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History of Science and Technology
Number of Followers: 5  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2415-7422 - ISSN (Online) 2415-7430
Published by State University of Infrastructure and Technologies Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Quale mechanics as a metaphysical weltanschauung of quantum mechanics

    • Authors: Adrian M. V. Brânzanic, Radu Silaghi-Dumitrescu
      Pages: 10 - 33
      Abstract: The term Quale Mechanics is proposed here as describing the qualitative aspects of Quantum Mechanics that are susceptible of metaphysical considerations. The aim of Quale Mechanics is to distill the quantum discourse to its pillars in order to construct its proper – philosophical in nature – quale discourse. The framework of the discussion is initiated by revisiting the platonic approach of the manner in which knowledge is perceived/processed, and then by discussing the four sapiential stages before arriving at concept of the eide. The sensible-suprasensible dichotomy is exposed by contrasting aistheta to the eide. A discussion on the historical development and the foundation of the pillars of Quantum Mechanics is followed. This includes Planck’s solution for the black-body radiation problem with the introduction of quanta – in conflict with Newtonian physics – followed by Einstein’s explanation of the photoelectric effect and the implications involving the dual nature of light (particle vs. wave) and two generalizations of the quantum character of matter: the planetary model of the atom by Bohr, and the dual particle-wave character of electron demonstrated by de Broglie. The subsequent distillation of these semi-classical concepts into more abstract mathematical concepts by Heisenberg, Born, Dirac and Pauli are then reviewed – with Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle and with the concept of wavefunction as landmarks that unmistakably departs from the classical deterministic view of matter. A representative illustration of these achievements is given by the Casimir effect – with implications for gravity and an illustration of how vacuum can in fact not be considered to be truly void. Quantum Mechanics, as the most accurate mathematical framework which can be employed in order to describe and predict the natural phenomena occurring at the atom-size dimensions of reality, may thus be considered as the root from which the concept of Quale Mechanics is emerged in order to construct the parallel between the metaphysical existence and the quantum physical wavefunction collapse. It is concluded that, within its underlying, Quantum Mechanics is a (hopefully fruitful) reiteration of the Ancient Greek Weltanschauung.
      PubDate: 2023-06-30
      DOI: 10.32703/2415-7422-2023-13-1-10-33
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2023)
  • The history of archives in Central Asia: ancient times

    • Authors: Sherzodjon Choriyev, Guljahon Shaydullaeva, Zumrad Raxmonkulova
      Pages: 34 - 51
      Abstract: The article devoted studies of the documents on the history of the archives in Central Asia on the basis of archeological researches having been conducted in Central Asia over the last decades. Until now there have not been conducted practical complex studies of Central Asian archives of ancient times. On the basis of certain facts this following article has described the life experiences of ancient people who lived in the territory of current Uzbekistan and indicated the process of preserving documents and transferring data from generation to generation in the form of rock paintings and archival documents-libraries. These references indicate to the existence of ancient scripts in Khorezm. On the basis of scientific studies of the scientists it can be concluded that the elements of scripts discovered on the ancient ceramic handcrafts may be considered as the samples of early economic archieves found in the territory of present Uzbekistan. In the period of Akhamanids in Iran and in Central Asia cuneiform was widespread and in the whole territory of the empire Aramaic script wasn’t the only language of paperwork. As it has been indicated in the article, according to its geographic scope, the Bactrian language took the second place after the Sogd language which was widely used in the territory extending from India to Eastern Turkestan. The fact that two biggest empires as Kushanids and Ephtalits and then also the state of Takhirids utilised this script demonstrates the significance of the ancient Bactrian language in the lives of ancient nations.  This paper also shows the similar attributes of the Bactrian language used in making negotiations of Surkh-Kutal, Rabotak with the scripts used in the samples of the letters in the documents from the library of Ashurbanipal and with the Het script in which the texts of the anthems, national communal decisions and religious messages were inscribed on the rocks. There are also some evidences proving the existence of particular archives in the residences of ancient rulers of Central Asia in such places as Toprak Kala (Khorezm), and in the mount of Mug’ (Devashtich archives). Particularly in royal archives there was a systematic archival work and such materials as leather and wood were widely used to fix the data. Such documents as personal letters, diplomatic correspondence, contracts and economical records were kept in this period. It also should be noted that paperwork was far more enhanced in this epoch.  
      PubDate: 2023-06-30
      DOI: 10.32703/2415-7422-2023-13-1-34-51
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2023)
  • Metal ornaments from the burial mound necropolis Chornyanka of the
           Bilozerka culture (11th–10th centuries BC)

