as contact from noncontact CSOs. For this purpose, we investigated 21 contact CSOs, 20 noncontact CSOs (child pornography offenders), as well as 21 CTLs on neuropsychological test measures and indirect test measures of sexual interest. Multiple logistic regression models showed that three parameters of indirect tests and two neuropsychological test parameters allowed the differentiation of CSOs from CTLs with a maximum accuracy of 87%. The profile of contact and noncontact CSOs was remarkably similar and the optimal model for this group differentiation had a maximum accuracy of 66%, with slightly increased levels of risk-taking behavior and greater susceptibility for perceptual interference in contact CSOs than in noncontact CSOs. The findings suggest that standardized, objective methods can support the assessment of sexual offenders against children in forensic psychiatry and legal psychology.
      Citation: Sexual Abuse
      PubDate: 2020-06-16T01:26:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1079063220931822
  • Registration and the Closure of Stranger-Perpetrated Sex Crimes Reported
           to Police
    • Authors: David M. Bierie, Kristen M. Budd
      Abstract: Sexual Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      A key goal of sex offender registration is to assist law enforcement in sexual assault investigations; to identify potential suspects when the perpetrator’s identity is unknown. To date, however, no research has assessed the utility of sex offender registries in closing cases of sexual assault when the incident involved stranger perpetrators. Addressing this gap, the study drew on the National Incident-Based Reporting System (1992–2001) to test the effect of registry implementation on closure of stranger-involved sex crimes across six states. Comparing closure speeds from before and after registration began in each state, multivariate survival models showed incidents of stranger-perpetrated sexual assault were cleared 23% to 28% faster post-registration implementation. Incidents with juvenile victims and incidents with additional crimes beyond the sexual assault also closed significantly faster (regardless of whether a registry existed).
      Citation: Sexual Abuse
      PubDate: 2020-06-16T01:25:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1079063220931824
  • Pornography Use and Sexual Coercion: Examining the Mediation Effect of
           Sexual Arousal
    • Authors: Ethan Marshall, Jeff A. Bouffard, Holly Miller
      Abstract: Sexual Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      The increased accessibility and use of pornography in Western society highlights the emergent need to understand the relationship between its use and sexual coercion. Decades of research have demonstrated a consistent relationship between pornography use and engaging in sexually aggressive behavior, although what drives this relationship remains largely unexplained. Researchers have recently presented potential explanations for these relationships, such as the use of violent pornography types, the development of aberrant sexual scripts, and the frequency of pornography use. This study seeks to contribute to the explanation by examining the potential mediating effects of sexual arousal on the relationship between pornography use frequency and willingness to engage in verbal and illegal sexual coercive behaviors by examining a sample of male and female college adults. This population reports some of the highest rates of pornography use. The sample of 745 college students were exposed to either an exotic video presentation or a criminal justice lecture, and provided a dating scenario and sexual arousal assessments. Results indicated those young adults that consume pornography more frequently were more likely to experience higher levels of sexual arousal to the erotic video than those who reported little or no use. However, after controlling for several variables significantly related to sexual coercion, arousal did not mediate willingness to engage in verbal or illegal sexual coercive behaviors. Other significant results and implications are discussed.
      Citation: Sexual Abuse
      PubDate: 2020-06-13T05:26:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1079063220931823
  • The Influence of Gender on Perceptions of Culpability and Victim Status in
           Statutory Rape Offenses Involving Teachers
    • Authors: Caitlyn N. Muniz, Ráchael A. Powers, Jennifer A. Leili
      Abstract: Sexual Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Perceptions of child sexual abuse and statutory rape vary based on the gender of the victim, the perpetrator, and the combination of both. We extend existing research to examine attributions of responsibility and punitive preferences for student victims in student–teacher sexual relationships contingent on the gender dyad of the student and teacher and the interaction between the gender dyad and respondent gender. Participants (N = 648) were randomly assigned to vignettes wherein the gender of the student and teacher were manipulated (female teacher/male student; female teacher/female student; male teacher/female student; male teacher/male student). Overall, respondents were “pro-victim,” though results indicate significant differences in respondent gender and how the gender dyads were perceived. Students in the male same-sex dyads were attributed less responsibility than other students. Furthermore, men were less likely to perceive the student as a victim, and women were more likely to indicate the student should be punished.
