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History of Science and Technology
Number of Followers: 3  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2415-7422 - ISSN (Online) 2415-7430
Published by State University of Infrastructure and Technologies Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Natural history museology: establishment and formation of its theoretical
           bases

    • Authors: Oksana Chervonenko, Dmytro Kepin
      Pages: 11 - 30
      Abstract: The article presents a brief historical outline of the formation and development of natural history museology in Europe in the 15th–19th centuries. The development of scientific knowledge at that time affects the idea of the world order and the place of man in it, and the combination of knowledge with practical experience leads to the birth of true science. It is shown that one of the most important components of the development of natural sciences, in particular biological sciences, was the collection of naturalia (i.e. objects of natural origin), the rapid surge of interest in which contributed to the Great Geographical Discoveries. In chronological order, the further historical development of museum work from private collections in Italy to the formation of a prototype of a genuine museum, which performs the main museum functions such as amassment, storage and demonstration of collections, is considered. The role of prominent naturalists and philosophers such as F. Bacon, C. Linnaeus, and J.-W. Goethe in the development of museum work is considered and little known facts about their work in this area are presented. The first works of art that show the interiors of “Kunstkameras”, which became widespread in Europe in the 17th–18th centuries, are briefly considered. According to the authors, it is on the portrait of the Belarusian educator F. Skorina, which was published in Prague in 1517–1519, that the interior of the first Renaissance “kunstkammer” collections is depicted. Separately, the development of museology in Ukraine since the time of Yuriy Kotermak (Drohobych) (1450–1494) is considered and the differentiation of the concept of “museum” in the monuments of Ukrainian literature of the period of the 16th–18th centuries is studied. The authors considered the methodological foundations of natural history museology and analysed the existing classifications of various branches of science. The specificity of natural history museology in the system of museological science is shown, the issue of singling out natural history museology as an independent discipline is discussed. It is proved that the periodization of museology and museum work in certain territories in historical time can be considered correct; the author's development of the periodization of natural history museology in Europe is also given.
      PubDate: 2022-06-19
      DOI: 10.32703/2415-7422-2022-12-1-11-30
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Some methodological issues of the history of science and technology

    • Authors: Leonid Griffen, Nadiia Ryzheva, Dmytro Nefodov, Lyudmila Hryashchevskaya
      Pages: 31 - 54
      Abstract: Further development of the history of science and technology requires the solution of a number of methodological problems. The article considers the object and subject of the history of science and technology, its place in the system of sciences. Today, more and more people are turning to the factors that determine the interaction of the society with the environment (productive forces of the society), to study which in the historical aspect and called a special scientific discipline - the history of science and technology. The society as an object of knowledge is a biological organism of the highest level of organization of “cells” - individuals. It exists and develops in the environment due to its own entropy. The society organizes this removal through a specialized subsystem formed on the basis of technical devices – “technosphere”. The success of such a process is ensured (through the information field) by another subsystem - the “noosphere”. These subsystems include both ideal and material objects. The composition and development of the technosphere and noosphere are considered in the article. It is shown that the functioning of the technosphere is based on its interaction with the noosphere, which provides information about the environment and controls the effectiveness of interaction with it. It is formed by combining the mental structures of individuals through sign systems. The production process that ensures the functioning of the society begins with the noosphere, which through individual consciousness controls the actions of each individual, who through the means of production (technosphere) interacts with the natural environment. However, the gradual development of productive forces leads at some point to the fact that the information needed by the individual to perform all necessary actions for the benefit of the society, ceases to fit in his individual consciousness. As a result, there is a new social phenomenon - the social division of labor. On the one hand, there is a division of technological operations between different performers (technological division of labor), and on the other - the selection of individuals who coordinate the efforts of performers and receive impetus to work not directly from public consciousness, but through these persons (social division of labor). As a result, there are special relationships between individuals and their groups (production relations), and thus begins the class period of human existence. And it will continue until the development of productive forces leads to the full transfer of all technological functions to technical systems, which due to the direct interaction of the noosphere and technosphere will put an end to the social division of labor. However, the development of productive forces is also accompanied by the acceleration of entropy in the environment of mankind - the geobiosphere of the planet Earth, which is gradually making it less and less suitable for life. The cardinal solution to the problem is the prospect of humanity entering infinite space.
      PubDate: 2022-06-19
      DOI: 10.32703/2415-7422-2022-12-1-31-54
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Understanding mathematical abstraction in the formularization of
           Galileo's law

