Subjects -> HISTORY (Total: 1540 journals)
    - HISTORY (859 journals)
    - History (General) (45 journals)
    - HISTORY OF AFRICA (72 journals)
    - HISTORY OF ASIA (67 journals)
    - HISTORY OF EUROPE (256 journals)
    - HISTORY OF THE AMERICAS (183 journals)
    - HISTORY OF THE NEAR EAST (48 journals)

History (General) (45 journals)

Showing 1 - 41 of 41 Journals sorted alphabetically
AION (filol.) Annali dell'Università degli Studi di Napoli "L'Orientale"     Full-text available via subscription  
ArcHistoR     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asclepio     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
British Journal for the History of Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Canadian Bulletin of Medical History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Comparative Studies in Society and History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 56)
Cuadernos de Historia Contemporánea     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Culture & History Digital Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
El Futuro del Pasado     Open Access  
Family & Community History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
First World War Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Geschichte und Gesellschaft : Zeitschrift für Historische Sozialwissenschaft     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Gladius     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Histoire de la Recherche Contemporaine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
História & Ensino     Open Access  
Histories     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
History and Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
History of Geo- and Space Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
History of Humanities     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
History of the Human Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
History Workshop Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
HOPOS : The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
HoST - Journal of History of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Maritime History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of the History of Sport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of History and Future     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Medieval Monastic Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Planning History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of the History of Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Law and History Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Medievalista online     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Memini. Travaux et documents     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Española de Filosofía Medieval     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Sabretache     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Source: Notes in the History of Art     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Speculum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34)
Sport History Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Storia delle Donne     Open Access  
TAWARIKH : Journal of Historical Studies     Open Access  
Zeitschrift für Geschichtsdidaktik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
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Journal of History and Future
Number of Followers: 1  

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ISSN (Online) 2458-7672
Published by DergiPark Homepage  [185 journals]
  • Military Traditions in Anatolian Turkish Beyliks-1 (Traditions Before and
           During the War)

    • Authors: Kerim Köksal KAYA
      Abstract: Although the second period of Anatolian Turkish beyliks constitutes an important stage in Anatolian Turkish history, studies on this subject generally focus on the political life and art history of the beyliks. However, despite the limited resources, when the history of this period is examined, it is possible to reach extremely valuable information about Turkish traditions and cultural history. As a matter of fact, the relevant principalities brought the traditions and cultures of both Central Asian Turkish states and Muslim Turkish states to Anatolia and became their protectors. In this study, the military traditions which are a manifestation of military structures of the beyliks which emerged in various areas of Anatolia with the collapse of the Turkish Seljuks, will be discussed. Since the full study on this subject will be too voluminous for an article study, here only with some examples about the military traditions applied by the relevant Anatolian Turkish beyliks before and during the war will be examined.Considering that the beyliks within the scope of the study were border beyliks affiliated to the Turkish Seljuks in the early days, it is understood that the main purpose of their existence was military activities (protecting the borders, going to holy war, etc.). It is unlikely that the beyliks, which were formed for this purpose and whose main activities were related to military service, remained far from the Turkish military culture. In this context, Anatolian Turkish beys protected and enriched Turkish military culture at every stage of campaigns and wars both under the domination of the Turkish Seljuks and when they were independent.
      PubDate: Thu, 22 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • Kadro Movement and the Influence of Vedat Nedim Tör

