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  • Rapid and unplanned urbanization in the least developed districts of
           Bangladesh: a case study from Jamalpur using geospatial techniques

    • Abstract: Abstract Sustainable urban development is a key compoment in the United Nation’s Sustainable Development Goals. Monitoring urbanization is critical for planners, governments and non-governmental organizations, and scientists to design policies that maximize the use of natural resources and accommodate development while reducing environmental effects. This research aims to analyze how urbanization patterns have changed in the largely unknown least developed regions of Bangladesh. Multispectral satellite imageries over 30 years (1991 to 2021) were used to analyze the urbanization pattern of Jamapur district. Utilizing object-based image classification and on-field validation for seven Land Use and Land Cover classes, it was found that built-up area expanded by 748.92% during the past three decades while depleting bare soil (− 97.65%), deep waterbody (− 79.33%), shallow waterbody (− 8.46%), light vegetation (− 14.28%) and agricultural land (− 26.33%).. Because of increased in built-ups, the land surface temperatures (LST) were also increased over the study period (the minimun recorded LST were 12.84 °C, 15.89 °C, 15.8 °C and 17 °C while the maximun LST were 17.93 °C, 23.7 °C, 23.79 °C and 26.73 °C for the year of 1991, 2001, 2013 and 2021 respectively). This study will act as a baseline for future studies It be insightful to urban planners and policymakers in developing countries regarding urban sustainability and minimizing urban risks and hazards in the least developed districts.
      PubDate: 2022-11-22
  • The Russia–Ukraine war disproportionately threatens the nutrition
           security of developing countries

    • Abstract: Abstract While the ongoing Russia–Ukraine war threatens global nutrition security, the magnitude and extent of its impact remain underexamined. Here we show that, with the lowest level of war duration, severity, sanction, and countries involved, the direct and indirect impacts of the war and sanctions could newly place 67.3 million people (roughly equals the total population of France) in undernourishment and 316.7 million people (roughly equals the total population of Bangladesh and Russia) suffering from extreme national food insecurity. Approximately 95% of the affected population are from developing countries, highlighting the vulnerability of food supply in these countries. Both the undernourished population and its inequality across countries will substantially grow, if war duration and severity increase. If the war is prolonged to early 2024, future agricultural growth cannot fully offset the negative impacts, and global hunger will still very likely exacerbate. We conclude that targeted measures should be placed in developing countries and their vulnerable populations to reconstruct a just, healthy, and environmentally sustainable food system.
      PubDate: 2022-11-17
  • Climate change vulnerability and smallholder farmers’ adaptive responses
           in the semi-arid Far North Region of Cameroon

    • Abstract: Abstract Climate change and variability contribute to exacerbating poverty and social unrest in poor countries. Therefore, it becomes important to assess vulnerability and adaptation measures to raise awareness and monitoring of climate change adaptation policy for better decision-making. This research examines how farmers perceive their vulnerability and how they respond to climate change in the semi-arid Far North Region of Cameroon. Using both quantitative and qualitative approaches, data on perceptions with regards to vulnerability and adaptation responses to climate change related hazards were collected based on expert opinions, individual farmers’ interviews, and focus group discussion. The qualitative data were triangulated with direct observations in the field. The results reveal that farmers are mostly concerned about drought and decrease in rainfall. Thus, they have mainly implemented behavioral and locally-made options such as short-cycle varieties, terrace farming, half-moon, and bunds, among others, to overcome water shortages. Nevertheless, these measures were not solely driven by vulnerability; the socioeconomic context might play a role. Moreover, farmers perceive a limited capacity to adapt to climate change, which suggests that the government and policy-makers should focus, not only on implementing planned adaptation strategies, but also on the improvement and promotion of farmers’ autonomous adaptation strategies.
      PubDate: 2022-11-17
  • Prepared compost from food waste effectively increased onion production
           under sub-tropical conditions

