Subjects -> RELIGION AND THEOLOGY (Total: 768 journals)
    - BUDDHIST (14 journals)
    - EASTERN ORTHODOX (1 journals)
    - HINDU (6 journals)
    - ISLAMIC (164 journals)
    - JUDAIC (22 journals)
    - OTHER DENOMINATIONS AND SECTS (4 journals)
    - PROTESTANT (22 journals)
    - RELIGION AND THEOLOGY (503 journals)
    - ROMAN CATHOLIC (32 journals)

ISLAMIC (164 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 149 of 149 Journals sorted alphabetically
Afkaruna : Indonesian Interdisciplinary Journal of Islamic Studies     Open Access  
Ahkam : Jurnal Hukum Islam     Open Access  
Ahkam : Jurnal Ilmu Syariah     Open Access  
AJIS : Academic Journal of Islamic Studies     Open Access  
Al 'Adalah : Jurnal Hukum Islam     Open Access  
AL QUDS : Jurnal Studi Alquran dan Hadis     Open Access  
Al-Albab     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Al-Banjari : Jurnal Ilmiah Ilmu-Ilmu Keislaman     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Al-Burhan : Journal of Qur’an and Sunnah Studies     Open Access  
Al-Dzikra : Jurnal Studi Ilmu al-Qur'an dan al-Hadits     Open Access  
Al-Fikra     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Al-Hikmah     Open Access  
Al-Iqtishad : Journal of Islamic Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Al-Jami'ah : Journal of Islamic Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Al-Mabsut : Jurnal Studi Islam dan Sosial     Open Access  
Al-Maslahah Jurnal Ilmu Syariah     Open Access  
AL-QANTARA     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Al-Risalah : Journal of Islamic Revealed Knowledge and Human Sciences     Open Access  
Al-Shajarah : Journal of the International Institute of Islamic Thought and Civilization (ISTAC)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Al-Tadzkiyyah : Jurnal Pendidikan Islam     Open Access  
Al-Tahrir     Open Access  
Al-Tijary : Jurnal Ekonomi dan Bisnis Islam     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Al-Ulum     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
An-Nisbah : Jurnal Ekonomi Syariah     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Analisis : Jurnal Studi Keislaman     Open Access  
Annida'     Open Access  
Ar-Raniry : International Journal of Islamic Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ASAS : Jurnal Hukum dan Ekonomi Islam     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Asy-Syir'ah : Jurnal Ilmu Syari'ah dan Hukum     Open Access  
At-Ta'dib Jurnal Kependidikan Islam     Open Access  
At-Tabsyir : Jurnal Komunikasi Penyiaran Islam     Open Access  
at-Tajdid     Open Access  
At-Taqaddum     Open Access  
at-turas : Jurnal Studi Keislaman     Open Access  
At-Turats     Open Access  
Attarbiyah : Journal of Islamic Culture and Education     Open Access  
BELAJEA : Jurnal Pendidikan Islam     Open Access  
Berkeley Journal of Middle Eastern & Islamic Law     Open Access  
Bina' Al-Ummah     Open Access  
Cakrawala : Jurnal Studi Islam     Open Access  
Dauliyah Journal of Islamic and International Affairs     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
De Jure: Jurnal Hukum dan Syar'iah     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Dimas : Jurnal Pemikiran Agama untuk Pemberdayaan     Open Access  
Dirāsāt : Jurnal Manajemen dan Pendidikan Islam     Open Access  
Economica : Jurnal Ekonomi Islam     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Edukasi : Jurnal Pendidikan Islam     Open Access  
edureligia : Pendidikan Agama Islam i     Open Access  
El-Harakah     Open Access  
Empirisma : Jurnal Pemikiran dan Kebudayaan Islam     Open Access  
Episteme : Jurnal Pengembangan Ilmu Keislaman     Open Access  
Fenomena : Journal of Islamic Studies     Open Access  
Fikr-o Nazar     Open Access  
FOKUS : Jurnal Kajian Keislaman dan Kemasyarakatan     Open Access  
Hakam : Jurnal Kajian Hukum Islam dan Hukum Ekonomi Islam     Open Access  
Hayula : Indonesian Journal of Multidisciplinary Islamic Studies     Open Access  
Hikma : Journal of Islamic Theology and Religious Education     Hybrid Journal  
History of Islam and Iran     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
HONAI : International Journal for Educational, Social, Political & Cultural Studies     Open Access  
Hukum Islam     Open Access  
IBDA' : Jurnal Kebudayaan Islam     Open Access  
Ijtimaiyya : Jurnal Pengembangan Masyarakat Islam     Open Access  
Ikonomika : Jurnal Ekonomi dan Bisnis Islam     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Islam and Muslim Societies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
INSANCITA : Journal of Islamic Studies in Indonesia and Southeast Asia     Open Access  
Insaniyat : Journal of Islam and Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intellectual Discourse     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Islamic Economics and Finance Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Islamic Marketing and Branding     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Nusantara Islam     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Zakat     Open Access  
Intiqad : Jurnal Agama dan Pendidikan Islam     Open Access  
Intizar     Open Access  
Iqtishoduna : Jurnal Ekonomi Islam     Open Access  
İslâm Araştırmaları Dergisi     Open Access  
Islamic Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Islamic Sciences     Open Access  
Islamic Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Islamika Indonesiana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ISRA International Journal of Islamic Finance     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Istawa : Journal of Islamic Education     Open Access  
JAWI     Open Access  
JICSA : Journal of Islamic Civilization in Southeast Asia     Open Access  
Journal of Arabic and Islamic Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Indonesian Islam     Open Access  
Journal of Islam in Asia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Islamic and Near Eastern Law     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Islamic Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Islamic Finance     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Islamic Philosophy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Islamicjerusalem Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Malay Islamic Studies     Open Access  
Journal of Muslim Mental Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Shi'a Islamic Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Juris (Jurnal Ilmiah Syariah)     Open Access  
Jurisdictie Jurnal Hukum dan Syariah     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Ekonomi dan Bisnis Islam (Journal of Islamic Economics and Business)     Open Access  
Jurnal Living Hadis     Open Access  
Jurnal Pendidikan Islam     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Jurnal Studi Al-Qur'an     Open Access  
Jurnal Theologia     Open Access  
Jurnal Ushuluddin     Open Access  
Kader     Open Access  
KALAM     Open Access  
KARSA : Jurnal Sosial dan Budaya Keislaman     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Kodifikasia     Open Access  
Komunika: Jurnal Dakwah dan Komunikasi     Open Access  
Kontemplasi : Jurnal Ilmu-Ilmu Ushuluddin     Open Access  
Les cahiers de l'Islam     Free   (Followers: 1)
Madania : Jurnal Ilmu-Ilmu Keislaman     Open Access  
Medina-Te : Jurnal Studi Islam     Open Access  
Muaddib : Studi Kependidikan dan Keislaman     Open Access  
Muslim Heritage     Open Access  
Nadwa : Jurnal Pendidikan Islam     Open Access  
New Perspectives on Turkey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Nuansa : Jurnal Penelitian Ilmu Sosial dan Keagamaan Islam     Open Access  
Nurani     Open Access  
Potensia : Jurnal Kependidikan Islam     Open Access  
Profetika Jurnal Studi Islam     Open Access  
Psikis : Jurnal Psikologi Islami     Open Access  
QURANICA : International Journal of Quranic Research     Open Access  
Refleksi     Open Access  
Reflektika     Open Access  
Religia     Open Access  
Religions of South Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Review of Middle East Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Revista de Estudios Internacionales Mediterráneos     Open Access  
Ruhama : Islamic Education Journal     Open Access  
Studia Islamika     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Studies in Islam and Psychology     Open Access  
Ta'dib     Open Access  
Tadrib : Jurnal Pendidikan Agama Islam     Open Access  
Tadris : Islamic Education Journal     Open Access  
Tajdida : Jurnal Pemikiran dan Gerakan Muhammadiyah     Open Access  
TARBIYA : Journal of Education in Muslim Society     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Tarbiyatuna     Open Access  
Tawazun : Jurnal Pendidikan Islam     Open Access  
Teosofi : Jurnal Tasawuf dan Pemikiran Islam     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Teosofia : Indonesian Journal of Islamic Mysticism     Open Access  
The Islamic Culture     Open Access  
Tidsskrift for Islamforskning     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tsaqafah : Jurnal Peradaban Islam     Open Access  
Ulul Albab     Open Access  
Ulumuna : Journal of Islamic Studies     Open Access  
VFAST Transactions on Islamic Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Wahana Akademika : Jurnal Studi Islam dan Sosial     Open Access  
Walisongo : Jurnal Penelitian Sosial Keagamaan     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Wardah : Jurnal Dakwah dan Kemasyarakatan     Open Access  
Wawasan     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