    • Authors: Tetiana Hoshko
      Pages: 52 - 64
      Abstract: The flat cemetery near the village of Chornyanka, Kakhovka district, Kherson region, is one of the largest row grave fields of the Late Bronze Age archaeological culture of Bilozerka in the northern Black Sea region. The cultural and chronological location of the Chornyanka burial ground was determined on the basis of an analysis of the main features of the funerary constructions, ceremonies and equipment. The established date of its functioning is the 11th‒10th century BC. 24 graves were identified and investigated. Most contained grave goods: pottery, bone and bronze tools, jewellery of bronze, bone, agate, mother-of-pearl, chitin and glass. This paper presents the results of metallographic and X-ray spectral analysis of bronze jewellery from Chornyanka cemetery: pins, temple rings and earrings. It presents and describes the characteristic microstructures of the metal finds. In addition, the process of production of various metal objects was investigated. Several chemical and metallurgical groups stand out in the spectral analyses of metals from Chornianka: Сu-Sn; Сu-Sn-As; Сu-As(Sn) and possibly remelting. Correlation diagrams of the characteristic pairs of elements are also given. In all the analyses, arsenic is present in tenths of a per cent. There is also a stable presence of an impurity such as antimony, mostly in tenths of a per cent, with concentrations in two cases reaching whole per cent. This means that they were probably included in the original ores. Some scientists believe that this feature is characteristic of the metallurgy of the Greater Caucasus. The results are compared with similar analyses from another cemetery of the Bilozerka Culture – Shyroke. Despite the general similarity and tradition, it is possible to highlight some differences in metalworking in both Bilozerka cemeteries (Chornyanka and Shyroke). Jewellery was made not only by casting. It was also forged with the help of mandrels. In addition, some products were made by welding several metal strips. Most researchers pay attention to the influence of the cultures of the Northwest region on the Bilozerka culture. Metalworking is traditionally thought of as having a Volga-Urals orientation. In this article, we propose to take into account new data on the chemical composition of metal and technology, which testify to the contacts of the Bilozerka culture with the Caucasus.
      PubDate: 2023-06-30
      DOI: 10.32703/2415-7422-2023-13-1-52-64
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2023)
  • Confucius’s views on administration and communication

    • Authors: Denis Kislov
      Pages: 65 - 77
      Abstract: This article analyzes the formation of theoretical views on the nature, methods, and practice of the administrative and communication activities of public authorities in relation to the people of the state in the VI‒V centuries BC in Ancient China. Communication ideas are identified, first of all, on the basis of analysis of Confucius’ Lun Yu treatise. The adopted method of study here is a systemic approach and comparative historical analysis, allowing us to identify the elements associated with the views of the thinker and determine their significance in the history of the theory of administration and communication in Chinese documents. It shows the conditions of the political and economic life of Ancient China at that time, which promoted the emergence of the philosophical Confucian concepts of public administration and communication. It establishes the sequence and distinctive feature of the humanistic and moral, and ethical views of Confucius on the functioning of the communication models of a state, which are still relevant for the development of science and practice. The focus of the work is on the analysis of specific judgments of the thinker about the structure of communication in the administrative environment. It reveals the communicative content of the key elements of the cornerstone concept of his teachings ‒ Tao. The work considers the reasons for the propaganda of closed government and dosed information flows in the administrative field and in the communication of public officials with the masses. It analyzes the means proposed to make people (subjects) make proper decisions for the authorities in power. This task is still actively discussed in modern communication science. It also interprets some of Confucius’ statements that determine the moral and ethical framework of administrative communication and reveals the meaning of his communication model. It identifies the features of that ideal fragmented communication model as a sample limited for practical use by numerous objective conditions. It also specifies the time frame of the “Axial Age” in China’s history. And finally, it makes conclusions about the role and significance of Confucius’s views in the formation and development of the methods and ethics of communicative action in public administration in the historical and perspective aspects.
      PubDate: 2023-06-30
      DOI: 10.32703/2415-7422-2023-13-1-65-77
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2023)
  • The history of the creation, formation and development of the Museum of
           Theater, Music and Cinema Arts of Ukraine

