Subjects -> LAW (Total: 1613 journals)
    - CIVIL LAW (37 journals)
    - CONSTITUTIONAL LAW (52 journals)
    - CORPORATE LAW (92 journals)
    - CRIMINAL LAW (28 journals)
    - FAMILY AND MATRIMONIAL LAW (24 journals)
    - INTERNATIONAL LAW (196 journals)
    - JUDICIAL SYSTEMS (23 journals)
    - LAW (981 journals)
    - LAW: GENERAL (11 journals)

INTERNATIONAL LAW (196 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 171 of 171 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Juridica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of International and Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Afrilex     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Agora International Journal of Juridical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
AJIL Unbound     Open Access  
American Business Law Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
American Journal of International Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72)
American University International Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Annuaire Français de Droit International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Annual Review of Law and Social Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Annual Survey of International & Comparative Law     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Antitrust Chronicle - Competition Policy International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Anuario Colombiano de Derecho Internacional     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuario de Derechos Humanos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuario Español de Derecho Internacional     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Anuario español de derecho internacional privado     Partially Free  
Anuario Iberoamericano de Derecho Internacional Penal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Anuario Mexicano de Derecho Internacional     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Arbitration International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
ASA Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Asian International Arbitration Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Asian Journal of International Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Australasian Policing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Australian International Law Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Australian Journal of Asian Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Belli Ac Pacis : Jurnal Hukum Internasional     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Berkeley Journal of International Law     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Boletin Mexicano de Derecho Comparado     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Borderlands Journal : Culture, Politics, Law and Earth     Open Access  
Boston College International & Comparative Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Brigham Young University International Law and Management Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
British Yearbook of International Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Brooklyn Journal of International Law     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
California Western International Law Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Canadian Yearbook of International Law / Annuaire canadien de droit international     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Cape Town Convention Journal     Open Access  
Chicago Journal of International Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Chinese Journal of International Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Columbia Journal of Transnational Law     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Common Law World Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Commonwealth Law Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Comparative and International Law Journal of Southern Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Comparative Strategy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Computer Law Review International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Contemporary Security Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Cornell International Law Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Corporate Governance An International Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Criterios     Open Access  
Denver Journal of International Law and Policy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Deusto Journal of Human Rights     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Duke Journal of Comparative & International Law     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
European Business Law Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
European Company Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
European Foreign Affairs Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35)
European Journal for Security Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
European Journal of International Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 251)
European Labour Law Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
European Political Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
European Property Law Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Fordham International Law Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Foreign Policy Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Georgia Journal of International and Comparative Law     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Global Jurist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Global Justice : Theory Practice Rhetoric     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Harvard International Law Journal     Free   (Followers: 52)
ICSID Review : Foreign Investment Law Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Indian Journal of International Law     Hybrid Journal  
Inter: Revista de Direito Internacional e Direitos Humanos da UFRJ     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intergenerational Justice Review     Open Access  
International & Comparative Law Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 273)
International Area Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Commentary on Evidence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Comparative Jurisprudence     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
International Journal for Court Administration     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal for the Semiotics of Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Comparative and Applied Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Comparative Labour Law and Industrial Relations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
International Journal of Discrimination and the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Evidence and Proof     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Information Privacy, Security and Integrity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
International Journal of Language & Law     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Law in Context     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
International Journal of Law, Crime and Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67)
International Journal of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
International Journal of Nuclear Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Political Economy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Private Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Public Law and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
International Journal of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Law: Revista Colombiana de Derecho Internacional     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Planning Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Review of Law     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Review of the Red Cross     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
International Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 87)
Israel Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Ius Gentium     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Jerusalem Review of Legal Studies     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Journal of Biosecurity Biosafety and Biodefense Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of European Competition Law & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Genocide Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of International Dispute Settlement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of International Economic Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Journal of International Political Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of International Trade Law and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Law, Policy and Globalization     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Liberty and International Affairs     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Migration and Refugee Issues, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34)