      Citation: Sexual Abuse
      PubDate: 2020-06-08T06:50:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1079063220928955
  • Spanish Validation of the Child Pornography Offender Risk Tool
    • Authors: Virginia Soldino, Enrique J. Carbonell-Vayá, Kathryn C. Seigfried-Spellar
      Abstract: Sexual Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      The current study examined the validity of the Child Pornography Offender Risk Tool (CPORT) in a sample of 304 men arrested in Spain for child pornography (CP) offenses, distinguishing between CP-exclusive offenders (n = 255) and CP offenders with other criminal involvement (n = 49). In our 5-year fixed follow-up analysis, we observed a 2.3% sexual recidivism rate for the whole sample (2.0% new CP offenses, 0.3% new contact sexual offenses). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses detected some relative predictive ability of the CPORT for CP recidivism outcomes when the Correlates of Admission of Sexual Interest in Children (CASIC) was used to replace missing CPORT Item 5. Specifically, both CPORT and CASIC total scores might help predict new CP offending among CP-exclusive offenders (area under the curve [AUC] = .57 and .70, respectively). Calibration analyses found that the observed recidivism rates were much lower than the expected recidivism rates presented by the tool developers, and, thus, suggest caution over the use of these norms for applied risk assessment. Our findings provide, to some extent, preliminary evidence of CPORT cross-cultural validity.
      Citation: Sexual Abuse
      PubDate: 2020-06-02T07:07:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1079063220928958
  • Validity of Risk Assessment Instruments Among Juveniles Who Sexually
           Offended: Victim Age Matters
    • Authors: Chiara Krause, Alexander Roth, Markus A. Landolt, Cornelia Bessler, Marcel Aebi
      First page: 379
      Abstract: Sexual Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Research has identified meaningful subtypes among the heterogeneous population of juveniles who sexually offended (JSO). However, studies that test the validity of risk assessment tools with JSO subtypes are limited. This study compared JSO who offended against a child victim (JSO-C) and JSO who offended against an adolescent/adult victim (JSO-A) with regard to rates of recidivism and the predictive validity of two risk assessment tools (Estimate of Risk of Adolescent Sexual Offense Recidivism [ERASOR] and Juvenile Sexual Offender Assessment Protocol-II [J-SOAP-II]). Data were analyzed from case files of 185 JSO-C and 297 JSO-A aged 12 to 18 years (M = 14.11, SD = 1.44) from a consecutive sample of JSO with contact sexual offenses. A total of 34 (7.1%) juveniles reoffended sexually, with no significant difference between the subtypes. The present results suggest that the ERASOR, particularly the structured professional judgment, and to a lesser degree the J-SOAP-II are better suited to predicting sexual recidivism in JSO-A than in JSO-C.
      Citation: Sexual Abuse
      PubDate: 2020-03-14T12:11:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1079063220910719
  • Desires and Desirability of Volunteers in CoSA Programs
    • Authors: Mia Gilliam, Megan Novak, Miriam Northcutt Bohmert, Grant Duwe
      First page: 406
      Abstract: Sexual Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Circles of Support and Accountability (CoSA) are comprised of approximately five trained Circle volunteers who provide support during reentry to one core member previously convicted of a sexual offense. In 2008, the Minnesota Department of Corrections implemented the Minnesota Circles of Support and Accountability (MnCoSA). In-depth interviews were conducted with 33 MnCoSA volunteers and 10 core members to gain an understanding of (a) what makes volunteers desirable to core members, as well as (b) what makes CoSA desirable to volunteers. The study finds core members express a desire for the availability and consistency of volunteers, a preference for certain types of volunteers, and consistent with volunteers’ perceptions, a belief that CoSAs offer particular benefits for volunteers. Implications for recruitment of volunteers and optimal structuring of CoSAs are discussed.
