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  Subjects -> SCIENCES: COMPREHENSIVE WORKS (Total: 426 journals)
Showing 1 - 200 of 265 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAS Open Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ABC Journal of Advanced Research     Open Access  
Accountability in Research: Policies and Quality Assurance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Acta Materialia Transilvanica     Open Access  
Acta Nova     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientifica Malaysia     Open Access  
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Adıyaman University Journal of Science     Open Access  
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Advanced Theory and Simulations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Research     Open Access  
Advances in Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Afrique Science : Revue Internationale des Sciences et Technologie     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
American Academic & Scholarly Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
American Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
American Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
ANALES de la Universidad Central del Ecuador     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Anales del Instituto de la Patagonia     Open Access  
Applied Mathematics and Nonlinear Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Apuntes de Ciencia & Sociedad     Open Access  
Arab Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives Internationales d'Histoire des Sciences     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Current Research International     Open Access  
ARO. The Scientific Journal of Koya University     Open Access  
ARPHA Conference Abstracts     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ARPHA Proceedings     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
ArtefaCToS : Revista de estudios sobre la ciencia y la tecnología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Australian Field Ornithology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Journal of Social Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
AZimuth     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Berkeley Scientific Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
BIBECHANA     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
BibNum     Open Access  
Bilge International Journal of Science and Technology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioethics Research Notes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Bistua : Revista de la Facultad de Ciencias Básicas     Open Access  
BJHS Themes     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Black Sea Journal of Engineering and Science     Open Access  
Borneo Journal of Resource Science and Technology     Open Access  
Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin de la Société Royale des Sciences de Liège     Open Access  
Bulletin of the National Research Centre     Open Access  
Butlletí de la Institució Catalana d'Història Natural     Open Access  
Central European Journal of Clinical Research     Open Access  
Chain Reaction     Full-text available via subscription  
Ciencia & Natura     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia Amazónica (Iquitos)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia en Desarrollo     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia Ergo Sum     Open Access  
Ciência ET Praxis     Open Access  
Ciencia y Tecnología     Open Access  
Ciencia, Docencia y Tecnología     Open Access  
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CienciaUAT     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Citizen Science : Theory and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Communications Faculty of Sciences University of Ankara Series A2-A3 Physical Sciences and Engineering     Open Access  
Communications in Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Comprehensive Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Comunicata Scientiae     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ConCiencia     Open Access  
Conference Papers in Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Configurations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
COSMOS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Crea Ciencia Revista Científica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cuadernos de Investigación UNED     Open Access  
Current Issues in Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Current Research in Geoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Dalat University Journal of Science     Open Access  
Data     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Data Curation Profiles Directory     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Dhaka University Journal of Science     Open Access  
Dharmakarya     Open Access  
Diálogos Interdisciplinares     Open Access  
Digithum     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Discover Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Einstein (São Paulo)     Open Access  
Ekaia : EHUko Zientzia eta Teknologia aldizkaria     Open Access  
Elkawnie : Journal of Islamic Science and Technology     Open Access  
Emergent Scientist     Open Access  
Enhancing Learning in the Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Enseñanza de las Ciencias : Revista de Investigación y Experiencias Didácticas     Open Access  
Entramado     Open Access  
Entre Ciencia e Ingeniería     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Epiphany     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ergo     Open Access  
Estação Científica (UNIFAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ethiopian Journal of Education and Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Ethiopian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Ethiopian Journal of Sciences and Sustainable Development     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
European Online Journal of Natural and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