           

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Journal of Arabic and Islamic Studies
Number of Followers: 4  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 0806-198X
Published by Universitetet i Oslo Homepage  [16 journals]
  • Towards New Perspectives on Ethics in Islam

    • Authors: Feriel Bouhafa (ed.)
      Pages: 1 - 364
      Abstract: Complete volume, containing all articles CONTENTS Introduction: Feriel Bouhafa, Towards New Perspectives on Ethics in Islam: Casuistry, Contingency, and Ambiguity I. Islamic Philosophy and Theology Feriel Bouhafa, The Dialectics of Ethics: Moral Ontology and Epistemology in Islamic Philosophy Frank Griffel, The Place of Virtue Ethics within the Post-Classical Discourse on ḥikma: Fakhr al-Dīn al-Rāzī’s al-Nafs wa-l-rūḥ wa-sharḥ quwāhumā Ayman Shihadeh, Psychology and Ethical Epistemology: An Ashʿarī Debate with Muʿtazilī Ethical Realism, 11th-12th C. Hannah C. Erlwein, The Moral Obligation to Worship God Alone: Fakhr al-Dīn al-Rāzī’s Analysis in the Tafsīr Anna Ayse Akasoy, Philosophy in the Narrative Mode: Alexander the Great as an Ethical Character from Roman to Medieval Islamicate Literature II. Islamic Jurisprudence Ziad Bou Akl, From Norm Evaluation to Norm Construction: The Metaethical Origin of al-Ghazālī’s Radical Infallibilism Felicitas Opwis, The Ethical Turn in Legal Analogy: Imbuing the Ratio Legis with Maṣlaḥa Robert Gleave, Moral Assessments and Legal Categories: The Relationship between Rational Ethics and Revealed Law in Post-Classical Imāmī Shīʿī Legal Theory Omar Farahat, Moral Value and Commercial Gain: Three Classical Islamic Approaches III Hadith, Quran, and Adab Mutaz al-Khatib, Consult Your Heart: The Self as a Source of Moral Judgment Tareq Moqbel, “As Time Grows Older, the Qurʾān Grows Younger”: The Ethical Function of Ambiguity in Qurʾānic Narratives Enass Khansa, Can Reading Animate Justice' A Conversation from Alf Layla wa-Layla (The Thousand and One Nights) Nuha AlShaar, The Interplay of Religion and Philosophy in al-Tawḥīdī’s Political Thought and Practical Ethics William Ryle Hodges, Muḥammad ʿAbduh’s Notion of Political Adab: Ethics as a Virtue of Modern Citizenship in Late 19th Century Khedival Egypt
      PubDate: 2022-01-03
      DOI: 10.5617/jais.9348
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • Towards New Perspectives on Ethics in Islam: Casuistry, Contingency, and
           Ambiguity

