Subjects -> ART (Total: 882 journals)
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ART (468 journals)            First | 1 2 3     

Showing 401 - 264 of 264 Journals sorted alphabetically
Shanlax International Journal of Arts, Science and Humanities     Open Access  
Siècles     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Significação : Revista de Cultura Audiovisual     Open Access  
Simbiótica     Open Access  
Sin Objeto : Arte, Investigación, Políticas     Open Access  
SIRJANĀ – A Journal on Arts and Art Education     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
SOBRE. Prácticas artísticas y políticas de la edición     Open Access  
Soletras Revista     Open Access  
Sound Studies : An Interdisciplinary Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Source: Notes in the History of Art     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
South African Journal of Philosophy = Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif vir Wysbegeerte     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
South Central Review     Full-text available via subscription  
Southern Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
SPAFA Journal     Open Access  
Spirale : Arts, Lettres, Sciences humaines     Full-text available via subscription  
Sport and Art     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Strategic Design Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Studia austriaca     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Studia theodisca     Open Access  
Studia Vernacula     Open Access  
Studies in American Humor     Full-text available via subscription  
Studies in Ancient Art and Civilization     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Studies in Art Education : A Journal of Issues and Research     Hybrid Journal  
Studies in Comics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Studies in Costume & Performance     Hybrid Journal  
Svenskt Gudstjänstliv     Open Access  
Swedish Journal of Romanian Studies     Open Access  
T'oung Pao     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Tahiti     Open Access  
Tampa Review     Full-text available via subscription  
Teaching Artist Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Technè     Open Access  
Techne Series : Research in Sloyd Education and Craft Science A     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Technoetic Arts a Journal of Speculative Research     Hybrid Journal  
Tenso     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Tercio Creciente     Open Access  
The Eighteenth Century     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35)
The Massachusetts Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
The Post     Open Access  
The Poster     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
The STEAM Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
The Velvet Light Trap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
TicArtToc     Full-text available via subscription  
Tidsskrift for kulturforskning     Open Access  
Todas as Artes     Open Access  
Tracés     Open Access  
Trocadero     Open Access  
Tsantsa. Revista de Investigaciones Artisticas     Open Access  
TV/Series     Open Access  
Tydskrif vir Geesteswetenskappe     Open Access  
UJAH : Unizik Journal of Arts and Humanities     Open Access  
Uncommon Culture     Open Access  
Urdimento : Revista de Estudos em Artes Cênicas     Open Access  
Virtual Creativity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Visual Arts Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Visual Computing for Industry, Biomedicine, and Art     Open Access  
Visual Inquiry : Learning & Teaching Art     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Visual Resources: An International Journal of Documentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Visualidades     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Voice and Speech Review     Hybrid Journal  
VRA Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
West 86th     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
William Carlos Williams Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Women and Music: A Journal of Gender and Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Word & Image: A Journal of Verbal/Visual Enquiry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
World Art     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
World of Antiques & Art     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
WSQ: Women's Studies Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Zeitschrift für Ästhetik und allgemeine Kunstwissenschaft     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Zibaldone : Estudios Italianos     Open Access  
Культура і мистецтво у сучасному світі     Open Access  
Текст і образ : актуальні проблеми історії мистецтв / Text and Image : Essential Problems in Art History     Open Access  

  First | 1 2 3     

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Studia Vernacula
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1736-8138
Published by U of Tartu Homepage  [13 journals]
  • Eessõna

    • Authors: Kadri Tüür
      Pages: 8 - 12
      PubDate: 2021-11-18
      DOI: 10.12697/sv.2021.13.8-12
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2021)
       
  • Käsitöö uurimise meetoditest Soomes, Rootsis ja Norras / Mapping the
           methodologies of the craft sciences in Finland, Sweden and Norway

