Subjects -> RELIGION AND THEOLOGY (Total: 697 journals)
    - BUDDHIST (14 journals)
    - EASTERN ORTHODOX (1 journals)
    - HINDU (6 journals)
    - ISLAMIC (148 journals)
    - JUDAIC (22 journals)
    - PROTESTANT (22 journals)
    - RELIGION AND THEOLOGY (448 journals)
    - ROMAN CATHOLIC (32 journals)

ISLAMIC (148 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 149 of 149 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abgadiyat     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Afkaruna : Indonesian Interdisciplinary Journal of Islamic Studies     Open Access  
Ahkam : Jurnal Hukum Islam     Open Access  
Ahkam : Jurnal Ilmu Syariah     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AJIS : Academic Journal of Islamic Studies     Open Access  
Al 'Adalah : Jurnal Hukum Islam     Open Access  
AL QUDS : Jurnal Studi Alquran dan Hadis     Open Access  
Al-Albab     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Al-Banjari : Jurnal Ilmiah Ilmu-Ilmu Keislaman     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Al-Bayan : Journal of Qur’an and Hadith Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Al-Dzikra : Jurnal Studi Ilmu al-Qur'an dan al-Hadits     Open Access  
Al-Fikra     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Al-Hikmah     Open Access  
Al-Iqtishad : Journal of Islamic Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Al-Jami'ah : Journal of Islamic Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Al-Mabsut : Jurnal Studi Islam dan Sosial     Open Access  
Al-Maslahah Jurnal Ilmu Syariah     Open Access  
AL-QANTARA     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Al-Tadzkiyyah : Jurnal Pendidikan Islam     Open Access  
Al-Tahrir     Open Access  
Al-Tijary : Jurnal Ekonomi dan Bisnis Islam     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Al-Ulum     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
An-Nisbah : Jurnal Ekonomi Syariah     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Analisis : Jurnal Studi Keislaman     Open Access  
Annida'     Open Access  
Ar-Raniry : International Journal of Islamic Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Arabiyat : Jurnal Pendidikan Bahasa Arab dan Kebahasaaraban     Open Access  
ASAS : Jurnal Hukum dan Ekonomi Islam     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Asy-Syir'ah : Jurnal Ilmu Syari'ah dan Hukum     Open Access  
At-Ta'dib Jurnal Kependidikan Islam     Open Access  
At-Tabsyir : Jurnal Komunikasi Penyiaran Islam     Open Access  
At-Taqaddum     Open Access  
at-turas : Jurnal Studi Keislaman     Open Access  
At-Turats     Open Access  
Attarbiyah : Journal of Islamic Culture and Education     Open Access  
BELAJEA : Jurnal Pendidikan Islam     Open Access  
Berkeley Journal of Middle Eastern & Islamic Law     Open Access  
Bina' Al-Ummah     Open Access  
Cakrawala : Jurnal Studi Islam     Open Access  
Dauliyah Journal of Islamic and International Affairs     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
De Jure: Jurnal Hukum dan Syar'iah     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Dimas : Jurnal Pemikiran Agama untuk Pemberdayaan     Open Access  
Dirāsāt : Jurnal Manajemen dan Pendidikan Islam     Open Access  
Economica : Jurnal Ekonomi Islam     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Edukasi : Jurnal Pendidikan Islam     Open Access  
edureligia : Pendidikan Agama Islam i     Open Access  
El-Harakah     Open Access  
Episteme : Jurnal Pengembangan Ilmu Keislaman     Open Access  
Fenomena : Journal of Islamic Studies     Open Access  
FOKUS : Jurnal Kajian Keislaman dan Kemasyarakatan     Open Access  
Hakam : Jurnal Kajian Hukum Islam dan Hukum Ekonomi Islam     Open Access  
Hayula : Indonesian Journal of Multidisciplinary Islamic Studies     Open Access  
Hikma : Journal of Islamic Theology and Religious Education     Hybrid Journal  
History of Islam and Iran     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
HONAI : International Journal for Educational, Social, Political & Cultural Studies     Open Access  
Hukum Islam     Open Access  
Ijtimaiyya : Jurnal Pengembangan Masyarakat Islam     Open Access  
Ikonomika : Jurnal Ekonomi dan Bisnis Islam     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Islam and Muslim Societies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
INSANCITA : Journal of Islamic Studies in Indonesia and Southeast Asia     Open Access  
Insaniyat : Journal of Islam and Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intellectual History of the Islamicate World     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Islam in Asia     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal of Islamic Economics and Finance Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Islamic Marketing and Branding     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Nusantara Islam     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Zakat     Open Access  
Intiqad : Jurnal Agama dan Pendidikan Islam     Open Access  
Intizar     Open Access  
Iqtishoduna : Jurnal Ekonomi Islam     Open Access  
İslâm Araştırmaları Dergisi     Open Access  
Islamic Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Islamic Sciences     Open Access  
Islamika Indonesiana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ISRA International Journal of Islamic Finance     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Istawa : Journal of Islamic Education     Open Access  
JAWI     Open Access  
JICSA : Journal of Islamic Civilization in Southeast Asia     Open Access  
Journal of Abbasid Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Arabic and Islamic Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Indonesian Islam     Open Access  
Journal of Islamic and Near Eastern Law     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Islamic Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Islamic Ethics     Open Access  
Journal of Islamic Philosophy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Islamicjerusalem Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Malay Islamic Studies     Open Access  
Journal of Muslim Mental Health     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Muslims in Europe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Shi'a Islamic Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Sufi Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Juris (Jurnal Ilmiah Syariah)     Open Access  
Jurisdictie Jurnal Hukum dan Syariah     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Ekonomi dan Bisnis Islam (Journal of Islamic Economics and Business)     Open Access  
Jurnal Living Hadis     Open Access  
Jurnal Pendidikan Islam     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Jurnal Studi Al-Qur'an     Open Access  
Jurnal Theologia     Open Access  
Jurnal Ushuluddin     Open Access  
Kader     Open Access  
KALAM     Open Access  
KARSA : Jurnal Sosial dan Budaya Keislaman     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Kodifikasia     Open Access  
Kontemplasi : Jurnal Ilmu-Ilmu Ushuluddin     Open Access  
Les cahiers de l'Islam     Free   (Followers: 1)
Madania : Jurnal Ilmu-Ilmu Keislaman     Open Access  
Medina-Te : Jurnal Studi Islam     Open Access  
Muqarnas Online     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Muslim Heritage     Open Access  
Nadwa : Jurnal Pendidikan Islam     Open Access  
New Perspectives on Turkey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Nuansa : Jurnal Penelitian Ilmu Sosial dan Keagamaan Islam     Open Access  
Nurani     Open Access  
Potensia : Jurnal Kependidikan Islam     Open Access  
Profetika Jurnal Studi Islam     Open Access  
Psikis : Jurnal Psikologi Islami     Open Access  
QURANICA : International Journal of Quranic Research     Open Access  
Refleksi     Open Access  
Reflektika     Open Access  
Religia     Open Access  
Religions of South Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Review of Middle East Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Revista de Estudios Internacionales Mediterráneos     Open Access  
Ruhama : Islamic Education Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Shii Studies Review     Hybrid Journal  
Sociology of Islam     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Studia Islamica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Studia Islamika     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Studies in Islam and Psychology     Open Access  
Ta'dib     Open Access  
Tadrib : Jurnal Pendidikan Agama Islam     Open Access  
Tadris : Islamic Education Journal     Open Access  
Tajdida : Jurnal Pemikiran dan Gerakan Muhammadiyah     Open Access  
TARBIYA : Journal of Education in Muslim Society     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Tarbiyatuna     Open Access  
Tawazun : Jurnal Pendidikan Islam     Open Access  
Teosofi : Jurnal Tasawuf dan Pemikiran Islam     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Teosofia : Indonesian Journal of Islamic Mysticism     Open Access  
The Islamic Culture     Open Access  
Tidsskrift for Islamforskning     Open Access  
Tsaqafah : Jurnal Peradaban Islam     Open Access  
Ulul Albab     Open Access  
Ulumuna : Journal of Islamic Studies     Open Access  
VFAST Transactions on Islamic Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Wahana Akademika : Jurnal Studi Islam dan Sosial     Open Access  
Walisongo : Jurnal Penelitian Sosial Keagamaan     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Wardah : Jurnal Dakwah dan Kemasyarakatan     Open Access  
Wawasan     Open Access   (Followers: 1)