    • Authors: Hikmet YAMAN
      Abstract: It is important to evaluate the social, political, and literary environment in which Vedat Nedim Tör, one of the most important cultural and artistic figures of Republican Turkey, was born, grew up, and later influenced. In addition to his education and literary studies in reputable educational institutions, his association with prominent intellectuals of the Turkish intellectual world such as Mustafa Suphi, Ethem Nejat, Nazım Hikmet, Arab İsmail Hakkı and Sadık Ahi (Mehmet Eti) had undeniable effects on the maturation of Tör's literary personality and statesmanship. His being one of the founders of the Kadro Movement and Kadro Magazine, which was formed with the idea of implementing the ideology of the Turkish revolution together with Şevket Süreyya Aydemir, Burhan Asaf Belge, İsmail Hüsrev Tökin and Yakup Kadri, has taken its place in the Turkish world of thought as another important event. Vedat Nedim Tör's relationship with the Kadro Movement, who worked as the Editorial Director for two years in the Kadro Magazine, which was established with the permission of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, is a subject worthy of research. Born in 1929 in an environment where the World Economic Depression combined with the severe conditions in Turkey, the ideas defended by the Kadro Movement were discussed. Tör's position in the Kadro Movement, the role he played in the establishment of the movement, his activities within the movement, his administrative personality and his writings on issues such as economy, tourism and culture are the basis of this study. This article analyses the life and intellectual activities of Tör, who became one of the most important figures in the history of the Republic with his bureaucrat and political identity, and his relationship with the Kadro Movement.
      PubDate: Thu, 22 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • Some Assessments on the Mail Problem in the Ottoman State’s European

    • Authors: Taner ASLAN
      Abstract: Among the problems encountered by the Ottoman Empire in the 19th century, the problem of foreign mail constituted an important place. These posts opened as a result of various agreements between European states and the Ottoman Empire, and foreign postal agencies offices in many places. Foreign posts, which were initially established only to carry embassy posts, were also used in the communication of the people and merchants in the 19th century, when the need for production and distribution network became increasingly important with the development of trade and communication. These mails, which have become an institutional structure over time, are used for prohibited publications, smuggled weapons, human smuggling, etc. The instrumentalization of harmful and illegal substances in the transport created an important security problem for the Ottoman Empire. In order to eliminate this problem, the state primarily tried to modernize the Ottoman posts. The removal of foreign mail, which is seen as a state issue, was among the priority agenda items of the state. He tried to eliminate this through diplomatic channels, but could not get any results due to the negative attitudes of foreign states. In the study, the diplomatic activities of the Ottoman Empire to solve the problem of foreign posts are discussed.
      PubDate: Thu, 22 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • Ottoman View on the Unification of Italy, 1796-1861

    • Authors: Ufuk ÖZESMER
      Abstract: While the Kingdom of Italy was officially established after half a century of struggle, the Ottoman Empire was living its last century. The unification period of Italy was a significant epoch in which these two states coincided with each other in history. This study is the examination of the period of the Italian Unification from the Ottoman point of view, which started in the Napoleonic period and until 1861 when the Kingdom of Italy was officially declared. During this era in the Italian peninsula, numerous events, relevant or irrelevant for the Ottoman Empire took place; On the other hand, the Ottoman state followed and examined all these events with great attention and tried to position itself in order to find a place in the changing world order. This article will examine how and for what purpose the Ottoman Empire observed the events that took place in the Italian peninsula and what actions it took based on these observations.
      PubDate: Thu, 22 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • Arianism and Pelagianism: Two Great Heresies of the Fourth and Fifth

    • Authors: Sylvain BERGERON
      Abstract: At a time in Western civilization when differing religious theologies were at odds with each another, opposing schools of thought attempted to reformulate and rationalize some of the most fundamental teachings at the heart of early Christianity. As the founders of these schools were branded as radicals and heretics for defying the orthodoxy and authority of the Roman Empire and at the same time, of the Roman Catholic Church, these teachers were soon ostracized and harshly punished for their flawed and erroneous beliefs. Focusing on the fourth and fifth centuries of the Common Era specifically, this paper will introduce two great heresies that belonged to those historical periods namely, Arianism and Pelagianism, and the highly influential, yet controversial thinkers behind them. Formulated by the Cyrenaic (modern-day Libya) presbyter, Arius (256-336 CE) and the British monk and theologian, Pelagius (390-418 CE), these two religious figures whose nonconformist theological positions are still being debated today, dared in their own defiant ways to challenge the firmly established rules and doctrines of Crown and Church.
      PubDate: Thu, 22 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • Reflections Of Organic Relationship Between Press And Propaganda On The
           Ottoman State (1831-1918)