    • Authors: Sirpa Kokko, Gunnar Almevik, Harald C. Bentz-Høgseth, Pirita Seitamaa-Hakkarainen
      Pages: 14 - 36
      Abstract: The craft sciences have emerged as a field of academic research in Finland, Sweden and Norway since the early 1990s. In Finland, craft research has examined various aspects of crafts using a multidisciplinary approach adapting a range of methods from other academic disciplines according to the research topic. Another source has been the schools of domestic sciences in which craft research has been a recognized field. In Sweden and Norway, craft research has developed strongly in architectural conservation and cultural heritage with a focus on traditional craftsmanship and the performative elements of intangible cultural heritage. This article offers an overview of the delelopments and progress of the field of craft sciences in these countries, inluding its methodological approaches, with a focus on Ph.D theses. Through mapping recurrent methodological approaches, the following categories were derived: craft reconstruction, craft interpretations, craft elicitation, craft amplification and craft socialization. The aim of the classification, and the model derived from it, is to help researchers and students understand better how different types of knowledge relate to different research methods and apply them within their own research. The puropse of the research is to create a common infrastructure for research and education in order to connect and strengthen the dispersed academic communities of craft research and to establish craft science as a formally recognized discipline within the academic system. The authors of the article have granted permission to have the original research article published in Craft Research Journal 11 (2), CC-BY-NC-ND to be translated from English and published in Estonian. The translation is accompanied with a brief contextualising afterword by the editorial team of Studia Vernacula. Keywords: craft sciences, crafts, craft research, craft education, sloyd, research methods, art research
      PubDate: 2021-11-18
      DOI: 10.12697/sv.2021.13.14-36
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2021)
       
  • Saateks

    • Authors: Kristi Jõeste, Kadri Tüür
      Pages: 37 - 43
      PubDate: 2021-11-18
      DOI: 10.12697/sv.2021.13.37-43
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2021)
       
  • Eriline Eesti ikat: Lõuna-Läänemaa lapilised rahvarõivaseelikud /
           Woollen double ikat skirts of western Estonian traditional costume

    • Authors: Liis Luhamaa
      Pages: 44 - 77
      Abstract: This article investigates woollen skirts with double ikat motifs that were made in the late 19th and early 20th centuries by women in the western Estonian parishes of Hanila, Karuse, Lihula, Kirbla and Martna. The skirts were worn as part of traditional costume. After the wearing of traditional costumes came to an end in the 1920s, these skirts ceased being made. As this craft has been not been practiced for almost 100 years, the skirts were largely forgotten. The aim of this article is to give an overview of the materials, tools and methods used in the production of western Estonian double ikat skirt fabrics, to describe the principles used in sewing the skirts, and to describe the colours and patterns used in such skirts. The material sources for this research comprise 30 double ikat skirts and skirt fabric pieces, as well as an ethnographic drawing of a traditional double ikat skirt. Of these 20 skirts and fabrics (as well as the drawing), ten were held in museums and ten were from private collections. The most important archival sources were Estonian National Museum manuscripts (from both the ethnographic and the correspondents’ archives), as well as dialect texts held by the Institute of the Estonian Language. For western Estonian double ikat skirt fabrics, single woollen yarns were used (both for warp and weft). Fabrics were woven in plain weave with 14,4 ends per centimetre for the warp and 12 ends per centimetre for the weft, on average. Tow and flax in the form of both fibres and yarns were used as binding materials for tying the ikat yarns. No information was found about tools developed specifically for use with ikat, so it seems likely that general weaving tools were used. According to archival sources, warp yarn groups for ikat patterning were stretched to the same length as the rest of the warp on the warping mill, and then tied, taken down, and dyed. The ikat patterened warp yarns were added to the rest of the warp during warping in the same form, i.e. as warped groups. There is no information as to how the tying pattern was applied to the yarns, but there is mentioned of the pattern for tying weft yarn being copied from the warp when the warp was already on the loom. Only synthetic dyes were used for dyeing. Both white and yellow yarns were used for ikat. Ikat motifs were re-tied and re-dyed to achieve a multicoloured effect. After weaving, the skirt fabrics were cut into panels, and then sewn together. Pattern matching was usually not a priority. Although about half of the double ikat skirts have pleats, analysis shows that double ikat skirts were without pleats traditionally. The most common background colour for western Estonian double ikat skirts was red, although blue and purple fabrics have also survived. The view expressed in earlier works that blue skirts were mourning skirts is not supported here. The most populaar ikat motifs were yellow and white, but green, blue, pink and purple motifs were also used. Only two types of double ikat motifs were used, and both are simple and cross-shaped. Two-thirds of the patterns are on a checkered ground and one-third are on a solid coloured ground. Based on the composition, the double ikat patterns of western Estonian skirts can be divided into four groups. The patterns are typically unique: there are only two instances were two skirts have exactly the same combination of pattern and colours. This supports the view that making traditional costumes that were exactly the same (as though they were uniforms) is not in line with traditional practice. Keywords: traditional clothing, skirts, double ikat, western Estonia, weaving, dyeing
      PubDate: 2021-11-18
      DOI: 10.12697/sv.2021.13.44-77
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2021)
       