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Published by DergiPark Homepage  [187 journals]
  • The Perception of Fate (Qadar) among the University Students: A
           Metaphorical Analysis

    • Authors: Mebrure DOĞAN
      Abstract: Fate has always existed in life both as a faith issue appearing in most of the religions and as a vital phenomenon. The unknown sides of fate and the uncertainties related to fate have been a factor that always keeps a human’s sense of curiosity alive. The fate perceptions’ potential of affecting life is high. As an individual’s fate perception is one of the factors determining his attitude to life, and it also affects his behaviours. The fate perceptions’ power of influencing human behaviours was effective in specifying the research topic. The subject of the research was determined as “fate perception”, and university students were selected as the sample group. The research was carried out through metaphor analysis technique based on the phenomenological method. The reason for referring this method rather than directly asking questions related to fate is to reach the real thoughts in the depths of youths’ minds. A total of 211 students participated in the study performed with undergraduate students from different departments of different universities, and the analysis was continued with 163 data sets since the inappropriate data were sorted out. First of all, groups that included the same theme according to the meanings attributed to the fate in the metaphors were formed, and rather than the metaphor, the “because…” part that described it was based on in the grouping. The categories and the metaphors collected in the themes under them were again reviewed relationally, and then the research was analysed by two specialists to ensure the validity and reliability. As a result of the research, it was determined that some of the participants tried to clarify equivalents of the problems related to fate in their minds and to conceptually define the fate while producing metaphors. It was seen that some of the participants associated the fate with religious beliefs in forming metaphors while some of them dealt with it separately from the religion. The most frequently repeated metaphor is the "path" metaphor in the study, in which university students were found to have produced 106 metaphors related to the concept of "fate". This is followed by the metaphors "book" and "wheel". "Scenario, pen, map, crossroads, bunker, line, ship" metaphors are among the top ten most preferred metaphors. After the explanations of the metaphors produced in the scope of the research were examined, they were grouped in terms of their common features, themes were formed, and categories were formed by grouping the themes among themselves. Accordingly, the first category was identified as “fate in the context of characteristic” and its sub-themes were “fate as a(n) unchanging/determined phenomenon, fate as a divertible/preferable phenomenon, fate as an unknown/uncontrollable phenomenon, fate as both determined and divertible phenomenon and fate as a defence mechanism”. The second category was “fate in the context of faith/freedom”. The sub-themes of this category were determined as “the phenomenon of fatalist-inclined fate, the phenomenon of pure faith-based fate, the phenomenon of faith-based voluntaristic fate, the phenomenon of faith-based Cebrî fate, the phenomenon of not faith-based voluntaristic fate, fate contrast”.
      PubDate: Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +030
  • Role of Modern Evolution Theory over Mohammad Iqbal’s Thoughts: A
           Critical Approach

