Subjects -> LAW (Total: 1536 journals)
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    - INTERNATIONAL LAW (171 journals)
    - JUDICIAL SYSTEMS (23 journals)
    - LAW (936 journals)
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INTERNATIONAL LAW (171 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 171 of 171 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Juridica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of International and Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Afrilex     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Agora International Journal of Juridical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
AJIL Unbound     Open Access  
American Business Law Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
American Journal of International Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72)
American University International Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Annuaire Français de Droit International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Annual Review of Law and Social Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Annual Survey of International & Comparative Law     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Antitrust Chronicle - Competition Policy International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Anuario Colombiano de Derecho Internacional     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuario de Derechos Humanos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuario Español de Derecho Internacional     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Anuario español de derecho internacional privado     Partially Free  
Anuario Iberoamericano de Derecho Internacional Penal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Anuario Mexicano de Derecho Internacional     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Arbitration International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
ASA Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Asian International Arbitration Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Asian Journal of International Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Australasian Policing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Australian International Law Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Australian Journal of Asian Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Belli Ac Pacis : Jurnal Hukum Internasional     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Berkeley Journal of International Law     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Boletin Mexicano de Derecho Comparado     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Borderlands Journal : Culture, Politics, Law and Earth     Open Access  
Boston College International & Comparative Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Brigham Young University International Law and Management Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
British Yearbook of International Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Brooklyn Journal of International Law     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
California Western International Law Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Canadian Yearbook of International Law / Annuaire canadien de droit international     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Cape Town Convention Journal     Open Access  
Chicago Journal of International Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Chinese Journal of International Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Columbia Journal of Transnational Law     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Common Law World Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Commonwealth Law Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Comparative and International Law Journal of Southern Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Comparative Strategy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Computer Law Review International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Contemporary Security Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Cornell International Law Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Corporate Governance An International Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Criterios     Open Access  
Denver Journal of International Law and Policy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Deusto Journal of Human Rights     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Duke Journal of Comparative & International Law     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
European Business Law Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
European Company Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
European Foreign Affairs Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35)
European Journal for Security Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
European Journal of International Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 252)
European Labour Law Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
European Political Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
European Property Law Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Fordham International Law Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Foreign Policy Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Georgia Journal of International and Comparative Law     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Global Jurist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Global Justice : Theory Practice Rhetoric     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Harvard International Law Journal     Free   (Followers: 52)
ICSID Review : Foreign Investment Law Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Indian Journal of International Law     Hybrid Journal  
Inter: Revista de Direito Internacional e Direitos Humanos da UFRJ     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intergenerational Justice Review     Open Access  
International & Comparative Law Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 273)
International Area Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Commentary on Evidence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Comparative Jurisprudence     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
International Journal for Court Administration     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal for the Semiotics of Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Comparative and Applied Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Comparative Labour Law and Industrial Relations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
International Journal of Discrimination and the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Evidence and Proof     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Information Privacy, Security and Integrity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
International Journal of Language & Law     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Law in Context     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
International Journal of Law, Crime and Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67)
International Journal of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
International Journal of Nuclear Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Political Economy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Private Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Public Law and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
International Journal of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Law: Revista Colombiana de Derecho Internacional     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Planning Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Review of Law     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Review of the Red Cross     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
International Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 87)
Israel Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Ius Gentium     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Jerusalem Review of Legal Studies     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Journal of Biosecurity Biosafety and Biodefense Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of European Competition Law & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Genocide Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of International Dispute Settlement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of International Economic Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Journal of International Political Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of International Trade Law and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Law, Policy and Globalization     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Liberty and International Affairs     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Migration and Refugee Issues, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34)