    • Authors: Çağlar SOLMAZ; Mehmet KAYIRAN
      Abstract: Propaganda activities have become important in the field of social sciences because they are activities that hold ideas and opinions of communities seeking to dominate the masses they want to influence. After the printing press, the expansion of the idea of propaganda expanded the scope of the media publication activities and the written works. In the 19th century, the Ottoman Empire put forward its reaction in the face of the root cause of the press activities and tried to attract the masses to themselves in the form of power-opposition. This study aims to examine the press movements in the Ottoman State in the light of propaganda activities.
      PubDate: Thu, 22 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • British Political Officer H.C. Luke’s Report on Transcaucasia

    • Authors: Orhan TURAN
      Abstract: The Bolshevik Revolution heralded a new era for the nations under Tsarist Russia. The atmosphere of civil war in which the Russian Empire was dragged provided a favorable environment for independence movements. In a short time, a federative structure formed by Azerbaijan, Armenia and Georgia emerged in the Transcaucasia. To put it more clearly, the Transcaucasian Independent Democratic Federative Republic was established in April 1918. Then three states declared their independence. With the end of the First World War, the fate of the Caucasus began to change.Britain focused on the Transcaucasia after the Ottoman Empire withdrew from the war by requesting an armistice. Because the Caucasus was of great importance for England from a strategic and economic point of view. The underground energy resources here and the route to Batumi, Tbilisi and Baku should have been under the protection of the empire. In this context, Britain pushed the terms of the armistice as much as possible in line with its own interests. So much so that he even established military bases in the important city centers of the region.In the study, the report titled “Report on the Situation in Transcaucasia”, which was obtained from the British National Archive in London, prepared by Political Officer H. C. Luke, who was assigned by High Commissioner Admiral J. de Robeck in Istanbul, dated 4 November 1919, will be evaluated. The present report reveals the political and military developments in the Transcaucasia after the Bolshevik Revolution. The report deals with the events in Azerbaijan, Georgia and Armenia from the British point of view. Again, the influence of other nations, especially Turkish, German and Russian, on the region is also expressed here.In the light of the political and military developments that emerged in the Transcaucasia in the post-Mudros Armistice period, the study will try to deal with the competition between the big and local powers in the light of the report. The main material of the paper will be the report titled Report on the Situation in Transcaucasia obtained from the British National Archives.
      PubDate: Thu, 22 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • Crow Invasions and Struggles Against Crows in Anatolia from the Ottoman
           Empire to the Republic (1860-1965)

    • Authors: Said OLGUN
      Abstract: Societies whose economy is based on agriculture have had to struggle for centuries against various animals that harm agricultural production, especially grasshoppers and pigs. Crows, which damage the crops in the fields and the fruits in the vineyards and gardens, have been one of the animals fought by agricultural societies. This struggle was mostly carried on by the farmers and the civilian population. Central and local governments have prepared the legal and administrative ground for the struggle with the decisions they have taken and the laws they have enacted. By means of administrative and legal regulations, it has been determined by whom and under what conditions the struggle will be carried out; the participation of the public in the struggle has been ensured by operating the reward and punishment mechanism. Crows have been a big problem not only for the villagers who make a living from farming in the countryside, but also for the city and city dwellers.In the first part of the study, the crow invasions encountered in Edirne and Istanbul in the last periods of the Ottoman Empire, the measures taken against them and the struggles were discussed through the documents obtained from the Ottoman Archive. In the second part of study, the struggles made in various cities of Anatolia during the Republican period were tried to be conveyed and evaluated through the national newspapers of the period and the parliamentary minutes. In the second part of the study, the struggles made in various cities of Anatolia during the Republican period were tried to be conveyed and evaluated through the national newspapers of the period and the parliamentary minutes. In this study, the struggles against crows as a pest in Anatolian lands were tried to be explained and evaluated through the complaints of the people, the measures taken, the methods of struggle with the administrative and legal regulations and the results obtained.
      PubDate: Thu, 22 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • Abidin Ozmen’s Ministry of Education and His Activities (1934-1935)