    • Authors: Osman DEMİRCİ
      Abstract: In this article, Iqbal's unique interpretation of the modern theory of evolution, the effects of this theory on his system of thought, how belief and moral values are tried to be reconciled with this theory, and whether Iqbal can provide consistency among all these will be discussed. Iqbal's theory of creative evolution is critically examined. The extent to which Iqbal was influenced by the Muslim thinkers of the past and the Western thinkers of the modern period is discussed comparatively, again based on her works. Attention is drawn to Iqbal's choices and the synthesist thought he tried to make on the theory of evolution, in which the crisis of religion-science is clearly seen, new interpretations of Iqbal's belief in the context of this theory are emphasized, and how Iqbal's moral philosophy was shaped in the context of this theory is being displayed. The effects of Iqbal's unique interpretation of the modern theory of evolution with a metaphysical content permeated all her thoughts.The philosopher is criticized for these thoughts stemming from the theory of evolution. His views are influenced by the scientific and philosophical developments of his time, as well as the situation in the Muslim geography. He sees practical benefits in adapting the theory of creative evolution to life and believes that this theory has a stimulating effect on Muslim societies. The theory of evolution in question must have caught Iqbal's attention with its strong emphasis on power and a combative philosophy of life. Since life is seen as a struggle for Iqbal, the success and happiness of man is also tied to his hardness in this struggle for life, and this emphasis is constantly repeated on different occasions and in different contexts. According to his point of view, life is fight and those who are successful in this fight for life are those who follow these rules. He thinks in accordance with the theory of evolution, distinguishes between right and wrong considering power and sees power and rightness as equal. Considering the evolutionary process as a law that is also valid for eternal life, a metaphysical meaning is attributed to this theory and scientific debates are not got to the point. The theory of evolution forms the scientific and philosophical basis of Iqbal's ego philosophy and his view of God-realm-human. Many theological issues such as life in the hereafter, prophecy, freedom of will are tried to be interpreted in the context of this theory. In order to reconcile the theory of evolution with religion, Iqbal sometimes interprets religious texts and sometimes reinterprets the theory of evolution by giving it a metaphysical meaning. One of the most important reasons for the inconsistency of the philosopher, who put the theory of evolution as a scientific basis for his thoughts, is this synthesist effort he attempted to create. Iqbal He was influenced by former Muslim scholars Ibn Maskeveyh and Mevlana on the theory of evolution as well as modern Western scholars, especially Bergson and Nietzsche. His basic objection to the modern theory of evolution is that the provision of this theory is limited to life and does not reflect on after death.
      PubDate: Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +030
  • Ebû Hanîfe -Doğruyu Arayanların Önderi-

    • Authors: Fatıma Nur DEMİR
      Abstract: In this review, the book titled Ebû Hanîfe -Doğruyu Arayanların Önderi- is examined. The book deals with the life and views of the exemplary figure, Abū Ḥanīfa. The book, which appeals to be written for a general audience, has adopted a didactic style instead of an academic style. In order to overcome the identity and value crises experienced by Muslims, it is of great importance to understand Abū Ḥanīfa as the leading figure of ahl al-ra’y (the school of opinion), which is one of the original interpretations of Islam. In addition to the numerous studies on the subject, this work aims to reach a broad audience of Abū Ḥanīfa’s life, personality, and thoughts.
      PubDate: Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +030
  • The Possibility of The Self-Limited God Imagine and Mu‘tazila

    • Authors: Zeynep ÖNDER DEMİRER
      Abstract: One of the attempts to solve the problem of proof of humans’ freedom to act is the divine self-limitation approach, which means that God voluntarily limits himself. This perspective seen in Jewish and Christian theologies is encountered in Process and Quantum philosophies in the modern period. In this study, the related way of thinking is compared with the way of thinking of the Mu'tazilite consciousness. First of all, the possibility of God's self-limitation was questioned with the assumption of limit theory. According to this, the 'boundary' is inherent to the universe and human as 'law'. The universe and man are also physical, chemical, biological etc. subject to laws/boundaries. As the creator of these laws God and the source of responsibility the reason limit man, and limit means concept, meaning, purpose, system and order/cosmos. The social state of this order, on the other hand, is limiting the actions of people limited by time and space, by making them bidders. So, can it be assumed that God, who gives the reason a limitation function, also limits his will as a result of his design in his knowledge' In Jewish theology, this limitation is seen as a reason why God does not intervene in the suffering they experience associated with their faith, but also understood as God's narrowing and withdrawal of his eternal light so that finite realms could exist. In Christian theology, on the other hand, this theory has been applied to solve the problems of eternity's creation of the universe, God's incarnation with Christ, evil and free will.The human liability through God’s revelation also reminds man that he is thereby intelligent, responsible and free. Muhammad Iqbal (d. 1928) is of the opinion that this freedom can be given to man by the divine self-limitation. With this view, is it possible to consider the limit perceived in the conception of God of the Mu'tazilite consciousness together' Because the necessity of the freedom arising from the proposal made the Mu'tazila think that God's will is not eternal, and that the creator of his preferences is man himself. Again, as a requirement of divine justice, propositional issues such as the giving of power to man before the act, the fulfillment of the promise and promise through prophecy were considered obligatory about God. In this consciousness, the limiting function of the mind appears to be transferred to God. God is not active in man's actions, nor does he create evil. In actual fact, to some people, he is not even able to do evil actions. There is a limit to God's knowledge and power. If this limited conception of God in Mu'tazila is re-expressed with the relevant theory when it comes to 'free will', it can be said that God, who is just and wise, voluntarily limits his own freedom as required by the conscious/intelligent/responsible/free human design in his knowledge. This discourse is one of the possible answers not why man is free in terms of existential purposefulness, but how he can be free in a universe believed to be revealed by God.
      PubDate: Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +030
  • A Mutakallim from Nawābit: Ḍirār b. ʿAmr -A
           Prototype for New Kalām-

    • Authors: Fatih İBİŞ
      Abstract: Although Dirār b. ʿAmr is the most important mutakallim of the second century, he is unfortunately one of the unjustified names in the history of kalām. Dirâr is a mutakallim whose name is rarely mentioned in theological publications published in both Turkish and foreign languages until recently, and his importance and position are still not noticed. As a matter of fact, Josef van Ess and W. Montgomery Watt, who are famous orientalists, discovered this tragic fact and tried to make up for this deficiency to some extent with their studies. Dirâr wrote a refutation of Aristotle's theory of substance and accident, opened a new way with his understanding of existence based on accidents and led Ash'ari with the theory of kasb and Ebu'l-Huzayl al-‘Allaf with his kalām accumulation. Undoubtedly, one of the things that makes Dirār important is that he had views that went beyond his time and caused him to contradict his contemporaries as early as the second century in terms of the history of Islamic thought. Considering the list of works that have not survived, except for one, in such a period when the mainstream sects were not yet formed and they were on the eve of their formation, Dirār was generally in a critical dialogue with the Islamic and non-Islamic movements he encountered and knew. For this reason, it is almost impossible to place him in any religious sect mentioned in his period. Because he often preferred to follow his own ideas rather than the opinions of others on many issues. Naturally, this makes it difficult to place Dirār in a certain school and frees him from all kinds of bonds. Yes, in the sources we come across many allegations, accusations and slanders that Dirār is a Cahmi/Jabri, he is a Mu‘tazili, he is an innovator with malignant ideas, he is an infidel to put a bounty on his head. Understanding the reasons for these depends on getting to know Dirār, understanding his ideas, and determining his position. If we say in the context of our study, the position of Dirār is actually a state of non-position, and we think that the concept that best expresses this situation in a new interpretation is "nawābit". In the light of our analysis, we see that, with the exception of a name, nawābit is used as a concept with a negative content and connotation in both theology and philosophy. The exceptional person is the famous philosopher Ibn Bājja (Avempace) from Andalusia, the contemporary of Ibn Rushd (Averroes). While Mu‘tazili mutakallims use nawābit to humiliate groups such as Ahl-i hadith and Hashviyye, which adopt the narration-oriented line that puts reason and acumen to the second place, Al-Fārābī also uses the fault types and the sick characters in his virtuous city that he has constructed to describe. Ibn Bājja, on the other hand, considers the people called nawābit within his project to be equivalent to the "mutawahhid" (alone human) whose "precaution" he aims; this usage which corresponds with the context of the concept in the study. Because, in our study, nawābit is not considered as an identity, but as a representation of a character.
      PubDate: Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +030
  • Mu‘tezile’de “Vücûb Alellah”