Journal of Private International Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal on the Use of Force and International Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Legal Issues of Economic Integration     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Leiden Journal of International Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
LEX     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
London Review of International Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Loyola of Los Angeles International and Comparative Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Loyola University Chicago International Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Maastricht Journal of European and Comparative Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Maryland Journal of International Law     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Melbourne Journal of International Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Michigan State International Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Netherlands International Law Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Netherlands Yearbook of International Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
New Zealand Journal of Public and International Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
New Zealand Yearbook of International Law, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Northwestern Journal of International Human Rights     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Northwestern Journal of International Law & Business     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Notre Dame Journal of International & Comparative Law     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Oromia Law Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pace International Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Paix et Sécurité Internationales     Open Access  
Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Polar Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Public and Private International Law Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Recht der Werkelijkheid     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Review of European Community & International Environmental Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Review of European, Comparative & International Environmental Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Revista de Derecho de la Unión Europea     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Revista de Direito Brasileira     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista de la Secretaría del Tribunal Permanente de Revisión     Open Access  
Revista Facultad de Jurisprudencia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Tribuna Internacional     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Videre     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Revue québécoise de droit international / Quebec Journal of International Law / Revista quebequense de derecho internacional     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Santa Clara Journal of International Law     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
SASI     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
South African Yearbook of International Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
South Carolina Journal of International Law and Business     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Stanford Journal of International Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Syracuse Journal of International Law and Commerce     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
TDM Transnational Dispute Management Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Tilburg Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Transnational Environmental Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Uniform Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
University of Miami Inter-American Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Utrecht Journal of International and European Law     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law     Free   (Followers: 5)
Virginia Journal of International Law     Free   (Followers: 5)
Washington University Global Studies Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Wisconsin International Law Journal     Free   (Followers: 5)
World Journal of VAT/GST Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
World Trade and Arbitration Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Yale Journal of International Law     Free   (Followers: 18)
Yearbook of International Environmental Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Yearbook of International Humanitarian Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Zeitschrift für Außen- und Sicherheitspolitik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Zeitschrift für das Privatrecht der Europäischen Union - European Union Private Law Review / Revue de droit privé de l'Union européenne     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Zeitschrift für öffentliches Recht     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Zeitschrift für Zivilprozess International     Hybrid Journal  


Similar Journals
Journal Cover
International Review of the Red Cross
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.214
Number of Followers: 13  
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 1816-3831 - ISSN (Online) 1607-5889
Published by Cambridge University Press Homepage  [397 journals]
  • Interview with Prime Minister Jüri Ratas of Estonia
    • Abstract: Jüri Ratas has been Estonia's Prime Minister since 2016 and is currently serving his second term in office. From 2007 to 2016, Ratas was Vice-President of the 11th, 12th and 13th Estonian Parliament. He was elected to the Tallinn City Council in 2005, 2009 and 2013, and served as the city's Mayor from 2005 to 2007, and as its Deputy Mayor from 2003 to 2004 and during 2005. His service in the Tallinn administration started when he was elected Economic Adviser to the Tallinn City Office, a position he served in from 2002 to 2003. Prior to holding this post, he served on the board of OÜ Värvilised from 1999 to 2002. During his time in office, Prime Minister Ratas has supported Estonia's various State-led digital transformation processes. In this interview, he reflects on how the “digital State” of Estonia has relied on digitally rooted solutions to tackle the COVID-19 pandemic. He also provides insights for the humanitarian sector on digital transformation processes, private–public sector collaborations and preventive digital approaches, such as investing in digital literacy and education, that can help mitigate the potentially adverse effects of digital advancements.
      PubDate: 2020-04-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S181638312000034X
      Issue No: Vol. 102, No. 913 (2020)
  • IRC volume 102 issue 913 Cover and Front matter
    • PubDate: 2020-04-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1816383121000126
      Issue No: Vol. 102, No. 913 (2020)
  • IRC volume 102 issue 913 Cover and Back matter
    • PubDate: 2020-04-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1816383121000138
      Issue No: Vol. 102, No. 913 (2020)
  • The role of digital technologies in humanitarian law, policy and action:
           Charting a path forward
    • Authors: Saman Rejali; Yannick Heiniger
      Pages: 1 - 22
      PubDate: 2020-04-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1816383121000114
      Issue No: Vol. 102, No. 913 (2020)
  • Testimonies: How humanitarian technologies impact the lives of affected
    • Pages: 23 - 26
      Abstract: Digital technologies are changing the very processes we use to serve affected people. In this issue, the Review has chosen to profile the testimonies of two affected people, based in Côte d'Ivoire and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), who expressed their opinions on two digitally driven projects by the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC); these projects respectively facilitate restoring and maintaining family links.1 Being of the view that affected people should speak for themselves and that their testimonies should not be cut down or “reworked” to fit the purposes of humanitarians and their outputs, in this section the Review has directly translated the quotes we received from field delegations, word for word, sentence for sentence, making no changes except for the redaction of information to ensure the extent of anonymity requested. By keeping the framing of the quotes to a minimum, we aim to ensure that the Review serves as a platform for the voices of the featured affected people.