    • Authors: Özkan ORUN; İrşad Sami YUCA
      Abstract: Abidin Ozmen was born in the last years of a collapsed state and lived the first phase of his education and bureaucracy during this chaotic period. Military, political, national, secular and modernization developments that took place during the National Struggle and the Republic had new and lasting effects on his attitudes and thoughts. Ozmen had important roles in the transition from the Ottoman Empire to the Republic, as well as being a witness to many social and political events, which makes him an important profile of recent Turkey. In addition, being in different regions, cities and provinces due to his duties and witnessing the social, cultural and local life of these places once again makes what he left behind important. It is a fact that besides being a hardworking politician and bureaucrat, whose name is frequently mentioned especially in the single-party years, he was loyal to the Kemalist reforms, which was the dominant ideology of the period. He undertook important duties such as district governor, deputy, general inspector, governor, deputy of education and the Presidency of the Turkish Language Institution. Although a wide literature has been revealed in academic and general studies about Ozmen, it has been determined that the studies he carried out on the dissemination of education and training and the elimination of its problems during the Ministry of Education which took place between 1934-1935, were not adequately addressed. In this study, Ozmen's life, world of thought, bureaucracy and political life will be briefly discussed. However, the subject that the study will focus more on will be on the development of Turkish education in the first years of the early republican years in his political and bureaucratic life and the studies he made in solving its problems.
      PubDate: Thu, 22 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • Memory, History and Politics: Walter Benjamin's Methodology of

    • Authors: Salih AKKANAT
      Abstract: Benjamin's philosophy of history is a critical effort that establishes distinctive connections between the concepts of the present, history, memory and politics. Benjamin criticizes the traditional view of history, which can be called historicism, in terms of the method it adopts regarding the truth of historical knowledge. Defending a new perspective change in historical thought with a method based on experience rather than a concept-oriented view of history, Benjamin introduces modern historiography with aesthetic categories such as monad, dialectical image, constellation. Benjamin tries to think historically from experience. Reaching the knowledge of experience through abstraction and generalization or subordinating experience to the concept; means the disappearance of the context in which the experience is produced. As a matter of fact, while making a distinction between material life and mental life in the history of philosophy; material, concrete, practical idiom field has been devalued in the face of the universe of thought. Benjamin says that since Dilthey, philosophers of life have also tried to reach true experience by referring to poetry, nature identified with purity, and myths. This article aims to show how an empirical idea of historicity can be reached in the context of Benjamin's thought of temporality and historiography. To think of history in the light of the concept of experience; It can make it possible to develop a historical narrative that emphasizes power and power relations, is structured on the knowledge of material and concrete interests, and is open to the participation of those excluded from historical reality by being stigmatized for different reasons in its relationship with the dominant form of publicity in history and today. In this respect, the article aims to determine the basic parameters of Benjamin's critical view of history against the historicist thought of history and to discuss them in terms of ethical and political consequences. The importance he attaches to the philosophy of history and especially to historiography stems from his desire to develop a theory of political action that opposes existing systems of domination and their imposition of their own hegemonic view of history, rather than a concept of action that directs itself to the future as a goal. By questioning every victory of the dominant again, this kind of understanding of politics actually tends to reveal the fundamental historicity, changeability and finitude of all political systems. Thus, it aims to show that the past can be seen as the source of different and always unique beginnings. Therefore, memory and history, remembering and intervention form an inseparable unity.
      PubDate: Thu, 22 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • Wolf Motif in the Social, Political and Military Life of the Steppe Tribe

    • Authors: Aslı KAHRAMAN ÇINAR
      Abstract: The stepe geography, which covers a wide area from the Danube River to the Great Wall of China, brings with it diffucult climatic and terrain conditions for nomadic societies. Although the horse is at the center of life in hunter-nomadic societies. Although the horse is at the center of life in hunter-nomadic societies the wolf motif has taken its place in every aspect of the life of stepe people as a precious symbol of this geography, and it has almıost permeated into the social life but also in religious life. While the wolf motif was shaped in the sense that the wolf entered the herd and the herd was endangered, more importantly, it gained value as the holy savior and guide guiding the Turkish communities in their most difficult times. The most important factor in the wolf’s effect on Turkish socio-cultural life is that he is seen as an father/ancestor. The great mission undertaken by the concept of fahte/ancestor in Turkish family life, the existence of the patriarchal soial structure, triggered this imporance and caused the respect fort the wolf to reach the highest levels. The steppe communities, wyo hung yolf heads on the doors of their hauses, believed that with this tradition, the wolf had a holy spirit that protected the house and the hausehold, just as a father protects his family. They saw a rptective spirit as one of their important symbols not only in their social life, but also in their political, economic and military lives.
      PubDate: Thu, 22 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • The World which is the Scene of Illusıon and Nietzsche’s
           Instrumentala Value Analysis

