Subjects -> RELIGION AND THEOLOGY (Total: 768 journals)
    - BUDDHIST (14 journals)
    - EASTERN ORTHODOX (1 journals)
    - HINDU (6 journals)
    - ISLAMIC (164 journals)
    - JUDAIC (22 journals)
    - PROTESTANT (22 journals)
    - RELIGION AND THEOLOGY (503 journals)
    - ROMAN CATHOLIC (32 journals)

ISLAMIC (164 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 148 of 148 Journals sorted alphabetically
Afkaruna : Indonesian Interdisciplinary Journal of Islamic Studies     Open Access  
Ahkam : Jurnal Hukum Islam     Open Access  
Ahkam : Jurnal Ilmu Syariah     Open Access  
AJIS : Academic Journal of Islamic Studies     Open Access  
Al 'Adalah : Jurnal Hukum Islam     Open Access  
AL QUDS : Jurnal Studi Alquran dan Hadis     Open Access  
Al-Albab     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Al-Banjari : Jurnal Ilmiah Ilmu-Ilmu Keislaman     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Al-Burhan : Journal of Qur’an and Sunnah Studies     Open Access  
Al-Dzikra : Jurnal Studi Ilmu al-Qur'an dan al-Hadits     Open Access  
Al-Fikra     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Al-Hikmah     Open Access  
Al-Iqtishad : Journal of Islamic Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Al-Jami'ah : Journal of Islamic Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Al-Mabsut : Jurnal Studi Islam dan Sosial     Open Access  
Al-Maslahah Jurnal Ilmu Syariah     Open Access  
AL-QANTARA     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Al-Risalah : Journal of Islamic Revealed Knowledge and Human Sciences     Open Access  
Al-Shajarah : Journal of the International Institute of Islamic Thought and Civilization (ISTAC)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Al-Tadzkiyyah : Jurnal Pendidikan Islam     Open Access  
Al-Tahrir     Open Access  
Al-Tijary : Jurnal Ekonomi dan Bisnis Islam     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Al-Ulum     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
An-Nisbah : Jurnal Ekonomi Syariah     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Analisis : Jurnal Studi Keislaman     Open Access  
Annida'     Open Access  
Ar-Raniry : International Journal of Islamic Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ASAS : Jurnal Hukum dan Ekonomi Islam     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Asy-Syir'ah : Jurnal Ilmu Syari'ah dan Hukum     Open Access  
At-Ta'dib Jurnal Kependidikan Islam     Open Access  
At-Tabsyir : Jurnal Komunikasi Penyiaran Islam     Open Access  
at-Tajdid     Open Access  
At-Taqaddum     Open Access  
at-turas : Jurnal Studi Keislaman     Open Access  
At-Turats     Open Access  
Attarbiyah : Journal of Islamic Culture and Education     Open Access  
BELAJEA : Jurnal Pendidikan Islam     Open Access  
Berkeley Journal of Middle Eastern & Islamic Law     Open Access  
Bina' Al-Ummah     Open Access  
Cakrawala : Jurnal Studi Islam     Open Access  
Dauliyah Journal of Islamic and International Affairs     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
De Jure: Jurnal Hukum dan Syar'iah     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Dimas : Jurnal Pemikiran Agama untuk Pemberdayaan     Open Access  
Dirāsāt : Jurnal Manajemen dan Pendidikan Islam     Open Access  
Economica : Jurnal Ekonomi Islam     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Edukasi : Jurnal Pendidikan Islam     Open Access  
edureligia : Pendidikan Agama Islam i     Open Access  
El-Harakah     Open Access  
Episteme : Jurnal Pengembangan Ilmu Keislaman     Open Access  
Fenomena : Journal of Islamic Studies     Open Access  
Fikr-o Nazar     Open Access  
FOKUS : Jurnal Kajian Keislaman dan Kemasyarakatan     Open Access  
Hakam : Jurnal Kajian Hukum Islam dan Hukum Ekonomi Islam     Open Access  
Hayula : Indonesian Journal of Multidisciplinary Islamic Studies     Open Access  
Hikma : Journal of Islamic Theology and Religious Education     Hybrid Journal  
History of Islam and Iran     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
HONAI : International Journal for Educational, Social, Political & Cultural Studies     Open Access  
Hukum Islam     Open Access  
IBDA' : Jurnal Kebudayaan Islam     Open Access  
Ijtimaiyya : Jurnal Pengembangan Masyarakat Islam     Open Access  
Ikonomika : Jurnal Ekonomi dan Bisnis Islam     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Islam and Muslim Societies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
INSANCITA : Journal of Islamic Studies in Indonesia and Southeast Asia     Open Access  
Insaniyat : Journal of Islam and Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intellectual Discourse     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Islamic Economics and Finance Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Islamic Marketing and Branding     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Nusantara Islam     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Zakat     Open Access  
Intiqad : Jurnal Agama dan Pendidikan Islam     Open Access  
Intizar     Open Access  
Iqtishoduna : Jurnal Ekonomi Islam     Open Access  
İslâm Araştırmaları Dergisi     Open Access  
Islamic Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Islamic Sciences     Open Access  
Islamic Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Islamika Indonesiana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ISRA International Journal of Islamic Finance     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Istawa : Journal of Islamic Education     Open Access  
JAWI     Open Access  
JICSA : Journal of Islamic Civilization in Southeast Asia     Open Access  
Journal of Arabic and Islamic Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Indonesian Islam     Open Access  
Journal of Islam in Asia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Islamic and Near Eastern Law     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Islamic Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Islamic Finance     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Islamic Philosophy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Islamicjerusalem Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Malay Islamic Studies     Open Access  
Journal of Muslim Mental Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Shi'a Islamic Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Juris (Jurnal Ilmiah Syariah)     Open Access  
Jurisdictie Jurnal Hukum dan Syariah     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Ekonomi dan Bisnis Islam (Journal of Islamic Economics and Business)     Open Access  
Jurnal Living Hadis     Open Access  
Jurnal Pendidikan Islam     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Jurnal Studi Al-Qur'an     Open Access  
Jurnal Theologia     Open Access  
Jurnal Ushuluddin     Open Access  
Kader     Open Access  
KALAM     Open Access  
KARSA : Jurnal Sosial dan Budaya Keislaman     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Kodifikasia     Open Access  
Komunika: Jurnal Dakwah dan Komunikasi     Open Access  
Kontemplasi : Jurnal Ilmu-Ilmu Ushuluddin     Open Access  
Les cahiers de l'Islam     Free   (Followers: 1)
Madania : Jurnal Ilmu-Ilmu Keislaman     Open Access  
Medina-Te : Jurnal Studi Islam     Open Access  
Muaddib : Studi Kependidikan dan Keislaman     Open Access  
Muslim Heritage     Open Access  
Nadwa : Jurnal Pendidikan Islam     Open Access  
New Perspectives on Turkey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Nuansa : Jurnal Penelitian Ilmu Sosial dan Keagamaan Islam     Open Access  
Nurani     Open Access  
Potensia : Jurnal Kependidikan Islam     Open Access  
Profetika Jurnal Studi Islam     Open Access  
Psikis : Jurnal Psikologi Islami     Open Access  
QURANICA : International Journal of Quranic Research     Open Access  
Refleksi     Open Access  
Reflektika     Open Access  
Religia     Open Access  
Religions of South Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Review of Middle East Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Revista de Estudios Internacionales Mediterráneos     Open Access  
Ruhama : Islamic Education Journal     Open Access  
Studia Islamika     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Studies in Islam and Psychology     Open Access  
Ta'dib     Open Access  
Tadrib : Jurnal Pendidikan Agama Islam     Open Access  
Tadris : Islamic Education Journal     Open Access  
Tajdida : Jurnal Pemikiran dan Gerakan Muhammadiyah     Open Access  
TARBIYA : Journal of Education in Muslim Society     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Tarbiyatuna     Open Access  
Tawazun : Jurnal Pendidikan Islam     Open Access  
Teosofi : Jurnal Tasawuf dan Pemikiran Islam     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Teosofia : Indonesian Journal of Islamic Mysticism     Open Access  
The Islamic Culture     Open Access  
Tidsskrift for Islamforskning     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tsaqafah : Jurnal Peradaban Islam     Open Access  
Ulul Albab     Open Access  
Ulumuna : Journal of Islamic Studies     Open Access  
VFAST Transactions on Islamic Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Wahana Akademika : Jurnal Studi Islam dan Sosial     Open Access  
Walisongo : Jurnal Penelitian Sosial Keagamaan     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Wardah : Jurnal Dakwah dan Kemasyarakatan     Open Access  
Wawasan     Open Access   (Followers: 1)