      PubDate: 2020-04-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S181638312100014X
      Issue No: Vol. 102, No. 913 (2020)
  • Q&A: Humanitarian operations, the spread of harmful information and
           data protection
    • Pages: 27 - 41
      Abstract: In this Q&A, the Review talks to Delphine van Solinge and Massimo Marelli of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC). Van Solinge is the ICRC's focal point for understanding how digital technologies and the spread of harmful information affect populations living in conflict environments, and what this means for humanitarian action. To this end, her portfolio is focused on exploring, on behalf of the ICRC and through partnerships, how to mitigate the risks that digital technologies bring in humanitarian settings and ensure relevant protection responses in the digital age. Marelli is Head of the ICRC's Data Protection Office (DPO). During his tenure with the ICRC, the organization has chartered new pathways for how it can carry out its operational work, while ensuring that the data of the affected people which it serves, as well those of its employees, are well protected.During this conversation, van Solinge and Marelli discuss how their areas of work complement and reinforce each other, forming two halves of the same coin with regard to how digital information and data can both be used for positive change and misused in humanitarian settings. Marelli highlights how humanitarian organizations process, protect and use data and digital information. Van Solinge discusses how through misinformation, disinformation and hate speech, information can be manipulated and spread using digital technologies – particularly in the age of the COVID-19, when populations are more reliant on digital communication technologies. Among the issues they discuss are how digital technologies can be used positively, the ethical considerations that humanitarian organizations should take into account, and the possible paths forward for public–private sector collaborations on this theme.
      PubDate: 2020-04-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1816383120000429
      Issue No: Vol. 102, No. 913 (2020)
  • “Doing no harm” in the digital age: What the digitalization of cash
           means for humanitarian action
    • Authors: Jo Burton
      Pages: 43 - 73
      Abstract: Cash transfers have changed the way the humanitarian sector delivers assistance, and at the same time, digitalization is changing the way our world works in fundamental ways. The digitalization of cash means that the simple click of a button can put money in the hands of hundreds of thousands, if not millions, of people within minutes. Digital payments have been a game changer, opening the door to faster and more efficient delivery of life-saving assistance. Although physical currency will not disappear with the rise of digital payments, it is essential to balance the benefits of these digital processes with the risks. As humanitarians, we need to articulate what “do no harm” means in the digital age, applying this equally to the way we use digital payments to support people affected by armed conflicts and other situations of violence.
      PubDate: 2020-04-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1816383120000491
      Issue No: Vol. 102, No. 913 (2020)
  • Humanitarian aid in the age of COVID-19: A review of big data crisis
           analytics and the General Data Protection Regulation
    • Authors: Theodora Gazi; Alexandros Gazis
      Pages: 75 - 94
      Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has served as a wake-up call for humanitarian aid actors to reconsider data collection methods, as old ways of doing business become increasingly obsolete. Although access to information on the affected population is critical now more than ever to support the pandemic response, the limitation of aid workers’ presence in the field imposes hard constraints on relief projects. In this article, we consider how aid actors can use “big data” as a crisis response tool to support humanitarian projects, in cases when the General Data Protection Regulation is applicable. We also provide a framework for examining open-source platforms, and discuss the advantages and privacy challenges of big data.