European Scientific Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Evidência - Ciência e Biotecnologia - Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Exchanges : the Warwick Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Experimental Results     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Extensionismo, Innovación y Transferencia Tecnológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Facets     Open Access  
Fides et Ratio : Revista de Difusión Cultural y Científica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Fırat University Turkish Journal of Science & Technology     Open Access  
Fontanus     Open Access  
Forensic Science Policy & Management: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 379)
Frontiers for Young Minds     Open Access  
Frontiers in Climate     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Frontiers in Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Fundamental Research     Open Access  
Futures & Foresight Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Gaudium Sciendi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gazi University Journal of Science     Open Access  
Ghana Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences     Full-text available via subscription  
Global Journal of Science Frontier Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Globe, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
HardwareX     Open Access  
Heidelberger Jahrbücher Online     Open Access  
Heliyon     Open Access  
Himalayan Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
History of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Hoosier Science Teacher     Open Access  
Iberoamerican Journal of Science Measurement and Communication     Open Access  
Impact     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian Journal of History of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Indonesian Journal of Fundamental Sciences     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Science and Mathematics Education     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Indonesian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Ingenieria y Ciencia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Innovare : Revista de ciencia y tecnología     Open Access  
Instruments     Open Access  
Integrated Research Advances     Open Access  
Interciencia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Interface Focus     Full-text available via subscription  
International Annals of Science     Open Access  
International Archives of Science and Technology     Open Access  
International Journal of Academic Research in Business, Arts & Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Advanced Multidisciplinary Research and Review     Open Access  
International Journal of Applied Science     Open Access  
International Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Computational and Experimental Science and Engineering (IJCESEN)     Open Access  
International Journal of Culture and Modernity     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology     Open Access  
International Journal of Innovation and Applied Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Innovative Research and Scientific Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Network Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Recent Contributions from Engineering, Science & IT     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Research in Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Science & Emerging Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Social Sciences and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Technology Policy and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Letters of Social and Humanistic Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Review of Applied Sciences     Open Access  
InterSciencePlace     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Investiga : TEC     Open Access  
Investigación Joven     Open Access  
Investigación Valdizana     Open Access  
Investigacion y Ciencia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Iranian Journal of Science and Technology, Transactions A : Science     Hybrid Journal  
iScience     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Issues in Science & Technology     Free   (Followers: 7)
Ithaca : Viaggio nella Scienza     Open Access  
J : Multidisciplinary Scientific Journal     Open Access  
Jaunujų mokslininkų darbai     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal de la Recherche Scientifique de l'Universite de Lome     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Chromatography & Separation Techniques     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Advanced Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Al-Qadisiyah for Pure Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Alasmarya University     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Analytical Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Applied Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Big History     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Composites Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Critical Thought and Praxis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Deliberative Mechanisms in Science     Open Access  
Journal of Diversity Management     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Indian Council of Philosophical Research     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Institute of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Journal of Integrated Science and Technology     Open Access  
Journal of Interaction Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Kerbala University     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of King Saud University - Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Mathematical and Fundamental Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Natural Sciences and Mathematics Research     Open Access  
Journal of Natural Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Negative and No Positive Results     Open Access  
Journal of Responsible Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Science (JSc)     Open Access  
Journal of Science and Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)

