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JUDICIAL SYSTEMS (23 journals)

Showing 1 - 15 of 15 Journals sorted alphabetically
American Business Law Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Australian Journal of Maritime and Ocean Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Berkeley Journal of Middle Eastern & Islamic Law     Open Access  
Court Review : The Journal of the American Judges Association     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
De Jure: Jurnal Hukum dan Syar'iah     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Journal of Health Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Industrial Law Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
International Comparative Jurisprudence     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Judicature     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Justice System Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Justicia Islamica     Open Access  
Medical Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Washington University Jurisprudence Review     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Windsor Yearbook of Access to Justice     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Zeitschrift für öffentliches Recht     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
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Zeitschrift für öffentliches Recht
Number of Followers: 20  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0948-4396 - ISSN (Online) 1613-7663
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • The Effect of Photos and a Local-Sounding Name on Discrimination against
           Ethnic Minorities in Austria. A Field Experiment

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      Authors: Weichselbaumer D; Schuster J.
      Pages: 867 - 882
      Abstract: AbstractA large body of research documents the existence of discrimination against migrants and ethnic minorities in the labour market. This study experimentally investigates for Austria, to what degree employment discrimination against ethnic minorities is mitigated, when they abstain from following the Austrian norm of including a photograph to their job application that would make their ethnicity salient or when they hold a local-sounding name. We apply social identity theory to explain why such mitigation may occur. In our correspondence test, using a single application design, we found that with matching ethnic names and ethnic photographs, black but not Asian job applicants suffered from discrimination. Discrimination was reduced for blacks (but not Asians) when they held a local-sounding name. Although photographs may facilitate ethnic discrimination, we did not find that their omission improved minorities’ relative employment chances. On the contrary, Asians were penalized for leaving out their photograph. Indeed, if candidates did not attach photos despite the convention to do so, we found statistically significant discrimination not only against black, but also Asian applicants.
      PubDate: Tue, 13 Jul 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/esr/jcab012
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 6 (2021)
       
  • Migration, Class Attainment and Social Mobility: An Analysis of
           Migrants’ Socio-Economic Integration in Italy

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      Authors: Panichella N; Avola M, Piccitto G.
      Pages: 883 - 898
      Abstract: AbstractThis article focuses on the socio-economic integration of ethnic minorities in Italy, combining the literature on migration with research on social stratification. We analyse the ethnic penalty on occupational attainment and career mobility, integrating the origin–education–destination theoretical framework with the migration status. Since ethnic penalty is an ‘umbrella concept’, we also quantify the extent to which it is mediated by differences in education and social origin. Furthermore, adopting a diachronic view of migrants’ class attainment, we verify whether the post-migration downgrading is followed by a recovery during the career, considering also mobility within the working class (standard and non-standard). Our analyses are based on the Multipurpose Survey on Households and Social Condition and Integration of Foreign Citizens. The results show that migrants are penalized in the Italian labour market, remaining largely ‘trapped’ in the working class. This inclusion at the bottom of the class structure reduces their heterogeneity by education and by social origin. Moreover, their penalty increases during the career, except when they move from the non-standard to the standard working class. Finally, we find that the ‘unexplained’ component of ethnic penalty, net of education and social origin, is substantial and increases from the first to the current job.
      PubDate: Mon, 14 Jun 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/esr/jcab015
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 6 (2021)
       
  • Grading in Hungarian Primary Schools: Mechanisms of Ethnic Discrimination
           against Roma Students

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      Authors: Kisfalusi D; Janky B, Takács K.
      Pages: 899 - 917
      Abstract: AbstractThe present study aims to shed light on the mechanisms of ethnic discrimination in teacher assessments in Hungarian primary schools. For this purpose, we use data collected among Roma minority and non-Roma majority students. First, we identify a considerable ethnic difference in non-blind school grades, which is beyond the ethnic difference in blind standardized test scores. Then, we derive and empirically test predictions from different theories of discrimination that might explain the ethnic difference in grades. We find that stereotype-based theories of discrimination do not explain why minority students receive lower grades than majority students. We do not exclude the possibility that taste-based discrimination exists among teachers against Roma students. A considerable part of ethnic discrimination, however, is explained by teachers’ indirectly discriminatory grading practices: Roma students’ school behaviour is evaluated more negatively by teachers than that of non-Roma students and school behaviour seems to be taken into account in grading without legitimate justification. This practice does not only disadvantage Roma students, but boys and low status students as well.
      PubDate: Sat, 21 Aug 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/esr/jcab023
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 6 (2021)
       
  • When Ethnicity and Gender Align: Classroom Composition, Friendship
           Segregation, and Collective Identities in European Schools