      PubDate: 2020-04-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1816383121000084
      Issue No: Vol. 102, No. 913 (2020)
  • The struggle against sexual violence in conflict: Investigating the
           digital turn
    • Authors: Kristin Bergtora Sandvik; Kjersti Lohne
      Pages: 95 - 115
      Abstract: Digital technological innovations make new types of responses to conflict-related sexual violence (CRSV) possible, bringing with them both potential promises and pitfalls. Aiming to provide a conceptual starting point for further analysis, this article problematizes the trend towards data extraction in exchange for aid, protection and justice, and argues for the importance of complementing technology-driven approaches to the struggle against CRSV with the inclusion of strategies for user participation and investment in digital literacy as key aspects of the response. To explore how the digital turn shapes the struggle against CRSV, the article offers a three-part analytical framework. First, the article unpacks how digital technologies create corresponding “digital bodies” – comprised of images, information, biometrics and other data stored in digital space – which represent the bodies of individuals affected by sexual violence, and which interplay with the risks posed upon the physical bodies of those facing CRSV. Second, the article maps out the role of digital technologies in a cycle of intervention, including prevention of, response to, documentation of and accountability for CRSV. Third, recognizing the increasing importance of data governance to the struggle against CRSV, the article considers how divergent humanitarian, human rights and international criminal law approaches to data may create different pathways for CRSV data. This could also give rise to new tensions in how international actors approach CRSV.
      PubDate: 2020-04-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1816383121000060
      Issue No: Vol. 102, No. 913 (2020)
  • Media and compassion after digital war: Why digital media haven't
           transformed responses to human suffering in contemporary conflict
    • Authors: Andrew Hoskins
      Pages: 117 - 143
      Abstract: There is a persistent belief in the power of media images to transform the events they depict. Yet despite the instant availability of billions of images of human suffering and death in the continuous and connective digital glare of social media, the catastrophes of contemporary wars, such as in Syria and Yemen, unfold relentlessly. There are repeated expressions of surprise by some in the West when the dissemination of images of suffering and wars, particularly in mainstream news media, does not translate into a de-escalation of conflict.In this article I consider today's loosening of the often presumed relationship between media representation, knowledge and response under the conditions of “digital war”. This is the digital disruption of the relationship between warfare and society in which all sides participate in the uploading and sharing of information on, and images and videos of, conflict.Is it the case that the capacity of images of human injury and death to bring about change, and the expectation that they would stir practical intervention in wars, is and has been exaggerated' Even if we are moved or shocked upon being confronted by such images, does this translate into some form of action, individual or otherwise' In this article I contend that the saturation of information and images of human suffering and death in contemporary warfare has not ushered in a new era of “compassion fatigue”. Rather, algorithmically charged outrage is a proxy for effects. It is easy to misconstrue the velocity of linking and liking and sharing as some kind of mass action or mass movement.Humanitarian catastrophes slowly unfold in an age of continuous and connective digital glare, and yet they are unseen. If the imploded battlefield of digital war affording the most proximate and persistent view of human suffering and death in history cannot ultimately mobilize radically effective forms of public response, it is difficult to imagine what will.
      PubDate: 2020-04-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1816383121000102
      Issue No: Vol. 102, No. 913 (2020)
  • AI for humanitarian action: Human rights and ethics
    • Authors: Michael Pizzi; Mila Romanoff, Tim Engelhardt
      Pages: 145 - 180
      Abstract: Artificial intelligence (AI)-supported systems have transformative applications in the humanitarian sector but they also pose unique risks for human rights, even when used with the best intentions. Drawing from research and expert consultations conducted across the globe in recent years, this paper identifies key points of consensus on how humanitarian practitioners can ensure that AI augments – rather than undermines – human interests while being rights-respecting. Specifically, these consultations emphasized the necessity of an anchoring framework based on international human rights law as an essential baseline for ensuring that human interests are embedded in AI systems. Ethics, in addition, can play a complementary role in filling gaps and elevating standards above the minimum requirements of international human rights law. This paper summarizes the advantages of this framework, while also identifying specific tools and best practices that either already exist and can be adapted to the AI context, or that need to be created, in order to operationalize this human rights framework. As the COVID crisis has laid bare, AI will increasingly shape the global response to the world's toughest problems, especially in the development and humanitarian sector. To ensure that AI tools enable human progress and contribute to achieving the Sustainable Development Goals, humanitarian actors need to be proactive and inclusive in developing tools, policies and accountability mechanisms that protect human rights.