    • Authors: Sibel KAYA
      Abstract: In this study, the claim of Muʻtazila supposing that God has some obligatory actions (wujūb ‘alállāh) to do is investigated. The consistency of this claim is examined considering the objections of other kalām schools. Also, in Muʻtazila, controversies about which actions are accepted as obligatory of God are reviewed. In the chapter regarding the bases of the idea of “God’s obligation”, the concept of “obligation” (wujūb) is analyzed and it is seen that in the usage of the word “obligation” for God by Muʻtazila, the meaning given to this concept by them has an important effect. Examining “obligation” in terms of its types, i.e., rational, metaphysical and moral, the valid aspects of each “obligation” type about God are discussed. “İstidlâl bi al-shâhid ‘alâ al-ghâib” (the deductive of the unseen through observation) which is a rational method that Muʻtazila grounded the idea of “obligation of God” is investigated and, additionally, the apocalyptic (semʻî) references that they provided as a proof on this issue are examined. It is seen that the Ahl al-Sunnah objected to the method of “İstidlâl bi al-shâhid ‘alâ al-ghâib” used in grounding this thought in two aspects. The first aspect concerns the epistemological value of the method. The second is related to the fact that they do not see “obligation” as a suitable concept for the unseen. In addition, Ahl al-Sunnah interpreted the verses to which Mu'tazila referred in this regard differently from them. Their understanding of God had a crucial effect on Muʻtazila's reaching the idea of “obligation of God”. Therefore, how they were explaining God’s essential and actual attributes and the relationship of these attributes with the divine essence ise studied in terms of the idea of “obligation of God”. Mu’tazila scholars put forward an idea of God, whose nature is the same as His essence and they argued that God was essentially under obligation with regard to his nature. Thus, they argued that not an external obligation but God’s essential attributes and His fi’ilî attributes in connection with the essential ones are decisive in the realization of divine acts. Muʻtazila expressed this decisive role of essential and fi’ilî attributes over the divine acts with the term “obligation”. Thereby, it is observed that the idea of “obligation of God” which Muʻtazila reached as a conclusion of rational inference, is closely related to the image of the nature of divine essence. It is seen that the acts accepted as obligatory about God, in general, are related with the concepts of creation, religious responsibility (taklīf) and temkîn (providing for responsible people in religious terms/mukallef bih) by Muʻtazila. However, Muʻtazilī scholars do not completely agree on all these matters. The theoretical differences emerging within the Muʻtazilī schools also affected the opinions about which acts were accepted as obligatory for God.
      PubDate: Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +030
  • Terms in Zaydī-Muʿtazilī Thought: Critical Edition and Translation of
           Ibn Sharwīn’s Ḥaqāʾiq al-ashyāʾ Treatise

    • Authors: A. İskender SARICA; Serkan ÇETİN
      Abstract: The Zaydī-Muʿtazilī interaction, which dates back to the early periods, increased when The Būyid vizier al-Ṣāḥib b. ʿAbbād invited Qāḍī ʿAbd al-Jabbār to Rayy and many Caspian Zaydī scholars studied with Qāḍī. Ibn Sharwīn, who is mentioned among the students of Qāḍī ʿAbd al-Jabbār and accepted as one of the Zaydī- Muʿtazilī scholars, is one of these names. The works of Ibn Sharwīn, who had writings in the field of kalām and fiqh, did not remain within the borders of the Caspian and reached the Zaydīs of Yemen; one of these works is Ḥaqāʾiq al-ashyāʾ. Considering that, unlike other theological schools, there are not many works on the definitions of theological concepts in Muʿtazilī literature and -as far as is known- did not reach today, this treatise helps to understand better especially the terms in Zaydī- Muʿtazilī theology and the effects of Bahshamiyya on Zaydī thought. This work, edited and translated based on the only extant manuscript only manuscript found in Yemen and a previous publication, on the one hand, is important in understanding the point of view of Zaydī- Muʿtazilī thought on the disciplines of theology, jurisprudence, debate, history of Islamic sects, on the other hand, it is a helpful resource for understanding the terms used in the theory of aḥwāl, which is still an intricate issue. Ibn Sharwīn in his Ḥaqāʾiq al-ashyāʾ; explains over 150 terms in relation to cosmology such as substance, accident, line, surface, space; to ontology such as existing, non-existence, originated (muḥdath); to epistemology such as knowledge, creed, ignorance, doubt, skepticism, obligatory and acquired knowledge; to methodology such as evidence, madlūl, debate, and disputation; to fiqh such as sunnah, farḍ, mandūb, cause, command-prohibition, general-particular (ʿumūm-ḫuṣūṣ); to the history of sects such as ʿadliyya, compulsionists (mujbira) and qadarī; to divinity such as the oneness of God (tawhīd); to justice such as promise and threat (al-waʿd wa-l-waʿīd), good and evil, necessary and acquired, grace, compensation, repentance, major and minor sins; to the theory of al-aḥwāl such as attribute of the essence, determinant (muḳtaḍī), entail (muḳtaḍā), muṣaḥḥiḥ, cause. Describing ḥadd that corresponds to “definition” and ḥaḳīḳat that he used together with it as collectively exhaustive, mutually exclusive, Ibn Sharwīn defines knowledge, power, living (ḥayy), speech (kalām), speaker (mutakallim), permanent (bāqī) etc. in a way that is true for both God and human beings. While making these definitions, he draws on poems, linguistic usages and verses and divides the nouns into three parts at the end of his work, namely linguistic, religious and conventional (sharʿī and waḍʿī); in particular, he gives detailed information about metaphors and parts of truth. Another striking aspect of the work is the explanation of the meanings of the imperative mood which is included in the subjects of the Methodology of Fiqh.
      PubDate: Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +030
  • The Hierarchy of al-Ālam and the Fall of Adam in Classical
           Ismāilī Thought