Journal of Private International Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal on the Use of Force and International Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Legal Issues of Economic Integration     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Leiden Journal of International Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
LEX     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
London Review of International Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Loyola of Los Angeles International and Comparative Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Loyola University Chicago International Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Maastricht Journal of European and Comparative Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Maryland Journal of International Law     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Melbourne Journal of International Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Michigan State International Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Netherlands International Law Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Netherlands Yearbook of International Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
New Zealand Journal of Public and International Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
New Zealand Yearbook of International Law, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Northwestern Journal of International Human Rights     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Northwestern Journal of International Law & Business     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Notre Dame Journal of International & Comparative Law     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Oromia Law Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pace International Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Paix et Sécurité Internationales     Open Access  
Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Polar Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Public and Private International Law Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Recht der Werkelijkheid     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Review of European Community & International Environmental Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Review of European, Comparative & International Environmental Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Revista de Derecho de la Unión Europea     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Revista de Direito Brasileira     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista de la Secretaría del Tribunal Permanente de Revisión     Open Access  
Revista Facultad de Jurisprudencia     Open Access  
Revista Tribuna Internacional     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Videre     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Revue québécoise de droit international / Quebec Journal of International Law / Revista quebequense de derecho internacional     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Santa Clara Journal of International Law     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
SASI     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
South African Yearbook of International Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
South Carolina Journal of International Law and Business     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Stanford Journal of International Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Syracuse Journal of International Law and Commerce     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
TDM Transnational Dispute Management Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Tilburg Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Transnational Environmental Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Uniform Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
University of Miami Inter-American Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Utrecht Journal of International and European Law     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law     Free   (Followers: 5)
Virginia Journal of International Law     Free   (Followers: 5)
Washington University Global Studies Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Wisconsin International Law Journal     Free   (Followers: 5)
World Journal of VAT/GST Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
World Trade and Arbitration Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Yale Journal of International Law     Free   (Followers: 18)
Yearbook of International Environmental Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Yearbook of International Humanitarian Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Zeitschrift für Außen- und Sicherheitspolitik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Zeitschrift für das Privatrecht der Europäischen Union - European Union Private Law Review / Revue de droit privé de l'Union européenne     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Zeitschrift für öffentliches Recht     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Zeitschrift für Zivilprozess International     Hybrid Journal  


Similar Journals
Journal Cover
European Journal for Security Research
Number of Followers: 2  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 2365-0931 - ISSN (Online) 2365-1695
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2656 journals]
  • Open Chance and Risk Management Process Supported by a Software Tool for
           Improving Urban Security
    • Abstract: By now the 5-step risk and chance management process according to the generic ISO 31000 standard has been applied to a wide range of domains including organizational risk management, business continuity, safety and IT security management, as well as occupational safety. The paper motivates the context and need for an open, scalable and flexible urban (perceived) security and safety assessment and improvement process, showing that it should be applicable also at local community level. The basic ideas of the process include the division of risk and chance analysis and management (treatment) into defined phases which are addressed iteratively: (1) within a framing context, stakeholders and their objectives are identified; (2) chance events for reaching objectives or, as often more straightforward, risk events opposing objectives are identified; (3) these chances and risks on objectives are quantified in terms of probability and consequences on the identified objectives; (4) they are assessed regarding their context-sensitive societal acceptability; (5) improvement measures are selected and implemented. The process is iterated until all risks on objectives are sufficiently controlled, also the combination of risks. Concerning the methodology, a semi-formal modelling of the static and dynamic requirements of a tailored process based on ISO 31000 is provided, which in addition allows the formulation of minimum consistency and completeness requirements, e.g. for each objective at least one stakeholder and risk should be identified. For the urban domain, a classification of risk assessment techniques regarding their suitability for supporting the process is presented. A further focus is the efficient provision of best practice options for urban security enhancement. Based on the insights gained by the systematic modelling of the risk management process, a software tool was developed to facilitate the application of the process in participatory settings like round table discussions with stakeholders. The paper presents as use case the application of the tool-supported methodology in several discussion rounds within a residential district in a medium sized university town in Germany along with the discussion of the evaluations and findings. Thus, the applicability of the software-supported urban security risk management to the novel urban security domain is demonstrated. In summary, the approach is sufficiently transparent and flexible for fast summaries of round table discussions up to complex iterative decision and participatory scenarios, which have to consider multiple stakeholders and a large variety of possible urban security and safety enhancement options with a given urban context.