Similar Journals
Journal Cover
VFAST Transactions on Islamic Research
Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2411-6327 - ISSN (Online) 2309-6519
Published by VFAST-Research Platform Homepage  [3 journals]
  • Promotion of Interfaith Harmony Through the “Paigham-e-Pakistan”: An
           Analysis of Important Strategies

    • Authors: Abdul Rahman; Dr. Shagufta Naveed, Riasat Ali
      Abstract: This research paper is consisted of an analysis of important strategies for promoting interfaith harmony through "Paigham-e-Pakistan". Pakistan is a multi-religious country with a Muslim majority while Christians, Hindus, Sikhs, Buddhists, Parsis and Baha'is are a minority. In this particular context, interfaith harmony is of paramount importance for the respect of fundamental human rights, political stability, cultural development, geographical security and economic prosperity in this country. The "Paigham-e-Pakistan" is a unified national narrative framed in the light of Islam and the Constitution of Pakistan. This document is a strong step towards ensuring an environment of interfaith harmony. In order to promote interfaith harmony through this national document, it is imperative that state institutions, political leaders, religious scholars, teachers, media persons, poets and the general public of Pakistan adopt effective strategies. This article is presented for the purpose of analyzing these strategies.
      PubDate: Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +000
  • A Qualitative Analysis of the Challenges to the Islamic Banking

    • Authors: Dr. Amjad Hayat; Dr. Muzammil Khurshid, Dr. Nadeem Abbas Abbas
      Abstract: Islam's collective system of justice is based on equality and cooperation. Economy is of great importance in this system. That is why the regular rules and regulations for it have been beautifully mentioned in the Qur'an and Sunnah. Economists in the Muslim Periods have done much to promote the economic system based on these sharia principles. A beautiful aspect of this Islamic economic system is that Islamic banking is very important. Muslims have sincerely strived for its development, promotion and strengthening.  Muslims face many difficulties in its evolutionary journey. These include the absence of the Central World Islamic Bank, the inappropriate attitude of some religious leaders, the non-cooperation of government agencies, the dual system of banks, unfamiliarity with Sharia in the business and business community, lack of good credit, discouragement, modern technicality in Islamic bankers. Lack of requirements, lack of skills, difficulties in implementing Mashraqa and Mudaraba, misunderstandings, lack of public awareness and lack of trained staff are notable. There is a need for a scientific analysis of the Challenges facing Islamic banks and their solutions. This article is written to meet this scientific need.
      PubDate: Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +000
  • A Review of the Role of Women in family affairs to establish a Prosperous
           and Peaceful Society in Light of the Teachings of Prohphet S.A.W

    • Authors: Dr. Khadija Aziz; Dr. Muhammad Shafiq, Dr. Fatima
      Abstract: Gender equality is regarded as a vital factor in shaping the overall wellbeing and growth of nation, country and society. A society consists of both male and female, where every person has the right to make decisions about well being, family and future. Family notions are regarded as the basic units for the establishment of prosperous society. A family with a stronger and better foundation will eventually lead to a successful society. If the women are given rights in decision making and give importance their suggestions in the light of the teachings of Islam, will eventually leads to a prosperous and peaceful sciety. In this regards we have the sambolic women persnaties in Islamic history for example Hazrat khadija, Hazrat Fatima, Hazrat um-e-Kalsoom, H azrat Aysha, we can follow them.
      PubDate: Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +000
  • A Research Study of The Methodology Of Allama Ahmad Ibn Ajiba (R.A) In
           Tafir Al-Bahrul Madeed Regarding Tafsir-e-Ishari