    • Authors: Jun-Young Oh, Hyesook Han
      Pages: 55 - 68
      Abstract: Galileo's revolution in science introduced an analytical method to science that typifies the overall modern thinking of extracting, abstracting, and grasping only critical aspects of the target phenomena and focusing on “how”, which is a quantitative relationship between variables, instead of “why”. For example, to him, the question of 'why does an object fall' is of no significance; instead, only the quantitative relationship between distance from the falling object and time is important. Yet, the most fundamental aspect of his idea is that he introduced a quantified time t. When an object is projected horizontally, the distance travelled at some time in the horizontal direction is summed up as d ∝t, whereas the distance falling at some time in the vertical direction is summed up as d ∝ t². Here, the distance, which is a spatial attribute, is expressed as a function of time, t. That is, time is identified as a homogeneous amount that can be reduced to an algebraic number. It is now possible to calculate the laws of motion of things using functions of time. In this respect, mathematical time was a decisive variable in making mathematisation of physical nature practical. Because, according to atomic theory, vacuum exists between an atom and an object composed of atoms or between objects – ignoring factors that interfere with motion, such as friction – the space for absolute time, which is a mathematical time, can be geometrically defined. In order to justify this mathematical abstraction strategy, thought experiments were conducted rather than laboratory experiments, which at that time were difficult to perform.
      PubDate: 2022-06-19
      DOI: 10.32703/2415-7422-2022-12-1-55-68
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Emergence and development of the Kyiv school of artistic textiles in the
           XX century

    • Authors: Vasyl Andriiashko, Mykola Bilyk, Valentyna Kostiukova
      Pages: 69 - 87
      Abstract: The article provides a thorough overview of the evolutionary process of the emergence, establishment, and development of the Kyiv school of artistic textiles. It reveals the influence of various factors (ideological, political, economic, and aesthetic) on this process. The historical and factual method allowed us to study socio-economic, as well as historical and cultural factors that contributed to the emergence, establishment, and development of the Kyiv textile school in a chronological sequence. Both separate Kyiv textile artists’ works and the differences of other schools were analyzed by the comparative method. It is established that the very fact of emergence of the Kyiv school of artistic textile, as a community of style, unity of forms, preservation, and continuity of traditions, had unbiased backgrounds since Ukrainian decorative weaving, a part of which is Kyiv weaving, inherited the abundant artistic traditions that were created over the centuries and most vividly manifested through the art of Kyivan Rus. It showed the significance of Kyiv as a major administrative and cultural center of Ukraine in the emergence and development of the textile school. The status of the capital city was the reason why prominent artistic forces concentrated there, creating several outstanding textile artworks intended for various purposes during the 1920–1990s. The ideology of the ruling Communist Party of the Soviet Union, which ordered the artworks for its glorification, had a stimulating impact on the emergence of the school. Analysis of the data allowed us to periodize the stages of emergence and development of the Kyiv school of artistic textiles as an educational institution. Typical features of the Kyiv textile school at different stages of its development in 1920–1990s are as follows: a) The presence of a plot theme, the epic breadth of the depicted scene, and the scale in monumental and decorative textiles; b) The stylization of themes, their conventional interpretation, and two-dimensional images that suggest the absence of perspective and the illusory representation of three-dimensional forms in decorative (non-figurative) large tapestries and decorative stage curtains made in various techniques; c) The preservation of established iconographic compositions created by predecessors, but performed in a new (stylistic and coloristic) interpretation in traditional textiles; d) As for the industrial textiles, the presence of two trends in the artistic design of fabrics: The first is associated with the artists’ focusing on the entire spectrum of the world (primarily European) textile fashion; The second one involves the transformation of traditional popular graphic themes in fundamentally new compositional developments.
      PubDate: 2022-06-19
      DOI: 10.32703/2415-7422-2022-12-1-69-87
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • History of military laser technology development in military applications