    • Authors: Liudmyla Vaniuha, Mariya Markovych, Nataliya Hryhoruk , Svitlana Matviishyn, Yaroslava Toporivska
      Pages: 78 - 100
      Abstract: The authors analyzed the stages of creation, formation, development and modern activity of the Museum of Theater, Music and Cinema Arts of Ukraine, which is the only one in Ukraine in terms of its specialization. This museum has a history famous for its names and events. It is widely known in Ukraine and abroad for its permanent exhibitions and mobile exhibitions, created on unique exhibits from the history of theater, music, and cinema. Collected during its existence – since 1923 – a large and multifaceted collection of monuments from the history of the development of arts, which is constantly replenished with new materials, is the basis for scientific research, scientific advisory, expositional and exhibition work, a rich source for popularizing the achievements of the national theater, music and cinema. The article emphasizes that theater museums, film and music museums are an integral part of the development of world culture. They arose, developed and formed into a separate typological group of art museums. The uniqueness of each theater museum was determined by stationary expositions and temporary exhibitions, which were the main sphere of operation and a form of use and popularization of the processed funds. Reproducing the phenomena and events of the theatrical heritage, expositions and exhibitions visualized the most significant assets of both the past and modern theater and theater science in the language of museum exhibits. Research and analysis of the historical experience of exposition and exhibition activity of theater museums, film and music museums will be important for an objective assessment of the positive and negative consequences of the influence of national and cultural processes on their functioning and development. The challenges faced by theater museums, film museums and music museums in the course of their activities have common features and may vary depending on the specific situation and context. The article analyzes the typical problems and features that theater, film and music museums face in their activities. The article shows that these problems may differ for each specific theater museum depending on its size, financial resources, location and other factors. Their features may vary among theater, music, and film museums, depending on their resources, scale, and specialization. However, solutions to these challenges may include working with conservation professionals, attracting grants and sponsors, developing educational programs, and using new technologies to improve visitor audience engagement.
      PubDate: 2023-06-30
      DOI: 10.32703/2415-7422-2023-13-1-78-100
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2023)
  • The activities of scientist agronomist S. M. Bogoyavlenskyy towards the
           establishment and development of the Kyiv Station for testing agricultural
           machines and tools (1901–1916)

    • Authors: Viktor Verhunov
      Pages: 101 - 120
      Abstract: The aim of the article is to reconstruct the course of events and facts of scientist agronomist Serhiy Mykolayovych Bogoyavlenskyy’s activity for the benefit of the development of agricultural science in Ukrainian lands, especially regarding the establishment and development of the Kyiv station for testing agricultural machines and tools during 1914–1916 based on the "personal files" found in the archives. Scientific novelty of the article lies in the fact that it examines information about one of the closest assistants of Professor K. G. Schindler in such a difficult, from an organizational point of view, matter of expanding the activities of the mentioned station. The "personal files" of the agronomist S. M. Bogoyavlenskyy were found and analyzed for the first time, which made it possible to outline his contribution not only to the establishment and development of the station, but also to find out his creative achievements in the field of development of agricultural mechanics and machine science. The significant creative contribution of S. M. Bogoyavlenskyy to the activities of the first station for testing agricultural machines and tools in Europe during 1901–1916, as well as his professional political contribution to the preservation of its potential in 1911–1916 as an assistant of the director – first its founder Professor K. G. Schindler, and then – Professor P. R. Sliozkin. It was established that it was S. M. Bogoyavlenskyy at the initial stage of the Station's activity who was entrusted with the task of implementing the organizational plan developed by K. G. Schindler for the introduction of field management of the institution and the construction of premises. The participation of the scientist in carrying out appropriate tests of technical tools was foreseen not only for the needs of the educational process, but also for research and production purposes throughout the territory of the European part of Tsarist Russia and, first of all, in the Ukrainian provinces. We note the role of S. M. Bogoyavlenskyy in conducting experiments in field and laboratory conditions on soil cultivation, sowing, plant care and harvesting, as well as in the development of appropriate methods and the manufacture of devices for testing agricultural tools. In addition, he is credited with the preparation and printing of the first issue of "News of the Testing Station for Agricultural Machines and Tools at the Kyiv Polytechnic Institute" (1907). The scientist conducted practical sessions with KPI students on researching agricultural machines. The article documents for the first time the fact that S. M. Bogoyavlenskyy headed the Station immediately after K. G. Schindler was dismissed in 1911–1912. The fate of the scientist agronomist after 1916 remains unknown.
      PubDate: 2023-06-30
      DOI: 10.32703/2415-7422-2023-13-1-101-120
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2023)
  • Ship technology, slavery, repatriation and air transportation: continuity
           and change