    • Authors: Asiye TIĞLI
      Abstract: The main purpose of this article is to discuss what the Ismāilīs, unlike other Muslims, say about the fall of Adam to earth or the reason why man is on earth. In this study in close relation to the subject the hierarchy of existence and the concepts of hadd/hudûd and tawhid that emerge in this context are principally emphasized, for in Ismāilism the emergence of worlds and all kinds of existence occur according to a certain hierarchy. This hierarchy is also seen as the criterion for determining the divine limits to be obeyed. In this context, a crucial term of hadd or hudûd in its plural form refers to the degrees of all beings, ordered from simple to complex, in their divine station. Parallel to this teaching, the fault Adam committed in eternity is regarded as a kind of crossing the line, for he did not show the required devotion to those who are superior to him. In this context, another important concept dealt with in the article in connection with the subject is tawhid, the Oneness of God, for it should not be forgotten that the Prime Intellect invites the entire Realm of Creation to accept the Oneness of the Creator. The most important rule of responding to this invitation is that creatures in both worlds are to recognize and obey those who are superior to them in order to wake to the principle of tawhid and thus attain perfection. It is emphasized in the article that two forms of explanation, one of which can be considered representative and the other philosophical, come to the fore in Ismāilī classical sources on the subject of Adam's fall to earth. In representative narratives the reason for Adam's being on earth is explained as regaining the position he lost due to the fault he committed in the eternal world. This fault was committed by the spiritual Adam, who represents the whole humanity, not the physical one, and actually symbolizes the defectiveness of Nafs (psyche). The story of Adam's exit from Paradise, which takes place in the Qur’ān, is also interpreted in accordance with this narrative, whereas in more compatible explanations with the philosophy of Neoplatonism, the development of Nafs (psyche) is at the core. Nafs is incomplete because it emerges into the realm of existence after the Intellect. Due to this, the reason orlde creation of the material orld is to make Nafs better with knowledge and wisdom and to ensure its ultimate development. In this case, Nafs realizes itself through Adam, who is its supreme representative on earth. The reason why cosmos initially starts its movement is basically this imperfection of Nafs.Hereby, in both elucidations in the article, it is stated that the emphasis is on the faultiness of nafs. In other words, Nafs or Adam, its earthly form, experiences a loss of station and falls into timely existence due to a deficiency caused by distance from God. For this reason, in order for Nafs to mature or for Adam to regain his original station, the material world must exist and a seven-stage process must be experienced.
      PubDate: Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +030
  • Causality Between Enigma and Paradigm, West and Us

    • Authors: Ertuğrul CESUR
      Abstract: The The sustainability of social life is based on social values. The manifestation of these values also takes place within the society. On the other hand, the realization of individuals is possible in society because a non-social human being is not a "human" in the philosophical sense. With human-oriented conditions that manifest themselves in the network of social relations, the criteria (moral values) related to the purpose of creation crystallize and become known so that the construction of a social paradigm becomes possible. However, the society in which individuals live is also surrounded by an external world (material world). For this reason, the social paradigm also indirectly relies on a perception of the outside world. Thus, no matter what period of history, people's endeavor for an ideal society is accompanied by an interpretation of the external world, and with this "cumulative" knowledge, a "reducing" simulation of being is derived (cosmology). In fact, causality, which is the subject of physics, becomes the subject of philosophy in this mediation. As it can be understood, a significant problem here is the correlation between the fixed values (unconditional imperatives) that form the core of the social paradigm and the variable external world knowledge that is culturally effective in the manifestation of these values. Consequently, while determining the rules in the social order, one should act on the basis of values, not as if they have absolute knowledge of the material world. Whether we believe that the universe consists of "seven heavens" and is geocentric or heliocentric; Existential values such as justice, equality, and freedom are essential regardless of time and space. However, as historical facts show, those who have problems with this value system, which is accompanied by an interpretation of the external world, have raised objections through ever-developing knowledge of nature instead of universal values. For this reason, the geocentric perception of the universe, which forms the basis of the political paradigm in the class-based society of medieval Europe, was strongly desired to be maintained by the ruling classes. Ultimately, although this model of the universe collapsed, moral pursuits of human life continued to be sabotaged for the same political reasons, and disinformation began. Thus, scientific studies and the search for the truth (philosophy) were accompanied by endless polemics disguised as "philosophy." In fact, this situation reveals two opposing attitudes that repeat themselves in history, either in the East or the West: paradigmatic attitude (paradigmism) and enigmatic attitude (enigmatism). As a reflection of these two attitudes, the dominant discourse, which categorically accuses even the interest in understanding Western modernization in the Islamic world as heresy, did not occasionally hesitate to refer to some Western references by confirming with a vulgar pragmatism. For instance, Newtonian physics has been ignored. On the other hand, an attempt has been made to jump directly from Aristotelian physics to quantum physics by assuming an overlapping in classical texts. However, facing the new knowledge of nature has more actual consequences than polemics. To face these results and to show the legitimacy of Islamic values in the modern era, which are in conformity with the creation of human beings, the developments in the current knowledge of the universe (modern cosmology) cannot be ignored. This endeavor can be possible only when the philosophical and historical foundations of the subject are examined throughout the Western experience.
      PubDate: Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +030
  • Al-Fârâbî's Philosophy and Logic in the Early Period of Islamic
           Thought Tradition