    • Authors: Hilal KAHRAMAN
      Abstract: Nietzsche considers values that have existed since the dawn of humanity and have developed by consensus to be tools. According to him, people developed these tools because they were afraid to see the true nature of the world. People find it difficult to see the reality of the world that lies underneath its outward appearance and to recognize that the world they inhabit is pointless and without purpose. As a result, they prefer to relax and live by the standard ideals they produce by being shallow and avoiding contemplation. They develop values as tools to help them achieve their objectives, but they may also modify these values and take use of them to justify their own actions. Nietzsche, who believed that these values were the root of corruption and problems in his day, challenged the idea of Christianity and God, which was at the core of the values and dominated the German country at the time. Nietzsche questioned and criticized religion as a result of his own depression and life, as well as the Christian belief he believed was rapidly decaying, particularly the concept of the strict Catholic sect. Nietzsche, who responded against clergy who claimed to be God's hand in the world and operated in God's name during a period when the church was powerful in cultures, believed that if there is a God, he should have a transcendent nature and be at the same distance from all people. In this era, God is also a tool used by humans for grand narratives. People try to discover a purpose and meaning in the cosmos through God, believing that there is objective order in the world's chaos. Finding a God order that he can place in the essence of the movement in the cosmos, as well as a belief in progress about life itself, and a purpose alongside them, are important for man's efforts and struggles to not be in vain and to be grounded. However, man betrays the God he requires and sets at the center of his explanations, and this situation, according to Nietzsche, causes corruption in the world in addition to corruption in the church.The purpose of this research is to examine the instrumental values that Nietzsche argues should be re-evaluated for the future, as well as his critiques, by studying his ideas on the world, which he claims is the stage of illusions rather than the mind.
      PubDate: Thu, 22 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • The Reflections of Refet Pasha's Political Discourses in the National
           and Foreign Press in the Abolition of The Sultanate

    • Authors: Seher AKÇA
      Abstract: The military phase of the National Struggle was concluded with victory in 1922. On the Western Front the Turkish Army, which moved forward with the Battle of Sakarya, achieved a decisive victory in August 1922 with the Great Offensive and the Battle of the Commander-in-Chief. The next process will be the crowning of military victory with diplomatic victory; this victory will be won with the Mudanya Armistice and the Lausanne Peace Agreement.The Mudanya Armistice ended the war between the Turkish-Greek forces and laid the groundwork for a future peace agreement. According to the terms of the armistice, the most important issue was the gradual evacuation of Eastern Thrace, including Edirne, by the Greek forces and the allies, and its surrender to the Ankara Government. Ankara Government assigned Refet Pasha to take over Thrace; He also gave him the authority to represent the Ankara Government in Istanbul.In this study, the speeches of Refet Pasha, who was officially appointed by the Grand National Assembly of Turkey, about the sultanate administration in Istanbul and his attitudes and behaviors before the sultanate-caliphate authorities will be will be evaluated in terms of their place in the abolition of the sultanate and the reflections of this process in the domestic and foreign press.
      PubDate: Thu, 22 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • Development of the Beer Industry the Democratic Party in The Period

