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  Subjects -> SCIENCES: COMPREHENSIVE WORKS (Total: 374 journals)
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Indian Journal of History of Science
Number of Followers: 0  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0019-5235 - ISSN (Online) 2454-9991
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2467 journals]
  • Gaṇitagannaḍi: An astronomical text of 1604 CE in Kannada by
           Śankaranārāyaṇa Joisaru of Śṛngeri, translation with mathematical
           analysis by B.S. Shylaja and Seetahrama Javagal [Navaratnakara
           Publications Pvt. Ltd., First published 2021, Second Print: 2021,
           iv + 220, price: ₹ 350/ (India) US $ 25 (abroad)]

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      PubDate: 2022-11-29
       
  • Dr. Gopaul Chunder Roy (1844–1887): An extraordinary life dedicated to
           the cause of medical science

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      Abstract: Abstract Dr. Gopaul Chunder Roy (1844–1887), MD, FRCS, IMS, was one of the most important and prominent medical scientists of the nineteenth century India, who was a renowned surgeon and made valuable contributions to the understanding of the epidemic ‘Burdwan Fever’ that devastated the lower districts of Bengal province during the latter half of the nineteenth century. A product of the iconic Calcutta Medical College, he obtained an MD from the Glasgow Medical College and became the first native Indian to be awarded an FRCS (by exam) from the Royal College of Surgeons, London. In 1872, he joined the Indian Medical Service and later worked in various districts of Bengal Presidency. Dr. Roy was prolific in scientific publications and between 1866 and 1887, he published more than 70 valuable scientific papers on surgery, cholera, leprosy, filaria, snake venoms etc., but most importantly on Burdwan Fever, a kind of deadly malarial fever. His book on Burdwan Fever (1874, 1876), written based on his extensive personal experience, is still available in print in Europe and the USA. During the epidemic days, Dr. Roy worked tirelessly in Burdwan division and gained important scientific insight about the epidemic. His reputation as a doctor and his contribution to medical sciences were highly appreciated not only in India, but also in Great Britain, the USA and Australia during his lifetime. Unfortunately, Dr. Roy died early at an age of only 43 and today, his name is hardly known outside the academic circle and his contributions are nearly forgotten. Dr. Roy’s name has, of course, frequently featured in contemporary literature on Burdwan Fever, but beyond this, his contributions have hardly been discussed, and no comprehensive biography of Dr. Roy has so far been written. This article is an attempt to explore the importance of the medical works of Dr. Roy in the historical context and to document and compile a comprehensive scientific biography of this important scientific pioneer of the nineteenth century India, lest his contribution fades away from the history of science.
      PubDate: 2022-11-28
       
  • Perspective and retrospective of the Indian Social Science Academy,
           Allahabad, India

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      Abstract: Abstract We present here a brief historical note on the Indian Social Science Academy (ISSA), Allahabad, the only academy for social sciences in India. This academy has been established in 1974 at Allahabad, India. The aim of this note is to bring out information about the history of the ISSA and its academic activities to the scientists, educationists, researchers, engineers and policy makers during this 75th year of our independence.
      PubDate: 2022-11-21
       
  • Documenting Flora Indica: Dysentery, William Roxburgh and medical botany

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      Abstract: Abstract British interest in exploration and documentation of Flora Indica did not originate from the scientific interest in plants, but it was the result of exigencies of running the empire. When the civil and military explorers of the East India Company came from an oceanic climate to tropical region like India, they suffered with dysentery and similar other diseases. Subsequently, the quest for local remedies turned out to be the primary motto of the explorers of the Company. The Company asked their botanists and naturalists to explore Indian local remedies and specific plants for dysentery. In this context, William Roxburgh (1751–1815), the founding father of Indian Botany and the Director of Calcutta Botanical Garden, documented plants with astringent, laxative and purgative qualities as these were considered as the basic ingredients for curing dysentery. However, in the historiography on the relationship between disease and imperial exploration, dysentery has not been studied in detail. Subsequently, the contribution of Roxburgh to the field of medical botany is also ignored. Viewed in this context, the present paper deals with the William Roxburgh’s effort in documentation and search of indigenous plants used in the treatment of dysentery.
      PubDate: 2022-11-21
       
  • Lalit K. Gurjar M.Sc.

