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  Subjects -> SCIENCES: COMPREHENSIVE WORKS (Total: 374 journals)
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Experimental Results
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2516-712X
Published by Cambridge University Press Homepage  [352 journals]
  • The robustness of land equivalent ratio as a measure of yield advantage of
           multi-crop systems over monocultures

    • Authors: Deb; Debal, Dutta, Sreejata, Erickson, Richard
      First page: 2
      Abstract: Land equivalent ratio (LER) is a most widely used indicator of yield advantage of multi-crop farms over sole-crop farms, and usually measured using crop biomass yield per unit area. Most often, crop yields are compared between both systems using the same area. In this paper, we demonstrate that although the yield per unit area and the yield per plant are widely different, LER remains invariant. As a corollary, area time equivalent ratio and land use efficiency, derived from LER, also remain unchanged when using the two different measures of crop yields. We recommend that when the estimation of the exact land area is difficult due to complex crop planting designs, yield per plant estimate is much easier and equally valid for estimation of LER and its derivative indices.
      PubDate: 2022-01-13
      DOI: 10.1017/exp.2021.33
  • A negative charge at position D+5 of Motif A is critical for function of
           the major facilitator superfamily multidrug/H+antiporter MdtM

    • Authors: Law; Christopher J., Meaney, Steve
      First page: 3
      Abstract: The phenomenon of antimicrobial resistance represents a major public health risk. The activity of integral membrane transporter proteins contributes to antimicrobial resistance in pathogenic bacteria and proton gradient-driven multidrug efflux representatives of the major facilitator superfamily (MFS) of secondary transporters are the dominant antimicrobial efflux proteins in Escherichia coli. In many, but not all, of the characterized MFS multidrug transporters, an aspartic acid residue at position D+5 of the conserved signature Motif A is essential for transport activity. The present work extends those studies to the E. coli MFS multidrug/H+ antiporter MdtM and used a combination of mutagenesis, expression studies, antimicrobial resistance assays, and transport activity measurements to reveal that a negatively charged residue at position D+5 is critical for MdtM transport function.
      PubDate: 2022-01-13
      DOI: 10.1017/exp.2022.1
  • Evaluating ex situ rates of carbon dioxide flux from northern Borneo peat
           swamp soils

    • Authors: Low Ying Si; Eliza, Chadwick, Michael A., Smith, Thomas E. L., Sukmaria Sukri, Rahayu, Adamczyk, Bartosz
      First page: 4
      Abstract: This study quantified CO2 emissions from tropical peat swamp soils in Brunei Darussalam. At each site, soil was collected from areas of intact and degraded peat and CO2 flux, and total organic content were measured ex situ. Soil organic content (~20–99%) was not significantly different between intact and degraded forest samples. CO2 flux was higher for intact forest samples than degraded forest samples (~1.0 vs. ~0.6 μmol CO2 m−2 s−1, respectively) but did not differ among forest locations. From our laboratory experiments, we estimated a potential emissions of ~10–20 t CO2 ha−1 y−1 which is in the lower range of values reported for other tropical peat swamps. However, our results are likely affected by unmeasured variation in root respiration and the lability of resident carbon. Overall, these findings provide experimental evidence to support that clearance of tropical peat swamp forests can increase CO2 emissions due to faster rates of decomposition.
      PubDate: 2022-01-18
      DOI: 10.1017/exp.2022.2
  • Cyclic hardening/softening experimental data in nano-clay-composite and
           aluminum alloy under high-temperature strain-controlled loading

    • Authors: Azadi; Mohammad, Bahmanabadi, Hamed, Gruen, Florian, Winter, Gerhard, Seisenbacher, Benjamin, Celikin, Mert
      First page: 6
      Abstract: This article presents cyclic hardening/softening behaviors (experimental data) of the heat-treated aluminum-matrix nano-clay-composite (AlSi_N_HT6), compared to those of the piston aluminum alloy (AlSi) under strain-controlled loading. For such an objective, standard samples were fabricated by gravity and stir-casting methods. Low-cycle fatigue experiments were carried out under different strain amplitudes (0.20–0.45%) and at various temperatures (25–300°C). Obtained results implied that no obvious change was observed on material properties of aluminum alloy by reinforcements, but a decrement was observed due to increasing the temperature. Results also indicated that the increase of the temperature from 25°C to 200°C has changed the cyclic behavior of both materials (AlSi_N_HT6 and AlSi) from hardening to softening. Moreover, the temperature effect was more significant than the total strain amplitude influences in cyclic behaviors.
      PubDate: 2022-02-09
      DOI: 10.1017/exp.2021.32
  • Can machine learning models trained using atmospheric simulation data be
           applied to observation data'