    • Authors: Ilyas Ahmad
      Abstract: Tafsir has been started with the advent of the Revelation to the Holy Prophet (SAW). It is, therefore, the teaching of the Holy Book and its Tafsir have been enumerated amongst the obligations of Prophethood along with recitation of Quran and purification of soul. The followers of the holy prophet (SAW) accomplished the obligation splendidly and will continue it forever. The field of exegesis, like others, has also gone through the process of evolution and has come up with various types, one of which is Tafsir-e-Ishari. One of the great scholars of Tafsir-e-Ishari is Ahmad Ibn Ajiba, who was born in Teuton, Morocco in 1160 AH. He was a mystic and great scholar of Tafsir, Hadith and other branches of Islamic knowledge. Al Bahrul Madeed fi Tafsir-al-Quran al Majeed is his great scholarly work which is also known as Tafsir Ibn Ajiba. Following the footsteps of great scholars he has discussed linguist, Islamic Fiqh, Rhetoric, Hadith, Qirat and Mysticism. This research article presents a research analysis of his common methodology of research in general and Tafsir-e-Ishari in particular. The methodology of this research work is descriptive and critical approach. As there is no such work in Urdu, so this will be a qualitative addition to the research world.
      PubDate: Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +000
  • Principles and Guideline for the protection of human health: an analytical
           study in the light of sublime conduct of prophet

    • Authors: Shah Zahoor Ahmad; Dr. Niaz Muhammad
      Abstract: Human body and health is divine gift, God Almighty ordered us to protect it from anything which can harm it. Many Quranic verses, teachings and narrations of our beloved prophet Peace be upon him justify this narrative. The holy prophet peace be upon him guided and ordered his companions to do care of their bodies. This paper deals with the basic principles for the protection and care of human body which we can find in the narrations of sublime conduct of holy prophet peace be upon him
      PubDate: Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +000
  • The Status of Woman in Islam and Buddhism: A Comparative Study

    • Authors: Dr. Kulsoom Fatima
      Abstract: Allah, the Lord of Glory, Created man and woman to run the system of life in the universe and demarcated their duties and rights individually. The issue of equality and reciprocity between man and woman has always been debated by social thinkers. Before Islam, at the age of ignorance, woman was a picture of helplessness and compulsion. But when the candle of Islam was lit, woman got the honorable position. Similarly, in pre-Buddhist India, since Hinduism was at its peak and at the time of the Brahmins, woman was in a state of cosmopolitanism. Gautama Buddha raised the voice of reform and laid down the rights and duties of women, but Gautama Buddha's sayings comprise dual opinions about woman. In this article, the status of woman as a daughter, mother, wife and widow has been compared in the context of Islam and Buddhism .Evidences prove that Islam has elevated the status of woman in all aspects , while in Buddhism there is divergence of opinion about the position of woman.
      PubDate: Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +000
  • The Importance and necessity of Marital Psychology in the light of Seerah
           and Psychology

    • Authors: Muhammad Abdul Haq; Prof. Dr. Ata ur Rahman, Prof. Dr. Muhammad Tahir Khalili
      Abstract: Allah Almighty, by His wisdom, has endowed man and beast with certain stimuli which motivate them to take necessary actions for the protection of their species and for the survival of the race. Islam takes into account the basic traits of human nature and caters to them in lawful ways. Among these natural stimuli is sexual stimulation. Of course, sexual desire is a great source of human strength and the best way to fulfill it is through marriage. Marriage is an individual, cultural and natural need that has been recognized by all the societies of the world. However, in the Quran and Sunnah, at the same time, it has been declared a religious and moral necessity, and instead, it has been commanded to be fulfilled. In the Holy Quran, it has been declared the Sunnah of the Prophets. If a person tries to turn away from natural things like marriage, then he faces dangerous consequences. Without marriage, the whole family and social system become chaotic. In order to be  mentally healthy, it is necessary to strike a balance between spirituality and  materialism, and for  this, it is  essential  that man fulfills his spiritual,  physical and  psychological  needs in  moderation. Allah has made the blessed personality of the Prophet Muhammad (ﷺ) an excellent example of a perfect human being. Prophet Muhammad (ﷺ) has fulfilled the physical, Psychological, and spiritual requirements with perfect   balance for the perfection of personality.
      PubDate: Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +000
  • The definition of poverty and its spiritual concept in the light of
           Islamic teachings

    • Authors: Ashraf Ali; Dr Abdul Rehman Khalid Madni
      Abstract: Islam is a copmlete code of life. It presents the solution of all problems of human beings. Poverty is such phenomenon that exists all over the world. In developing countries like Pakistan poverty is lake of basic needs i.e food, clohing and shelter etc. whereas in advanced countries poverty is the deprevation of life luxuries. In this article focused on poverty.  First of all poverty is defined in different aspects, literal meanings as well as Islamic point of view and materialistically. The second and important thing is spiritual aspect of poverty in Islam. According to Islam poverty is not absolutely a bad or harmful thing but it has some spiritual benefits. It   provides some chances a man to purify his inerself. Hence this article clearly explains the topic and spiritual system of Islam in all aspects of life as well as poverty’s spiritual concept of Islam.
      PubDate: Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +000
  • Islamic History of Neelum Valley in the Indian Subcontinent