    • Abstract: Food waste disposal is regarded as a source of contamination in the environment. There is little information on whether food waste compost can be used in agriculture, especially in the subtropics. The study examined the effect of food waste compost on onion (Allium cepa L) cultivation under an open experimental field condition in a subtropical climate. Standard methods were used to analyze the soil physicochemical parameters (pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, soil moisture, water holding capacity, total organic matter, phosphorus, potassium, manganese, iron, copper, and zinc) of control and treatment plots. Standard methods were used to measure all other morpho-physiological parameters. The plant height, the number of leaves per plant, the length and width of the leaves, the neck diameter, the relative water content of the leaves, the ash content of the leaves, and the root length were all measured. The treatment group had higher soil fertility than the control group. During the experiment, plant height, leaf number, leaf length, and leaf width all increased. Most morphophysio-chemical parameters in the treatment group onion plants were higher than in the control group after harvest. The yield of control plots was 13.64 t ha−1 and the yield of treatment plots was 32.04 t ha−1. Therefore, from this study it might be concluded that the compost from food waste has the potency to increase the soil fertility followed by the higher onion production. Hence, food waste can be used to prepare compost for higher onion production under sub-tropical conditions. Graphical
      PubDate: 2022-11-14
  • Implications of Earth system tipping pathways for climate change
           mitigation investment

    • Abstract: Abstract Complex Earth systems under stress from global heating can resist change for only so long before tipping into transitional chaos. Convergent trajectories of change in Arctic, Amazon and other systems suggest a biosphere tipping point (BTP) in this mid-century. The BTP must be prevented and therefore offers a hard deadline against which to plan, implement, monitor, adjust and accelerate climate change mitigation efforts. These should be judged by their performance against this deadline, requiring mitigation investments to be compared and selected according to the unit cost of their dated mitigation value (tCO2edmv) outcomes. This unit of strategic effectiveness is created by exponentially discounting annual GHG savings in tCO2e against a dated BTP. Three proof of concept cases are described using a BTP in 2050 and a 10% discount rate, highlighting three key ways to prevent the BTP. The most reliably cost-effective for mitigation, and richest in environmental co-benefits, involves protecting high carbon-density natural ecosystems. Restored and regenerating natural ecosystems also yield abundant environmental co-benefits but slower mitigation gains. Improving choice awareness and building capacity to promote decarbonisation in all economic sectors is cost-effective and essential to meeting national net zero emission goals. Public mitigation portfolios should emphasise these three strategic elements, while private ones continue to focus on renewable energy and linked opportunities. Further research should prioritise: (1) consequences of an Arctic Ocean imminently free of summer sea ice; (2) testing the tCO2edmv metric with various assumptions in multiple contexts; and (3) integrating diverse co-benefit values into mitigation investment decisions.
      PubDate: 2022-11-08
  • Determinants of household adoption of solar energy technology in
           Seychelles in a context of 100% access to electricity

    • Abstract: Abstract Seychelles is among four countries in the African continent with 100% access to electricity, of which over 90% of the energy is generated from fossil fuels. The energy transition is a crucial enabler of sustainable development and climate resilience. Therefore, this study seeks to understand the determinants of solar PV uptake based on a stratified random sample of 130 households on Mahe Island, Seychelles. We applied logistic regression and descriptive statistics to analyze the driving factors of a household decision regarding the adoption of a solar PV system. Results indicated that access to credit and monthly household income influenced the adoption of solar PV systems at the 1% significance level. Independent variables such as gender, age, and education of household heads, including family size that were significant in other studies, were not significant in the current study. Cost-saving (100%), energy security (91.7%), and environmentally friendly perceptions (76.7%), and access to loans (56.7%), were chief among the motivational drivers of the 60 households that had adopted solar PV systems. Whereas, for the non-adopters, the four most essential barriers cited were cheap electricity (82.9%), high initial cost (65.7%), existing loans (52.9%), and long payback time (40.0%). For the communal approach to solar PV systems in Seychelles to be successful, the adoption barriers that occur at the level of households should be considered.
      PubDate: 2022-11-08
  • Ambitiousness of Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) targets:
           classification and implications for policy making