    • Authors: Ersin GÜRDAMAR
      Abstract: Beer production and consumption remained very limited in Anatolian regions during the Ottoman period. Beer, which is a low-alcohol drink, also covered the agricultural field because it contained barley and hops. By the 1800s, the economic networks of Europe had begun to cover the Ottoman brewery sector as well. The Republican administration was determined to create added value and to care about the areas where agriculture and industry meet. It was inevitable to make investments in this area, which was underdeveloped during the Ottoman period. A Brewery was opened in Atatürk Forest Farm in 1934. The producing peasant also had the opportunity to process the product. In these years, beer export was difficult all over the world. However, domestic consumption was met by domestic means. By 1940, monopoly practice had started in beer. Thus, the negative effects of the private sector on a developing industry would be prevented.The Democratic Party, which came to power in 1950, liquidated some products, including beer, which were in the hands of the Ministry of Monopoly, from the hands of the state and opened them to the private sector. Beer, however, was a product that not only generated income, but also improved agriculture. However, the opening of the beer sector to the private sector did not have the expected effect. Foreign capital, which could not see big profits, did not enter Turkey in the field of brewing during the Democratic Party period. In this case, the existing two factories were forced to produce more than their capacity. The Democratic Party could not implement a policy other than increasing the production capacity of the two factories. The new factory planned to be established in Yozgat could not be put into practice. The aim of this study is to detail the economic performance of the Democrat Party, which started with the liberal policy principle, in the beer example. This study is based on the minutes of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey, archive documents, the official newspaper, the relevant legislation and periodicals of the period.
      PubDate: Thu, 22 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • Cultural Heritage as a Factor of Cooperation between Countries of the
           Balkan Region

    • Authors: Pajazit HAJZERİ
      Abstract: Cultural heritage as factors of cooperation and interaction is one of the challenges facing Southeast Europe, more specifically the Western Balkans.The historical past and cultural diversity of each country in this region is closely related to its past, with monuments of construction heritage, movable, immovable, sacred and secular monuments, of different faiths, with social, religious character etc.Cultural diversity in heritage is the most complex and challenging area in terms of our past as a region, so regional cooperation is more than necessary to channel the facts and equate historical evidence to mitigate the irritations and territorial claims of neighbors to the detriment. of others.Kosovo in particular has a number of problems related to the historical past closely linked to cultural heritage as a result of non-recognition by UNESCO leaving room for others to make claims.Special areas protected by the Ahtisaari Package were erected around some Orthodox cult monuments to usurp the surrounding properties under the pretext of security, while the properties were private (the case is with the Boletin church in Mitrovica district which usurped the lands of Isa's family Bulletin).All this situation would have ended if UNESCO had recognized the cultural heritage of Kosovo as the heritage of Kosovo regardless of which ethnicity or cult it belongs to, aiming at regional cooperation in the cultural diversity that surrounds us.
      PubDate: Thu, 22 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • The Effects of Bektashi Influence in the Balkans in the Process Leading to
           the Balkan Wars

    • Authors: Mustafa ASLAN
      Abstract: As the Ottoman Empire entered the 19th century, it was weakened after losing many wars and became the target of Western imperial states. In line with these objectives, one of the most suitable regions for the dismemberment of the Ottoman Empire was the Balkans. The interventions of Western states in the region and the waves of nationalism originating from Europe accelerated the separation of the Balkans from the Ottoman Empire. In this process of rupture, life for the Ottoman constituents in the region will not be the same as it used to be. One of the Ottoman elements in the region is the Bektashis, the heirs of Sarı Saltık Baba, who first migrated here during the Seljuk period. In this process of rupture, the Bektashis, who were the face of tolerance of Islam and the carriers of Turkish culture in the Balkans, caused different attitudes within the Bektashi sect due to the continuation of their prohibition in the perception of the state on the one hand and the formation of nationalist movements in the region on the other. In this study, it will be tried to reveal how important the Bektashis were for the region in the process of the separation of the Balkans from the Ottoman Empire and the attitudes of the Bektashis towards this process through some examples.
      PubDate: Thu, 22 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • Education in Sason during the Ottoman Modernization Period