  • Prantsuse kuningakojast Eestimaa talutarre: hüpoteese pott- ja
           kabimütside päritolust pärandtehnoloogi pilgu läbi / From French royal
           court to Estonian peasant house: some hypotheses about the origin of pot-
           and hoof-shaped caps from the perspective

    • Authors: Maret Lehis
      Pages: 78 - 97
      Abstract: It has been thought that pot- and hoof-shaped caps were adopted in Estonia under the influence of peasant fashion in other European countries, especially Sweden and Finland. However, when compared to the head-dresses worn in Finland, the methods of making Estonian pot- and hoof-shaped caps seem so different, the question arises of whether the roots of this cap-making technique might be located elsewhere. For example, the technique and patterns used for making pot- and hoof-shaped caps are more reminiscent of Russian kokoshnik head-dresses. It can be concluded that pot- and hoof-shaped caps worn in northern and western Estonia originate from the French coif of the later Middle Ages, although further developments mean that the caps we now have are rather different from their model, in terms of both shape and pattern. Our ethnographic literaturedoes not mention the strong influence of Russian folk costumes on Estonian traditional clothing. However, judging by construction techniques we may assume that pot- and hoof-shaped caps did not reach Estonia via Scandinavia. We should rather look for the source of this cap fashion in the east. Hopefully this article will inspire fresh research work on ethnographic headgear. This broad research topic continues to be important as head-dresses have constituted, at all times, one of the most essential and expressive elements of costume, and interest in traditional clothing is still growing. Keywords: caps, coifs, national costumes, pot-shaped caps, hoof-shaped caps, French cap, kokoshnik
      PubDate: 2021-11-18
      DOI: 10.12697/sv.2021.13.78-97
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2021)
       
  • Villaste rõivaste õmblusvõtted keskaegsete arheoloogiliste leidude
           näitel / Stitches and seams of woollen garments based on medieval
           archaeological findings