    • Authors: Muhammad Hammad; Zia Ur Rehman, Faiz Ul Islam
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to explore the Islamic history of Neelum Valley of Azad Jammu and Kashmir. Further, this study explains the culture and civilization of the peoples of Neelum Valley of Azad Jammu and Kashmir. The Major objective of the study is to determine the impact of Islam on the culture of natives of Neelum valley. Islam arrived in the Indian subcontinent in the 7th century when the Arabs conquered Sindh and later arrived in North India in the 12th century via the Ghurids conquest and has since become a part of India's religious and cultural heritage. Neelum valley is located southern area of Azad Jammu and Kashmir. The Neelum Valley emerged as a different name after the partition of the sub-continent in 1947.Before partition pandits from all over India came to visit this temple for pilgrimage in Neelum. Probably Sharda temple was constructed somewhere in mid-12th century, during the reign of Jayasimha by an Aryan Saraswat brahmin warlord of Kishanganga. According to Al-Biruni, the famous historian of Hindustan. The study is significant for the historians, academicians, and researchers in understanding the existing cultural and religious values, beliefs, and practices in the natives of Neelum valley. The nature of this study was qualitative and historical. Document analysis was used research tool in this study. Data were analyzed through qualitative ways.
      PubDate: Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +000
  • Is Islam Responsible for Under-Development of the Muslim World'

    • Authors: Waqas Ali Haider; Arslan Mehmood Chughtai, Dr. Abdul Haseeb, Muhammad Aslam
      Abstract: Post World War II, with the emergence of nation states – the need for development of Islamic economics as an academic discipline, and thereby politico-economic institutionalization emerged. This can primarily be attributed to the socio-political will of the polity to form economic system both for public and private finances which are aligned with their religious aspirations. Notwithstanding, Islam has long been criticized of impeding growth and economic development by the advocates of modernist capitalism (most prominently Weber). Furthermore, the development of Islamic economics discipline has also been criticized for being a rushed measure to Islamize knowledge resulting in an incoherent co-optation of the capitalistic economic system. In this pretext, this paper seeks to present a comprehensive account of the scholarly criticism and subsequent rebuttal posited around the conceptualization of Islamic economics. We explore the ontological and epistemological foundations of Islamic economics, to explicate the role of ‘actors’ and the ‘mould’ as delineated by the ‘Maqasid-e-shariah’- to contextualize the Islamic world view of economic development and growth. The findings of this paper not only responds to the criticism levelled against Islam as anti-development, but also identifies the potential causes, rationale and context of such criticism. Gaps and future research directions are also identified to inform the stakeholders and scholarly research for coherent development of Islamic economics.
      PubDate: Wed, 29 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +000
  • Legal Regime on Child’s Religion: Pakistan v. England

    • Authors: Dr. Salma Begum
      Abstract: This article endeavors to explore the issue of legal regime on child’s religion in Pakistan and England. The discussion highlights the major issue including the parents’ authority to choose the religion of the child and provide the religious education after separation especially when father is Muslim and mother is from ahl al-Kitāb under the Pakistan and the English Family Law. Moreover, the research paper explains the stance of the judges of the Courts of Pakistan & England as whose religion the child presume to follow after separation between interreligious parents. The research paper further investigates the approach of the judges of both states to decide the interreligious custody dispute on the ground of child’s religion/religious upbringing. The research paper refers to four sunnā schools of thoughts, statute laws, and case laws of Pakistan and England. An analysis of the Pakistan Family Law and the English Family Law has carried out in a comparative way to scrutinize the tendencies of the Courts between the both states. For this purpose, cited cases are examined to discover the compatibility between the practices of the both Courts. The research paper is restricted to the discussion on the issue of choosing the child’s religion only under the Pakistan Family Law and the English Family Law. In the end, it has found that the parameters are conflicted concerning the interpretation & application lay down under the Pakistan Family Law and the English Family Law. Therefore, it is suggested that child should follow the religion of the Muslim parent because it is the matter of the protection and preservation of our religion.
      PubDate: Tue, 28 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +000
  • Motives, Trends, Modern Forms of Materialism and It’s Solution: An
           Analysis in the Light of Islamic Teachings

    • Authors: Riaz Ahmad Saeed; Abdul Raouf Mr.
      Abstract: This paper tries to explain the essence of the concept of Materialism, by reviewing the definition and history, which at this time will review the opinions of Islam and different philosophers. It will point out modern trends of Materialism, its Motives, Modern forms and its solution especially. Association between materialism and life satisfaction is somewhat more complicated as it simply appears. People, usually, use their own set of standards in arriving at overall appraisals of their lives. Overall evaluation of life could be influenced by numerous factors such as religious affiliations, income, possessions, property, health, social support, attitudes, etc. The main thrust for this research has been the belief that materialism has adverse effects on a person's life, while religiosity and gratitude mediate relations between these two aspects of life.  At the end of the analysis will be presented that how should a Muslim respond to the concept of materialism. It concludes with results and some proposals.KEYWORDS: Materialism, Motives, Trends, Modern Forms, Solution. Islamic Teachings
      PubDate: Mon, 27 Dec 2021 18:37:00 +000
  • The madrassa system in Pakistan, and its deep sociological impact on the

    • Authors: Riaz Ahmad Khan; Sumayya Feroz, Muhammad Hayat Khan
      Abstract: Education always play a very vital role in the development of the any society. All those societies are considered civilized and well-disciplined that pay vital attention and importance to Education. Schools and Madrasa has been given this task of making the individual civilized and responsible citizens in the society. The reservation of religious and governmental people leads to sectarian and terrorist violence. which  is the burning  issue  of our  society .The conflict among  these two  types of people have affected  lives  of people which gives  birth  to the other social  and psychological  issues. Madrassa system of education was very peaceful in past, the current situation and the perception of people that link the Madrassa with terrorism. The perception of local area people is that the madrassa and school system of education is interdependent but its aims and goals is separate or different to each other, both types of education is important and needed for the society development.
      PubDate: Sun, 21 Nov 2021 07:33:30 +000
  • Teaching Values to Students for their Holistic Development: An Analysis of
           Secondary School Teachers’ Beliefs