      PubDate: 2021-04-29
  • Domestic Support for Foreign Fighting: Attitudes Towards the Use of
           Violence Abroad
    • Abstract: This study explores the phenomenon of foreign fighting through survey data gathered amongst Norwegian youths in 2015. Looking at two overarching explanatory models the article tests how grievances, criminality and more sectarian and religious factors affect more radical attitudes towards foreign fighting in Syria. Through this the article tests some central individual level factors to see how they impact support for foreign fighting in Syria, while also running alternative methodological approaches to test both the robustness of the initial findings and do some exploratory testing of non-responsive respondents in the multinomial models. The findings find support for factors such as past criminal behaviour and perceived deprivation in the form of self-reported socio-economic position, both of which are significant across the main models and in most of the alternative models. More abstract grievance measures, such as alienation and disillusionment more generally, provide more mixed findings. Hypotheses about a connection between religious identities and religiosity also finds support, with some indications that the sectarian nature of the Syrian civil war has a significant impact on attitudes amongst religious groups across the board. There is also a clearer sectarian dimension when studying those with higher levels of support for foreign fighting in Syria.
      PubDate: 2021-03-10
  • Russia’s Critical Infrastructure Policy: What do we Know About
    • Abstract: The article is an analytical state-of-the-art review of the Russian Federation’s critical infrastructure policy, starting from the 1990s but zooming in on the current situation. The article discusses what does critical infrastructure mean in the Russian context. It explores the country’s threat scenarios in this field, and asks what part is played by cyber security threats in this context. Further, the article elaborates the issue whether Russia’s policy is focused on critical infrastructure protection, or has the country adopted the more recent concept of resilience that puts emphasis on adaptive measures and recovery. Finally, it is considered who are the actors in Russian critical infrastructure policy and, in particular, how does Russia deal with the fact that the respective infrastructure operators even in Russia usually are not directly state-owned entities, but private companies.
      PubDate: 2020-10-29
      DOI: 10.1007/s41125-020-00070-0
  • Regression, Progression and Renewal: The Continuous Redevelopment of
           Expertise in Police Use of Force Coaching
    • Abstract: Professionalism in law enforcement requires the identification and development of expertise of police use of force (PUOF) coaches. Effective PUOF training includes the transfer from the training into the real-world environment of policing. This difference between working in the field and working as a PUOF coach has not been thoroughly investigated. However, research in other professional domains has shown that practical competence in the subject matter itself does not make a coach effective or successful. With this article, we conceptualize expert practice in PUOF instruction on the basis of a conflict management training setting in the security domain. First, by discussing a model of “territories of expertise”, we point out the dynamic and contextual character of expertise within the PUOF domain. Second, by conceptualizing expertise as a process and effect of communication, we provide a framework that describes and examines the interdependency between performance-based and reputation-based expertise. These considerations present two practical challenges, which we recommend professional law enforcement institutions to engage. We close by providing practical orientations and pointers for addressing these issues.
      PubDate: 2020-10-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s41125-020-00069-7
  • Risk and Resilience Analysis of Public Civil Buildings Against Shelling
           with Explosive Sources in Urban Contexts
    • Abstract: Due to their high availability and low cost level, passive protection measures are a key factor for reducing the vulnerability of persons within and close to assets against potentially impacting mortar, rocket and artillery threats. Particularly, mortar shelling has even most recently been reported. At risk are permanent and nonpermanent assets of civil, (non)governmental or peacekeeping organizations with corresponding effects, e.g., on civil society, civil services or successful nation building, respectively. Of interest are the identification of vulnerable areas and the assessment of the effectiveness of protective structures while taking also other counter measures into account. To this end, a seven-step quantitative risk and resilience analysis and management methodology is described and applied. It consists of the analysis of scenarios, frequencies, hazards, damage effects and risks and yields individual and collective risks for multi-threat scenarios. Local individual or collective risks can be minimized below criteria, thus reducing vulnerability and increasing resilience in an efficient way, e.g., by using geometrical changes, by structural roof, wall and window retrofits, by mitigating barriers and/or organizational measures. The approach is demonstrated along with three detailed example cases.