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Discover Sustainability
Number of Followers: 3  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2662-9984
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2658 journals]
  • The duty to cooperate in state interactions for the sustainable use of
           international watercourses

    • Abstract: The duty to cooperate is a universal principle engrained in International Law. A sequel to this principle is the concept of equitable participation and taking all appropriate measures not to cause significant harm. These principal norms in International Water Law can only function through the cooperation of states. Bilateral and multilateral treaties make this duty a mandatory obligation for contracting parties. Nevertheless, disputes still exist among riparian states over their use of international shared waters. This paper, therefore, seeks to determine how the application of the duty to cooperate in the development of transboundary water can be achieved through the procedural norm of equitable participation and the substantive norm of taking all appropriate measures not to cause significant harm. Through a doctrinal (analytical) approach, empirical studies, as well as the legal framework on international watercourses management will be examined to understand the various roles of states on a transboundary river. The duty to cooperate will also be appraised to ascertain the modalities for its application in International Water Law. This study aims to foster a sustainable pathway to ensuring cooperation in the use of international waters in state interactions. This is relevant for equitable utilization of the waters and their resources.
      PubDate: 2021-10-20
  • The socioeconomic determinants of sustainable residential water
           consumption in Athens: empirical results from a micro-econometric analysis

    • Abstract: This paper provides empirical evidence on the effects of socioeconomic characteristics on residential water consumption. The case of Athens is taken as an example for the empirical investigation, using data from the 2019 Household Budget Survey. Employing ordinary, two- and three-stage least squares, seemingly unrelated regression equations and simultaneous quantile specifications, we found that residential water demand is highly price inelastic. Furthermore, empirical results show that water consumption is positively related to household age while more educated households and unemployed persons seem to follow more environmentally friendly behaviour with respect to water demand. Income, gender, house ownership and population density seem to insignificantly affect residential water demand. Our empirical findings might have important national and regional policy implications in the design of sustainable water demand management.
      PubDate: 2021-10-20
  • Sustainability and the real value of care in times of a global pandemic:
           SDG5 and Covid-19

    • Abstract: The pandemic Covid-19 has been affecting the global population, causing profound social and economic problems. The aim of this paper is to analyse the health crises from an ecological economic and a gender equality perspective in order to see how the pandemic is affecting Sustainable Development Goal 5 (gender equality) and particularly Target 5.2 which is about eliminating domestic violence and 5.4 which is about the valuation of unpaid care and domestic work. Secondary data, facts and thoughts from scientific papers and other documents are being reviewed to understand our socio-economic systems’ effects on the reproduction of nature and on social reproduction. Results show, that capitalist systems exploit regenerative and reproductive workers of the demonetized economy, such as nature, unpaid caregivers, peasants, and indigenous gatherers. These exploitative systems also have contributed to the rise of the new pandemic Covid-19 by destroying natural habitats. The virus might have some short-term positive effects on the environment, but the backbone of society’s response is unpaid care work, therefore women are being exploited even more. Conclusions are, that patriarchal characteristics, such as normalized systematic domination and oppression of women (and other regenerative and reproductive workers) are on the long run a burden for the SDGs.
      PubDate: 2021-10-18
  • A hybrid approach to identifying and assessing interactions between
           climate action (SDG13) policies and a range of SDGs in a UK context

    • Abstract: In 2015 the United Nations drafted the Paris Agreement and established the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) for all nations. A question of increasing relevance is the extent to which the pursuit of climate action (SDG 13) interacts both positively and negatively with other SDGs. We tackle this question through a two-pronged approach: a novel, automated keyword search to identify linkages between SDGs and UK climate-relevant policies; and a detailed expert survey to evaluate these linkages through specific examples. We consider a particular subset of SDGs relating to health, economic growth, affordable and clean energy and sustainable cities and communities. Overall, we find that of the 89 UK climate-relevant policies assessed, most are particularly interlinked with the delivery of SDG 7 (Affordable and Clean Energy) and SDG 11 (Sustainable Cities and Communities) and that certain UK policies, like the Industrial Strategy and 25-Year Environment Plan, interlink with a wide range of SDGs. Focusing on these climate-relevant policies is therefore likely to deliver a wide range of synergies across SDGs 3 (Good Health and Well-being), 7, 8 (Decent Work and Economic Growth), 9 (Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure), 11, 14 (Life Below Water) and 15 (Life on Land). The expert survey demonstrates that in addition to the range of mostly synergistic interlinkages identified in the keyword search, there are also important potential trade-offs to consider. Our analysis provides an important new toolkit for the research and policy communities to consider interactions between SDGs, which can be employed across a range of national and international contexts.
      PubDate: 2021-10-05
  • Climate change adaptation in conflict-affected countries: A systematic
           assessment of evidence