    • Authors: Imran Khan; Yaar Muhammad, Sajid Masood
      Abstract: Education helps in preparing students for holistic development—contributing to the development of not only cognitive or practical skills of students but also plays a significant role in making them an embodiment of morality and good citizenship. It is now commonly accepted that values education is an important and essential ingredient of educations’ responsibilities to inculcating values in students. All the National Education Policy documents from 1947-2009 and the National Curriculum for Islamic Studies and Pakistan Studies, Grades IX-X, 2006, have focused on inculcating values to make students compassionate, caring, hard worker, honest, trustworthy and good citizens of Pakistan. The present qualitative study aimed to explore teachers’ beliefs about the inculcation of values in students of secondary schools. The basic qualitative research design was used. Ten secondary school teachers were purposively selected as participants from a district in Punjab by using the criterion sampling technique. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted for data collection. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyze interview data through NVivo 12 software. The findings of the study suggested that values education is a missing element in our education system. Teachers seemed to be dissatisfied with the curriculum, pedagogy, and continuous professional development training (CPD) in the field of values education. It is suggested that there should be a revision of policy, planning, and practices to enhance the priority for inculcating values to the students of secondary schools.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +000
  • Socio-Psychological Impact of Social Media on Adolescents- A Quranic

    • Authors: Tehreem Fatima; Aqsa Tasgheer
      Abstract: Allah has created human beings and they have nature of socialization. The process of globalization increased the level of connectivity that used to seem unrealistic few decades back. Social media is one of the most pivotal utilized correspondence media among people and associations across today’s reality,. The benefits presented by social media must be utilized adequately to pass on the message of Islam.. Although many positive aspects of the social media are indubitable but the social media has turned into an overwhelming revolution that swept away the moral values and standards in its manner, and violated all criteria and it became hard to control. Adolescent is a period among childhood and arising adulthood. It is a time of gigantic change, for example psychological, social and biological. Social media has more attraction and inclination for teenagers. Adolescence is a vital and vulnerable stage of development, where teenagers start to frame their own identity, character and create significant connections, but social media can profoundly effect on areas of their development. In this research paper, the socio-psychological area of adolescence’s growth will be focused in connection with social media effects on the same. Social media is the prime reason that teenagers appear to be glued to their phones or computers as a result it has assumed control over a significant part of adolescent’s time. Social media has positive and negative both aspects so there is an utter need to discuss about its all aspects in Quranic Perspective that impact adolescent sociologically and psychologically.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +000
  • Investigating Principles of Narration and Acceptannce of Hadith by Hazeat
           Umar Farooq (RA)

    • Authors: samina jabeen; Ali Asghar Chishti
      Abstract: The present study is aimed to trace out Asool e Rewayat for the acceptance of Hadith by Hazrat Umar (R.A). It has been found that The Hadith and Sunah of the Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H) is the source of Islam and is the practical representation of the Holy Quran. Sahaba (R.A) practically acted upon the teachings of the Holy Prophet P.B.U.H) with zeal and zest. After the death of the Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H) Khulfa eRashdeen adopted a very particular mode of attention for the delivery (Rewyat) of Hadith and promoted the culture of “usul e Istishad. In this way, the general things which wereexpected to become the part of “llm of Hadith” on name of “Rewyat” with the addition of word” the Holy Prophet said” were ended. As KhulfaeRashdeen emphasized on “Rewayat Bill Lafaz”.The strong determination and consistency of the first caliph Hazrat Abu BakarSiddiquree (R.A) regarding the obedience and practice of Hadith and Sunah is admireable for Muslims. He (R.A) laid down the policy of “usaul e Istishad” for the delivery and acceptance of the Hadith. Hazrat Umar (R.A) introduced the rule of nomination of “Sahaba” for the teaching of Hadith. He (R.A) added such golden rules  “Qawad e Hadith” for the guidance ofUlma e Hadith.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +000
  • Surgical Transformation in Medical Science in the light of Shariah

    • Authors: Waqas Ali Haider; Muhammad Farooq Iqbal, Dr. Zainab Amin
      Abstract: Mankind has practiced surgery as an effective medical intervention to treat and cure diseases and disorders since ancient times. In the contemporary world the application of surgery has expanded beyond treatment of disease, to perform physical alteration and beautification. This article seeks to analyses and present the legitimacy and validity of surgical practices in the light of shariah injunctions i.e. from Quran verses and hadith (sayings of Prophet Muhammad S.A.W). Based on our review of literature, we found that the legitimacy of surgical methods is contingent on the objective of the surgery which are (i) treatment or cure of disease, (ii) rectification of a physical disorder including organ transplant, (iii) physical ornamentation or beautification, and (iv) change of gender. We argue that while surgery performed to cure illness and rectify organ or body disorders are permissible - however surgeries pursuing ornamental alterations and discretionary changes to gender are frowned upon in Islam. We present a comprehensive analytical account of shariah injunction based Quran, Hadith and sunnah to back our argument posited in the research.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +000
  • Tafseer Traditions of Hazrat Abdullah Bin Masood: A Comparative Study in
           the Light of Imam Tabarani ' s Maajim & Sihah-e-Sitta

    • Authors: Hafiz Rab Nawaz; Dr. Sana Ullah HussaiHussain
      Abstract: Quran is the primary source of Sharia (Islamic Law) and the key to success for entire humankind in this world and hereafter. Hadith is the written record of the sayings, actions and life of the holy Prophet (PBUH). Hadith, apart from being the secondary source of Sharia, also provides the theoretical and practical explanation of the teachings of the Quran. Therefore, the importance of Hadith for understanding and interpreting the Quran cannot be overemphasized. The scholars of Hadith (Muhaddithein) have compiled the Hadith in different styles, keeping in view their different objectives, since the beginning of the compilation of Hadith. There have been a number of famous Muhaddithein who are highly respected and regarded for their work. Among them is Imam Tbarani, one of the greatest scholars, who compiled many valuable collections of Hadith. His three famous books, known as Ma’ajam-e-Salasah contain a huge collection of about 31,449 Ahadith and Aasar. Around 1,200 of these Ahadith are related to the exposition of the Quran, out of which around 171 are narrated by Abdullah Bin Masood (RA), who was one of the greatest companions of the Prophet (PBUH). In this research paper, the aforementioned 171 narrations by Abdullah Bin Masood (RA) have been analyzed and compared with his narrations found in Saha-Sitta (six fundamental books of Hadith). Many of these 171 narrations are also found in other books of Hadith are some of them are helpful in understanding the similar narrations found in other books. 
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +000
  • The Method & Style of Shaykh Muhammad Abdul Khaliq Bajauri in
           Ghunyat-ul-Qari: Commentary of Shahih-Al-Bukhari.(In the context of the
           Book of Prayer)