      PubDate: 2020-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s41125-019-00046-9
  • A Review of Methods for Evaluating Security Awareness Initiatives
    • Abstract: The ‘human factor’ is commonly considered to be the weakest link in an organization’s security chain, and a significant percentage of companies have implemented security awareness (SA) programs to address this vulnerability. However, an element whose usefulness is still underestimated is the importance to perform measurements of the different SA programs’ effectiveness in order to assess their adequateness for achieving the intended goals. This gap has serious consequences as most of the security awareness campaigns have resulted to be largely unsuccessful. Awareness measurement tools might be determinant in providing feedback on the outcome of a program as well as in helping with the strategic planning for endorsing security. This article will introduce and critically compare a set of measurement methods. It will then discuss their attributes and suggested applications.
      PubDate: 2020-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s41125-019-00052-x
  • Editorial
    • PubDate: 2020-09-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s41125-020-00068-8
  • Intraorganisational Knowledge Transfer in Security-Critical Environments:
           A Conceptual Framework for High Reliability Organisations
    • Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to discuss the central role of knowledge transfer for high reliability organisations (HROs) and to present new empirically based findings in this context. An explorative approach is used to investigate how HROs deal with the transfer of operational knowledge. Twenty-eight expert interviews with members of five different HROs were conducted and analysed by means of a qualitative data analysis. The conceptual framework presents intraorganisational knowledge transfer in a cyclical way, defining operational knowledge as particularly relevant for HROs. Four influencing factors are highlighted in this context. Informal forms of knowledge transfer turn out to be particularly relevant for HROs, despite their hierarchical structures. Although previous contributions investigate the management of knowledge and its transfer in a broad sense, this paper specifically addresses HROs as a research subject, analysing the transfer of operationally relevant knowledge in several HROs on an empirically substantiated basis.
      PubDate: 2020-08-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s41125-020-00067-9
  • The Christmas Market Attack in Berlin and Attitudes Toward Refugees: A
           Natural Experiment with Data from the European Social Survey
    • Abstract: Using a quasi-experimental research design, this study examines changes in attitudes toward refugees after the terrorist attack on the Berlin Christmas market of December 19, 2016. In our analysis, we make use of random variation in the field period of the European Social Survey (ESS) to fashion a natural experimental design. The survey’s field period took place in Germany from August 23, 2016, to March 26, 2017. Hence, the Christmas market attack took place approximately halfway through the ESS’s field phase, thus making it possible to study the causal effect on changing attitudes toward minorities before and after the attack. We argue that the terrorist attack creates a spillover effect and negatively shapes public opinion of uninvolved ethnic minorities. Our data analysis suggests that immediately after the event, only people with a right-wing political attitude appear to be affected by the proposed spillover effect. However, we find that the worsening of attitudes toward refugees can also be observed in the general population as time progresses. We do not find variation according to educational levels.
      PubDate: 2020-05-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s41125-020-00066-w
  • Cowardice and Military Security: Some Heuristic Reflections
    • Abstract: While cowardice is sanctioned by military law in most countries, the impact of cowardice on modern warfare and security politics is low. This might be the reason why cowardice—as notion, phenomenon, and topic—has widely been neglected in security studies. However, for quite some time, we have witnessed a revival of the word as an accusation and pejorative term that is frequently applied by Western government representatives to describe the enemy in armed conflicts. The expression of a “cowardly attack” has become quite common in political communication after attacks against Western forces in violent confrontations. Thereby, cowardice is transformed from a possible weakness of the own forces to a particular strength of the enemy. This article aims at presenting some reflections on the notion, meaning, and functional role of cowardice in situations of violent international conflict, as well as on the use of the term as a speech act in recent governmental security communication. A particular focus will be put on the normative implications of the revival of the governmental cowardice-rhetoric.