      PubDate: 2020-04-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1816383121000011
      Issue No: Vol. 102, No. 913 (2020)
  • Freedom of assembly under attack: General and indiscriminate surveillance
           and interference with internet communications
    • Authors: Ilia Siatitsa
      Pages: 181 - 198
      Abstract: Every day across the world, as people assemble, demonstrate and protest, their pictures, their messages, tweets and other personal information are amassed without adequate justification. Arguing that they do so in order to protect assemblies, governments deploy a wide array of measures, including facial recognition, fake mobile towers and internet shutdowns. These measures are primarily analyzed as interferences with the right to privacy and freedom of expression, but it is argued here that protest and other assembly surveillance should also be understood as an infringement of freedom of assembly. This is necessary not only to preserve the distinct nature of freedom of assembly that protects collective action, but also to allow for better regulation of surveillance and interference with internet communications during assemblies.
      PubDate: 2020-04-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1816383121000047
      Issue No: Vol. 102, No. 913 (2020)
  • Biases in machine learning models and big data analytics: The
           international criminal and humanitarian law implications
    • Authors: Nema Milaninia
      Pages: 199 - 234
      Abstract: Advances in mobile phone technology and social media have created a world where the volume of information generated and shared is outpacing the ability of humans to review and use that data. Machine learning (ML) models and “big data” analytical tools have the power to ease that burden by making sense of this information and providing insights that might not otherwise exist. In the context of international criminal and human rights law, ML is being used for a variety of purposes, including to uncover mass graves in Mexico, find evidence of homes and schools destroyed in Darfur, detect fake videos and doctored evidence, predict the outcomes of judicial hearings at the European Court of Human Rights, and gather evidence of war crimes in Syria. ML models are also increasingly being incorporated by States into weapon systems in order to better enable targeting systems to distinguish between civilians, allied soldiers and enemy combatants or even inform decision-making for military attacks.The same technology, however, also comes with significant risks. ML models and big data analytics are highly susceptible to common human biases. As a result of these biases, ML models have the potential to reinforce and even accelerate existing racial, political or gender inequalities, and can also paint a misleading and distorted picture of the facts on the ground. This article discusses how common human biases can impact ML models and big data analytics, and examines what legal implications these biases can have under international criminal law and international humanitarian law.
      PubDate: 2020-04-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1816383121000096
      Issue No: Vol. 102, No. 913 (2020)
  • Stepping back from the brink: Why multilateral regulation of autonomy in
           weapons systems is difficult, yet imperative and feasible
    • Authors: Frank Sauer
      Pages: 235 - 259
      Abstract: This article explains why regulating autonomy in weapons systems, entailing the codification of a legally binding obligation to retain meaningful human control over the use of force, is such a challenging task within the framework of the United Nations Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons. It is difficult because it requires new diplomatic language, and because the military value of weapon autonomy is hard to forego in the current arms control winter. The article argues that regulation is nevertheless imperative, because the strategic as well as ethical risks outweigh the military benefits of unshackled weapon autonomy. To this end, it offers some thoughts on how the implementation of regulation can be expedited.
      PubDate: 2020-04-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1816383120000466
      Issue No: Vol. 102, No. 913 (2020)
  • The changing role of multilateral forums in regulating armed conflict in
           the digital age
    • Authors: Amandeep S. Gill
      Pages: 261 - 285
      Abstract: This article examines a subset of multilateral forums dealing with security problems posed by digital technologies, such as cyber warfare, cyber crime and lethal autonomous weapons systems (LAWS).1 It identifies structural issues that make it difficult for multilateral forums to discuss fast-moving digital issues and respond in time with the required norms and policy measures. Based on this problem analysis, and the recent experience of regulating cyber conflict and LAWS through Groups of Governmental Experts, the article proposes a schema for multilateral governance of digital technologies in armed conflict. The schema includes a heuristic for understanding human–machine interaction in order to operationalize accountability with international humanitarian law principles and international law applicable to armed conflict in the digital age. The article concludes with specific suggestions for advancing work in multilateral forums dealing with cyber weapons and lethal autonomy.