    • Abstract: Abstract We analyse how ambitiously the underlying targets for the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of the United Nations Agenda 2030 are set in terms of their semantic formulation and discuss the implications of this for policy making. Our analysis is based on classifying ambitiousness into three types: semantic, relative and absolute ambitiousness; in this paper, we mainly analyse semantic ambitiousness. We establish an evaluation framework that shows clear differences in semantic ambitiousness levels between SDG targets. Awareness of these differences is essential, as semantic ambitiousness also lays the foundation for evaluating other types of ambitiousness of the SDGs in international cross-country comparisons and national policy making processes. We also analyse how progress towards the targets has been reported in the Sustainable Development Report of the SDG Index and in the SDGs Progress Chart of the United Nations. Finally, we discuss possible reasons for the differences in the level of ambitiousness and provide recommendations for operationalising the targets. Our aim is to provide a better understanding of the variability of interpretations that can occur in the evaluation of different SDGs, and to improve the coherence between the goals in developing any future development goal frameworks beyond Agenda 2030.
      PubDate: 2022-10-27
  • Himalayan ecosystem services and climate change driven agricultural
           frontiers: a scoping review

    • Abstract: Abstract Climate change, rising temperatures, snow melts and more frequent droughts and floods are disproportionately affecting food and water security, habitat health, and agricultural productivity in the Himalayan region. These climatic changes are negatively impacting productivity of staple crops including wheat, maize, and rice at lower altitudes, but may provide opportunities to utilize Climate Change Driven Agricultural Frontiers [CCDAFs] at higher altitudes. Agricultural expansion into CCDAFs paired with behavioural shifts such as replacing traditional crop systems with commercial crops will predominantly affect forests, water resources, and soil health, which are already negatively affected by climate change unless adaptation options are directed to just and sustainable agroecological transitions. By trading regulating, supporting, and cultural services for food and water provisioning services, as are evident in land sparing strategy, the utilization of CCDAFs will have long-term implications for the sustainability of mountain farming systems. Climate change is affecting Himalayan agriculture, food security, and ecosystem services, and scientific literature predominantly focus on one of these topics in isolation, occasionally connecting results to another topic. By classifying literature as predominantly agriculture, food security, or ecosystem service themed, this scoping review identifies sources with multiple dominant themes and explores how the relationships between these topics are represented in literature to provide research based evidence to promote the future expansion of agriculture that is low-carbon, just and sustainable. Gaps in the literature reveal that research is needed on the extent of CCDAFs in the Himalayas and the potential trade-offs on utilizing the frontier areas.
      PubDate: 2022-10-18
  • A gender approach to time and food security: a case study of Egypt

    • Abstract: Abstract Women’s subsistence contribution to household food security is undeniable. However, due to the dominance of capital bias in most labour economies, rural women in particular lack agency to improve capacity and access to resources and opportunities, and they need to be more productive. This knowledge gap is the subject of many studies on sustainable agricultural development and gender equity. Although the consensus necessitates policy interventions targeting the gender gap in agriculture resources, not enough research has been dedicated to quantifying the importance of women subsistence agricultural labour within the Egyptian national context. This article seeks to statistically analyse women’s role in subsistence agriculture, estimated by a national time-use survey conducted in 2018 in Egypt. The goal is to highlight their capacity to contribute to food and nutrition security and quantify the real impact of rural women’s subsistence agriculture labour on rural household food security versus that of rural men. This will contribute to the debate that investigating rural women in agriculture promotes rural community sustainability and highlights their capacity for agricultural production.
      PubDate: 2022-10-17
  • Energy efficiency initiatives and the academic community’s
           behaviour: a Brazilian experience

    • Abstract: Abstract The Sustainable Development Goals are part of the 2030 Agenda and the seventh goal is dedicated to affordable and clean energy, aiming to ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all. Energy efficiency is an important component of this goal and is associated with reducing energy consumption and its costs and increasing the source of clean energy production. Some authors have been discussing the relation between theory and practice of sustainability, and how the practice can contribute to behaviour change. In this context, the purpose of this paper is to assess the level of knowledge of the academic community about energy efficiency practices implemented during recent years by the University of Passo Fundo, in Brazil, and students, professors and employees’ energy behaviour. The paper intends to illustrate how education practices on energy efficiency can be added to universities’ actions to improve the progress towards reducing energy consumption and promoting occupants’ change of behaviour on campus. The methodology represents a case study of the University, based on a questionnaire applied to the academic community, with a sample of 400 respondents. The results showed that the university should invest more in its energy efficiency actions but always connecting these with the academic community and highlighting their importance for the success of the practices and for a more sustainable culture on campus. Our findings show the importance of connecting energy efficiency initiatives to the academic community’s behaviour, and especially of making these initiatives more visible and engaging. The contribution of this study is expected to support other educational institutions developing similar strategies in the energy context, but could also be useful to other sectors and sustainability topics, as the need for further dissemination and awareness-raising efforts is universal.
      PubDate: 2022-10-13
  • Recent trends on the linkages between energy, SDGs and the Paris
           Agreement: a review of policy-based studies