    • Authors: Samuel Adu-Gyamfi, Helena Osei-Egyir, Benjamin Dompreh Darkwa
      Pages: 121 - 148
      Abstract: The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade, which occurred between the fifteenth and nineteenth centuries, displaced Africans and people of African descent into the New World. The trade affected and influenced several aspects of the world economy, boosting the economies of participating countries and creating what would become the African diaspora. While several elements of the trade have gained recognition in scholarship, ships, as the single most important medium of transportation for African slaves, have received little attention. We contribute to the discourse by placing ships at the center of discussion by highlighting the relevance and importance of this human and cargo carriage as a vehicle of slavery. We also paid attention to air transportation in the era of voluntary repatriation of people of African descent back to Africa for tourism, business and to pay homage to the motherland. We achieved these objectives through the use of written sources. These included books, journal articles and relevant sites and databases relating to the history of science, technology and slavery among others. The research highlights, among others, the following: the invention of ships has changed the course of world history. It has been the single most tremendous medium of transportation responsible for transporting millions of Africans into Europe and the New World creating the African Diaspora. The era of sailing and the cruise period have offered man the opportunity to navigate oceans and seas that were hitherto uncharted. It also ensured that trade relations between and among countries were solidified. Beginning in the XIV century when ships used rudders that ran on shallow waters, trade was organized on as small scale between countries. The fifteenth century became a significant date in the history of ship building as there was an improvement in sea faring and oceanic navigation. The double-ended ship gave way for full-rigged ships. An even greater milestone was achieved in the eighteenth century when the steam was invented. This period produced fast sailing ships which were less costly and it greatly influenced the triangular trade which had begun some two centuries earlier.  
      PubDate: 2023-06-30
      DOI: 10.32703/2415-7422-2023-13-1-121-148
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2023)
  • The nuances of the organizational preparation the electrification of the
           Kharkiv plant of the Russian Locomotive-building and Mechanical Society

    • Authors: Ihor Annienkov, Nataliya Annienkova
      Pages: 149 - 173
      Abstract: The transition to an electromechanical drive of equipment has become a new milestone in industrialization, which has led to significant: an increase in labor productivy and a decrease in the energy intensity of production processes. But on the Ukrainian lands of the Russian Empire, this innovation was not introduced until the mid-1890s, and only since that time the process of electrification of production at Ukrainian enterprises has been developed, however, with a simultaneous retain the steam-mechanical drive of equipment also. The Kharkiv plant of the Joint-Stock Company Russian Locomotive-building and Mechanical Society became the first enterprise not only in the Ukrainian provinces of the Russian Empire, but throughout the country, which used solely an electromechanical drive for all equipment. Taking into account this priority, the organizational preparation for the process of electrification of this enterprise also became the first experience in the country of introducing such an innovation, comparable, perhaps, only with the experience of switching from a mechanical to a steam-mechanical drive, which, however, was not studied in the Russian Empire. Simultaneously, the level of technical literacy of a part of the management of the Joint-Stock Company Russian Locomotive-building and Mechanical Society was not high enough to give a technical and economic assessment of the relevant innovations. Therefore, the organizational preparation for the electrification of the Kharkov plant of this Society was carried out without any clear methodological approaches, which in the discussion regarding the electrification scheme of the enterprise led to the replacement of the issue of choosing the best option from the most effective ones to the question of choosing the best one from the cheap ones. As a result, the Society's experts developed terms of reference for a compromise version of the electrification project, the essence of which was to install relatively new electrical equipment in terms of technical level, but operated according to an already outdated scheme, which made this electrification option neither efficient nor cheap, but politically acceptable for the entire leadership of Society. Eventually, it was possible to achieve the expected benefits from the electrification of the plant not from the implantation of the chosen scheme for its implementation, but by concluding strategic agreements with Siemens & Halske, according to which the Company's Management Board ensured it won the competition for the electrification of Society's enterprise at an affordable price, and Siemens & Halske, in turn, subsequently supplied the Company with its products at significant discounts.
      PubDate: 2023-06-30
      DOI: 10.32703/2415-7422-2023-13-1-149-173
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2023)
  • From panchuran to waterleiding: clean water solutions in Colonial Bandung,
           West Java, Dutch East Indies (1898‒1934)