    • Authors: Jaana Ratas
      Pages: 98 - 127
      Abstract: Sewing by hand is certainly something that deserves researching, conserving and practising. This traditional craft might be used to make copies of items in museums or it might be used to produce modern clothing. One source of inspiration are the seams we find on archaic textile fragments. This article deals with sewing skills and techniques that are detectable on textiles recovered from urban waste from Estonian towns dating back to the 13th–16th centuries. Our article focuses on textile fragments from Tallinn chiefly, but we also look at a small assortment of finds from Tartu and Pärnu. Our main concern is with the sewing skills and the techniques used to make woollen clothes. Medieval sewing skills and techniques cannot really be described using contemporary terminology or manuals: any finds are only fragmentary, and establishing a link with an object is complicated because old techniques differ considerably from contemporary practice. Fragments do have their advantages, however. For example, seams can be studied more easily. The lack of adequate terminology in our contemporary language arises from the fact that many medieval techniques have been forgotten. The main research methods we used were visual observation with the help of magnifying tools and detailed documentation. Stitches and seams leave traces, which means we are able identify them. A thread that has rotted away leaves a row of holes behind it, and the existence of seams is revealed by imprints and by an unworn surface. Furthermore, different stitches shape the joints in a different way. The article is based on 174 woollen textile fragments with a total of 321 seams. Eight different types of stitches were identified on those fragments: running stitch, partial and full backstitch, hemming and overcast stitch, and buttonhole stitch. Running stitch occurs the most often, in fully one third of the cases. Seams can be divided into construction seams, hems and finishes, and seams for special details. Plain seam, seam with folded seam allowances, reinforced seam, lapped seam, whip stitch joins, buttonholes and buttons are studied here. English captions are provided for the illustrations of the article. Most of the textile fragments originate from recycling, in the course of which the seams were cut out and thrown away. Sewing waste provides information about consumption habits, and sometimes objects can be identified. Certain seams relate to certain items, e.g. the lapped seam discovered in 14 cases definitely relates to the remnants of stockings. The standardisation of techniques was noticeable. The length of seams and the width of seam allowances seems to be similar throughout the period under study: the running stitch is approximately 2–3 mm, the partial backstitch up to 7mm, and other stitches (zigzag) 2–3 mm long. The techniques identified with the help of medieval finds from Estonian cities are similar to those found in other European cities. We cannot tell from the fragments whether they have been made at home or by professional tailors. Sewing by hand should be promoted and used in the production not only of copies of artefacts, but also of contemporary items too. This would encourage us to value handicraft and good materials and to make items that have an emotional value. Keywords: stitches, seams, archaeology, medieval, textiles, sewing
      PubDate: 2021-11-18
      DOI: 10.12697/sv.2021.13.98-127
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2021)
       
  • Taasloovast kudumisest Muhu sõrmkinnaste näitel / Reconstruction
           knitting of a pair of Muhu gloves

    • Authors: Kristi Jõeste
      Pages: 130 - 143
      Abstract: In the article, renowned artisan knitter Kristi Jõeste with 20 years of experience, provides a detailed description of the process of the reconstructional knitting of a pair of Muhu traditional gloves. Using the widespread reconstruction method in combination with an autoethnographic approach enables the practitioner’s personal bodily/tacit knowledge to be made explicit. Making Muhu traditional gloves is one of the most complicated tasks facing Estonian knitters, due to the use of fine threads and knitting needles, as well as the demanding techniques the work requires. Describing the key moments in the process of reconstructional glove-knitting enables her to share useful information with other reconstructional knitters. The object of this descriptive research experiment is a pair of Muhu gloves VM VM 9168:56 E 535 held by Viljandi Museum. This pair represents the tradition of women’s gloves with colourful horizontal patterns that was practiced in Muhu at the beginning of the 20th century. The gloves were made with a crocheted cuff to which the hand was later seamed or knitted. While the author provides an overview and explains the problems she encountered and the solutions she found, the purpose of the article is not, however, to compile a standard pattern and instruction, such as can be found in knitting manuals. Due to the global Covid19 pandemic, the museum was closed at the time of the knitting experiment. While the author was able to use high-resolution museum photographs of the gloves, she had no access to the gloves themselves, which meant that she had to draw upon her own experience, rather than being able to gain detailed information about the length of floats and some other technical details directly from the gloves themselves. The author did not dye the threads to match the exact colour of the original as that would have taken too much time. She bought 12/2 Danish carded woollen threads with similar colours from the Saara web shop, and used no 1 and 1.25 knitting needles and a no 1.5 crochet hook. The wrist part was crocheted with 92 crochet stitches and seamed with hands knitted with 100 to 120 stitches. In order to achieve symmetry under the thumbs, the stitches were increased at the sides where the next row started; this same technique has been used on the original gloves. For knitting the monochrome fingers, the spiral decrease method was used for the fingertips, just as it had been on the original pair. The reconstructed pair of gloves is the same size as the original, it fits well, and was knitted in 38 hours and 40 minutes. Keywords: reconstruction, autoethnography, traditional knitting, hand knitting, Muhu gloves
      PubDate: 2021-11-18
      DOI: 10.12697/sv.2021.13.130-143
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2021)
       