    • Authors: Ali ÇETİN
      Abstract: The Philosophy and logic in Islamic thought, unlike Christian culture, developed uncensored and as a result of great demand. After the biggest translation movement in history, important components of Ancient Greek, Syriac, Persian, Jewish and Hindu cultures were transferred to Arabic. Kalam, which developed earlier in Islamic culture, has also been effective in understanding and accepting the philosophical content. In the beginning, translations were made in fields such as medicine, chemistry, astronomy and mathematics. Philosophy literature was also translated into Arabic due to its close relationship with other sciences and the need to fill the "gaps" in Islamic culture. The philosophy of logic was also transferred to Arab culture in its Aristotelian form. Especially the great influence of Aristotle helped strengthen the thought of logic among Arab philosophers and some theologians. As with other translation content, the logic has been translated into Arabic without any censorship. Contrary to the thinkers of Christian culture, Islamic philosophers learned all the subtleties of logic in a free intellectual environment, and as a result, this fact created a way for them to make a unique contribution to the discipline of logic. Logic, as it has been transformed into Arabic elements in Islamic culture, has been influential in basic areas such as theology, language, fiqh and kalam. In this process, logic, which was handled intertwined with traditional philosophy, has progressed to become a refined thought, especially with the influence of the first great philosopher Fârâbî. Fârâbî is not only a great philosopher but also a great Islamic scholar, and these qualities enabled him to adapt logic to Arab culture and Islamic sciences from his Aristotelian roots. Fârâbî, just like Aristotle, wanted to use logic as a criterion of truth for philosophical fields. Fârâbî, who designed logic under two main headings such as concepts and judgments, adapted logic to Arab culture for Muslims in the reasoning process. This solid construction of logic not only strengthened philosophical thought, but also contributed to the later establishment of a solid structure in Islamic sciences. In this context, the understanding of Islamic philosophy and its transformation with the effect of logic require a close examination of Fârâbî's thought. In our article, we will briefly discuss the pre-Islamic origins of philosophy and logic, and on this plane, we will examine Fârâbî's contribution to philosophy of some basic issues such as God, the classification of sciences, and the philosophical dimension of logic and try to reveal his effects on Islamic culture from a general point of view.
      PubDate: Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +030
  • A Late Ottoman Scholar Khalil Shukru al-Boyâbâdî and His Risālah Named
           Kitâb al-Qaḍā wa’l-Qadar

    • Authors: Esra DÜZENLİ
      Abstract: In the period that began with the death of the Prophet Hz Muhammad, the martyrdom of Hz. Othmān and the Battles of Camel and Siffin which took place during the caliphate of Hz. Ali, caused Muslims to have confronted each other. The debates that started after these incidents had been carried out within the frame of killing a Muslim in particular and the issue of predestionation in general. The personal opinions that emerged in the first period became the doctrines of the parties/sects over time. These parties/sects have criticized each other on this subject as well as all other subjects and they have written refutations to one another. This deep-rooted and complicated issue has been handled in the Ottoman period in both Arabic and Turkish works as either a chapter or a separate risālah (epistles). Khalil Shukru’s risālah on qaḍā and qadar is one of those risālahs that we have discussed in this article. In his separately written risālah, he tried to refuse the opinions of some parties regarding qaḍā, and qadar by explaining his own opinions with examples. This study is based on Khalil Shukru Afandī's risālah qaḍā and qadar. A brief information about the author's life and scientific personality was given based on archive documents and then the epistle was analyzed. The author has handled the subject in a unique way, interpreting the situations ordained by Allah and human acts as a separate qadar. Khalil Shukru Afandī examines human acts in two different groups as acquisition (kasb) and creation (khalq), qaḍā and makzī, and analyzes the actions in terms of agency. Khalil Shukru Afandī did not use any subtitles in his risālah. However, in the analysis of the treatise, sub-headings have been included in the relevant places in order to make the subject easier to understand by us. The epistle tackles the issues qaḍā and qadar, God’s action and human acts, responses to the Jabriyya and Muètazilite. The author offers his views on the issues of hidāyat (guidance) and misguidance, justice, and cruelty, which is discussed under the heading of qadar and makes interesting points about human accountability for their actions. Khalil Shukru Afandī argues that human will (irādah) and accountability are separate things, which are independent of one another. In other words, according to Khalil Shukru Afandī, who stated that there will be no belief or disbelief because it is an offer, the offer has no binding on human will (irādah) or choices at this point. Accordingly, it can be said that Khalil Shukru Afandī was in close agreement with the views of Abū Mansur Māturīdī regarding human will (irādah).
      PubDate: Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +030
  • An Anatomic and Physiologic Analysis of the Discussions on the Locus of
           Human Power among the Schools of Kalām

    • Authors: Seyithan CAN
      Abstract: The issue of power has been addressed as part of human actions, which form the basis of the discussions of destiny in Islamic theology. Various schools of kalām have extensively discussed the issue of power throughout history. The locus of power is also one of the critical concerns that have been emphasized within these discussions. The schools of the Mu'tazila, al-Ashʿarī and al-Māturīdī have put forward different perspectives on whether the locus of power exists or not and where it exists if it does so.Mutazilites are known to be in agreement with the view that te human body is the substrate of power. On the other hand, However, they hold different views, not only on the exact locus of power in the body but also on its type. While some argue that the locus of power in the body is the organs, others claim that it is not the organs. The schools of al-Ashʿarī and al-Māturīdī accept that there is no locus for power and emphasize that power is created by Allah the moment it would initiate action. When these views of the kalām schools are considered within the framework of the data from the modern science of anatomy, it is seen that what modern science has to say on this issue concurs well with the Mu'tazilite view that the locus of power is the body and that it creates the action by managing the organs from a single center. This is because, when considered from the lens of anatomy, what is meant by the schools of kalām with “power” is electrical activity (stimulus) that activates the muscles. Therefore, scientifically considered, for any movement to occur, an electrical activity must first begin in the brain and be transmitted to the muscles via motor nerves. If there were no electrical activity in the brain, the muscles and energy that make up the human movement system would not be active, so movement would hardly take locus.Therefore, the claim made some of the Mu'tazili scholars that the power is in the organs is scientifically not valid. As for the debates on whether the power in different organs is the same or different in terms of its type, the views of the scholars who argue that they are the same genus are apparently correct. This is because the electrical activity, which we accept as power, spreads to the organs after it is formed in the brain. This implies that the power which activates the organs is of the same type. However, it can be said that Mu'tazila’s idea of the constant presence of power in its locus conflicts with modern scientific data.The views of al-Ash'arite and al-Maturidite schools that power is free from being in a constant location are compatible with the findings of recent experiments on brain activities. That is, some experimental studies have indicated that the electrical activity that creates an act occurs in the brain before the act itself and outside the will of the human. In brief, the view of Ash'arite and Maturidite scholars that power is not constantly present in the body and that it is created by Allah each time it is needed is compatible with the creation of power, which we define as electrical activity.
      PubDate: Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +030
  • The Suggestion of a Reconciliatory Concept in The Relation of
           Ontology-Epistemology: The Hypothetical Existential Essence in Shams
           al-dīn al-Samarqandī