      PubDate: 2020-04-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1816383121000059
      Issue No: Vol. 102, No. 913 (2020)
  • Twenty years on: International humanitarian law and the protection of
           civilians against the effects of cyber operations during armed conflicts
    • Authors: Laurent Gisel; Tilman Rodenhäuser, Knut Dörmann
      Pages: 287 - 334
      Abstract: The use of cyber operations during armed conflicts and the question of how international humanitarian law (IHL) applies to such operations have developed significantly over the past two decades. In their different roles in the Legal Division of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), the authors of this article have followed these developments closely and have engaged in governmental and non-governmental expert discussions on the subject. In this article, we analyze pertinent humanitarian, legal and policy questions. We first show that the use of cyber operations during armed conflict has become a reality of armed conflicts and is likely to be more prominent in the future. This development raises a number of concerns in today's increasingly cyber-reliant societies, in which malicious cyber operations risk causing significant disruption and harm to humans. Secondly, we present a brief overview of multilateral discussions on the legal and normative framework regulating cyber operations during armed conflicts, looking in particular at various arguments around the applicability of IHL to cyber operations during armed conflict and the relationship between IHL and the UN Charter. We emphasize that in our view, there is no question that cyber operations during armed conflicts, or cyber warfare, are regulated by IHL – just as is any weapon, means or methods of warfare used by a belligerent in a conflict, whether new or old. Thirdly, we focus the main part of this article on how IHL applies to cyber operations. Analyzing the most recent legal positions of States and experts, we revisit some of the most salient debates of the past decade, such as which cyber operations amount to an “attack” as defined in IHL and whether civilian data enjoys similar protection to “civilian objects”. We also explore the IHL rules applicable to cyber operations other than attacks and the special protection regimes for certain actors and infrastructure, such as medical facilities and humanitarian organizations.
      PubDate: 2020-04-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1816383120000387
      Issue No: Vol. 102, No. 913 (2020)
  • The application of the principle of distinction in the cyber context: A
           Chinese perspective
    • Authors: Zhixiong Huang; Yaohui Ying
      Pages: 335 - 365
      Abstract: Up to now, the Chinese government has only made very general comments on the application of international humanitarian law to cyberspace. There are indeed Chinese academic papers concerning this issue, but the discussion of the principle of distinction is limited both in length and in academic depth. Compared with the West, research by Chinese scholars on this topic is still in a relatively preliminary stage. At present, there is no specific deconstruction or clarification of the application of the principle of distinction in cyberspace in Chinese academia. As the first paper written by Chinese scholars specifically devoted to this question, this piece provides a different perspective by injecting the positions of Chinese officials and the views of Chinese scholars. The authors aim to clarify whether the existing rules are still completely applicable in the cyber context, and if needed, to find out what kind of improvements and clarifications can be made. Weighing in on these debates, we argue that despite the potential technical challenges and uncertainties, the principle of distinction should be applied to cyberspace. It should also be carefully re-examined and clarified from the standpoint of preventing over-militarization and maximizing the protection of the interests of civilians. For human targets, the elements of combatant status identified in customary international law and relevant treaties are not well suited to the digital battlefield. Nevertheless, cyber combatants are still obligated to distinguish themselves from civilians. In applying the principle of distinction, we argue that it makes more sense to focus on substantive elements over formal elements such as carrying arms openly or having a fixed distinctive sign recognizable at a distance. In interpreting “direct participation in hostilities”, the threshold of harm requires an objective likelihood instead of mere subjective intention; the belligerent nexus should be confirmed, and the causal link should be proximate. Applying the “cyber kill chain” model by analogy helps us to grasp the whole process of direct participation in hostilities during cyber warfare. For non-human targets, all military objectives must cumulatively fulfil both the “effective contribution” and “definite military advantage” criteria, which are equally indispensable. The same requirements apply to dual-use objects. Furthermore, certain data should fall within the ambit of civilian objects.