    • Abstract: Background It has been more than five years since the adoption of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development with its Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and the Paris Agreement, which seek to improve the well-being of people and the planet and strengthen the global response to the threat of climate change. While these major international commitments have spurred a lot of policy debates and academic research, a synthesis of how their adoption has shaped the academic discussions in pursuit of these goals in specific sectors such as energy is limited. Using a systematic review method following the PRISMA procedure, we examine the emergent trends in the academic discussions on the linkage between these international agendas and energy with a specific reference to policy-based research publications. Results Our analysis found that many studies on this subject are predictive/prescriptive, attempting to forecast and map out various pathways by which these international commitments may be achieved. Studies on the progress of implementation of policies and their impacts on these goals are somewhat limited. The three most common policy-related issues identified by the studies reviewed are lack of integrated/cross-sectoral planning, narrow emphasis on energy justice in policies, and the need for more cost-effective strategies in pursuit of the Paris Agreement. Conclusions This study revealed emerging trends in energy debates and policy discourse within academic discussions addressing the SDGs and the Paris Agreement. Research on the progress of implementation, impacts and critical lessons from current policy efforts to achieve these global agendas are needed. Country case studies, in particular, can encourage policy-learning through cross-country comparisons, which can inform regional and domestic energy policies towards achieving the SDGs and the Paris Agreement.
      PubDate: 2022-10-10
  • Combined effect of fertilizer micro-dosing and intercropped millet/cowpea
           effect on agronomic and economic advantages in prone Sahel area, Niger

    • Abstract: Abstract Climate change is affecting crop production in the West Africa Sahel. Farmers develop many adaptation strategies However, few of them have been tested to find their climate smartness, primarily their agronomic and economic benefits. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the field experiment in two successive years, 2020 and 2021, in rainy conditions, the combined effect of millet/cowpea intercropping and fertilizer microdosing on the yield and their economic advantages. Two genotypes of cowpea (ISV128 and Tiligré) and a variety of millet, Heini Kirey Précoce (HKP), were intercropped. At the treatment level, there is a net benefit of the crop association compared to the pure cultivation of each of the millet and cowpea species with total LERs, an average of 1.48 in 2020, and 1.43 in 2021 for microdose treatment and 1.55 in 2020 and 1.13 in 2021 for the control. However, there is no significant difference in cowpea genotype on LER and millet yields in the 2 years (P = 0.65 in 2020 and 0.29 in 2021). Yields of millet and cowpea were higher in the sole crop than in intercropping. The intercropping showed a significantly higher monetary advantage than the sole millet crop in both years. ISV128 is the most profitable because it is less competitive and less aggressive in intercropping with millet and offers a considerable monetary advantage. The findings are invaluable in implementing resilience strategies for smallholders who must be encouraged to adopt these cultural practices due to global warming.
      PubDate: 2022-09-20
  • Editorial: the contribution of sustainable production and consumption to a
           green economy

    • PubDate: 2022-09-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s43621-022-00098-3
  • Systematic review on ensuring the global food security and covid-19
           pandemic resilient food systems: towards accomplishing sustainable
           development goals targets

    • Abstract: Covid-19, one of the most critical and widespread global pandemics, has resulted in extraordinary risk corollaries engulfing millions of people's lives and has caused an unprecedented economic downturn while amplifying food insecurity. A systematic review of 132 scientific communications was performed over a 15-year period, using articles from the ScienceDirect and Web of Science databases (2006–2021). In addition, 24 policy briefs, country papers, and publications from the UN, WHO, FAO, and OECD were cited. The aim of this paper is to provide a comprehensive review of existing literature on the adverse effects of the Covid-19 pandemic on agricultural food systems, as well as potential strategies for building robust, resilient, and sustainable food systems to ensure global food security, safety, and endeavors regarding future global emergencies, as well as new research policies while achieving SDG targets. This would fill a research gap while also having long-term implications for health, agricultural, and food resilience policy development in a rapidly changing world. Covid-19 demonstrates how human, animal, and environmental health are all interconnected, emphasizing the need for one health legislation and a paradigm shift in planetary health. Furthermore, it identifies potential mechanisms for rebuilding better systems by shifting priorities toward policy coherence, innovative food system governance, re-engineering market access, and nexus thinking in the food system approach. According to our findings, the COVID-19 posed unavoidable impediments to achieving SDG targets for food security and household poverty. Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2022-08-31
      DOI: 10.1007/s43621-022-00096-5
  • Enabling factors for sustainable menstrual hygiene management practices: a
           rapid review