    • Authors: Tarık TANRIBİLİR
      Abstract: The Shams al-dīn al-Samarqandī who is the first scholar to adopt the method of the philosophical theology in the Hanafī-Māturīdī tradition, is an important Turkish-Islamic thinker who has proven himself in rational and transmitted sciences by giving works in various fields such as theology, logic, mathematics, astronomy, tafsir, ādāb al-bahth wa al-munāzara. Placing the science of logic at the center of his system, al-Samarqandī analyzed every opinion and evidence put forward logically and aimed to reach the truth. Divine attributes, the temporality of the universe, and the God-universe relationship are at the forefront of the subjects that he aims to reach certain and real knowledge. In this respect, al-Samarqandī analyzed the ontological character of divine and universal attributes. The concept of the hypothetical existential essence plays a key role for the author, who begins by analyzing the types of quiddity. defining the concept of existential as As “that which is without any negativity in its essence and truth", al-Samarqandī, who stipulates to exist as a block and not to have any negativity in its existence, brings a unique expansion to thisī, who defines determination as "an adjective that distinguishes the existent from all mental and external beings", claims that this concept has an existential essence. As a result of his concerns about necesarry existence, Samarqandi, who does not deny the philosophers who accept the necessary existence and determination as identical, also overcomes the problems of multiplicity and causality that may arise about God, with the concept of "hypothetical", if he considers determination as "existential". As a matter of fact, al-Samarqandī divides existence into two parts as real and hypothetical, and defines the real existence as "existing in the real sense and not based on any rational assumption"; defines hypothetical existence as "based on rational assumption". In this case, it is not possible to talk about a real multiplicity or causality. al-Samarqandī claims that the concept of necessity falls within the scope of the hypothetical existential essence. Because wujûb means “the essence necessarily necessitates existence”. It is deduced that wujûb must also be existential, since something necessitating existence must take the judgment of existence. By characterizing the concept of wujûb with hypothetical essence, in the sense of a mental formation that is immune to objective existence, he also avoids the doubt of plurality.Concerned that the regard of possibility as an existential essence may require God to be necessary per se and the universe to be eternal, theologians accepted possibility as an absent essence. al-Samarqandī states that possibility can be accepted within the scope of true non-existent or hypothetical existential essence. As a matter of fact, evaluating the possibility in this way also eliminates the possibility that God is necessary and the universe is ancient.Attributes that can be attributed to God and can create a multiplicity in His essence or that can be attributed to the universe and cause the universe to be eternal are evaluated within the scope of the concept of the hypothetical existential essence, and, the idea that God is unique and that he is the only eternal entity is based on this concept.
      PubDate: Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +030
  • Ghaznawi and His Activity as a Maturidi Scholar

    • Authors: İhsan TİMÜR
      Abstract: Abu Hanifa's theological ideas were not represented at the same level in every region where Hanafism spread. Although Iraq is the region where Abu Hanifa's jurisprudence views were systematized, Abu Hanifa's theological views were largely developed in the Transoxiana region. However, followers of Abu Hanifa in different regions adopted and defended the distinctive views of Hanafism. However, while in some regions these views were limited to basic theological ideas, in others a systematization was made based on this and thus a comprehensive theological structure was formed. The followers of Abu Hanifa in the Transoxiana region are among the leading Hanafis who established a traditional theological structure around his views. This theological structure, which was called Maturidism in the process, was limited to the region where it was born for a long time and was spread to the west from the 11th century. When the Maturidis, who had a rich literature, came to the west, they encountered small and scattered Hanafi masses who regarded the theological views of the sect as consisting of basic theological ideas. Although they belong to the same fiqh tradition, this theological difference between them has created a new ground on which the two Hanafi factions will interact. With the power of their theological knowledge, the Maturidis tried to include the Hanafis in Iraq and Syria in their theological traditions with the texts they wrote as well as their teaching activities. Ahmad b. Muhammad al-Ghaznawi (d. after 593/1197), one of the Maturidis who migrated to the west, draws attention as one of the names that took part in this effort. His works called Usul al-din and al-Hawi al-qudsi are the first examples where this effort is clearly reflected in the texts. In these works, al-Ghaznawi uses the phrases of al-Aqīdah al-Tahawiyyah either exactly or with some minor changes, and adds Maturidi-specific views, especially the attribute of takwin. With this, al-Ghaznawi, on the one hand, reveals the compatibility of al-Aqīdah, which is the main text of non-Maturidi Hanafis, with Maturidi views, on the other hand, carries the Maturidi views to them with the expressions he added to the text. In this study, this activity of Ghaznawi, which can be described as a synthesis of al-Aqīdah al-Tahawiyyah and Maturidism, will be tried to be revealed in detail through the mentioned works.
      PubDate: Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +030
  • Jāḥiẓ’s Understanding of The Miracle: An Analysis Within The
           Framework of Jāḥiẓ’s Theory of Nature and Understanding of Custom