      PubDate: 2020-05-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s41125-020-00065-x
  • Data, Data Banks and Security
    • Abstract: The article discusses different examples of data-driven policing, its legal provisions and effects on a society’s understanding of public security. It distinguishes between (a) the collection of classical data such as fingerprints or DNA, which serve to identify suspects and to collect evidence, (b) the processes and the impetus of big data, and (c) the networking of files from different security authorities. Discussing systematic forecasting tools, the article works out a significant difference between the prediction of incidents such as home burglary in the case of predictive policing, and the identification of individuals deemed to be at risk of involvement in various forms of crime in the case of risk control programs. Data and personality protection are interrelated issues.
      PubDate: 2020-02-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s41125-019-00062-9
  • Digitalization and Its Security Manifestations
    • PubDate: 2020-01-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s41125-019-00063-8
  • Benefits and Limits of Autonomous Systems in Public Security
    • Abstract: The replacement of traditional deterministic machines by autonomous, self-organizing systems in the realm of security technologies represents a new challenge. Operative and strategic autonomy must be made more distinct, while moral autonomy should remain a human responsibility. Depending on the type of mechanical learning, the systems gain a black box character that impedes the tracing of the authorship of the systems’ actions. The proposed method of monitoring system decisions (Digital Charta Art. 5, DSGVO Art. 22) must deal with complex networks of responsibility. For this reason, a new legal framework and new political terms of negotiation must be developed.
      PubDate: 2019-12-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s41125-019-00057-6
  • A Toy Model Study for Long-Term Terror Event Time Series Prediction with
    • Abstract: Followed by the 9/11 attacks in 2001 and the subsequent events, terrorism and other asymmetrical threat situations became increasingly important for security-related efforts of most western societies. In a similar period, the development of data gathering and analysis techniques especially using the methods of machine learning has made rapid progress. Aiming to utilize this development, this paper employs artificial neural networks for long-term time series prediction of terrorist event data. A major focus of the paper lies on the specific use of convolutional neural networks (CNNs) for this task, as well as the comparison to the performance of classical methods for (long-term) time series prediction. As the databases like Global Terrorism Database and Fraunhofer’s terrorist event database are not extensive enough to train a deep learning method, a simple toy model for the generation of time series data from one or more terrorist groups with defined properties is established. Metrics for comparison of the different approaches are collected and discussed, and a customized sliding-window metric is introduced. The study shows the principle applicability of CNNs for this task and offers constraints as well as possible extensions for future studies. Based on these results, continuation and further extension of data collection efforts and ML optimization techniques are encouraged.
      PubDate: 2019-12-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s41125-019-00061-w
  • The Complication of Presence in Telemedical Collaboration:
           Intersituativity and Its Organizational Consequences
    • Abstract: New information and communication technologies change social relations. The article introduces a concept by Stefan Hirschauer grasping this change as a complication of presence. For Emergency Medical Services, full presence of all participants is usually considered essential; however, telemedicine, telehealth physicians, and telecooperation are also gaining ground here. The study describes the foundation and challenges of telemedical situations and analyses how they are managed by physicians, paramedics, and patients being only gradually present for each other. On the organizational level, formal guidelines become more important, and responsibilities shift toward the rescue workers on-site.
      PubDate: 2019-12-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s41125-019-00060-x
  • Automating Security in and Around Soccer Stadiums Through Camera
           Systems' Report on a Research Project
    • Abstract: The article reports on the results of the DFG-funded interdisciplinary (social science and project neuroinformatics) Emotion. Escalation. Violence. The question was whether escalation processes (in and around football stadiums) can be detected automatically using a camera and appropriate evaluation software. The analysis of the data collected in the project (video, participant observation, interviews) showed that an automatic detection system that only looks at all factors in the situation and on site can make only limited statements about the probability of escalation processes. In addition, there is always a need for experienced human actors who are familiar with these processes and can contribute to the assessment of the situation.