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      PubDate: 2022-11-14
       
  • The status of tribal medical system and practices in the Jungle Mahals,
           Eastern India, 1947–2000

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      Abstract: Abstract This study deals with the collection, preparation and practice of medicine by the tribals (Santals, Munda, Oraons, Sabar and Birhors) of Jungle Mahals in eastern India. This study finds low levels of overlap in medicinal floras even in the case of tribal communities, who are linguistically, culturally, and ecologically very closely related. Thus, the knowledge about many medicinal floras of the healers is greatly local. This medical practice is very popular among the tribal communities who could not afford facilities of western medicine because of their poverty and the high cost of allopathic medicine.
      PubDate: 2022-11-14
       
  • Physics and physicists at Banaras Hindu University: circa 1916–1960

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      Abstract: Abstract Banaras also known as Varanasi and Kashi is one of the greatest centres of education and learning since ancient times. The city has been called as ‘The city of temples’, ‘The religious capital of India’, ‘The cultural capital of India’, ‘The city of light’, and ‘The city of learning’. Philosophers, men of science and educationalists have lived and worked here, making Banaras a leading seat of learning. Long before the advent of the modern age, Banaras enthusiastically embraced the learning of mathematics, astronomy and medicine. In this lineage of a tradition of knowledge of the city, Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya established Banaras Hindu University in 1916. Among many departments of knowledge at BHU, modern physics was greatly encouraged and promoted by its founder. Malaviya himself exerted to bring many scientists to BHU to enthuse the cultivation of science. Here we will see the story of the physicists appointed in the early years of BHU, who contributed to the world of physics in their own humble right. They did their own small part in physics that helped develop the discipline in India. The paper attempts to unearth a very important and formative slice of India’s history in modern science, exemplified by Banaras Hindu University as a single campus university with both teaching and research in physics.
      PubDate: 2022-11-08
       
  • A review on rock paintings of India: technique, pigment and conservation

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      Abstract: Abstract Rock painting spans thousands of years of creative efforts and is as diverse as India's cultural practices, literature, and tradition. In India, there are over 1000 rock shelter sites with paintings. Amateurs discovered the majority of these sites. Archibald Carlleyle (1897), a British archaeologist, made the first systematic documentation  in the mid-nineteenth century. Since the discovery in 1958 of a large collection of rock paintings found by Wakanakar at Bhimbetka in Madhya Pradesh, extensive research projects have been devised speculating on local and regional chronologies and styles. This paper provides a brief overview of Indian rock paintings, assisting readers in comprehending the history and distribution of rock paintings in different regions of India and its painting techniques and materials, pigments and binders, cause of deterioration, and management and conservation.
      PubDate: 2022-10-25
       
  • Journey of natural pigments from ancient antiquity to present: insights on
           sustainable development

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      Abstract: Abstract This review discusses the use of natural colours in artwork, textile, culture etc. throughout the historical time and their prospective future. The colourful artworks play an important role, as pigment makes paintings vibrant and portrays symbolic meaning of human cultures throughout the world. In primordial times, only natural pigments isolated from different sources (like plants, animals) and minerals were used. From late nineteenth century, the extensive use of synthetic colorants started, which were proved to be hazardous for the environment. In recent times, natural colorants from pigmented bacteria becomes a promising source of eco-friendly colours in terms of sustainable development.
      PubDate: 2022-10-11
       
  • Indus zoomorphism and its avatars

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      Abstract: Abstract This paper re-classifies over 2000 seal-impressions with at least one zoomorphic element drawn from the Corpus of Indus Seals and Inscriptions Volumes 1 to 3.2 (Joshi & Parpola, 1987; Shah & Parpola, 1991; Parpola et al., 2010, 2019). The classification is presented as supplementary data, S1. Tables 1, 2 and 3 explain the organisation of the data in S1. The tables and 8 figure charts reveal that Indus iconography is based on six principles of production design—formative, additive, extractive, subtractive, orientative, and associative. The associative principle illustrates the dynamics between the animal icon, the object in front, and other icons in a group or en file. The additive and extractive principles feed off each other, the latter being a device to deconstruct a compound design unit, the final product of an additive expression, and use that component-avatar in isolation or in a different context, in a way that the component and the compound recall each other. The compound-component genealogy is illustrated in figure charts. The classification yields at least 139 design units. 43 units have a singular expression on seals. The remaining 96 obtain from additive compounds on seal-impressions, hitherto not organised as such, even if recognised. The labels assigned to the component-avatars are non-interpretive and purely descriptive. However, there are a few instances where a label forces an interpretation and these are discussed case by case.
      PubDate: 2022-10-07
       