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      Authors: Kroneberg C; Kruse H, Wimmer A.
      Pages: 918 - 934
      Abstract: AbstractUsing survey data on school classes in four European countries, we study how the social relations and identities of adolescents develop depending on the degree to which ethnic and gender boundaries align with each other. Minority students will have mostly same-ethnic friends, we find, when classmates of different ethnic origins tend to be of the opposite sex as well. Within such local topographies of boundaries, minority students will also end up identifying less as members of the nation. In contrast, majority students are not affected by the alignment of ethnic and gender boundaries, and gender identities of both minorities and majorities are less malleable as well: Neither friendship segregation along gender divides nor the development of gender role attitudes depend on the degree to which gender and ethnic origin align. We argue that gender boundaries and feelings of national belonging among majority students are widely taken for granted and thus less sensitive to attribute alignment at the local level. The article builds a bridge between the literatures on ethnic segregation of friendship networks, adolescent ethnic identities, and gender role attitudes by integrating them into a structuralist framework that identifies the conditions under which the local configuration of boundaries affects social life.
      PubDate: Fri, 11 Jun 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/esr/jcab013
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 6 (2021)
       
  • Should I Learn or Should I Turn' Implications of Job Mobility for
           Subsequent Learning at Work

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      Authors: Westerman J.
      Pages: 935 - 951
      Abstract: AbstractWork learning is the skills and the knowledge that is generated from work practices and in exchange of information at work. While there are good reasons to fear that frequent job changers do not learn thoroughly at work, it is also conceivable that the experience of many types of jobs instead yields greater learning. Despite this issue’s significance for on-going discussions in research and policy, thorough analyses of it are surprisingly sparse. In this study, we test whether job mobility is positively or negatively associated with subsequent work learning using data from two Swedish representative datasets (LNU and PIAAC). In order to substantiate both claims, we utilize a wide array of research on human capital, job matching, labor market segmentation and learning motivation. We analyze a broad set of indicators of work learning and show that job mobility in general is associated with greater total subsequent learning than is job stability.
      PubDate: Wed, 16 Jun 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/esr/jcab018
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 6 (2021)
       
  • Human Agency in Educational Trajectories: Evidence from a Stratified
           System

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      Authors: Burger K.
      Pages: 952 - 971
      Abstract: AbstractIn the research on life-course outcomes, there is a long-standing debate on the relative importance of institutional structure and human agency. This study examines how structure and agency influence educational trajectories in Switzerland. The Swiss education system is hierarchically differentiated but permeable, providing both standard and non-standard pathways to higher education. Using data from a 15-year panel survey, the study assesses, first, the extent to which lower-secondary-school track attendance is associated with individuals’ probability of moving into an academic or vocational programme at upper-secondary level and, second, how this predicts the probability of subsequently entering a university. The study also examines how human agency influences these probabilities. Results of a structural equation model show that lower-secondary track attendance significantly predicts individuals’ probability of transitioning into academic education, whereas human agency plays a minor, albeit non-negligible, role in this regard. In turn, pursuing an academic rather than a vocational programme is associated with a 47-percentage point (or 16-fold) higher probability of subsequently attending university. Individuals comparatively rarely follow non-standard pathways to university, irrespective of their level of agency. The education system channels educational trajectories, but the power of the channelling effect varies across the different junctures of the system.
      PubDate: Fri, 03 Sep 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/esr/jcab021
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 6 (2021)
       
  • Diversion or Inclusion' Alternative Routes to Higher Education
           Eligibility and Inequality in Educational Attainment in Germany

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      Authors: Schindler S; Bittmann F.
      Pages: 972 - 986
      Abstract: AbstractIn the 1960s, educational reforms have been initiated in Germany to make the rigid stratified school system more permeable. While maintaining between-school tracking in secondary education, several second-chance options have been introduced that established alternative routes to higher education. This study aims to evaluate whether these alternative routes were successful in reducing the levels of social inequality in both higher education eligibility and higher education attainment. We draw on life-course data from the German National Educational Panel Study and conduct simulation analyses. We conclude that it is very unlikely that the reforms had any substantive influence on the level of inequality in both outcome variables.
      PubDate: Fri, 16 Jul 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/esr/jcab025
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 6 (2021)
       
  • Do Concerns about Immigration Change after Adolescence' How Education
           and Critical Life Events Affect Concerns about Immigration