    • Authors: Meliha BİLGE
      Abstract: This article discusses Abū ʽUthmān al-Jāḥiẓ (d. 255/869) (one of the first Muʽtazilī scholars) Allah-world relationship, his understanding of custom, and his view on miracles. The Muʻtazilī thinkers examined the problem of miracles within their concept of prophethood. They divide miracles, which they accept as the only proof of prophethood, into two: those under the power of Allah and under the power of the created. Jāḥiẓ explains these two sorts of miracles with the order in the universe established by Allah and people and expresses this order with the concept of custom (ʻāda). Jāḥiẓ divides custom into three. The first of these is the “qā’im (constant) custom”, which is based on the theory of kumūn-ẓuhūr and expresses the general rules that occur as a requirement of the general functioning in the universe. According to Jāḥiẓ “qā’im (constant) custom” is that knowledgeable people are aware of the custom of the universe. This custom is an order created by Allah in the eyes of intelligent and knowledgeable people, which is continuous and therefore cannot be interrupted, and in which there is no chaos. He states that this order is realized through the natures in the objects, which are knowable to everyone. But rarely a nature in this order can be interrupted due to a situation that takes it out of the natural flow and cannot be explained by natural causes. According to him, this is proof that nature, which has the defining feature of the object, is created by the creator, and maintains its continuity based on an arranged program. However, the creator can involve in this order when necessary. In this type of custom, God’s intervention occurs by breaking the qā’im custom that continues on a regular basis. The second of these is the “regional custom”, which is not known to everyone but only known to people living in a certain area. Jāḥiẓ states that the miracle in this type of custom occurred when Allah broke the custom known to the people in the region. The third of these is “social custom” which is established by people. For Jāḥiẓ, the miracles of this kind are under the power of people. He argues that the miracle in this type of custom occurs with sarfa, that is, by God’s intervention with human’s motive or knowledge.In this study, Jāḥiẓ’s view of miracles is discussed together with his theory of nature, his understanding of custom and sarfa.
      PubDate: Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +030
  • The Issue of the Preservation of Divine Revelation in Kalām

    • Authors: Hilmi Kemal ALTUN
      Abstract: One of the issues discussed about the subject of faith in divine scripture is the preservation of the revelation. For instance, is "the preservation of revelation" possible both in terms of the Qurʾān and previous texts of revelation' What are the reasons for its possibility or impossibility with reference to the historical and sociological reality' If protection is possible, is its source the divine authority or human elements' If the divine authority is dominant, did this authority only manifest itself in the Qurʾān' Could the Qurʾān be different in this respect than the previous holy books' Likewise, the recognition that the Qurʾān has survived to the present day without any changes or distortion since its revelation leads to the question of why other books lacked this quality. The answers for this question are based on the argument that the Qurʾān, unlike other holy scripts, is "under divine protection"; therefore, it is not possible to change or distort it. Thus, the study first briefly discusses issue of whether the Torah, Psalms and the Gospel preserved their originality and then draws attention to the Qurʾān. Although the protection of the authenticity of the Qurʾān is beyond dispute, the nature of this preservation and what stages it covers are controversial. In this context, the interpretations commonly made regarding the commonly cited the verse of Surah al-Hijr (15/9) were examined, and this verse was majorly interpreted by the early commentators as the preservation of the Qurʾān which concerns the revelation process. In the tafsirs written in the first three Hijri centuries in particular, it makes sense that the issue of the preservation of the Qurʾān is addressed in relation to the process of its revelation and that the protection relates to a process in which Allah and the Prophet were involved. On the other hand, in the commentaries written in later times, it is clearly seen that the interpretations evolved into the idea that the Qurʾān is under the guarantee of divine protection forever. In the present study, which was carried out to reveal what could be the reasons for the change in the interpretations of the aforementioned verse in the commentaries, we discovered particular reasons. Therefore, one could say that there are sectarian motives underlying the different interpretations of the verse in question.
      PubDate: Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +030
  • The Availability of Conjectural Knowledge and Its Epistemic Value in Kalam

    • Authors: Abdulnasır SÜT
      Abstract: There is a prevailing opinion that conjectural knowledge (zann) cannot be taken as a basis in determining the fundamental theological principles among the theologians. However, from which sources and how to obtain certainty (yaqīn) and which types of knowledge are definitive (qat‘ī) have been discussed extensively. Certain and conjectural knowledge meet at a common point in terms of relying on evidence. Conjectural knowledge obtained via reasoning and/or religious scripture that do not express certainty. While conjectural knowledge has been essentially related to the concepts of estimation, doubt, belief and knowledge, by its in term of value, it is stands closer to the concepts of knowledge and belief. Conjectural knowledge contains different degrees of certainty. When it is chosen to be more certain, it is considered as a valid conjecture, when it is disregarded, it is considered as erroneous conjecture. If there is no choice for its certainty, then it is called doubt (shakk). If the information/judgment obtained through reasoning becomes fixed, unchangeable and in a coherence that does not allow it to be otherwise, then it is called definitive (qat‘ī) knowledge. To achieve that, theologians generally used methods of argumentations like syllogism, induction, exhaustive investigation and disjunction (al-sabr wa’l-taqsīm) to provide such knowledge about divinity and prophethood. Theologians have used conjectural knowledge, which are based on endoxic (mashhūrāt), already granted (musallamāt) and acceptance of authority (maqbūlāt), in their dialectics to persuade their discussants, rather than to justify the fundamental theological issues of religion. While theologians mostly use rational proofs in theological issues, they also gave significant place to the scriptural narrative that determines the creed. In this context, theologians accepted the narrated evidence as binding and decisive, as long as it is certain in terms of both authenticity and implication. Ultimately, the fundamental theological principles of religion are based on these narrative evidences. Although the theologians do not accept single reports (khabar al-wahid) for their questionable authenticity, they also made inferences regarding subjects of traditions (sam‘iyyāt). Acting from this perspective, theologians tried to justify with narrative evidence rather than rational arguments on these issues such as torment in grave, intercession (shafā‘ah) and sirât, which are mostly matters of eschatology and the unseen (ghayb). Finally, it has been concluded that the conjectural knowledge is still valid in some secondary theological issues and the assumption that the conjectural knowledge has no deduction value in theology is not absolute.
      PubDate: Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +030
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