  • History of ARIES: a premier research institute in the area of
           observational sciences

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      Abstract: Abstract The Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences (ARIES), a premier autonomous research institute under the Department of Science and Technology, Government of India has a legacy of about seven decades with contributions made in the field of observational sciences namely atmospheric and astrophysics. The Survey of India used a location at ARIES, determined with an accuracy of better than 10 m on a world datum through institute’s participation in a global network of Earth artificial satellites imaging during late 1950’s. Taking advantage of its high-altitude location, ARIES, for the first time, provided valuable input for climate change studies by long term characterization of physical and chemical properties of aerosols and trace gases in the central Himalayan regions. In astrophysical sciences, the institute has contributed precise and sometime unique observations of the celestial bodies leading to a number of discoveries. With the installation of the 3.6-m Devasthal optical telescope in the year 2015, India became the only Asian country to join those few nations of the world who are hosting 4-m class optical telescopes. This telescope, having advantage of geographical location, is well-suited for multi-wavelength observations and for sub-arc-second resolution imaging of the celestial objects including follow-up of the GMRT, AstroSat and gravitational-wave sources.
      PubDate: 2022-08-29
      DOI: 10.1007/s43539-022-00054-0
       
  • Reassessing European impressions of Indian astronomy (1750–1850)

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      Abstract: Abstract The early colonial rule in India was characterised by, among other things, an increasing interest in various disciplines of Indian knowledge traditions. Within the vast array of Indian knowledge systems, the astronomical sciences and corresponding Sanskrit treatises attracted the attention of many prominent orientalists such as Henry Thomas Colebrooke and John Warren. This essay is an attempt to highlight and critically examine some prominent eighteenth century accounts of Indian astronomy.
      PubDate: 2022-08-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s43539-022-00055-z
       
  • Meghnad Saha, F.R.S.: the multiple facets of a teacher

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      Abstract: Abstract Meghnad Saha, the famous scientist, researcher, organiser and institution builder became a D.Sc. at the age of 25 and the 5th Indian Fellow of the Royal Society (F.R.S.) at 34. Having primary education in village schools, he rose to be one of the top scientists India ever produced, establishing two of the foremost science academies of the country. He has been nominated six times for the nobel prize. These are discussed elsewhere elaborately, as also his political career. However, Meghnad was primarily a teacher, starting his initial teaching career during 1916–1923 at Calcutta University; moved to Allahabad University from 1923 to 1938 and again returning back to Calcutta University in 1938. He retired from Calcutta University in 1953. Meghnad Saha’s teaching and in particular, his text books had a global impact. The Text Book on Heat (1931), Treatise on Heat (1931), Treatise on Modern Physics (1934) and Six Lectures on Atomic Physics (1931) were all voluminous books, co-authored by his students (excepting the last one). The revised editions of these books were brought out at regular intervals. This article deals with Saha’s teaching and his text books, which withstood the ravages of time.
      PubDate: 2022-08-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s43539-022-00051-3
       
  • Ethno-medico-botanical studies of Eruliga and Lambani tribes of Kanakapura
           taluk of Ramanagara district of Karnataka

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      Abstract: Abstract A study was carried out on the ethno-medico-botanical knowledge of Eruliga and Lambani tribal communities including the native Vaidyas of other communities in Kanakapura taluk of Ramanagara district of Karnataka. The field survey and documentation of indigenous medicinal knowledge and medicinal plants was conducted from September 2019 to March 2022. A total of 417 formulations consisting of 217 medicinal plants practiced by 140 traditional practitioners were documented. The study is a positive step towards documenting the traditional medicinal knowledge, which is on the verge of extinction in future. It will help the scientific community to uphold the ancient medicinal knowledge for the betterment of society.
      PubDate: 2022-08-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s43539-022-00056-y
       