    • Authors: Matsuoka; Daisuke, Carley, Jacob
      First page: 7
      Abstract: Atmospheric simulation data present richer information in terms of spatiotemporal resolution, spatial dimension, and the number of physical quantities compared to observational data; however, such simulations do not perfectly correspond to the real atmospheric conditions. Additionally, extensive simulation data aids machine learning-based image classification in atmospheric science. In this study, we applied a machine learning model for tropical cyclone detection, which was trained using both simulation and satellite observation data. Consequently, the classification performance was significantly lower than that obtained with the application of simulation data. Owing to the large gap between the simulation and observation data, the classification model could not be practically trained only on the simulation data. Thus, the representation capability of the simulation data must be analyzed and integrated into the observation data for application in real problems.
      PubDate: 2022-02-24
      DOI: 10.1017/exp.2022.3
  • Three-dimensional complex architectures observed in shock processed amino
           acid mixtures

    • Authors: Singh; Surendra V., Vishakantaiah, Jayaram, Meka, Jaya K., Muruganantham, Mariyappan, Thiruvenkatam, Vijay, Sivaprahasam, Vijayan, Rajasekhar, Balabhadrapatruni N., Bhardwaj, Anil, Mason, Nigel J., Sivaraman, Bhalamurugan, Beseres Pollack, Jennifer
      First page: 8
      Abstract: Asteroid and cometary impacts have been considered one of the possible routes for exogenous delivery of organics to the early Earth. It is well established that amino acids can be synthesized due to impact-driven shock processesing of simple molecules and that amino acids can survive the extreme conditions of impact events. In the present study, we simulate impact-induced shock conditions utilizing a shock tube that can maintain a reflected shock temperature of about 5,500 K for 2 ms time scale. We have performed shock processing of various combinations of amino acids with subsequent morphological analysis carried out using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), revealing that the shock processed amino acids demonstrate an extensive range of complex structures. These results provide evidence for the further evolution of amino acids in impact-induced shock environments leading to the formation of complex structures and thus providing a pathway for the origin of life.
      PubDate: 2022-02-09
      DOI: 10.1017/exp.2021.17
  • Fatty acid composition of milk from mothers giving birth at extremely low
           gestation in Sweden

    • Authors: Sjöbom; Ulrika, Cismaan, Osman, Hansen-Pupp, Ingrid, Wackernagel, Dirk, Sävman, Karin, Hellström, Ann, Nilsson, Anders K., Alarcón López, Francisco Javier
      First page: 9
      Abstract: Preterm infants show postnatal deficits of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) which are essential for adequate growth and neurodevelopment. Human milk is a primary source of fatty acids (FAs) for the preterm infant, and therefore, knowledge about milk FA levels is required to design appropriate supplementation strategies. Here, we expanded on our previous study (Nilsson et al., 2018, Acta Paediatrica, 107, 1020–1027) determining FA composition in milk obtained from mothers of extremely low gestational age (
      PubDate: 2022-02-24
      DOI: 10.1017/exp.2022.4
  • Experimental auction confirmation that social desirability bias does not
           predict willingness to pay for eco-labeled goods

    • Authors: Higgins; Kieran, Longo, Alberto, Hutchinson, George, Payne, Jessica
      First page: 1
      Abstract: It is often assumed that consumers’ willingness to pay (WTP) for eco-labeled products in research settings is not because of a desire for environmental protection, but rather that they are socially compelled to make decisions that reflects favorably on them, limiting the validity of findings. Using a second-price Vickrey experimental auction, this study found higher WTP for an eco-labeled product than a comparable good, but that social desirability bias, measured by the Marlowe–Crowne Social Desirability Scale, was not a significant predictor of WTP. Instead, environmental consciousness, environmental knowledge, education, and available information were stronger predictors of WTP for eco-labeled goods.
      PubDate: 2021-12-10
      DOI: 10.1017/exp.2021.24
  • Common names decreased in Japan: Further evidence of an increase in

    • Authors: Ogihara; Yuji, Dye, April
      First page: 5
      Abstract: Previous research has demonstrated that unique names increased in Japan, which shows a rise in uniqueness-seeking and individualism. To increase the validity of the prior findings, it is important to confirm the robustness of their results. Therefore, this study examined another indicator of historical changes in names in Japan. Specifically, I investigated whether the rates of common names decreased in Japan between 2004 and 2018. The dataset used in the previous study was analyzed. The results consistently showed that the rates of common names decreased for both boys and girls for the period. These results were consistent with the previous research, which further increases the validity of the finding that Japanese culture became more individualistic.
      PubDate: 2021-12-10
      DOI: 10.1017/exp.2021.27
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