    • Authors: Feriel Bouhafa
      Pages: 7 - 23
      Abstract: Introduction to the themed issue
      PubDate: 2022-01-03
      DOI: 10.5617/jais.9357
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • The Dialectics of Ethics

    • Authors: Feriel Bouhafa
      Pages: 025 - 054
      Abstract: Philosophical and theological ethics in the Islamic tradition tend to be appraised on the basis of a unilateral perspective, which circumvents a moral rational approach to intuition. On this account, moral knowledge is expected to rest on intuitive judgments, which are universally accessible to human beings. Looking at moral ontology and epistemology in Arabic philosophy, I demonstrate that taking intuitionism as the only valid rational discourse to ethics needs to be challenged. In fact, Arabic philosophers do not subscribe to a realist view of the good and evil in relation to human actions, and rather admit a division between cosmic values in metaphysics and moral values in ethics. In so doing, they show how metaphysics ascribes a substantial view to good in existence and a negative theory to evil, while the science of ethics admits a teleological and relative view of the good. Overall, the falāsifa remain committed to Aristotle’s premise that ethics does not rely on abstraction and emphasized the role of experience too. But, they seem to be also attentive to the dialectical nature of Islamic jurisprudence in producing norms considering both principles of the law and its particular application. This is also clear in their epistemology of ethical judgments such as the maxim justice is good. While they ascribe a universal status to ethical maxims, they preclude from granting them an absolute status over the authority of norms construction. Instead, philosophers attribute a dialectical role to ethical maxims to guarantee both consensus over norms and the possibility to produce truthful opinions. Keywords: Moral ontology and epistemology, The problem of evil, The nature of the good, Moral values, al-Fārābī, Ibn Sīnā, Ibn Rushd, Legal epistemology, Written and unwritten laws, Ethical maxims, Widely-accepted premises (mashhūrāt), Reputable premises (maḥmūdāt).
      PubDate: 2022-01-04
      DOI: 10.5617/jais.9368
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • The Place of Virtue Ethics within the Post-Classical Discourse on
           ḥikma

    • Authors: Frank Griffel
      Pages: 055 - 080
      Abstract: Preserved in what seems to be a unique manuscript at the Bodleian Library, al-Nafs wa-l-rūḥ wa-sharḥ quwāhumā (The Soul and the Spirit together with an Explanation of Their Faculties) of Fakhr al-Dīn al-Rāzī (d. 606/1210) is a curious book. At the beginning, the author decribes the text as part of the philosophical sciences (as opposed to the religious ones) and clarifies that it deals with ʿilm al-akhlāq, meaning Aristotelian virtue ethics. The text is divided into two parts, the first explaining subjects of philosophical psychology, such as the nature of the soul, its faculties, and its survival after the death of the body. The second part explains how one can “treat” or “heal” the soul from certain negative character traits or vices. In both parts, the book makes liberal use of quotations from the Qur’an, from prophetical ḥadīth, and from sayings by other prophets and sages. This is quite unlike any other “book on philosophy” that Fakhr al-Dīn al-Rāzī wrote.
      The article explains the distinction between philosophical and non-philosophical books in Fakhr al-Dīn al-Rāzī and what it means for a book to belong to the former group. Al-Rāzī’s works in the theoretical fields of philosophy (logic, the natural sciences, metaphysics, and theology) do not use evidence derived from revelation and hardly ever refer to it. The relationship between revelation and the practical disciplines of philosophy (among them ethics), however, is different from the relation between revelation and theoretical philosophy. This difference leads in Avicenna to an almost complete abandonment of the practical disciplines. In authors who follow Avicenna in his Farabian approach to the relationship between philosophy and revelation, it leads to hybrid works such as al-Nafs wa-l-rūḥ wa-sharḥ quwāhumā that follow a philosophical agenda but employ means and strategies that mimic and imitate revelation.
      PubDate: 2022-01-04
      DOI: 10.5617/jais.9369
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • Psychology and Ethical Epistemology