      Citation: Sexual Abuse
      PubDate: 2020-03-13T01:00:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1079063220912454
  • Determinants of Sexual Violence Against Married Women: Qualitative
           Evidence From Ghana
    • Authors: Gervin A. Apatinga, Eric Y Tenkorang
      First page: 434
      Abstract: Sexual Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Some evidence suggests that in sub-Saharan Africa, sexual violence is commonplace among married women, yet this problem is underresearched. Using qualitative methods and applying Heise’s social-ecological model, this study examined the experiences of 15 Ghanaian women suffering sexual violence in their marriages. Results from the thematic analysis indicate several determinants of sexual violence. Whereas some participants identified macro-level and exosystem factors, including poverty, others pointed to micro-level and ontogenic factors, such as husbands’ substance abuse. The results corroborate the core idea of Heise’s framework, namely, that structural- and individual-level factors make women vulnerable to violence. The study concludes that Ghanaian legal and policy frameworks must be enforced and strengthened to address the etiology of sexual violence and abuse.
      Citation: Sexual Abuse
      PubDate: 2020-03-02T07:17:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1079063220910728
  • Alexithymia, Prior Trauma, Alcohol Use, and Sexual Aggression
           Perpetration: A Cross-Cultural Comparison of a Moderated Mediation Model
    • Authors: Lindsey G. Hawkins, Natira Mullet, Antover P. Tuliao, Travis Gudenrath, Derek Holyoak, Bernice Vania N. Landoy, Alicia K. Klanecky, Dennis E. McChargue
      First page: 455
      Abstract: Sexual Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      In this study, we examined the relationships between prior trauma, alexithymia, and sexual aggression perpetration among 610 U.S. college students and 107 college students from the Philippines utilizing a cross-sectional retrospective design. We tested a moderated mediation model with alexithymia as the mediator between prior trauma and sexual aggression perpetration, and alcohol use as a moderator of the alexithymia–sexual aggression link. Moreover, given that cultural norms may influence these relationships, we also examined the structural invariance of the proposed moderated mediation model. Path analyses and multiple group analysis were used to examine the moderated mediation model, and examine model differences between samples. We did not find evidence for alexithymia as a mediator, but there was a significant interaction between alcohol use severity and alexithymia on sexual aggression perpetration across both samples. Alexithymia is a key variable in understanding the alcohol use–sexual aggression perpetration relationship. Clinical implications and recommendations for future research are also discussed.
      Citation: Sexual Abuse
      PubDate: 2020-04-04T12:08:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1079063220912451
  • Testosterone-Lowering Medication and Its Association With Recidivism Risk
           in Individuals Convicted of Sexual Offenses
    • Authors: Julia Sauter, Daniel Turner, Peer Briken, Martin Rettenberger
      First page: 475
      Abstract: Sexual Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      For a particular subgroup of individuals with severe paraphilic disorders and a high risk of sexual recidivism, the combination of sex drive–reducing medications and psychotherapy is a promising treatment approach. The present quasi-experimental study aims at comparing differences in clinical characteristics and dynamic risk factors between persons receiving (+TLM, n = 38) versus not receiving (−TLM, n = 22) testosterone-lowering medications (TLMs). Individuals receiving TLM were more frequently diagnosed with paraphilic disorders. Neither the criminal history nor average risk scores differed between the two groups. In the +TLM, Stable-2007 scores showed a stronger decrease after TLM treatment was started. This accounted especially for the general and sexual self-regulation subscales. Individual variations in risk, however, were not predicted by TLM but were significantly related to treatment duration and Psychopathy Checklist–Revised (PCL-R) Factor I. Paraphilic patients with problems in self-regulatory abilities seem to profit most from pharmacological sex drive–reducing treatment. Furthermore, therapists seem to underestimate deviant sexual fantasies in medicated patients.
      Citation: Sexual Abuse
      PubDate: 2020-03-13T01:01:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1079063220910723
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