  • Kuidas uurida arheoloogilist nahkjalatsit' Kadrioru kogelt leitud
           nahkjalatsite näitel / How to study archaeological leather footwear'
           An example of finds from a Kadriorg Cog

    • Authors: Tuuli Jõesaar
      Pages: 144 - 170
      Abstract: In 2015 two shipwrecks were found during construction works for the Tivoli housing development at Kadriorg in Tallinn. These wrecks lay 50 metres from one another. The archaeologists were then faced by a puzzle from the past that different specialists set out to solve. For the purpose of a dendrochronological analysis, samples of wood were taken from both ships (which were given the names the Viljo and the Peeter). The pine trees used to build the Viljo had been cut down after 1487, which makes the wreck the oldest preserved evidence of shipbuilding in this area. Sixteen samples were taken from the Peeter and, apart from one pine tree sample, all of these were oak. Analysis showed that the ship had been built in 1296 AD terminus post quem; the wood had probably grown in eastern Poland, or somewhere further to the east. There were approximately 300 footwear fragments among the finds, some of them complete, and requiring further study. The location of footwear fragments can be seen on Photo 1. Photo 2 shows how a footwear item cleared from surface during the excavations looks, and Photo 3 features a footwear item after washing. The first and most important task was to determine which items had sunk with the ship, and which may have been left at the site at a later date. The dating of the artefacts and ship’s timber pointed to the 13th–14th centuries as the focal point of time. This is, however, not sufficient: in order to gain more precise information, it is important to know the development of footwear-making techniques through history; and knowledge of materials is an asset. Out of the registered 82 finds (n.b. several details amongst them belonged to other items), I dated 25 findings as belonging to the end of the 13th and the beginning of the 14th century. All the finds are preserved at the Estonian Maritime Museum; the cog Peeter and a selection of the findings are exhibited in the hall of Paks Margareeta tower in Tallinn. In my Master’s Thesis, I analysed the techniques, cutting patterns and materials used to make the footwear. The methods and the knowledge needed are laid out in the present article where I describe the documentation of finds MM 15329:222 and MM15329:288. Studying archaeological footwear begins at the moment it is cleared from the soil. The task of a calceologist is to identify which footwear fragments belong together, to record the find, to instruct the conservator, and to secure adequate preservation conditions for the find. For the purposes of documentation, it helps to be aware of the nature of leather as a material, how it becomes archaeological leather, and which methods should be used for the research. Knowledge of the techniques and their development over time is important for obtaining as accurate information as possible about the date of their manufacture. For recording details, it is necessary to take photos and to make drawings of the fragments using original, or pre-existing, symbols. The drawings must include the stitches used to join details because it is just such information that plays a key role in dating the footwear. Should one wish to reconstruct the footwear, it is worthwhile to compose cutting patterns using, for example, silk paper. The conserved and documented finds should be preserved or exhibited, preferably with the help of 3D support, because this offers a good view of the construction. I hope the article inspires many a reader to look at our everyday footwear differently. Keywords: footwear, archaeology, calceology, cogs, leather shoes
      PubDate: 2021-11-18
      DOI: 10.12697/sv.2021.13.144-170
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2021)
       
  • Konverents „Oma nahk“ / Conference Report: "Own
           Skin"