      PubDate: 2019-12-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s41125-019-00056-7
  • Using Smartphones in Police Operations: The Necessity of Media Literacy in
           Police Forces in the Age of Transparency
    • Abstract: The internet and especially social media networks had and still have a deep impact on the organizational communication. Beside the possibilities of self-representation, social media allow a fast dialogue between organization and its stakeholders—for enterprises as well as for public administration, such as the police. Moreover, not only the official PR departments use these channels, also employees use text, photograph, and video to inform about their experiences. The article deals with the upcoming fuzzy logic of many responders, the new age of transparency and dialogue, the lack of media literacy, and the role of high-rank police officers.
      PubDate: 2019-12-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s41125-019-00059-4
  • Reflecting on the Ethical and Legal Implications of the State-Led War
           Against International Terrorism
    • Abstract: This article takes critical issue with the state-led global war against international terrorism, focusing specifically on the ethical and legal implications of that protracted international conflict. Following others, the paper conceptualises terrorism as an aspect of modern political violence that tends to service the overall interest of extant liberal global political economy at the expense of the human security challenges. To this end, the article seeks to shed light on the flux of alliances and allegiances between formal state agents and informal political actors (e.g. religious extremist or terrorist groups and left-/right-wing para-militias, etc.), whose bellicose political activities not only underscore the global war on terror but in part also inform the post-Cold War liberal international order. It is only in viewing the ongoing state-led global war against international terrorism through the prism of the state system’s perennial bellicose activities that we would be able to fully appreciate the adverse effects the global war on terror on the development of both domestic and international law that is critical to safeguarding the security and/or protection of civilians in times of peace and war.
      PubDate: 2019-11-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s41125-019-00055-8
  • Before, Now, and After the Event of Terror: Situational Terror Awareness
           for Civilians in US Homeland Security
    • Abstract: This article examines terror awareness as an individualized security practice that allows civilians to respond to situations of emergent terror as they occur, that is, in real time. It is a practice that targets the “time–space” (Walters in Comp Eur Polit 15(5):794–817, 2016) just before, during, and immediately after an event of terror. In recent years, the notion of “terror awareness” has gained salience in official US homeland security discourses. To protect themselves and their communities from harm and ensure an uninterrupted “way of life,” citizens are routinely encouraged to be vigilant and aware to signs of potential terror as they attend to their daily affairs. They are asked to stay informed, remain alert, and be ready to respond to the incipiency of terror so that they may avert—or, at least mitigate—its potentially catastrophic and disruptive consequences. According to the authorities, this kind of habitualized threat awareness can help prevent acts of terror and strengthen community resilience. But what exactly do government and security officials mean when they speak of “terror awareness”' What does this practice of being “terror aware” entail' And how is it supposed to function as a protective mechanism against potential terror' What is its relationship to such abstract concepts as “security,” “preparedness,” and “resilience”' This article seeks to answer these questions. It is based on a careful reading of official and publicly available texts (press statements, policy documents, reports, training brochures, websites, etc.) about homeland security and anti-terrorism, where the notion of “awareness” finds mention and a specific understanding of it—namely as an individualized security technology—is being communicated to the wider public.
      PubDate: 2019-11-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s41125-019-00054-9
  • An Acid Test for Europeanization: Public Cyber Security Procurement in the
           European Union
    • Abstract: Public procurement refers to processes through which national, regional, and local public authorities, state-owned enterprises, or other related bodies governed by public law, purchase products, services, and public work. Such purchases have been a particularly important element in developing the Internal Market of the European Union (EU). Given recent procurement reforms in the EU, including the 2009 reform on defense procurement, this paper examines public cyber security procurement in Europe. Two questions are examined: (1) whether cyber security procurement differs from public procurement in general, and (2) whether there are any noteworthy signs of Europeanization in terms of cyber security procurement. According to the empirical results, cyber security procurement tends to differ from general public procurement. In particular, competition obstacles are visible in terms of bids for cyber security procurement tenders. This result is accompanied with a visible lack of Europeanization, although the same observation generalizes to public procurement in the EU generally. With these results and the accompanying discussion, the paper contributes to the recent lively discussion about European security and its relation to marketization.
      PubDate: 2019-10-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s41125-019-00053-w
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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