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  Subjects -> SCIENCES: COMPREHENSIVE WORKS (Total: 374 journals)
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Proceedings of the Indian National Science Academy
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ISSN (Print) 0370-0046 - ISSN (Online) 2454-9983
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2467 journals]
  • Mangroves in Gulf of Khambhat, Gujarat: a case study

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      Abstract: Abstract The present study is mainly focused on studying the mangroves in the Gulf of Khambhat and exploring the previous research work done over the area for mapping and monitoring of mangrove ecosystem, which will further help to analyze the future scope of mangrove research in this area. To study the status and distribution of mangroves in the Gulf of the Khambhat region, mainly three ground truth locations are selected to collect ground truth data, which are Ghogha (Bhavanagar), Dahej (Bharuch), and Kantiyajal (Bharuch). All three locations are analyzed for the study of the mangroves and their species distribution. Furthermore, the Land Use / Land Cover change in all three areas is also analyzed to find mangrove cover change. The resultant data can be further used for training mangrove monitoring models using remote sensing data. The study also highlights that the current research done over the gulf of Khambhat area is not using the full strength of remote sensing as only multispectral optical imageries are used in various studies along with visual interpretation techniques. The study highly recommends the use of remote sensing with multi-sensor, multitemporal along with state-of-the-art machine learning and computer vision-based techniques for the mapping and monitoring of the Mangrove ecosystem in the Gulf of Khambhat region.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • The application of next generation sequencing technology in medical
           diagnostics: a perspective

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      Abstract: Abstract Rapid isolation, characterization, and identification are prerequisites of any successful medical intervention to infectious disease treatment. This is a real challenge to the scientific as well as a medical community to find out a proper and robust method of pathogen detection. Classical cultural, as well as biochemical test-based identification, has its own limitations to their time-consuming and ineffectiveness for closely related pathovars. Molecular diagnostics became a popular alternative to classical techniques for the past couple of decades but it required some prior information to detect the pathogen successfully. Recently, with the advent of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology identification, and characterization of almost all the pathogenic bacteria become possible without any information a priori. Metagenomic next generation sequencing is another specialized type of NGS that is profoundly utilized in medical biotechnology and diagnostics now a days. Therefore, the present review is focused on a brief introduction to NGS technology, its application in medical microbiology, and possible future aspects for the development of medical sciences.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Population status of house sparrow (Passer domesticus L.) and its
           association with native bird species in and around Dehradun City of
           Uttarakhand, India

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      Abstract: Abstract Recent studies have indicated a significant decline in the population of the house sparrow (Passer domesticus L.) at the global level. In India also, the house sparrow population is being drastically decreased. Considering the issue, an attempt has been made to monitor the current status of house sparrows across Dehradun City of Uttarakhand from 2017 to 2019. The line transect method was used for bird surveys in the three habitats (high-density urban area, low-density urban area, and suburban area). The results showed that the population of house sparrows was significantly higher in the suburban area (84.19 ± 8.05) as compared to those in high-density (12.75 ± 2.02) and low-density (42.97 ± 4.74) urban areas. Similarly, the number of active nests was also found higher in a suburban area as compared to other areas. Additionally, a total of 87 co-occurring avian species were observed in the study area with maximum avian diversity reported in low-density (H = 2.85) followed by suburban (H = 2.67) and high-density urban areas (H = 2.12) respectively. This study suggested that the regular monitoring of house sparrows and co-occurring avian species is important to understand the population trend of the house sparrow in the study area.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Multi-sensor target data detection method based on improved deep learning

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      Abstract: Abstract Aiming at the problems of low detection accuracy and long detection time in the traditional multi-sensor target data detection method, a multi-sensor target data detection method based on improved deep learning is proposed. A regional nomination network model is built to locate all rectangular areas where multi-sensor targets may exist. A sample acquisition model is established by fusing multi-sensor target data in this area in combination with the storage structure of multi-sensor target data to collect multi-sensor target data and filter the collected target data. The histogram feature method is used to extract the processed multi-sensor target data features and the extracted multi-sensor target data features are input into the neural network training samples. The square error function is used to calculate the sample deviation and the deviation is corrected by the deviation gradient sinking method. Finally, the multi-sensor target data detection results are output. Simulation results show that the proposed method has high accuracy, low false detection rate and short detection time along with applicability.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Calculation of interfacial free energy for binary hard sphere mixtures