    • Authors: Ayman Shihadeh
      Pages: 081 - 102
      Abstract: We examine a hitherto unstudied debate, turning on the epistemology of value judgements, between Ashʿarīs and Baṣran Muʿtazilīs of the late eleventh and twelfth centuries. Al-Ghazālī and al-Rāzī countered Muʿtazilī ethical realism, here defended by al-Malāḥimī, by developing an emotive subjectivism underpinned by increasingly sophisticated psychological accounts of ethical motivation. Value judgements, they maintained, arise not from knowledge of some ethical attributes of acts themselves, but from subjective inclinations, which are often elusive because they can be unconscious or indirect. We also argue against the widespread notion that Ashʿarīs espoused an anti-rationalist ethics, and we show that they were not only ethical rationalists, but also the more innovative side in this debate.
      PubDate: 2022-01-04
      DOI: 10.5617/jais.9370
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • The Moral Obligation to Worship God Alone

    • Authors: Hannah C. Erlwein
      Pages: 103 - 120
      Abstract: This article examines how, in his al-Tafsīr al-kabīr, Fakhr al-Dīn al-Rāzī (d. 606/1210) addresses the problem of the obligation to thank the benefactor (wujūb shukr al-munʿim) within the context of the Quranic command to worship God alone. The obligation to thank one’s benefactor was a contentious problem among classical Islamic thinkers before Rāzī, and it was frequently discussed in fiqh and kalām works in the context of the ontology and epistemology of moral values and legal norms. Rāzī’s analysis in the Tafsīr, however, sheds light on another way in which the “thanking one’s benefactor”-problem was of relevance for classical Islamic thinkers: it is used to frame the rationale for monotheism in terms of the gratitude God deserves for being humans’ provider. This aspect of the “thanking one’s benefactor”-problem has not been highlighted in the secondary literature. This article discusses how Rāzī’s analysis of God’s sole deservedness of worship has theological, legal, and ethical/moral implications. The theological implications are found in the questions it raises about the notorious problem of causality. The legal implications become apparent in Rāzī’s interest in the ratio legis of the Quranic command and in establishing that the obligation arises with God’s sovereign decree. The ethical or moral implications, finally, are seen in his concern with how humans come to know of the goodness of monotheism and the repugnancy of polytheism. The article contextualises Rāzī’s position in the Tafsīr against the background of the fiqh and kalām debates about the “thanking one’s benefactor”-problem.
      PubDate: 2022-01-04
      DOI: 10.5617/jais.9371
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • Philosophy in the Narrative Mode

    • Authors: Anna Ayse Akasoy
      Pages: 121 - 140
      Abstract: Histories of Arabic and Islamic philosophy tend to focus on texts which are systematic in nature and conventionally classified as philosophy or related scholarly disciplines. Philosophical principles, however, are also defining features of texts associated with other genres. Within the larger field of philosophy, this might be especially true of ethics and within the larger body of literature this might be especially the case for stories. Indeed, it is sometimes argued that the very purpose of storytelling is to reinforce and disseminate moral conventions. Likewise, the moral philosopher can be conceptualized as a homo narrans.
      The aim of this contribution is to apply the approach to narratives as a mode of debating ethical or moral principles to biographies of Alexander the Great. More than any other figure of the classical world, Alexander was religiously validated in the Islamic tradition due to his quasi-prophetic status as the ‘man with the two horns’ in the Qur’an. He appears prominently in the larger orbit of Arabic and Islamic philosophy as interlocutor and disciple of Aristotle and is adduced anecdotally in philosophical literature as an example to teach larger lessons of life. As a world conqueror, he provided an attractive model for those who sought to reconcile philosophical insight with worldly ambition.
      Focusing on biographies of Alexander, this article explores ethical principles which are inscribed in this body of literature and thus reads the texts as a narrativized form of philosophy. The analysis is comparative in two ways. Biographies of different periods and regions of the Islamicate world will be discussed, but comparisons with pre-Islamic biographies of Alexander (notably Roman biographies and the Alexander Romance) are included as well.
      PubDate: 2022-01-04
      DOI: 10.5617/jais.9372
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • From Norm Evaluation to Norm Construction

    • Authors: Ziad Bou Akl
      Pages: 141 - 158
      Abstract: This study examines the issue of norm construction in al-Ghazālī’s thought focusing on the grounds advanced to support his radical infallibilist position. To fulfill such end, al-Ghazālī, I explain, relies on two types of arguments, the first one relates to the presumptive nature of legal texts in order to highlight their fundamental indeterminacy and the second links to the interpreter to show the impossibility to fall into error. To buttress these arguments, al-Ghazālī both draws on epistemological principles and metaethical ones. As it will be shown in the study, al-Ghazālī ultimately explains the divergence in interpretation of norms using the concept of ṭabʿ (nature, disposition or appetitive self) drawing on his well-known relativist ethical theory concerning norm evaluation and therefore brings in a unique way this typical feature of Ashʿarism within his own radical infallibilist theory of norm construction. The concept of ṭabʿ allows to bridge the gap between the ambiguity in the revealed text and the mujtahid’s interpretation in the norm construction process, and ultimately serves to justify ex post the choices made by the mujtahid. In doing so, al-Ghazālī assigns to theology a critical role in revealing the origin of the illusion of the jurists who naively think that licit and illicit are qualities of things themselves.
      PubDate: 2022-01-04
      DOI: 10.5617/jais.9373
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • The Ethical Turn in Legal Analogy