    • Authors: Artemii Bernatskyi, Mykola Sokolovskyi
      Pages: 88 - 113
      Abstract: The aim of this research is to study the development as well as the known cases of military applications of laser technologies – from the first lasers employed in auxiliary systems to modern complex independent laser systems. For better understanding and systematization of knowledge about development of historical applications in the military field, an analysis of publicly known knowledge about their historical applications in the leading world countries was conducted. The study focuses on development that was carried out by the superpowers of the Cold War and the present era, namely the United States, the Soviet Union and the Peoples Republic of China, and were built in metal. Multiple avenues of various applications of laser technology in military applications were studied, namely: military laser rangefinders; ground and aviation target designators; precision ammunition guidance systems; non-lethal anti-personnel systems; systems, designed to disable optoelectronics of military vehicles; as well as strategic and tactical anti-air and missile defense systems. To summarize and compare the results, an analysis of a number of previous works was considered, which considered the historical development, prospects and problems of the laser weaponry development. The issues of ethical use of laser weapons and the risks of their use in armed conflicts, which led to an international consensus in the form of conventions of the United Nations and the International Committee of the Red Cross, were also considered. As a result of the analysis, a systematic approach to the classification of applications of laser technology in military products by three main areas of development was proposed: ancillary applications, non-lethal direct action on the human body and optical devices of military equipment, and anti-aircraft and anti-missile defensive systems. Due to the constant comprehensive modernization of laser technology systems in use, it was decided not to use the periodic classification model, but to indicate important and key events that indicated the main directions of further developmental work. However, it is important to note that the main focus of historical development of laser weapons depended not only on the technological limitations of the time, but also on the military-geopolitical situation in the world.
      PubDate: 2022-06-19
      DOI: 10.32703/2415-7422-2022-12-1-88-113
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • The front line transporter as the embodiment of the USSR military doctrine
           in the middle of the 20th century

    • Authors: Hryhorii Luparenko
      Pages: 114 - 132
      Abstract: The paper based on a source analysis of the history of creation, design, and production of LuAZ-967, LuAZ-967M, against the background of the processes of implementing projects of small tactical high mobility wheeled vehicles for the armies of European countries, shows that the developing, testing, and commissioning a front line transporter became a deepening of the process of motorization of the Soviet army. The designs of similar vehicles have been analyzed. An attempt to assess the degree of uniqueness of the front line transporter design and its place in the history of technology, as well as its potential as a reminder of science and technology has been made. The experience of using various civilian and military vehicles in the army required the creation of a special small transporter. In each of the countries, developing their designs, embodying new original or time-tested ideas, ones developed vehicles both for the army and for separate armed forced formations. Features of the automotive industry of the countries were reflected in the design of army vehicles. The works and operation Volkswagen Type 82, Volkswagen Schwimmer Type 166, DKW Munga, Volkswagen Type 181 in the armed forced formations in Germany had a significant impact on the spread of the concept of an army small transporter. In France, production of a licensed sample of Willys and the original Citroën Méhari was launched. The Steyr-Daimler-Puch vehicle (Austria) has become one of the most original, successful developments of a small transporter for difficult operating conditions. The development of a front line transporter in the USSR fully corresponded to the challenges of the time and it was carried out through similar stages. The first transporter projects developed by the Scientific Automotive Institute used heavy motorcycle engines mastered in production. It was the lack of the necessary engine for the vehicle that was the main reason for the long proof of the project. Only after the involvement of the designers of the automobile plant in Zaporizhzhia and the installation of units of the mass-produced ZAZ vehicle in the transporter made it possible to prove the design and to master small-scale production. The use of the most powerful engine of a production vehicle, which would correspond to the concept of a small army vehicle, had enabled to master mass production for the army and the development of vehicles for the civilian market. An analysis of the front line transporter design, its systems, compared with its foreign counterparts, suggests that it is a Soviet refinement of the concept of a small army vehicle, a more specific means directly for the battlefield. At the same time, it was developed taking into account foreign developments and similar designs, imitating individual designs, adapting to the capabilities of the USSR automotive industry.
      PubDate: 2022-06-19
      DOI: 10.32703/2415-7422-2022-12-1-114-132
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Study of development of regional railway system in Bukovyna

    • Authors: Oleh Strelko, Oleh Pylypchuk, Oksana Pylypchuk
      Pages: 133 - 149
      Abstract: The article is devoted to the study, generalization and systematization of scientific knowledge about the history of the establishment, development and operation of the regional railway system in Bukovyna in the second half of XIX – early XX centuries. The authors attempted to analyze the process of creation and operation of railways in Bukovyna during the reign of the Austro-Hungarian Empire based on a wide range of previously unpublished archival documents, periodicals, statistical literature and memoirs. The article studies the development of organizational bases for the construction of railways, the activity of the communication network management, lists a whole range of requirements and tasks set for railway transport in Bukovyna, the progress of their implementation, considers successes and difficulties in this work. It is determined that private railways, as important transport arteries of Bukovyna, were of national importance and played a significant role in the transport system of Austria-Hungarian Empire. They served the leading economic districts of Bukovyna, acting as an integral part of production in each of them. In other words, they were used for development of local, intersectoral and interregional relations. Regional railways, first of all, played an important role in the social and economic life of Bukovyna region. In most cases, they did not carry the strategic cargo, but made it possible to connect the most remote corners of separate areas of the region into a single whole. In practice, local railways were a significant addition to the main central line, providing the latter with a greater intensity of cargo and passenger turnover and thus increasing their profitability. At the same time, the trade volume between the outskirts and the center of the Austro-Hungarian Empire was increased. It contributed to the intensification of economic development of certain districts of Bukovyna region.
      PubDate: 2022-06-19
      DOI: 10.32703/2415-7422-2022-12-1-133-149
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • The integration of 3D technology for the conservation and restoration of
           ruined archaeological artifacts