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      Abstract: Abstract In this work, we present a method to calculate interfacial free energy for a binary hard sphere fluid mixture in coexistence with disordered face centered cubic solid. Monte Carlo(MC) Simulations are performed at 0.97 size ratio of small to large particle diameters. Interfacial free energy is calculated across composition for (100),(110) and (111) orientations of the substitutionally disordered solid phase along the coexistence line. Our calculations are based on the concept of Gibbs equimolar dividing surface. First, we calculate the surface excess quantities using the thermodynamic properties obtained from MC simulations then we integrate rewritten equivalent form of Gibbs adsorption equation with respect to pressure using pure hard sphere system interfacial free energy as a reference to get binary hard sphere mixture interfacial free energy. In our simulations we also varied cross sectional areas of solid exposed to fluid mixtures by varying system sizes, the computed interfacial free energies are consistent within error limits and confirms to scaling laws.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Gold catalysis in organic synthesis: fifteen years of research in India

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      Abstract: Gold catalysis has emerged as an important tool in the field of synthetic organic chemistry for the selective functionalization of C–C multiple bonds. The research in India on gold catalysis focuses on diverse fields starting from the methodology developments to the synthesis of molecular scaffolds for their potential application in medicinal chemistry and material science. Herein, we present a comprehensive overview of the gold-catalyzed organic transformations that were reported in India in the last fifteen years. Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • A brief review on novel biomarkers identified and advanced biosensing
           

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      Abstract: Abstract Advanced biosensor technology research is imperative for the management of infectious disease outbreaks such as Japanese Encephalitis (JE), a zoonotic disease caused by the flavivirus JE virus (JEV) which is transmitted to humans (dead-end hosts) from the amplification host, pigs, via mosquitoes. To avoid future pandemic scenarios, proactive research rather than responsive research in the field of diagnostics is a requirement for development of rapid, sensitive and specific screening detection methods. In this mini-review, we have critically compared and evaluated the different types of biomarkers (antigen, antibody, nucleic acid) identified for JEV diagnostics and their specific roles in the manifestation of the infection which may be potentially used for therapeutics and drug development as no treatment is available for JE. Furthermore, different biosensors developed for the detection of JEV biomarkers have been discussed in detail to give an overview of the working principles (electrochemical, optical, etc.), fabrication components (signal amplifier, bioreceptor, etc.), detection limits and response times. This review provides a compact compiled base on available JEV diagnostic research work being currently carried out along with their limitations, future prospective, and major challenges faced. This will enable future development of rapid point-of-care diagnostic screening methods for JEV infection management, which may help reduce number of fatalities.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Correction: Science can’t stay on the sidelines

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      PubDate: 2022-11-07
       
  • Impact of light pollution on nocturnal pollinators and their pollination
           services

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      Abstract: Abstract Impact of human–induced environmental changes, particularly climate change, on biodiversity and human welfare has become a major concern of this century. Their negative effects on pollinators and pollination, a crucial ecoservice for sustenance of biodiversity and crop productivity, leading to the ‘global pollinator crisis’ are well recognized. Serious international efforts are being undertaken to mitigate the crisis. In recent years, effects of artificial light at night (ALAN), which has been increasing exponentially since the nineteenth century, on biodiversity and ecoservices has become another concern. Effects of ALAN have been studied extensively on a number of nocturnal pollinators, particularly moths and bats. ALAN has been shown to affect their behavior, movements, foraging and reproduction leading to a significant decline in their abundance and diversity. The impacts of ALAN on nocturnal pollination, largely confined so far to moth-pollinated systems, are not uniform; many studies have reported its negative effects and a few some positive effects. There are hardly any studies on the effects of ALAN on pollination services of other nocturnal pollinators such as bats, crepuscular (dusk and dawn) and diurnal pollinators. Studies from India on these lines are completely lacking. It is important to extend these studies to species not investigated so far and make them more comprehensive to get a clear knowledge on the impact of ALAN on pollinators and pollination, and to develop effective mitigation measures.
      PubDate: 2022-11-07
       
  • Correction: Population status of house sparrow (Passer domesticus L.) and
           its association with native bird species in and around Dehradun City of
           Uttarakhand, India