    • Authors: Felicitas Opwis
      Pages: 159 - 182
      Abstract: Al-Ghazālī’s articulation that the purposes of the divine Law (maqāṣid al-sharīʿa) are to attain maṣlaḥa for the five necessary elements of human existence was not only novel but had long-lasting influence on the way Muslim jurists understood the procedure of analogy (qiyās). The correctness of the ratio legis was determinable by its consequences in bringing about maṣlaḥa. This shift was possible only by intellectual shifts in understanding the relationship between ethics and law. This paper traces the development in conceptions of ethics and its impact on the procedure of analogy in three 5th/11th century predecessors of al-Ghazālī, namely al-Baṣrī, al-Dabbūsī, and al-Juwaynī. It shows that al-Ghazālī’s definition of the purposes of the Law was developed based on previous conceptual shifts in the ratio legis from being a sign for the ruling to reflecting the ethical content of the divine injunction.
      PubDate: 2022-01-04
      DOI: 10.5617/jais.9374
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • Moral Assessments and Legal Categories

    • Authors: Robert Gleave
      Pages: 183 - 207
      Abstract: In this chapter, I examine the discussion around the rational and moral basis for legal categories in postclassical Imāmī Twelver Shīʿī legal theory. The debate was pushed forward by the Akhbārī movement in the 17th century CE; they proposed a novel position concerning the rational basis for the law in which reason can determine certain moral aspects of an action (e.g., a good action can be recognised by reason, and its performance attracts praise), but not legal elements (e.g., that the performance of a good action deserves a reward beyond praise). This leaves, for them, the Lawgiver (that is, God) to connect the moral aspects of an act with its legal consequences (that is punishment for a morally bad action and reward for a morally good action); that causal connection cannot be made by reason alone. Based on these findings, I conclude that Akhbārī moral theory, often read along literalist lines, showcases an adherence to the Muʿtazilī-derived framework common to the Imāmī Twelver Shīʿī theology and law generally, whilst also reserving ultimate legal authority to God.
      PubDate: 2022-01-04
      DOI: 10.5617/jais.9375
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • Moral Value and Commercial Gain

    • Authors: Omar Farahat
      Pages: 209 - 227
      Abstract: This paper presents three theoretical accounts developed to assess the moral value and legal status of acts designed to promote commercial gain in the thought of major classical Muslim scholars. There has been an increased interest in Islamic commercial law and ethics in recent years. Much of the recent scholarship consists of practically inclined studies that tend to lump the Islamic tradition of evaluation of commerce under the principles of social justice and avoidance of harm. Our study of three selected scholars will reveal distinct approaches that are characteristic of classical Islamic ethical discussions: anchoring moral value in this world, attributing moral goodness to salvation in the next world, and finding a balance between these two approaches. Counterintuitively, we will see that the naturalistic view that ascribes moral values to things and actions was the most restrictive, whereas the dualistic model that focuses on salvation in the next world was markedly more permissive of commercial transactions.
      PubDate: 2022-01-04
      DOI: 10.5617/jais.9376
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • Consult Your Heart

    • Authors: Mutaz al-Khatib
      Pages: 229 - 257
      Abstract: In this article, I explore the authority of the heart (qalb) as a potential locus for the individual moral knowledge and normativity in Islamic ethics. To do so, I discuss the two ḥadīths that ostensibly suggest one’s “self” as a source of moral judgment. These ḥadīths raise renewed questions about the sources of moral judgment, the nature of moral judgment and the ethical capacity of the “self” (conscience)—“consult your heart and consult your self …”; “righteousness is good conduct, and sin is that which rankles in your chest and which you would hate for other people to look upon.”
        There are rich debates in the Islamic tradition on the place and authority of the bāṭin (inward) in generating moral knowledge, which correspond to contemporary discourses in Western ethics on the place of conscience in the moral formation of the individual. In this article, I argue that although Islamic legal tradition as a discipline has focused on qualified external actions of individuals and the ijtihād (independent legal reasoning) of mujtahids (jurists), it did not ignore the authority of the bāṭin for moral assessment and the ijtihād of common individuals. I propose that the inward dimension has always occupied an important space within the interdisciplinary field of Islamic ethics but has been overshadowed by the overarching theological disputes between the Muʿtazilīs and Ashʿarīs over the sources of knowledge.
        The article starts by exploring the relevant aḥādīth (reports) and their interpretation in ḥadīth commentaries, followed by an analysis of discussions in the fields of Islamic jurisprudence and Sufism.
      PubDate: 2022-01-04
      DOI: 10.5617/jais.9379
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • “As Time Grows Older, the Qurʾān Grows Younger”