      PubDate: 2020-04-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1816383121000023
      Issue No: Vol. 102, No. 913 (2020)
  • Hacking humanitarians: Defining the cyber perimeter and developing a cyber
           security strategy for international humanitarian organizations in digital
    • Authors: Massimo Marelli
      Pages: 367 - 387
      Abstract: Digitalization and new technologies have an increasingly important role in today's humanitarian activities. As humanitarian organizations become more active in and reliant on new and digital technologies, they evolve from being simple bystanders to being fully fledged stakeholders in cyberspace, vulnerable to adverse cyber operations that could impact on their capacity to protect and assist people affected by armed conflict or other situations of violence.This shift makes it essential for humanitarian organizations to understand and properly map their resulting cyber perimeter. Humanitarian organizations can protect themselves and their activities by devising appropriate cyber strategies for the digital environment. Clearly defining the digital boundaries within which they carry out operations lays the groundwork for humanitarian organizations to develop a strategy to support and protect humanitarian action in the digital environment, channel available resources to where they are most needed, and understand the areas in which their operational dialogue and working modalities need to be adapted for cyberspace.The purpose of this article is to identify the unique problems facing international humanitarian organizations operating in cyberspace and to suggest ways to address them. More specifically, the article identifies the key elements that an international humanitarian organization should consider in developing a cyber security strategy. Throughout, the International Committee of the Red Cross and its specificities are used as an example to illustrate the problems identified and the possible ways to address them.
      PubDate: 2020-04-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1816383121000151
      Issue No: Vol. 102, No. 913 (2020)
  • The updated ICRC Commentary on the Third Geneva Convention: A new tool to
           protect prisoners of war in the twenty-first century
    • Authors: Jemma Arman; Jean-Marie Henckaerts, Heleen Hiemstra, Kvitoslava Krotiuk
      Pages: 389 - 416
      Abstract: Since their publication in the 1950s and 1980s respectively, the Commentaries on the Geneva Conventions of 1949 and their Additional Protocols of 1977 have become a major reference for the application and interpretation of those treaties. The International Committee of the Red Cross, together with a team of renowned experts, is currently updating these Commentaries in order to document developments and provide up-to-date interpretations of the treaty texts. This article highlights key points of interest covered in the updated Commentary on the Third Geneva Convention. It explains the fundamentals of the Convention: the historical background, the personal scope of application of the Convention and the fundamental protections that apply to all prisoners of war (PoWs). It then looks at the timing under which certain obligations are triggered, those prior to holding PoWs, those triggered by the taking of PoWs and during their captivity, and those at the end of a PoW's captivity. Finally, the article summarizes key substantive protections provided in the Third Convention.
      PubDate: 2020-04-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1816383121000035
      Issue No: Vol. 102, No. 913 (2020)
  • The camera and the Red Cross: “Lamentable pictures” and conflict
           photography bring into focus an international movement, 1855–1865
    • Authors: Sonya de Laat
      Pages: 417 - 443
      Abstract: Henry Dunant's appeal for a neutral and impartial organization to provide care to wounded combatants aligned with growing criticism of mid-nineteenth-century European and North American conflicts. This article discusses the important convergence of Dunant's “lamentable pictures”, laid out in his Memory of Solferino, with spectators’ passionate responses to them and to battlefield photographs that circulated between 1855 and 1865. Through these images and reactions, there emerged a shared, expanded vision of humanity worth caring for, which brought into focus an international humanitarian movement.
      PubDate: 2020-04-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1816383121000072
      Issue No: Vol. 102, No. 913 (2020)
  • Digital+Witness:+Using+Open+Source+Information+for+Human+Rights+Investigation,+Documentation,+and+Accountability+Edited+by+Sam+Dubberley,+Alexa+Koenig+and+Daragh+Murray+*&rft.title=International+Review+of+the+Red+Cross&rft.issn=1816-3831&">Digital Witness: Using Open Source Information for Human Rights
           Investigation, Documentation, and Accountability Edited by Sam Dubberley,
           Alexa Koenig and Daragh Murray *
    • Authors: Emma Irving
      Pages: 445 - 449
      PubDate: 2020-04-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1816383120000405
      Issue No: Vol. 102, No. 913 (2020)
  • The+Persistence+of+Reciprocity+in+International+Humanitarian+Law+Bryan+Peeler+*&rft.title=International+Review+of+the+Red+Cross&rft.issn=1816-3831&">The Persistence of Reciprocity in International Humanitarian Law Bryan
           Peeler *
    • Authors: Matthias Vanhullebusch
      Pages: 451 - 455
      PubDate: 2020-04-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1816383120000442
      Issue No: Vol. 102, No. 913 (2020)
  • Transitional+Justice+and+the+“Disappeared”+of+Northern+Ireland:+Silence,+Memory,+and+the+Construction+of+the+Past+Lauren+Dempster+*&rft.title=International+Review+of+the+Red+Cross&rft.issn=1816-3831&">Transitional Justice and the “Disappeared” of Northern Ireland:
           Silence, Memory, and the Construction of the Past Lauren Dempster *
    • Authors: Charlotte Mohr
      Pages: 457 - 461
      PubDate: 2020-04-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1816383120000430
      Issue No: Vol. 102, No. 913 (2020)
  • Artificial intelligence and machine learning in armed conflict: A
           human-centred approach
    • Pages: 463 - 479
      Abstract: Note: This is an edited version of a paper published by the ICRC in June 2019.