    • Authors: Sana Simou , Khadija Baba , Abderrahman Nounah
      Pages: 150 - 168
      Abstract: The restoration and conservation of monuments and archaeological sites is a delicate operation. It requires fidelity, delicacy, precision and archaeological authenticity. The aim is to reveal, recreate as accurately as possible the characteristics of an archaeological site or part of it. Research during the last two decades has proved that 3D modeling, or the digital documentation and visualization of archaeological objects in 3D, is valuable for archaeological research. As well, as for conservation and presentation to a wide audience, as it allows the creation of realistic and accurate digital copies of archaeological objects. In the past, 3D modeling technologies were prohibitively expensive and too technologically specialized to be integrated into most historical heritage projects. However, advancements in computing and digital photography over the past decade have resulted in several low-cost, user-friendly options for 3D modeling, using photogrammetry. The latter has been used successfully for documentation of historic cultural. In recent years, this technology has become increasingly more popular for archiving, which provide the 3D model and digital ortho-image using high accuracy dense 3D points. The study has opted for the technique of terrestrial and aerial photogrammetry by 3D surveys of architectural elements, to develop an archetype of the deteriorated Islamic Marinid site (a dynasty between the 13th and 15th centuries), and the Roman site (25 BC), located at the Chellah archaeological site in Rabat and Salé cities. However, the recognition of the importance of these Islamic sites, in terms of the evolution of Moroccan Islamic art, requires the combination of large-scale scanning capability of unmanned terrestrial, aerial photogrammetry and the photorealistic rendering of 3D, as well as exhaustive research on the history of this cultural site. The data acquired build an architectural database to archive and retrieve the entire existing architecture of monuments. This study has been completed by photogrammetrists, architects, and restorers.
      PubDate: 2022-06-19
      DOI: 10.32703/2415-7422-2022-12-1-150-168
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Analysis of prerequisites and conditions for the foundation of an aircraft
           engine enterprise in Ukraine

    • Authors: Liudmyla Vaniuha, Iryna Zharkova, Mariya Markovych, Stepan Pryidun , Yuriy Drevnitskyi
      Pages: 169 - 185
      Abstract: World War I proved air forces to be a critical driver for warfare outcomes. Mastery of the latest technology appeared to be crucial to the battle’s success. The combat capabilities of airplanes improved manifold due to the increased power of aircraft engines, thus initiating a new era in aeronautics. By July 1917, the aviation of the Russian Empire included 91 air squadrons and 5 units of heavy multi-engine aircraft known as Ilya Muromets. Several enterprises, including the town of Aleksandrovsk, were manufacturing engines for these planes. The origin of engine production in Aleksandrovsk was associated with the establishment of a branch of Petrograd Joint Stock Company of Electromechanical Structures called Deka. The article aims at analyzing the prerequisites and conditions for the foundation of an aircraft engine enterprise in Ukraine. While drafting the article, the authors relied on chronological, historiographical, and other historical methods of research, which have been widely used both in considering the contribution and influence of certain individuals and reviewing the stages of creation and development of separate enterprises, as well as specific industries. Based on the retrospective analysis, the prerequisites and conditions of the foundation of the aircraft engine enterprise in Aleksandrovsk, Ukraine, were considered. There was a severe gap between the Russian Empire and European countries in the development pace of the aviation industry during World War I. This prompted the Russian Empire to raise foreign capital, as well as attract technologies and specialists to develop aircraft engineering and other industries. By 1917, the plant had gained the status of Russia’s largest engine-building enterprise in terms of building area and one of the best in equipment. It is evident that the beginning of aircraft engine production in Aleksandrovsk relates to the establishment of a branch of Petrograd Joint Stock Company of Electromechanical Structures and the plant’s purchase from the Moznaim brothers.
      PubDate: 2022-06-19
      DOI: 10.32703/2415-7422-2022-12-1-169-185
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2022)
       
 
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