    • Authors: Tareq Moqbel
      Pages: 259 - 287
      Abstract: This article explores the role of ambiguity in the Qurʾān. It examines the concept of ambiguity, its ethical function in literature, and its reception in the tafsīr tradition with special reference to Fakhr al-Dīn al-Rāzī’s (d. 606/1210) exegetical programme. Further, and by way of focusing on the narrative genre of the Qurʾān, the article analyses a Qurʾānic pericope, Q. 12:52-53, to illustrate the extent to which ambiguity impacts on the text, and what that means for the ethical teaching of Qurʾānic narratives. Without denying that ambiguity is located in the reader too, the article argues that ambiguity resides in the Qurʾānic text itself, and that this ambiguity has the function of expanding the Qurʾān’s interpretive universe and ethical potential.
      PubDate: 2022-01-04
      DOI: 10.5617/jais.9380
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • Can Reading Animate Justice'

    • Authors: Enass Khansa
      Pages: 289 - 312
      Abstract: In this study, I make audible a conversation in Alf Layla wa-Layla (The Thousand and One Nights) on the meaning and application of justice. Without assuming that Alf Layla constituted an organized whole, the study identifies, in the frame narrative and the first two chains of stories—all three understood to belong to the earliest bundle—a debate on the coincidence of successful interpretation and just rulership. By the end of these tales, i.e., by the twenty-seventh night, a complete tale is told. In these stories, I propose, Alf Layla adopts an attitude that privileges multiplicity over singular interpretation, in a fashion that affirms the
      contingency of ethical questions.
        The popularity of Alf Layla and the afterlives it enjoyed up to our present times—in the Arab world and the West—need not eclipse or substitute the Arabo-Islamic character the work came to exhibit, and the ethical questions it set out to address. In what has been read as fate, arbitrary logic, enchantment, magic, irrational thinking, and nocturnal dreamlike narratives, I suggest we can equally speak of a concern for justice. The study looks at Alf Layla’s affinity with advice literature, but stresses the need to read it as a work of (semipopular) literature that pays witness to societal debates on justice.
        Alf Layla, I suggest, belongs to Islamic culture in that the act of reading has been construed within hermeneutics that are largely informed by the ethical implication knowledge sharing entails. In how the stories find resolution to the crisis of the king, Alf Layla understands justice as an artificial and communal enterprise. The stories, more urgently, seem to suggest reading gears us towards a concern for the greater good.   Keywords: The Thousand and One Nights (Arabian Nights, 1001 Nights, Alf Layla wa-Layla), Adab, Justice, Rulership, Readership, Advice Literature, Interpretation, Multiplicity, Legitimacy
      PubDate: 2022-01-04
      DOI: 10.5617/jais.9381
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • The Interplay of Religion and Philosophy in al-Tawḥīdī’s Political
           Thought and Practical Ethics

    • Authors: Nuha Alshaar
      Pages: 313 - 337
      Abstract: Although modern scholars tend to be sceptical of the role of religion in the formation of ethical and political thought in the Būyid period (334/945–440/1048), this article argues that both philosophy and religion, as envisioned by al-Tawḥīdī and his contemporaries, played an integral role in its creation. The analysis shows that modern concepts such as ‘humanism’ and ‘political philosophy,’ as applied to these authors and their texts, are not felicitous to the social and intellectual contexts in which they were produced. Through analysing al-Tawḥīdī’s ethical and political thought, certain modern assumed dichotomies, including scientific enquiry versus religious teaching, theoretical ethics versus practical ethics, and the social versus the personal, are reconsidered. The article argues that a contextual approach to al-Tawḥīdī and his peers should consider the encyclopaedic system of knowledge that shaped their thought and the interdisciplinary nature of their work where religious, philosophical, and literary elements are intertwined. The article highlights al-Tawḥīdī’s political thought, his active role as an intellectual and his attempt to disseminate knowledge based on two main beliefs: the role of knowledge linked to action in social life and reform, and a solid sense of the religious and moral responsibility of the scholar to offer advice to the leaders of the community. The concepts that he uses, such as maḥabba (love) and ṣadāqa (friendship) with its four foundational components, namely the soul (nafs), intellect (ʿaql), nature (ṭabīʿa), and morals (khulq), addressed social and political challenges in Būyid society and produced alternative moral and intellectual responses to sectarianism, social disintegration and the decline in morality, which were characteristic of the Būyid era.
      Keywords: Ethical political thought, Būyid, Humanism, Political philosophy, ʿIlm (Knowledge), ʿAmal (action), Ṣadāqa (friendship), al-Tawḥīdī, Ikhwān al-Ṣafāʾ
      PubDate: 2022-01-04
      DOI: 10.5617/jais.9382
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • Muḥammad ʿAbduh’s Notion of Political Adab