    • Authors: Kristina Rajando, Made Uus
      Pages: 172 - 185
      Abstract: On 19th November 2020, members of the Estonian Native Crafts programme of the University of Tartu Viljandi Culture Academy held a conference entitled ‘Own Skin’. It took place at the Estonian Traditional Music Centre in Viljandi, and focussed on the use of animal hide as a material in handicraft and applied arts. The conference addressed domestic, as well as wild, animal hide, and presentations were made by individual producers, producers’ associations, and representatives of higher educational establishments. Vet, and President of the Kihnu Native Sheep Association, Anneli ÄrmpaluIdvand, asserted that all the products of that ancient breed are worthwhile. The most valuable is their double fleece, which has given them the reputation of providing warm sheepskin coats. She underlined the importance of an approach that makes use of all of the produce that can be derived from sheep. The President of the Estonian Sheep and Goat Breeders Association, Vallo Seera, gave an overview of the mass production dimension of the sheep-breeding industry where shearing and skinning are not planned separately. Taking care of the fleece, skinning, taking the hide to the tannery and processing it further, is all quite expensive, and this is why the hides are usually thrown away. In order to reduce such waste, the awareness of the processors, as well as of consumers, needs to be raised. A student of the leatherwork module at the University of Tartu Viljandi Culture Academy and an animal protection activist, Kadri Võrel, gave a presentation about the use of wild animal hides in the past and nowadays. She underlined the fact that game hide is a so-called ‘fair leather’ and this should be taken into account when valorising it. The Managing Director of the Estonian Hunters’ Society, Tõnis Korts, presented an overview of the problems relating to animal hides from the point of view of hunters. The Estonian Hunters’ Society has made efforts to promote the better use of hides: its export is supervised, and courses have been held on the correct skinning techniques and initial processing, as well as on making leather items. The Head of the Native Craft Studies of the University of Tartu Viljandi Culture Academy, Ave Matsin, presented the results of investigations into the use of animal skin in Estonia, which proved to be a surprisingly complicated issue. In order to map the information, it is first necessary to establish the precise role of institutions and the division of responsibilities between the ministries and the state boards. A member of the board of Skineks, Ingmar Baida, gave an overview of the only Estonian tannery, which is located in Jõgeva. Each year, Skineks tans approximately 50 000 lambskins and 100 goatskins. Hunters bring the animal hides to be tanned. Most often this is beaver hide. Out of the 7000–8000 beavers hunted per year, approximately 500 reach the Skineks tannery. A special feature of the vegetable tanning used by Skineks is that the skin is not pressed and therefore the leather maintains its unique surface structure. The head of the leatherwork module and lecturer in traditional leatherwork at Viljandi Culture Academy, Kristina Rajando, gave a presentation about the module and the work of students. The module includes studying animal lifecycles, and continues with skinning and leatherwork. Eve Kaaret, a leather artist and artisan at an accessories and bookbinding studio, discussed the long traditions of making footwear, bags and binding at the Leather Art Department of the Estonian Academy of Arts where leather is still preferred despite the arrival of several other materials. The Director of the Leather Art Department at Pallas University of Applied Sciences, Professor Rene Haljasmäe, surveyed the trends through exhibition pieces made by the students and the professor. In addition to leather art and design, Pallas also teaches students how to restore leather items. Just as it is at the Estonian Art Academy, the vegetable-tanned leather produced by Skineks is highly valued at Pallas too. The round-table discussion that followed the conference concentrated on what might be hindering the more widespread use of local skin and which steps might be taken to increase demand for Estonian local skin and the products that can be made from it.
      PubDate: 2021-11-18
      DOI: 10.12697/sv.2021.13.172-185
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2021)
       
  • Meeskäsitööliste vestlusring Heimtali laadal 25. septembril 2021 / The
           current state of artisanal woodwork in Estonia: a roundtable