    • Authors: Asadullah Farooq
      Abstract: Sahih al Bukhari holds a vital position in the classical six Hadith corpses. Its worth has attracted the Hadith scholars to write commentaries in different ages and regions. As a result, a number of commentaries of Sahih al Bukhari came into being, which is said to have been more than all over the commentaries of Hadith. Amongst these Ghunyat-ul-Qari is the most significant. It is a multi-voluminous Arabic work penned by Maulana Muhammad Abdul Khaliq  Bajawari a prominent Pakhtoon scholar (1375-1387AH), from this big work the present thesis studies its Kitab Salat only. Its kitab Salat in itself is multi-voluminous and presents a vivacious matter on the subject. This study provides the reader a comprehensive account of the topics of the said chapter and methodology adopted by the learned writer alongside some of the essential information relevant to the science of Hadith. Muhammad Abdul Khaliq  Bajawari the sophisticated Scholar died before the compilation of this commentary in 1982 AD .The work done by him remained incomplete in respect of research. There are twenty-five hundred pages in this commentary. In each page, there are forty and plus lines in some pages. Each page is 41cm lengthy and have 26cm width. There are twenty-three words in each line. The writer used to write in Nastaleeq which is apparent and readable. He used black ink while writing this commentary. The topic of the script consist of Hadith explanation. The writer used literary terminologies in quite good way, that’s why the readers of Hadith well not feel board while reading Ghunyatul  Qari  Sharha  Sahih al Bukhari.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +000
  • A critical study of Imam Ghazali Tafseer,s“Bahrulmuabbah fi

    • Authors: Imran Ullah Imranullah
      Abstract: Imam Ghazali (died 505 AH) is one of those eminent Muslim Scholar of the 5th  century who made tremendous contribution towards expounding and elucidating  Islamic Thought and Philosophy . Imam Ghazali  was a Hugh caliber intellectual  person. He was himself a Shafi, but he has on  various occasions opposed and criticized the shafi tradition. This article is composed of 18 pages.The first pages show the biography of imam Ghazali and his religious and intellectual services. The Tafseer has also been introduced in detail, its merits and demerits. The author has deftly explained the various events of sorrah yousaf. There are great glimpses of sophistic dedactism on various and different places . A critical study of أسرارالمؤدة فی تفسیرسورۃ  یُوسُف " " بحرالمحبة في In this article the author has beautifully given a comprehensive and to the point translation of Imam Ghazali and his religious and intellectual services. The article has also encompassed the various merits and demerits of tafseer.The author has also given an attractive description of the value ,need and importance of Tafseer.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +000

    • Authors: Syed Raza Shah Gilani; Ilyas Khan, Ashraf Ali
      Abstract: ABSTRACT Trafficking in human beings is a multifaceted criminal act involving deception, forced labour, and sexual exploitation. Human trafficking has become the fastest-growing criminal act for the purpose of sexual exploitation. The conceptualization of the trafficking problem is not fully understood without knowing this phenomenon deeply. This study explores the trafficking in human beings in light of human rights and Islam. This aims to examine the question of human trafficking in Islamic terms as a violation of human rights. It will be instigated to argue that the trafficking of people and forced prostitution are breaches of human rights. Most notably, the paper examines the Role of Islamic Law and Principles for Trafficking in People. It demonstrates how Islamic law and morals demand for the eradication of the slavery institution. The ban on the exploitation of people (in all its forms) and the refusal of tyranny and harshness are extremely relevant to today's trafficking crime. It can be utilized in Muslim communities to impose a public obligation to protect trafficked persons, especially women and children.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +000
  • An Analytical Study of the History and Compilation of Ilm ul Qiraat in the
           Indian Subcontinent

    • Authors: muhammad hammad hammad
      Abstract: The main purpose of this study is history of ilm ul Qiraat and compilation in Indian sub-continent. ilm ul Qiraat was first time introduced in 1st century when famous Islamic leader start journey to Indian sub content. the aim of ilm ul Qirat is that to read the holy Quan in their real meaning. And the famous religious scholars play their role in this field, they established Islamic centers of religious study to prepare students and spread the true spirit of Ilm ul Qirat in the Indian subcontinent.  And compilation of Ilm ul Qiraat beginning[1]from Mehmood Ghaznvi government when Islam was spread in all aeras of Indian sub-continent. Sultan Muhammad al-Ghuri established the first Islamic government in the subcontinent he conquered the capital “Dehli” at the end of the sixth century AH corresponding to the year 1199 AD, and the teaching of Islamic sciences began Legitimacy and the Qur'an under the auspices of the Islamic government. The Internal and external criticism has been used as tool of research. Qualitative research design has been used. The data has been collected personally by the researcher. Relevant documents as well as data collected from participants have been analyzed using the thematic content analysis. The study is significant for the researchers, teachers, and learner of ilm e Qiraat.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +000
  • The Issue of the Testimony of Women in Islam, A Scholastical study, its
           Misdeems and Social Impacts