    • Authors: Hatip YILDIZ
      Abstract: After the Southeastern Anatolia Region came under Ottoman rule during the Yavuz Selim Period, all of the townships and villages of Sason, which is located within the current borders of Batman province, were included in the administrative structure of Diyarbekir Province for many years. But in 1879, with the formation of Bitlis Province, Sason District was separated from Diyarbekir Province and connected here. This situation continued in the same way until the end of the Ottoman Empire.After the declaration of the Tanzimat Edict in the Ottoman Empire, the modernization studies, which were carried out in a more planned way, were gradually implemented outside of Istanbul, that is, in the provinces. In this period, one of the areas where innovations were made in the provinces as in the center is education. Especially since the second half of the 19th century, many modern educational institutions at different levels began to be opened in the provinces. In this direction, many schools were opened in the Sason district under the Ministry of Education, and the main ones are Sason (Hazzo), Bozikan, Kabılcevz, Tızi, Reşnik, Cemalan, Hatni, Asi and Koskit primary schools and Hazzo Hamidiye primary school and Hazzo secondary school. In addition to these Muslim schools, Hazzo (Kozluk) Armenian school was also opened.In this study, opening of these primary and secondary schools and their teachers, students, course, education and financial situations has been examined in detail. Thus, the modern education structure of the Sason district, where importance was given to raising the education level, especially during the reign of Sultan Abdulhamid II, and the education policies followed in the region has been revealed.In the preparation of the work, Education Yearbooks, education statistics, Provinces Yearbooks, Documents of the Ministry of Education in the Ottoman Archives of the Prime Ministry and research works on the subject have been used.
      PubDate: Thu, 22 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • Shikken Hojo Tokimune Against Khublai Khan’s Army

    • Authors: Huriye ŞEN
      Abstract: Japan was significantly affected by the power struggle between the clans from the earliest times of its history. While some clans fought to be close to the emperor, some emperors used the struggle between the clans to gain the throne. In this sense, one of the significant turning points in the history of Japan was the struggle between the Minamoto and Taira clans. This struggle, which resulted in the victory of the Minamoto clan, brought the emperor a symbolic position and revealed the “shogunate” position, as well as being influential in the establishment of a “Bakufu” government, which held the state’s administration in a new center Kamakura. However, with the death of the Minamoto clan leader, his young son’s succession enabled his wife’s family, the Hojo clan, to take over the Kamakura administration as the shikken, that is, the shogun’s regent.Hojo rulers, were dealing with domestic issues until the second half of the XIII. century, faced the first foreign attack in their history in 1268. Hojo Tokimune, who became shikken at 18, struggled with the national crisis created by the Mongols. The eight shikken of the Kamakura government, Tokimune was a talented leader who, despite his young age, guided his soldiers correctly by giving orders without succumbing to the Mongol threat. Hojo Tokimune, who made a name for himself with these attacks, which the Japanese ascribed holiness to them and success, has been the subject of not only historical research but also poems and marches. This study will give information about the life, management, and attitude of Hojo Tokimune, one of the significant figures of Japanese history, during the Mongol attacks.
      PubDate: Thu, 22 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • An Overview of the Electricity History of Van

    • Authors: Abdulaziz KARDAŞ
      Abstract: Before using electrical energy in Van, kindling, torch and flammable oils were being used for lighting. The first attempt in electricity generation was in 1910, and until 1914, no results could be obtained from the studies in this field. In the first years of the Republic, the re-establishment of the city was mainly focused on, but no activity could be carried out on electricity generation. In order to solve the electricity problem in the Republican era and to partially illuminate the city, the first electricity facility was established in 1936 by purchasing an electric motor running on diesel. The development and increasing population of Van necessitated the establishment of new electricity facilities, and the municipality established the second and third electricity facilities working with diesel oil. The facilities established could not be efficient due to the reasons such as frequent failures of engines, lack of fuel supply and lack of qualified personnel in electricity. For this reason, the public continued to light gas and luxury lamps in lighting. Despite its limited resources, the municipality tried to develop the electricity of the city. Until the end of the 1960s, the energy needs of Van were met from the diesel-powered facilities purchased by the municipality. For this reason, the electricity issue in Van continued uneasily until 1968, when the hydroelectric power plants started operating in Van. The need for electrical energy in Van increased with the development of the industry. In this context, the water resources that were used only as irrigation and drinking water in the past, have started to be used in many fields such as lighting and industry, by producing electrical energy through hydroelectric power plants established over time. In addition, it is planned to generate 200 horsepower of electrical energy by having a hydroelectric power plant built on the Şamran Stream, which irrigates the Van and Havasor plains. However, after the reports of engineers that it would not be possible to generate electricity from this water, the hydroelectric power plant that was planned to be established was abandoned and researches on generating energy from other sources were started. In this context, the possibilities of benefiting from Bend-i Mahi, Karasu and Çakak waters are emphasized. After the studies, two power plants, Engil and Erciş hydroelectric power plants were put into service in 1968. In this period, electrical energy was also produced in the Zernek and Koçköprü dams, which had previously been used for irrigation. The electrical energy produced from the power plants has been used in many areas such as industry, manufacturing and agriculture, as well as lighting the city. The solution to the electricity problem of Van and the process of obtaining electricity for the villages continued until the 1980s.
      PubDate: Thu, 22 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • An Evaluation on the Field the Battle of Sakarya