      PubDate: 2020-04-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1816383120000454
      Issue No: Vol. 102, No. 913 (2020)
  • International humanitarian law and cyber operations during armed conflicts
    • Pages: 481 - 492
      • Cyber operations have become a reality in contemporary armed conflict. The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) is concerned by the potential human cost arising from the increasing use of cyber operations during armed conflicts.
      • In the ICRC's view, international humanitarian law (IHL) limits cyber operations during armed conflicts just as it limits the use of any other weapon, means or method of warfare in an armed conflict, whether new or old.
      • Affirming the applicability of IHL does not legitimize cyber warfare, just as it does not legitimize any other form of warfare. Any use of force by States – cyber or kinetic – remains governed by the Charter of the United Nations and the relevant rules of customary international law, in particular the prohibition against the use of force. International disputes must be settled by peaceful means, in cyberspace as in all other domains.
      • It is now critical for the international community to affirm the applicability of international humanitarian law to the use of cyber operations during armed conflicts. The ICRC also calls for discussions among governmental and other experts on how existing IHL rules apply and whether the existing law is adequate and sufficient. In this respect, the ICRC welcomes the intergovernmental discussions currently taking place in the framework of two United Nations General Assembly mandated processes.
      • Events of recent years have shown that cyber operations, whether during or outside armed conflict, can disrupt the operation of critical civilian infrastructure and hamper the delivery of essential services to the population. In the context of armed conflicts, civilian infrastructure is protected against cyber attacks by existing IHL principles and rules, in particular the principles of distinction, proportionality and precautions in attack. IHL also affords special protection to hospitals and objects indispensable to the survival of the civilian population, among others.
      • During armed conflicts, the employment of cyber tools that spread and cause damage indiscriminately is prohibited. From a technological perspective, some cyber tools can be designed and used to target and harm only specific objects and to not spread or cause harm indiscriminately. However, the interconnectivity that characterizes cyberspace means that whatever has an interface with the Internet can be targeted from anywhere in the world and that a cyber attack on a specific system may have repercussions on various other systems. As a result, there is a real risk that cyber tools are not designed or used – either deliberately or by mistake – in compliance with IHL.
      • States’ interpretation of existing IHL rules will determine the extent to which IHL protects against the effects of cyber operations. In particular, States should take clear positions about their commitment to interpret IHL so as to preserve civilian infrastructure from significant disruption and to protect civilian data. The availability of such positions will also influence the assessment of whether the existing rules are adequate or whether new rules may be needed. If States see a need to develop new rules, they should build on and strengthen the existing legal framework – including IHL.
      PubDate: 2020-04-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1816383120000478
      Issue No: Vol. 102, No. 913 (2020)
  • The ICRC Library goes digital
    • Pages: 493 - 494
      Abstract: The ICRC Library is home to unique collections retracing the parallel development of humanitarian action and law during the past 150+ years. With the core of these collections now digitized, this reference library on international humanitarian law (IHL) and the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) is a resource available to all, anytime, anywhere.
      PubDate: 2020-04-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S1816383120000417
      Issue No: Vol. 102, No. 913 (2020)
  • Reports
    • Pages: 495 - 509
      Abstract: This section of the Review provides a summary of new ICRC-affiliated reports relating to this issue's theme of “Digital Technologies and War”, including the executive summaries of three such reports. For access to the full reports, please follow the links provided.
      PubDate: 2020-04-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S181638312000048X
      Issue No: Vol. 102, No. 913 (2020)
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Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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