    • Authors: Ali Said Mashwani; Muhammad Naeem
      Abstract: This research has carried out to elaborate the status of women witness in various transactions as well as to explain misdeems over it and its social implications. The key aim of this article is to define evidence, women evidence’s status and analyze misdeems and its social impacts critically. Evidence means, “The information which used in a court of law tries to prove something through documents, objects or statements”. A witness is a person who testifies what he has seen of a matter or an event. The witness of women is justified by Quran, Hadith Consensus and even by Common sense. Judiciary is the milestone of peace alieving in society while witness is the back bone of every judicial system. Without witness never justice could be done nor can any right be proved or protected in the court of law. Therefore Islam has given the status of trust to witness and direct the witnesses to deliver it in the court with full honesty and integrity without fear and apprehension. The women witness plays a pivotal role in all evidential proceedings. It is unanimously admissible in women related matter like: Menses, Delivery, Virginity, Pregnancy, Marital Status Chorale, Clearance of Womb etc. while in financial matters like Sale Purchase, Confession, Mortgage, Usurpation, Marriage, Divorce, Eddatt (Stay –at-home), Pedigree, Bequest, Attorneyship, Freedom of Salves, Inheritance, Reconciliation, Gift and Will, agreements are also admissible without gender discrimination with the condition that if she would hobble during evidence recording in court, would be associated and assisted by another woman to avoid hesitation. According to Majority opinion in Fornication and Boundaries (Hadood) cases her evidence may not be accepted because in Hadood the accused creed the benefit of doubt while according to Imam Ibn -e -Hazam Zahiri, her witness is admissible in all transactions. Bases verse No. 282 of Surat-al-Baqara, the Orientalists misdeems and assertion that Islam has discriminated women while halting her witness half to men but it is their misconception because in Islamic point of view in women relating matters her sole witness is acceptable while in irrelevant matters she had given relief of exemption which does not mean her inferiority to men. It is just the variation of responsibilities. It is an universal truth that women are very abashed and do not like to see adultery or to be the witness of it. Therefore Islam has reduced her burden by exempting her evidentiary liability in fornication cases.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +000
  • The Art of Maqamah: Its History, Evolution and Purposes

    • Authors: Dr. Shabana Nazar
      Abstract: Maqamah is an art of Arabic prose that appeared in the fourth century AH until the Modern Period. Badi' ul-Zaman Al-Hamazani is the innovator of this art in Arabic Literature. He was the first to name this art as ‘Maqamat’. Moreover, he compiled and arranged and matured it, and brought it out in an exquisite style that is attractive for other people. It is possible to say that the Maqamat is a prose text that combines the art of writing and poetry. The most important purposes of Maqamat are: Education, Humor, Preaching, Quibbles, Riddles, Tricks, Literary Criticism, Description and others. The Maqamah must have originated and thrived in the Abbasid Society, where other arts emerged in this era and new literary genres emerged. We find, over the ages, so many scholars and writers who increased their efforts in this arts have also spread it in the countries of the world, the East and the West, even in Foreign Literatures. The eminent
      Authors of the Maqamat after Al-Hamazani and Al-Hariri are: Ibn ul-Jawzi, Al-Safadi, Ibn ul-Wardi, Al-Khafaji and many others. From the West and Andalusia, Ibn Shaheed and Al-Sarqusti, and from the Modern Era Al-Yaziji and Muhammad Fikri Pasha and many others. This Paper sheds light on the art of Maqamah, its Introduction, its elements, important purposes, and especially its history and evolution for the facilitation of upcoming researchers. In addition, it describes eminent
      Authors of Maqamat and their famous Maqamat, which serve the purpose of a resource and authentic materials and people from all walks of life can find these as a resource due to the intellectual and authentic information they carry.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +000
  • Summary of the chapters of Umrah mentioned in Ghunyat-ul-Qari: Commentary
           of Shahih-Al-Bukhari by Shaikh Abdul Haq Al-Bajouri

    • Authors: Anwaru ddin; Gulzar Ali
      Abstract: Sahih Bukhari is believed almost an authentic source origin of correct narrations of Muhammad (ﷺ). There are so more commentaries of Shahih Al-Bukhari, one of them is Ghunayat-ul-Qari; wrote by Sheikh Abdul Khaliq Bajauri. In Ghunayat-ul-Qari, there are many chapters he included in his commentary. One of them is ((ابواب العمرۃ, he wrote a brief commentary on this chapter. He also mentions in Ghunayat-ul-Qari the terms of logic, mysticism, principles of jurisprudence, ilmulMa’aani, Bayan and Badee’. He rejects misguided sects with proofs. He mentions the differences among the jurists and the doctrines of the four imams and determine the most correct statement and offers the argument Arguments of Hanafi doctrine. In this paper, there will be a brief discussion about how to perform Umrah according to the sunnah and how we can avoid unlawful action during the Umrah.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +000
  • The Literary and Religious Contributions of Mukhtar Ali Nayyar in
           Clumns's Perspective

    • Authors: Saeeda Mukhtar; Akhunzada Mujahid Ali Akbar
      Abstract: Mukhtar Ali Nayyar, started his career in journalism as a comical writer, and wrote columns on literary, political, cultural and social issues in Daily Anjam, Hayat, Inqilab, Imroz, Mashriq, Surkhab and Kasoti. He was the editor of fortnightly Al Mazhar, Safina and monthly Hindko Zuban. The most read column of his career was "Mai Bolon kay Na Bolon". Besides journalism, he was an educationist, researcher, linguist and poet who authored a good number of books anddramas. Ranked amongst the top satirists and humourist of the countryhe wrote popular playsfor PTV and Radio Pakistan. A patron of various social and literary organizations, he devoted his life for the uplift of national and regional languages.His research articles covered the linguistics of the ancient Gandhara Civilization, which is acknowledged by a number of universities and various educational forums. Amongst the numerous awards that he received in Pakistan, "Life time Achievement Medal" on the occasions of Silver Jubilee of PTV and "Order of Imtiaz" are worth mentioning.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +000
  • Islamic Values in the Fictions of Ahmad Nadeem Qasmi

    • Authors: Muhammad Rahman; Muhammad Sohail, Mutahir Shah
      Abstract: Ahmed Nadeem Qasmi is one of the most prominent Urdu short story writer. He is basically a progressive fiction writer. Qasmi possess almost seventeen collections of his short stories. Most Famous books are Kapas ka Phool, Gandasa, Gul Rukh, Bazar e Hayat, Chopal and Ghar sy Ghar tk. The phenomena of GOD's duties upon man and human rights is presented in his short stories. Rights of parents, children’s, neighbors, women along with social rights and interreligious harmony seems one of the major subject of his fiction. In this paper, we will study Ahmed Nadeem Qasmi's short stories and show the presentation of human rights within.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +000
  • Proving Penances and Limits by Analogy