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      Authors: Kratz F.
      Pages: 987 - 1003
      Abstract: AbstractThis study investigates whether critical life events that typically occur during early adulthood (i.e., labor market entry, unemployment, parenthood) impact concerns about immigration. Two mechanisms suggest that these critical life events lead to a widening of education-specific differences: First, the amplification of ethnic competition following critical life events may be more pronounced for individuals with low educational attainment. Second, psychological adaptation processes of individuals with low levels of education may more frequently result in scapegoating. These mechanisms provide a rationale for the education-as-buffer hypothesis, according to which individuals with lower educational attainment are more prone to exhibit increasing concerns about immigration following critical life events. Estimations of distributed fixed effects models relying on data from the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (1999–2017) show that labor market entry, unemployment, and parenthood increase concerns about immigration more strongly for individuals with low educational attainment. Replicating significant impact differences between educational groups for the three critical life events makes a strong case for the education-as-buffer hypothesis. Overall, this study demonstrates that concerns about immigration are responsive to critical life events and calls for further theorizing as to how educational attainment may shape attitudes towards immigration over the life course.
      PubDate: Sun, 01 Aug 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/esr/jcab019
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 6 (2021)
       
  • The Scar Effects of Unemployment on Electoral Participation: Withdrawal
           and Mobilization across European Societies

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      Authors: Azzollini L.
      Pages: 1007 - 1026
      Abstract: AbstractDoes unemployment increase or decrease electoral participation' A considerable body of work has examined this classic question, focusing on individual and contextual unemployment. However, this literature has scarcely examined the role of past experiences of unemployment, and not yet addressed their interaction with contextual unemployment. In this article, we extend the framework of unemployment scarring to study electoral behaviour. First, we posit that unemployment scars decrease electoral participation. Second, we formulate competing hypotheses on the macro–micro interactions between unemployment rates and scarring at the country, NUTS1 and 2 levels. We test these hypotheses relying on Rounds 4–8 (2008–2016) of the European Social Survey, for 26 countries. Results from logistic regressions with country and year fixed effects indicate that citizens with long unemployment scars are 9% less likely to vote than the non-scarred. We further find that higher unemployment rates at the sub-national levels slightly increase turnout, while there is no significant effect at the country level. For the sub-national levels, we find that lower unemployment rates exacerbate the individual scarring effect on turnout up to 13%. These findings remark that the framework of the scar effects of unemployment further illuminates the relationship between social stratification and political behaviour.
      PubDate: Mon, 28 Jun 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/esr/jcab016
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 6 (2021)
       
  • Integration of Recently Arrived Underage Refugees: Research Potential of
           the Study ReGES—Refugees in the German Educational System

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      Authors: Will G; Homuth C, von Maurice J, et al.
      Pages: 1027 - 1043
      Abstract: AbstractWith the strong immigration of refugees at the end of the last decade, many minors came to Germany. Their integration into the German educational system will be one of the central tasks of German society and is important for the medium- and long-term integration of incoming young refugees in various areas of society. Data from the ReGES panel study enable analyses of the early integration process of refugees into the German educational system. The study focuses on two cohorts: 2,405 children of preschool age who are about to start school and 2,415 adolescents in lower secondary education who were followed during the transition into vocational training or upper secondary education. Each cohort was interviewed seven times over three school years from 2018 to 2020, with sampling procedures starting in 2017. This article provides an overview of the study design, contents, and research potential of ReGES. The large number of measures of individual characteristics, including objective competence test data (German language and basic cognitive skills) and information on the learning and living contexts of refugees provided by parents, teachers, and administrative staff, allow us to address many research questions.
      PubDate: Mon, 30 Aug 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/esr/jcab033
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 6 (2021)
       
  • Erratum to: Socio-Economic Family Background and Adult Children’s Health
           in Germany: The Role of Intergenerational Transmission of Education

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      Authors: Arránz Becker O; Loter K.
      Pages: 1044 - 1046
      Abstract: European Sociological Review, (2020). doi: 10.1093/esr/jcaa063
      PubDate: Sun, 01 Aug 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/esr/jcab020
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 6 (2021)
       
  • Thank You to Our Reviewers

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      Pages: 1047 - 1047
      Abstract: Without much doubt, 2021 turned out to be a tougher year than we were all hoping for, globally and individually. It is therefore all the more timely and appropriate for us ESR editors to express our sincere appreciation of all your voluntary contributions to maintaining the community effort that is making the European Sociological Review a high-quality academic publishing platform for the best in European sociology. With its model of deep peer review, the ESR could not operate without leaning on the shoulders of many scholars in Europe and around the world who are willing to support the journal with their time and insight, yet 2021 has also taught all of us a lesson on the fragility of the usual academic exchange against pandemic strains in everyone’s professional and personal lives. As one single reminder of all the costs the past year has brought, we like to commemorate our colleague David Bills, a most generous scholar and a true friend of the ESR over many years, who passed away far too early on July 15 this year.
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Dec 2021 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/esr/jcab058
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 6 (2021)
       
 
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