    • Authors: Özgür YILDIZ
      Abstract: The Field the Battle of Sakarya is a Turkish and Greek struggle that lasted 22 days and 22 nights. This battle, over 100 year ago, is the name of the great struggle of a nation for its independence. After the Armistice of Mudros, the Turkish struggle for Independence, which started under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, was shaped by the resistance movements of the people in the first stage. The Turkish revolutionaries not only prevented the advance of the enemy especially on the Western Front, but also stopped the enemy from time to time. Until the regular army was formed, it gave time to the leader of the National Struggle and the Grand National Assembly of Türkiye which was formed later. With the formation of the regular army and the recovery on the Eastern and Southern fronts, it has been heralded that it is time to make a radical struggle with Greece in the West. On the west side; Although the successes in the First Battle of İnönü and the Second Battle of İnönü were welcomed, the retreat in the Battle of Kütahya Eskişehir demoralized. Thereupon, the Turkish Nation had to fight one of the most important defense wars of its history and destiny. These struggles, which lasted 22 days and 22 nights in the research; the research works were tried to be evaluated briefly by supporting the archive documents obtained from the Presidency of the Republic of The Türkiye Directorate of State Archives. The research is an effort to illuminate the Field Battle of Sakarya, which has been over 100 years, from the perspective of the century we live in.
      PubDate: Thu, 22 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • Activities of Hemavend Tribe in Eyalet of the Archipelago (Eyālet-i
           Cezāyir-i Baḥr-i Sefīd in Ottoman Turkish) (1889 -1905)

    • Authors: Arzu BAYKARA TAŞKAYA
      Abstract: The Hemavend, a Kurdish tribe, were exiled from their original settlements of Kirkuk, Aleppo and Mosul to the Eyalet of the Archipelago, especially Chios, Kos and Rhodes Island. This Kurdish population, whose total number was close to 200, did not see this province, which was a place of exile, as a place to stay due to insecurity and disorder, especially the weather. The people of Hemavend, who made their situation worse by escaping from this province, lived separately from their families, which made their lives worse. The financial burden given to the state by these people, who stayed in various parts of the province's sanjaks such as Rhodes, Lemnos, Chios, was tried to be met from various sources of the province. The main demands of the tribe from the state were to allow them to go to provinces such as Mosul, Damascus, Aleppo, Adana, which they see more suitable for their living conditions. There are a lot of documents in the archive that the households in the tribe demanded to come together because they were broken up in this way. The state preferred to increase their daily wages rather than sending these households to other provinces. In order for these people to make a living, the state paid a certain number of daily wages, and the members of the tribe, who stated that they could not get along, constantly demanded an increase in their daily wages. The places where the tribal members stayed were generally the households that were crowded and far from sanitary conditions. Unfortunately, although it was accepted that the state expelled the Hemavend tribes from their homeland for just cause, these people could not escape from falling into a miserable situation. The forgiveness of some of the exiles was a good example of the state's conscientiousness. Our article, which benefited from the Prime Ministry Ottoman Archive documents, aims to illuminate the conditions and numbers of the Hemavend tribe in the Eyalet of the Archipelago with the documents reflected in the archive; it is tried to give a cross-section of the social and economic history of the Ottoman Empire. In the article, the economic distress and security problems that occurred with the settlement of the Hemavend Tribe in the Eyalet of the Archipelago from the end of the 19th century were also determined.
      PubDate: Thu, 22 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +030
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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