    • Authors: William Ryle-Hodges
      Pages: 339 - 364
      Abstract: This paper extends the emphasis on contingency and context in Islamic ethical traditions into the distinctly modern context of late 19th century Khedival Egypt. I draw attention to the way Muḥammad ʿAbduh’s engagement with Islamic ethical traditions was shaped by his practice in addressing the broad social and political questions of his context to do with nation-building and political journalism. As a bureaucrat and state publicist, he took pre-modern Islamic ethical concepts into the emerging discursive field of the modern state and the public sphere in Egypt. Looking at a series of newspaper articles for the state newspaper, al-Waqāʾiʿ al-miṣriyya, I show how he articulated an ethics of citizenship by defining a modern civic notion of adab that he called “political adab.” He conceived of this adab as the answer to the problem of how a unified nation emerges from the condition of “freedom” by which journalists and the reading public at the time were conceptualizing the politics of the ʿUrābī revolution in late 1881. This was a “freedom” of the public sphere that allowed for free speech and the power of public opinion to shape governance. ‘Political adab’ would be the virtue or situational skill, internalized in each participant in the public sphere, that would regulate this freedom, ensuring that it produces unity rather than anarchy. I argue that adab here enshrined ʿAbduh’s holistic approach to nation-building; Egypt with political rights would be a nation in which the very idea of the nation is comprehensively embedded—through adab—in people’s lives, animating their “souls”. This was a politics conceived not as a self-standing domain, but as growing out of society, becoming thereby an authentic unity and self-regulating “life”. In developing this vision, ʿAbduh was amplifying pre-modern meanings of adab implying wide breadth of knowledge, good taste, and the virtues, labelled in the paper as ‘comprehensivness,’ ‘consensus’ and ‘habitus.’
      Keywords: Muḥammad ʿAbduh, Adab, Freedom, Nation, Politics, Egypt
      PubDate: 2022-01-04
      DOI: 10.5617/jais.9383
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2022)
       
  • In memoriam Joseph N. Bell

    • Authors: Stephan Guth
      Pages: 1 - 3
      Abstract: Obituary for a co-founder of JAIS.
      PubDate: 2021-02-07
      DOI: 10.5617/jais.8617
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2021)
       
  • Language and Revolution

    • Authors: Ana Iriarte Díez
      Pages: 5 - 37
      Abstract: Speakers’ individual and collective identities are socially constructed through their linguistic and social behavior, and inevitably shaped by the socio-political and cultural situation of a region and its observers. It stands to reason, therefore, that significant changes in a community’s linguistic practices are often catalyzed by noteworthy socio-political developments within the same community. In this light, the present study aims to explore recent linguistic developments regarding speakers’ use of Arabic and their perception of its status in Lebanon in the midst of a time of profound social and political change: The October Revolution. The present study opens with an introduction that reviews Lebanon’s linguistic panorama before October 17th, 2019, and provides a brief synopsis of the succession of events now widely known as ‘The October Revolution’. The second section explains the study’s theoretical approach and the nature of the data. The third and last section focuses on how the events of the October Revolution have, at least temporarily, affected the use and status of Arabic in Lebanon and reshaped this language’s place in the public sphere.
      PubDate: 2021-03-02
      DOI: 10.5617/jais.8635
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2021)
       
  • An Explorative Journey Through Hadith Collections

    • Authors: Orhan Elmaz
      Pages: 39 - 56
      Abstract: The article offers insight into a fresh way to utilise hadith collections beyond criticising their material in terms of their authenticity or discussing their implications for Islamic law. It builds on a digital corpus of collections to represent the wealth of canonical Sunni, Shia and Ibadite traditions. In this first exploration of this corpus, the interconnectedness of early Islamic Arabia with other parts of world is highlighted through an analysis of travelling words, proper names, and concrete objects in a few case studies organised into five sections by geographical area. These include translation, a Wanderwort, and contact through commerce and trade. The methods applied to analyse the material are those of historical and comparative linguistics. The results indicate that exploring linguistic aspects of hadith collections—notwithstanding editorial revision and their canonisation—can inform studies of language change in Arabic and set the course to research the standardisation of Arabic. Key words: Hadith Studies, historical linguistics, corpus linguistics, Middle Persian, Southern Arabia, Late Antiquity
      PubDate: 2021-08-03
      DOI: 10.5617/jais.8966
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2021)
       
  • ‘Modern’ Law and Its Subjects in Tawfīq al-Ḥakīm’s Diary of a
           Country Prosecutor (1937)

    • Authors: Gianluca P. Parolin
      Pages: 57 - 77
      Abstract: State law as the main transformative device to build a ‘modern’ Egypt has encountered tremendous resistance, yet legal scholars seem utterly uninterested in the matter while historians struggle to account for the reasons of the subjects’ resistance by using archival materials often produced by state officials themselves. In this article, I turn to literature to explore and interrogate literary representations of the rural subjects of ‘modern’ law, and their various forms of resistance to ‘modern’ law itself. In an effort to highlight the benefits of ‘turning to literature’ for legal scholars, I begin with one of the most acclaimed masterpieces and foundational works of the modern Egyptian literary canon: Tawfīq al-Ḥakīm’s Diary of a Country Prosecutor (1937). Listening to the awkward silences and garrulous voices of the Diary’s subjects opens a window onto the strained relations between ‘modern’ law and its subjects in which class, language, and centre/periphery dynamics all play a role. Considering what repertoire these subjects ‘spontaneously’ mobilise to challenge the ‘modern’ law further brings into view their alternative doxic understanding of law and justice. Keywords: ‘Modern’ law, hegemonic legal modernity, everyday resist­ance, extra-judicial justice, vocal dissent, rural subjects, rural courtroom, Egypt, 20th-century fiction, Tawfīq al-Ḥakīm, Diary of a Country Prosecutor.
      PubDate: 2021-09-02
      DOI: 10.5617/jais.8998
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2021)
       