    • Authors: Madis Rennu, Priit-Kalev Parts, Martin Bristol, Meelis Kihulane
      Pages: 186 - 197
      Abstract: Why do we expect handicraft to occupy any place at all in our brave digital world' This was the first question asked at the woodcraftsmen’s roundtable held at the Heimtali Fair in Viljandi county on the 25th September, 2021. The purpose of the discussion was to investigate the wider background to men’s handicraft in the framework of the current year dedicated to male artisanship. Three artisan woodworkers joined the roundtable initiated by University of Tartu Viljandi Culture Academy in order to gain an overview of the field and to supply important background aspects. The participants were: Martin Bristol, Priit-Kalev Parts, and Meelis Kihulane. Martin Bristol has been active in starting the Puupank initiative which deals with the procurement of rare and specific wood material. He is also a founder of several platform-craft shops that have been functioning successfully in the old town of Tallinn. Priit-Kalev Parts was the initiator of the native construction study programme at the University of Tartu Viljandi Culture Academy and is also known as a maker of dugout canoes. Meelis Kihulane is renowned for reviving native woodwork and he is an experimental instructor of artisanry. The questions were posed by a long-term associate to the University of Tartu Viljandi Culture Academy in the field of traditional technologies, Madis Rennu. The discussion focused on the local entrepreneurial environment and the influence of wider economic space with its crises and limits to growth such as peak oil, green transition and EU structural funds, the gender of artisans, and computer addiction. Additionally, they discussed such evergreen topics as clock reading skills and the objectives of a national university. The wish was expressed to move towards a wider recognition of manual skills as indispensable part of personal development, as was the desire to add more substance to attempts to improve the image of low-tech skills. The acquisition of manual skills, including working with both hands and standing on two feet, should be a recognised part of mental development at school ages of between 15 and 25 years. The participants unanimously agreed that manual skills, as opposed to economic activity, consumerism, wealth, peak oil etc. have gradually declined over recent decades, and that we have probably now reached the bottom of the curve. Hopefully after the decline of the economic peak, the importance given to the possession of manual skills will start to rise again. Terminology is also a problem. The word ‘handicraft’ may sound old-fashioned or even obsolete; it is often loaded with political or ideological ballast. Answers to the question whether it is possible to earn a livelihood with handicraft were diverse: a convinced ’no’, a hyperbolically conditional ’yes’ (if one could win the olympics of handicraft), and a convinced ’yes’, albeit one which admitted that handicraft is part of lifestyle. The participants were rather sceptical as to the long-term positive impact of EU structural funds on handicraft, but the current situation, which is characterised by an increase of raw material and energy prices, seems hopeful because there are signs that top brands are interested in bringing their production back to Europe from China and so are seeking contacts, something which may lead to new opportunities for manually skilled artisans here. Martin Bristol summarised matters as follows: “A shop does not have to be in Viru Street. It can be in the forest, if the narrative is powerful enough – and of course it has to be top-level. If there is a grove and people who are dedicated – I really mean that we would be able to produce more out of one hectare of forest without cutting it than is produced with the help of clear cut. And if we add full production-chain logic, in the sense that forest is not only wood for building, and fleece is not only a dull by-product, we could develop quite a contemporary form of production. But all this presupposes knowledge of the specificities of native raw materials and regions, clock reading, and a bit of entrepreneurship as well.“
      PubDate: 2021-11-18
      DOI: 10.12697/sv.2021.13.186-197
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2021)
       
  • Muuseumikogudes ja suulises ajaloos säilib ajalik looming / Transient
           treasures are kept in museums and memories