    • Authors: Ali Ahmad Babar; Ihsan Ullah Nasih
      Abstract: As it is mentioned earlier, the origin of the disagreement according to the disincentives; atonement (Kefara) and Haddod are proved by sapience, not by analogy. For instance, the rak'ats of prayer; we cannot determine the wisdom of number of rak'ats of prayer based on analogy. Nonetheless that sapience is an offshoot, by sapience we can determine the wisdom of number of rak'ats of prayer. Those who are in favor of proving the atonement (Kefara) and Haddod on the basis of analogy say that analogy is an argument for the public, that is why acting based on analogy is obligatory. The preferred quote is related to the demos scholars because they say that atonement (Kafara) and Haddod are proven based analogy, there are reasons in this regard in the Qur'an, Sunnah, consensus and sapience
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +000
  • The Status of Compulsion on Nikah of a Minor Virgin: A Study in Light of
           Islamic Fiqh

    • Authors: Fakhruddin Qanit; Ms. Kamila
      Abstract: The rulings of Islamic Shaira are all-inclusive to the entire human life. It provides a practicable guideline in all horizons of human existence. The one integral part of life is marital attachment., which is why it is explained in rather detail in Islamic sources. Nikah is a deed of trust that is entertained between a male and female in view of specific conditions. It takes place with mutual understanding free from force and external pressure. As though this contract the mutual rights of both the parties are ensured so Islamic Sharia also considers the rights of guardians. The guardians of both the parties also reserve the right to challenge a marriage contract done against the status and honor of the family. Similarly according to some Islamic Juristis the guardians especially the father and grandfather of a minor girl can utilize the power of attorney by doing the Nikha of their minor. Now the questions arrive here that why this discretionary power has been given to guardians and what hidden wisdom lies behind this' In this research paper, this issue has been explained in rather detail by providing the documentary proofs from Islamic Jurisprudences.
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +000
  • Eco-Educational Dimensions of The Holy Quran

    • Authors: Iqura Fatima Iqbal; Iqura Fatima Iqbal
      Abstract: .It is mention in the Holy Quran,which is the sacred and religious book of the followers of Islam, is also an omnipotent  total of principles and teachings covering all aspects of human life ‒social and non social,religious concepts aesthetic values, ethical and spiritual aspects of everyday lifestyle.  It can be seen that it also comprises numerous rules on nature and environmental protection. It is witnessed  that there are about 750 verses (of 6236) refer to various aspects of nature, and to the relationship between man and nature. This very paper  aims to analyse some of the many ecological verses, i.e. the ones to create awareness and to educate people in the spirit of nature conservationIt is mention inthe Holy Quran, the sacred religious book, is also an omnipotent  sum of principles and teachings covering all aspects of human life ‒social and  religious concepts, ethical and spiritual conduct percepts,and on various aspects of everyday life.  It can be seen that it also comprises numerous rules on nature and environmental protection. It is witnessed  that there are about 750 verses (of 6236) refer to various aspects of nature, and to the relationship between, sustainability and responsibility towards its preservation for future generations. The research question which arose and is  leading to the  this paper was whether the Quranic verses comprise environmental teachings that address the various aspects of nature, the environment, and the interactions between humans and environmental components. The main theme of  article highlights the eco-educational dimension of the Holy Quran by means of a qualitative investigation.This article deals with The ecological considerations on the rational use of natural resources, ethical interactions between man and nature, and therefore  the rights of plants, animals and of the physical elements of the environment. In this research article , the use of Romanian translation of the Holy Quran, the online translation of the Quran are used. The sacred book of muslims,Holy Quran shows the nature as complete,complex and a whole system in itself, in which all the components are connected, linked,support and protect each other. Even if we see that  one component is affected, the order and functioning of the entire system, i.e. nature, are disturbed. With this in regard we can see that, the Holy Quran has been promoting a holistic approach to the environment approximately 1300 years before the introduction of the academic concept of holism. The injunctions of the Holy Quran moulds the  human behaviour so as to avoid excesses. This moderation and injunctions are often described through three principles found throughout its pages: the principles of unity, balance and responsibility. The important environmental teachings are obvious in the verses of the Holy Quran. In order to ensure human a healthy environment, all these teachings must be respected and put into practice on every level of lifestyle of every human. Toconclusion, we can say that the Prophet Mohammed could be considered a pioneer ofenvironmentalism, preservation,sustainable development and resource management.

      PubDate: Tue, 30 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +000
  • Hagia Sophia: A Study of its Historical Perspectives, Architectural
           Structure and Geographical Importance

    • Authors: Aijaz Ahmed; Mumin Ahmad
      Abstract: The Hagia Sophia has always been regarded as a symbol of medieval Christian mysticism. During Byzantine and Ottoman history, the structure served as the Imperial Church and Mosque respectively. Emperors were crowned there, victories were celebrated, and later Ottoman Sultans had performed their prayers inside it. For many centuries, the Hagia Sophia was considered possibly the largest monument in the world. Today, its dome is still accepted to hold this title of the most extensive in the world. The Hagia Sophia is one of the most important Byzantine structures ever built. It holds historical significance as a culminating feature of the Christian era Roman Empire and stands as a monument artistic, structural, and architectural achievement. Numerous architectural features like designing aspects, artistic flourishes, and calligraphy were hired in the building by the famous architects of the time. The mosaic on the central dome believed to be an image of Christ has an importance in the world’s calligraphy, which was also covered by gold. By the historical analysis of this study, it seems to be clear that Hagia Sophia’s construction , for the centralization of power under the Holy Roman emperor, was the supreme not only for the political power but also to perpetuate civic peace and religious propagation. Justinian is known as the early ruler of the Eastern Roman Empire who was responsible for his political and spiritual ambition. From the historical aspects, Hagia Sophia has served for the centuries as the landmark for both Orthodox Christians. Later, its impressions and significance were shifted to the dominant culture in the Turkish city. The Hagia Sophia played a vital role in Byzantine culture and politics of its first 900 years of existence.
      PubDate: Tue, 30 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +000
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