  • Egyptian Dystopias of the 21st Century

    • Authors: Barbara Bakker
      Pages: 79 - 94
      Abstract: During the first two decades of the 21st century an increasing amount of narratives termed as Arabic dystopian fiction appeared on the Arabic literary scene, with a greater part authored by Egyptian writers. However, what characterises/marks a work as a dystopia' This paper investigates the dystopian nature of a selection of Egyptian literary works within the frame of the dystopian narrative tradition. The article begins by introducing the features of the traditional literary dystopias as they will be used in the analysis. It then gives a brief overview of the development of the genre in the Arabic literature. The discussion that follows highlights common elements and identifies specific themes in six Egyptian novels selected for the analysis, thereby highlighting differences and similarities between them and the traditional Western dystopias. The article calls for a categorisation of Arabic dystopian narrative that takes into consideration social, political, historical and cultural factors specific for the Arabic in general, and Egyptian in particular, literary field. Keywords: Arabic literature, dystopia, dystopian literature, contemporary literature, Egypt, fiction, speculative fiction.
      PubDate: 2021-10-23
      DOI: 10.5617/jais.9151
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2021)
       
  • Governing Political Islam

    • Authors: Sami Al-Daghistani
      Pages: 95 - 120
      Abstract: This paper analyzes what I define as an anti-Islamist discourse (or an “Islamistphobia”) both as a social reality and as conceptual innovation in contemporary Egypt. The paper focuses on four interrelated actors—the current Egyptian regime and its discourse on political Islam, the Muslim Brotherhood and its historical entanglements with the Egyptian state, the Salafi al-Nūr and Rāya Parties, and al-Azhar’s relation with both the regime and the Islamists. I advance an idea that anti-Islamist sentiments channel primarily through official (state) and media discourses in Egypt, rooted in both a colonialist locale and in a contemporary religious framework and its anticolonial rhetoric. It is, however, directed primarily against the Muslim Brotherhood, rather than against all Islamist groups across the board. Keywords:   Anti-Islamist discourse, Islamistphobia, Muslim Brotherhood, Egypt, political Islam
      PubDate: 2021-10-26
      DOI: 10.5617/jais.9160
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2021)
       
  • Interesting Pausal Forms in the Speech of Muslims and Christians in
           Kufᵘr-Kanna

    • Authors: Amal Zuʿbi
      Pages: 121 - 136
      Abstract: The aim of this paper is to describe the system of vocalic variants in pause pertaining to speakers of Arabic in Kufᵘr-Kanna (AKK) and in this regard to determine the features that characterize the AKK. As in Nazareth, the incidence of pauses in AKK varies and depends on the content, the listener and the speaker’s intentions. In AKK I detected pausal forms in the speech of middle-aged and elderly Muslims and elderly Christians. In addition to changes in consonants and vowel quality in their speech, in pausal position final syllables also undergo other modifications as compared to the contextual forms. Unlike in Nazareth, four further types were identified in AKK: (1) lengthening of short vowels in final position: ‑Cv > ‑Cv̄#, -CvC > -Cv̄C#; lengthening of normal and anaptyctic short vowels in final closed syllables: -CvC#; (2) devoicing of voiced consonants in word-final position; (3) glottalization after con­sonants and vowels in word-final position; and (4) aspiration: addition of (h) in pausal position where the word ends in long vowels. Key words: Arabic dialects – Pausal forms – Syllables – Long vowels – Short vowels – Christians and Muslims.
      PubDate: 2021-12-14
      DOI: 10.5617/jais.9270
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2021)
       
  • A Two-year Journey under the Arrows of the Black Death

    • Authors: Claudia Maria Tresso
      Pages: 137 - 189
      Abstract: The penultimate part of the Riḥla by Ibn Baṭṭūṭa recounts his return journey to Morocco from the Middle East through North Africa—and another short tour in al-Andalus—between January 1348 and March 1350. At that time, in all these territories the plague pandemic known as the Black Death was raging and references to it punctuate this part of the work like a tired refrain. As numerous studies have shown borrowings and adaptations from other sources in the Riḥla, Ibn Baṭṭūṭa may not have made all the journeys he claims, but to date no one has questioned his journey through the Arabian area in those years. On the contrary, historians of the Black Death regard the Riḥla as an important document for the study of the scourge in the Middle East and North Africa. In this paper I aim to reconstruct the narrative of the pandemic in Ibn Baṭṭūṭa’s Riḥla by taking from the text the passages in which it is mentioned, in order to answer some questions: to which places do these passages refer' What information does the Riḥla give about the disease, its effects and people’s reaction' Does it correspond to that provided by the Arab chronicles' Does it fit with current microbiology, genetics and palaeogenetics research' Since the Riḥla is a narrative work, how does it describe the scourge' Does its description differ from that of the chroniclers' The concluding paragraph seeks an answer to two more questions: does the Riḥla report Ibn Baṭṭūṭa’s experience or might he and/or the editor of the work, Ibn Ǧuzayy, have taken information from other sources' And if Ibn Baṭṭūṭa did make this journey, thus probably being the only traveller who left an account of a “two-year journey under the arrows of the Black Death,” how could he return home unscathed'
      PubDate: 2021-12-16
      DOI: 10.5617/jais.9292
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2021)
       
 
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