  • Technological modifications in the tanning and leather industry from
           pre-British to colonial Punjab

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      Abstract: Abstract Hereditary artisans have been an important segment of Punjabi society since the medieval times. Pre-colonial Punjab was an agricultural province, where industrial production was largely confined to village industries, which catered to meet the demands of the local population. Tanning and leather making was one of the professions that was a traditional village industry in which the methods of production were old, and technology had not changed much from the medieval period. The onset of colonial rule introduced modified and new technologies in all industries, which invariably impacted traditional industries. The tanning and leather industry was among the village industries in which modified and new processing and production technologies were introduced. The scope of this paper is to study how the new technology in the tanning and leather industry modified the old, whether it improved the processing time, quality and quantity of products and what was the nature of its impact on the traditional artisans connected with tanning and leather in colonial Punjab.
      PubDate: 2022-08-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s43539-022-00058-w
       
  • Cattle plague and the introduction of veterinary education in colonial
           Bengal

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      Abstract: Abstract Historically, Bengal had played a pivotal role in the introduction of a regulated regime of veterinary practice and education in colonial India. The proposed study seeks to view this practice through the lens of cattle plague that gripped the province in the second half of nineteenth century. Contrary to what the extant literature makes us believe, it is argued that in the matter of livestock management, Bengal paid more attention to her bovine inmates primarily for agricultural purposes rather than horse breeding and supply in military and transportation sector.
      PubDate: 2022-08-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s43539-022-00057-x
       
  • The origins of scientific disciplines: a counter-history of western
           science

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      Abstract: Abstract In this paper we present a historical narrative that rewrites the origins and foundations of modern Western science, particularly of scientific disciplines. We call this rewriting of the history of science ‘counter-history of science’, the history of science of the vanquished or of those made invisible by the history of Western science. In the counter-history of science, we explore how international trade and the research adventures of Europeans in South Asia and in the New World relate to the emergence of scientific disciplines. The results indicate that in the history of Western science there is omission of the participation of other peoples and cultures in the constitution of what we now call Western scientific knowledge. There is also inseparability between trade and the research practices of Europeans in the New World; scientific disciplines are a result of this condition.
      PubDate: 2022-08-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s43539-022-00053-1
       
  • Let There Be Light: Engineering, Entrepreneurship and Electricity in
           Colonial Bengal 1880–1945 by Suvobrata Sarkar, Cambridge University
           Press, Cambridge, 2020, xliii + 266 pp

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      PubDate: 2022-05-31
      DOI: 10.1007/s43539-022-00041-5
       
  • Insight into history of Areca nut and oral submucous fibrosis: a narrative
           review

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      Abstract: Abstract Oral Submucous Fibrosis (OSF) is an age old disease. It is even mentioned by Suśruta, one of the earliest surgeons of the recorded history (600 BCE) in his book in Suśrutasaṃhitā. OSF is Areca nut (Areca Catechu Linn.) habit associated disease and more prevalent in countries where the use of this nut is high. In Southeast Asian countries it is widely used due to their high cultural beliefs. The pathogenesis of this age old irreversible disease is very complex, that none of the treatment modalities till date has provided satisfactory results. In this article, insight to Areca nut native, cultivation and cultural aspects, the psychology behind its use in various cultures and review of current medical literature is attempted to trace back the history of OSF.
      PubDate: 2022-04-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s43539-022-00036-2
       
  • Contribution of Satyendra Nath Bose in chemical sciences and related
           disciplines

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      Abstract: Abstract Professor Satyendra Nath Bose (S. N. Bose), the internationally recognized theoretical physicist, had equal interest in different branches of experimental chemistry. Both in Dhaka and Kolkata, he established sophisticated laboratories for chemistry research. In this present endeavor, the contributions of Bose in chemical sciences and related disciplines have been tried to be explored.
      PubDate: 2022-02-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s43539-022-00034-4
       
 
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