    • Authors: Kanni Labi
      Pages: 198 - 209
      Abstract: Vanda Juhansoo. Artist or Eccentric Woman'
      Estonian Museum of Applied Art and Design
      18.01.–01.03.2020, Tartu City Museum 19.06.–26.09.2021.
      Exhibition curated by: Andreas Kalkun (Estonian Literary Museum)
      and Rebeka Põldsam, graphic design: Stuudio Stuudio.
      Vanda Juhansoo (1889–1966) was by education a porcelain painter and furniture designer; she was, however, known as a textile and craft artist, traveller, polyglot, notable art teacher, interior decorator, advocate of women’s craft, soroptimist and gardener. Sometimes she was also known as the ‘Witch of Valgemetsa’. She graduated from the Central School of Applied Arts Ateneum in Finland, which makes her one of the first Estonian women artists with a higher education at the beginning of the 20th century. Even though Vanda Juhansoo specialised in ceramics and furniture design, as a student she received the most recognition (as well as travel grants) for her embroidery. From then on, Vanda spent her next thirty summers travelling in Europe. Between 1912 and 1945, she exhibited her ceramics, embroidered doilies and curtains in various places, including the first ever Estonianwomen artists’ show in 1939. Vanda Juhansoo worked with the Kodukäsitöö limited company, that had been established in 1927 with the aim of reducing unemployment among women. Alongside craft and women’s magazines, the Kodukäsitöö was the most significant promoter of women’s craft in Estonia, regularly organising exhibition-sales and taking Estonian craft to international shows. Unfortunately, most of Vanda Juhansoo’s oeuvre was so ephemeral that there is very little trace of it now. The Karilatsi Open Air Museum near Vanda’s home in Valgemetsa and the collection of the Estonian National Museum hold items given to the museum by Vanda’s cousin’s family, which Vanda herself most likely wore – these are made to fit her petite size and there are photos of Vanda wearing these garments. Her signature style used floral motifs embroidered onto the thin textiles she wove herself. Like a painter, she spent hours embroidering, casting ethnographic patterns aside when creating her original designs. Even though the Estonian National Museum has exhibited Vanda Juhansoo’s embroidered cardigans as examples of Estonian folk art, these are, in fact, clearly original artistic designs. After World War II, Vanda stopped exhibiting and publishing her patterns in craft magazines. Instead, she committed herself to teaching drawing and supervised a number of children’s art classes in Tartu that produced many wellknown artists. The memory of Vanda has largely been kept alive by her students, who remember her as a particularly bright and optimistic person. In addition to her embroidery, Vanda’s original style remained visible as she expressed it in her memorable multicoloured hair nets and abundant jewellery, as well as in the striking Valgemetsa summer house and garden. The curators tried to trace back and recreate some of the wonderful world that Vanda created all around herself with her designs, handicraft, paintings, photos and memories from museums, archives, and from people who knew her. Looking at the life, work and legacy of Vanda Juhansoo, the exhibition asked: What were the choices for women artists in Estonia at the beginning of the 20th century' Why are Vanda’s works found mainly in the collections of ethnographic memory institutions rather than in art museums' Why did Vanda become the so-called ‘Witch of Valgemetsa’ and not a recognised applied artist' In the present review, the reception of the exhibition is summarised and juxtaposed with the few studies on Vanda Juhansoo’s textile work from the perspective of craft studies and the history of applied art.
      PubDate: 2021-11-18
      DOI: 10.12697/sv.2021.13.198-209
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2021)
       
  • Kangakudujate hääled / Voices of Weavers

    • Authors: Ave Matsin
      Pages: 210 - 222
      Abstract: This review introduces a book titled „Voices of Weavers. Textile Cultures, Craftsmanship, and Identity in Contemporary Myanmar“ written by a German anthropologist Jella Fink and published by Waxmann publishing house in 2020. It is a lively piece of research that reveals the cultural and economic background of two strands of local weaving traditions in Myanmar. The book summarises author’s fieldwork that was carried out in Myanmar as part of her doctoral studies in the years 2014–2017. Focus on the makers’ perspective is the most important contribution of the present book to research in textiles. In the review, parallels are drawn with Estonian textile-making practices, where applicable. Myanmar is geographially and ethnically considerably different from Estonia, but certain similarities can indeed be spotted in the matters of textile production, authorship, professionalisation, and the issues of commercialisation. The greatest value of the book lies in mapping the tradition and explaining the rationale behind alterations in the traditional practices of weaving in two different areas – Mandalaya region in the centre and Kengtung in the distant Western highlands of Myanmar – where the practice is still well alive. As the makers’ perspective is brought to the fore, it gives the voice to often-silenced female members of marginal ethnic groups, and also helps to provide new insights into the social and cultural relations that form the framework for producing intricate textiles, the making of which is very time-consuming and requires a great amount of skill and stamina. The study can well serve as a model for further research into Estonian textile traditions in the future.
      PubDate: 2021-11-18
      DOI: 10.12697/sv.2021.13.210-222
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2021)
       
 
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