    • Abstract: Abstract This paper highlights the crucial enabling factors in menstrual hygiene management. The use of products depends on various factors such as access to water, privacy, social, cultural and econmic. Gender equality and women’s empowerment are integral parts of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Half of the world’s population are women, and women have specific needs to manage the menstrual cycle during their lifetime. To manage the bleeding during the menstrual cycle, girls and women use different products, depending on their accessibility and affordability. They are (a) disposable—one-time use products such as disposable pads, tampons, and (b) reusable products—reusable products such as cloth, washable and reusable cloth pads, menstrual cups, and period panties. The literature search revealed that there are limited studies related to the use of menstrual products and the impacts of these products on women’s health and the environment. A rapid review of the literature identified factors responsible for choosing a particular type of menstrual product, the perceptions of women using the products, and their implications on health and the environment. The study concluded with the need to study the type of menstrual products preferred by women using appropriate variables, address the issues of disposal systems, provide adolescent girls with adequate infrastructure, provide access to affordable sanitary products and gender equity to manage their periods with dignity, and increasing awareness regarding sustainable/ reusable menstrual products, suggesting further investigation in menstrual hygiene management.
      PubDate: 2022-08-31
      DOI: 10.1007/s43621-022-00097-4
  • Empowering voluntary approaches for environmental sustainability and
           resilient communities: a case study from Okinawa, Japan

    • Abstract: Abstract What can government do to secure environmental sustainability and resilient communities' We discuss an emerging policy approach in natural tourism resource management in the Okinawa Prefecture using the case of the ‘Conservation and Use Agreement’ (CUA, hereafter) defined in the Act on Special Measures for the Promotion of Okinawa. The CUA is the certification by the Governor of Okinawa Prefecture, which endorses the self-regulation concluded by site-level eco-tour operators. We analysed the legal and administrative structure of the CUA and the implementation process of nine (existing/expired) CUA cases based on thorough literature reviews and in-depth interviews. We discuss three points from the analysis. Firstly, the number of CUAs remains small because of its huge transaction costs compared to the benefits of the status. Secondly, the CUA generally works as a precaution; however, it is not effective for solving the existing overuse issues for its voluntary characteristics. Thirdly, the administrative resources need to be strengthened for better communication with operators to further enhance the implementation.
      PubDate: 2022-08-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s43621-022-00094-7
  • Stepping on invisible land: on the importance of communicating the value
           of soils

    • Abstract: Abstract Soils play fundamental roles in the functioning of the Earth's ecosystems. Despite numerous initiatives to protect soils, it continues to be generally perceived as dirt or, at best, the surface we walk on. To better understand soil perception by the public, we conducted a survey with 99 participants from Poland and Brazil. We applied opportunity sampling and conducted semi-structured interviews with 40 respondents from Poland and 30 from Brazil, and 29 unstructured interviews in Brazil. Most of the respondents (53%) of the semi-structured interviews associated soil with the surface where plants grow, while 27% said that it is the ground we step on. When asked about pro-environmental campaigns, none of the respondents pointed to soil-related initiatives. Most of the respondents (99%) claimed that there is a need to increase their knowledge about the importance of soils, mostly through education (30%). The majority of the respondents of the unstructured interviews in Brazil indicated provision services provided by soils and pointed to the need for youth engagement in soil communication, corroborating the results from the semi-structured interviews. To address this, we present the results on artistic workshops as an experimental model for teaching and dissemination. We present two short documentary movies reporting the results from unstructured interviews and artistic workshops that can be used as data gathering tools, teaching tools and for dissemination purposes. This is a novel approach to communicating with the relevant stakeholders to promote more sustainable resource management.
      PubDate: 2022-08-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s43621-022-00093-8
  • Effect of Covid-19 on households welfare in Afar Regional State, Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Abstract The main objective of this study was to analyze the effect of COVID-19 on social welfare in the case of Afar regional, state, Ethiopia using panel data collected from a sample of 384 in Asyaita, Dubti Samara-Logia, and Awash town. Both descriptive statistics and econometric models were used to analyze the data. The descriptive analysis results revealed that the main source of income emanated from self-employment (81.67%), from the total households 70% of them were engaged in the service sector, due to COVID-19 the income trends of 81% of households decreased, increase expenditure on food & food items (13%) and service delivering (15%). After conducting necessary pre and post-estimation tests, the econometric model found that the three basic policy variables (number of COVID-19 victims, number of days with the COVID-19 disease and transportation ban) adversely affected the welfare of the society by lessening the income of households and growing their expenditures. Finally, considering regional experience, econometric and descriptive results, this study recommends that the government and the concerned policy maker should give more attention and subsidize the service sector, support those self-employee and daily laborers, make awareness to the society about COVID-19 epidemic, place an alternative mechanism to fill potential trade gaps.
      PubDate: 2022-08-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s43621-022-00095-6
  • Woody species in the urban schoolyards in West Africa Sahel cities in
           Niger: diversity and benefits for green schools