    • Authors: Hary Ganjar Budiman, Gregorius Andika Ariwibowo, Nanang Saptono, Endang Widyastuti, Indah Asikin Nurani
      Pages: 174 - 200
      Abstract: This study examines clean water management in Bandung, West Java, Dutch East Indies (Indonesia), from the late 19th Century to the early 20th Century. This study focuses on how the human community has modified the physical water unit, including technology, management skills, and social and environmental priorities. Historical methods were applied to investigate the topic, including heuristics, verification, interpretation, and historiography. Most of the data in this study were collected from primary sources in the form of archives, and official documents Department of Public Works and Bandung Municipality Government published in the late 19th century to the first half of the 20th century. The results showed that indigenous people in Bandung, the Sundanese, manage springs and rivers based on local knowledge, harmonizing simple technology with nature and belief. They used panchuran, a channel made of bamboo strips, to drain water from the springs. While Europeans initially relied on dug wells for daily water needs in the late 19th Century. However, concerns over epidemics and rapid population growth in the early 20th Century led to more well-planned, professional water management supported by science and technology-based infrastructure. The Bandung municipality government mobilized engineers and scientists to research new water sources and build clean water infrastructure. By the 1930s, they could build artesian wells, waterleiding networks, reservoirs, filtration systems, and clean water public facilities. Bandung municipality government exploited clean water resources that expanded from urban to mountainous areas north of Bandung. The municipality government recognized that clean water resources needed to be explored and capitalized. Two clean water services were available in Bandung: a pipeline service that delivered water directly to households and accessible public facilities. Indigenous people in Kampongs used public facilities, while Europeans used paid pipeline services.
      PubDate: 2023-06-30
      DOI: 10.32703/2415-7422-2023-13-1-174-200
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2023)
  • Analysis of the history of creation and improvement of personal protective
           equipment: from bronze armor to modern bulletproof vests

    • Authors: Oleh Strelko, Anatolii Horban
      Pages: 201 - 222
      Abstract: In this article, using real historical examples, the authors tried to trace the evolution of personal protective equipment. This has made it possible to perform a comparative historical analysis of the development of scientific research and industrial technologies, which made it possible to manufacture specific personal protective equipment in a certain historical period. Also in this review article, the authors have analyzed the stages of modern technologies that are currently used in the manufacture of various types of bulletproof vest. And given that the overwhelming majority of authors of publications devoted to the history of the creation of bulletproof vests write that: the bulletproof vest does not have a specific inventor, in this review article the authors also talk about specific, undeservedly forgotten now, the creators of the world's first officially patented prototypes of bulletproof vests for the police and VIP-persons, at the beginning of the 20th century, who stood at the origins of the bulletproof vest industry. With the development of the industrial revolution and technological progress, new materials and production technologies have appeared, allowing the creation of more effective bulletproof vest. Bulletproof vest has become lighter and more effective over time, thanks to the use of new materials such as Kevlar, aramid fibers and ceramics. Thus, the history of the development of bulletproof vest includes the contribution of many scientists, engineers and inventors who have contributed to the improvement of protective armor over the years. In the article, the authors show that modern realities put forward new requirements for quality, weight and functional characteristics for design engineers and manufacturers of bulletproof vest. The authors of the article analyze the main directions in which research work is currently underway to improve bulletproof vests. The authors of the article show that in different countries of the world there are different standards and classifications for bulletproof vest. Each standard usually has its own classification, which determines the level of protection of bulletproof vest against specific types of threats, such as bullets, shrapnel or stab wounds. Therefore, the task of developing a single standard for modern bulletproof vest is important.
      PubDate: 2023-06-30
      DOI: 10.32703/2415-7422-2023-13-1-201-222
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2023)
  • Review of the monograph: I. O. Demuz. Intellectual biography of Petro
           Yanuarovych Stebnytskyi (1862‒1923) – public figure, book publisher,
           publicist: monograph. Pereyaslav (Kyiv region): Dombrovska Ya. M., 2022.
           356 pp. ISBN 978-617-7747-62-7

    • Authors: Oleh Pylypchuk
      Pages: 223 - 226
      Abstract: Review of the monograph: I. O. Demuz. Intellectual biography of Petro Yanuarovych Stebnytskyi (1862‒1923) – public figure, book publisher, publicist: monograph. Pereyaslav (Kyiv region): Dombrovska Ya. M., 2022. 356 pp. ISBN 978-617-7747-62-7
      PubDate: 2023-06-30
      DOI: 10.32703/2415-7422-2023-13-1-223-226
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2023)
  • In search of driving factors of the social processes. Review of the
           monograph: L. A. Griffen. Missing link. Communication of productive forces
           and production relations: monograph. Odesa: Kuprienko SV, 2023. 147 pp.
           ISBN 978-617-7880-34-8

    • Authors: Oleh Strelko
      Pages: 227 - 230
      Abstract: Review of the monograph: L. A. Griffen. Missing link. Communication of productive forces and production relations: monograph. Odesa: Kuprienko SV, 2023. 147 pp. ISBN 978-617-7880-34-8
      PubDate: 2023-06-30
      DOI: 10.32703/2415-7422-2023-13-1-227-230
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2023)
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