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      PubDate: 2022-10-31
       
  • The trouble with the supply-side model of science

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      Abstract: Abstract Many scientists operate under a mental model that I label the “supply side model of science.” It assumes that the job of scientists is to supply information that governments and citizens can use to make good decisions, and that governments and citizens will use that information once they have it in hand. Therefore, scientists need only do their job—which is to supply accurate, high quality, well vetted information—and all will be well. Events of the past few decades have challenged this model severely. Across the globe, governments and citizens have rejected established scientific findings on climate change, on evolutionary biology, on the safety and efficacy of vaccines, and other issues. Typically, this rejection is ‘implicatory rejection.’ That is to say, people reject or deny science not because the science is weak, unsettled or too uncertain to inform decision-making, but because they and don’t like the actual or perceived implications of that science. In some cases, for example evolutionary biology, the perceived implications are erroneous; in these cases, scientists can help to clear up misunderstandings by engaging seriously (and not dismissively) with people’s concerns. In other cases, for example climate change, the perceived implications may be partly true. In these cases, scientists may help by suggesting ways in which the negative implications might be mitigated or redressed. Often, this will require collaborating with other experts, such as experts in communication, religion, or public health. But whatever the details of the particular case, our overall situation suggests that it does not suffice for scientists simply to supply factual information, and leave it at that. Scientists need as well to engage actively with the recipients of that information.
      PubDate: 2022-10-31
       
  • On modules whose coclosed submodules are isomorphic to direct summands

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      Abstract: Abstract Inspired by the notion of virtually extending module, in this work we have proposed and investigated the behaviours of virtually lifting module as the dual of virtually extending module. Several properties of this structure have been discussed and got that virtually lifting module is a \(D_{12}\) module. It is observed that for a V ring R, a module M is virtually lifting iff it is lifting. Moreover, we have defined virtually \(D_{2}\) module as a proper extension of \(D_{2}\) module, and seen that virtually \(D_{2}\) modules is inherited by direct summands. Finally, we have investigated principally h-lifting module and proved that finite direct sum of principally h-lifting modules are principally h-lifting if each components are principally relatively projective.
      PubDate: 2022-10-31
       
  • Science can’t stay on the sidelines

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      Abstract: Abstract For the last 77 years, many science policy figures in the US have adhered to the principle that staying out of politics is the best way to ensure growth in science funding, and that doing so in the name of doing more science would eventually lead to wholesome uses of scientific information. Although the evidence of the failures of this philosophy have been apparent for several decades, the inability of scientists to communicate about the COVID-19 pandemic has exposed the flaws, effectively.
      PubDate: 2022-10-10
       
  • Misinformation: addressing the challenge

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      Abstract: Abstract Misinformation and disinformation prevent citizens from making choices that are in their own best interests. While scientists have little influence over the content and regulation of the social media channels that can encourage and amplify mis- and disinformation, there are some interventions from the scientific community that can mitigate the impacts of mis- and disinformation, such as communicating better how scientists build trust in research results and encouraging critical thinking skills.
      PubDate: 2022-10-10
       
  • Review of game theory approaches for DDoS mitigation by SDN

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      Abstract: Abstract Some people are attempting to expand the service industry through networking, while others are working to undermine it. These individuals are evil actors whose sole purpose is to disturb the routine services by disrupting networking equipment through different types of attacks. Among them, Distributed Denial of Service Attacks (DDoS) are the most suitable choice of weapon. These attacks can quickly render a service capacity and unavailability of services resulting in massive financial losses. DDoS attacks have continued to expand in frequency, quantity, and intensity despite the availability of wide variety of traditional prevention, detection and mitigation solutions. Traditional solutions are static in nature and lacks a quantitative decision framework. In order to deal with shifting attacker dynamics, we need highly programmable adaptive technologies and a new networking paradigm in the form of software defined networks. In this paper we present a brief review Software-defined networking based solutions along with Game theory based approaches for defending against DDoS attacks.
      PubDate: 2022-10-07
       