    • Abstract: Abstract Urban schoolyards are essential in biodiversity conservation; they provide numerous ecosystem services to students, school managers, and the city where the schools are located. However, limited or no studies have explored the role of urban schoolyards in both biodiversity conservation and carbon sequestration. This study, therefore, assessed the structure and values of urban schoolyards forest in the cities of Niamey and Maradi in the Niger Republic. A total of 60 schools was selected purposively from Maradi and Niamey (30 schools in each city), where the data were collected through a face-to-face survey. Additionally, a forest inventory and participatory observations were conducted to gather the dendrometric data and animal biodiversity. The findings revealed that, a total of 97 different tree species belonging to 35 families and 81 genera. In addition, neem tree and Fabaceae (22 species) were found to be the dominant tree species and botanical family respectively in the schoolyards of both cities. The similarity index was 64% indicating high similarity between the floras of the schoolyards in the two cities. The biomass value equals about 48.91 t/ha and 27.49 t/ha carbon stock in the primary schools of Niamey and Maradi respectively. Furthermore, the analysis of the structure of the urban schoolyard forests showed high values of structural parameters indicating the vitality/health/integrity of the forest. The ability of students to name plants, animals, and ecosystem services of their schoolyards is significantly low. This study recommends the use of multipurpose woody plant species in urban greening school initiatives for quality education. Furthermore, the study recommends a further investigation of the effects of the school urban forest structure on the students' academic performance and the allergenic potential of woody species found in urban schools.
      PubDate: 2022-07-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s43621-022-00092-9
  • An assessment of strategies for sustainability priority challenges in
           Jordan using a water–energy–food Nexus approach

    • Abstract: Abstract This study aimed at supporting robust decision-making for planning and management of water–energy–food Nexus systems in the country of Jordan. Nexus priority challenges in Jordan were identified as (1) water scarcity, (2) agricultural productivity and water quality, and (3) shift to energy independence. We created a water–energy–food Nexus model that integrates three modelling frameworks: (1) the Water Evaluation and Planning system WEAP model to estimate water demands, supplies and allocation; (2) the MABIA model to estimate crop production, and, (3) a GIS-based energy modelling tool to estimate energy requirements of the water system. Through a set of scenario runs, results show how desalination is needed to address water scarcity, but it has to be coupled with low-carbon electricity generation in order to not exacerbate climate change. Improving water productivity in agriculture improves most of the studied dimensions across the water–energy–food security nexus; however, it does little for water scarcity at the municipal level. Reducing non-revenue water can have positive effects on municipal unmet demand and reduction of energy for pumping, but it does not improve agricultural water productivity and may have negative feedback effects on the Jordan Valleys aquifer levels. Energy efficiency can support energy-intensive projects, like desalination, by substantially reducing the load on the energy system, preventing increased emissions and achieving a more resilient water system. Finally, when all interventions are considered together all of the major drawbacks are reduced and the benefits augmented, producing a more holistic solution to the WEF Nexus challenges in Jordan.
      PubDate: 2022-07-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s43621-022-00091-w
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