  • Misinformation through predatory practices

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      Abstract: Abstract Misinformation in science can lead to erroneous conclusions with far-reaching ramifications on the impact of a given field and eventually to erosion of public trust in science. Predatory journals, the publications with dubious policies and compromised processes for review, present questionable data not rigorously evaluated. A proliferation of these journals threatens the transparency and validity of the scientific publishing system. The predatory journals are sometimes difficult to identify and both experienced and inexperienced researchers fall for them. The authors lose the opportunity to present data in credible journals with excellent viewership. The peer-review process being weak in these journals, it often leads to publications where the evidence provided is not strong enough to withstand the scrutiny of experienced researchers. Although a substantial fee is charged for publication, the quick time frame, and easy acceptance draw researchers. In a nutshell, misinformation spread through these journals, the hijacked journals and predatory conferences is damaging the entire scientific enterprise. With information on predatory journals available at trusted sites, the scientific community should make themselves aware of the journals with questionable reputations and stop publishing in these that would help stop this industry.
      PubDate: 2022-10-06
       
  • Precision diabetes is becoming a reality in India

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      Abstract: Abstract The terms Precision Medicine and Personalized Medicine are used interchangeably but there are subtle differences between the two. Obtaining scientific information (for example, about genotype and phenotype and biomarkers) and then deciding the treatment is Precision Medicine. Personalized Medicine on the other hand refers to taking other factors pertaining to the patient (e.g., preferences, socioeconomic factors and patient) into account and then prescribing a treatment that is suitable for the patient. This review presents the concept of Precision Medicine as applied to diabetes (Precision Diabetes). It discusses planning suitable treatment strategies for different subtypes of diabetes and incorporating specific treatment plans (personalized treatment) for patients with diabetes. It also addresses the challenges in delivering precision diabetes treatment to all people with diabetes. Finally, it outlines where Precision Diabetes has already become a reality in the diabetes clinic e.g., in Monogenic diabetes and where it is still a work in progress (e.g., in type 1 and type 2 diabetes).
      PubDate: 2022-09-29
       
  • A comprehensive review on ethnobotanical, medicinal and nutritional
           potential of walnut (Juglans regia L.)

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      Abstract: Abstract Juglans regia L. commonly known as walnut is used as the most extensive and economical tree in the world. This review aims to study the ethnomedicinal, phytochemical and pharmacological potential of walnut. The literature has been collected from different online sources like science Direct, Scopus, ResearchGate, Google Scholar, PubMed, etc. based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. An ethnomedicinal survey has also been conducted to document the traditional knowledge and uses of walnut among the local peoples of the Union Territory of Jammu and Kashmir. On surveying the local peoples in the different major walnut-producing areas, it has been followed that the walnut is locally used as a medicinal, nutritional, and commercial plant to treat common diseases and disorders in the locality. The survey has been conducted first time in the area and no study has been reported till now in the Jammu Division while some work has been reported in the Kashmir Division. Among the many bioactive compounds present in various plant parts, Juglone has been reported a significant anti-cancer compound in treating deadly cancer. This systematic review describes the significant knowledge and traditional information collected on ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry, habitat, macro-morphology, area of distribution, and pharmacological importance.
      PubDate: 2022-09-22
       
  • Ensure the dynamic identity and PUF based authenticated key settlement
           approach for the IoT infrastructure

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      Abstract: Abstract With technological advancements, the dependency on the Internet of things (IoT) has increased. The spectrum of IoT application domain becomes larger day by day. It converts the existing services into smart services. The evolution brings lot of security challenges hand in hand with IoT paradigms. This is due to the limitation of IoT devices like, low computational capabilities, small storage medium, less power back up and low processing speed, etc. To overcome these limitations, a proper authentication technique must be required to do the trust management in a heterogeneous IoT environment and secure all kinds of traffic. In this research document, a dynamic identity-based authentication approach is introduced for IoT environment, which utilizes very lightweight physical unclonable function, one-way hashing function and exclusive-OR(XOR) function to make the scheme lighter. Broadly accepted the Real or Random (RoR) model and the Burrows Abadi Needham logic (BAN logic) are used here, to check the security and the correctness of the devised protocol. In addition to that, the software simulation tool, Automated validation of Internet security protocols and applications (AVISPA) has proved that, the recommended protocol is safe and secure from various attacks. Furthermore, the comparative performance analysis exhibits the supremacy of the recommended scheme over the analogous schemes w.r.t computational power, memory usage, and communication overhead.
      PubDate: 2022-09-19
       
 
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