    • Abstract: People affected by conflict are particularly vulnerable to climate shocks and climate change, yet little is known about climate change adaptation in fragile contexts. While climate events are one of the many contributing drivers of conflict, feedback from conflict increases vulnerability, thereby creating conditions for a vicious cycle of conflict. In this study, we carry out a systematic review of peer-reviewed literature, taking from the Global Adaptation Mapping Initiative (GAMI) dataset to documenting climate change adaptation occurring in 15 conflict-affected countries and compare the findings with records of climate adaptation finance flows and climate-related disasters in each country. Academic literature is sparse for most conflict-affected countries, and available studies tend to have a narrow focus, particularly on agriculture-related adaptation in rural contexts and adaptation by low-income actors. In contrast, multilateral and bilateral funding for climate change adaptation addresses a greater diversity of adaptation needs, including water systems, humanitarian programming, and urban areas. Even among the conflict-affected countries selected, we find disparity, with several countries being the focus of substantial research and funding, and others seeing little to none. Results indicate that people in conflict-affected contexts are adapting to climate change, but there is a pressing need for diverse scholarship across various sectors that documents a broader range of adaptation types and their results.
      PubDate: 2021-09-27
  • Understanding the socioeconomic determinants of adoption of climate-smart
           agricultural practices among smallholder potato farmers in Gilgil
           Sub-County, Kenya

    • Abstract: Besides climate-smart agriculture’s (CSA) potential to meet the world’s increasing food demands in the face of climate variability through sustainably increasing food production, its acceptance among farmers is still low. This could be partly because of limited insight into the contextual underpinnings of its uptake. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to establish the relationship between selected socioeconomic factors and the adoption of CSA in Gilgil Sub-County. This study’s results were attained from a binary logistic regression model, using a sample of 120 smallholder potato farmers in two wards of Gilgil Sub-County of Nakuru County, Kenya. An analysis of the five hypothesized explanatory socioeconomic variables contained in the model disclosed that a relationship between socioeconomic factors and adoption of CSAPs was statistically significant at a 5% level of significance (χ2 = 17.966, df = 5, p < 0.05). It further revealed that only two variables had a significant relationship with the adoption of CSAPs. Among these, included gender which was negative and statistically significant at a 5% level of significance (Wald χ2 = 6.701, df = 1, p < 0.05) and annual farm income, which was positive and statistically significant at a 5% level of significance (Wald χ2 = 8.402, df = 1, p < 0.05). Therefore, securing access to vital resources for women farmers is indispensable to enhance their capacity and compliance to adjust production methods in response to climate change. Facilitating increased farm output and income among the farmers is greatly recommended.
      PubDate: 2021-09-21
  • A sustainable model for small towns and peripheral communities: converging
           elements and qualitative analysis

    • Abstract: The paper’s conceptual framework is the United Nations Agenda 2030 and the long-term Sustainable Development Goals. Scientific work on environmental issues has underlined the urgency and profoundness of the transformations needed to achieve the COP21 global warming thresholds in the short time left. Despite the systemic character of sustainability, most suggested innovation policies do not consider the advantages of an integrated view of environmental and social issues. The paper explores this possibility by analysing the chances of minor centres (small towns and peripheral communities) to combine these challenges in sustainable development models. Transformative innovation steps inspired by the responsible innovation approach are vital instruments to reach that goal. The paper’s conjecture about the minor centres is supported by analysing three main courses in the sustainability route: the conversion to renewable energy, the circular economy, and the digitalisation process. The analysis offers innovation hints for the responsible development of plans such as the Next Generation EU, launched to support Europe’s economic revival in the post-pandemic phase.
      PubDate: 2021-09-14
  • Passive solar dryers as sustainable alternatives for drying agricultural
           produce in sub-Saharan Africa: advances and challenges

    • Abstract: The lack of adequate techniques for food processing is among the reasons underlying food losses and high levels of hunger in Sub-Saharan Africa; the application of solar energy to dry agricultural products is one potential solution. However, the total replacement of traditional uses of solar energy is still far from reality. Therefore, in this study, we systematically review the academic literature testing passive solar drying systems in order to assess their performance. Then the main limitations and challenges for passive solar dryers developed in Sub-Saharan Africa are derived. The literature search reveals very limited research and a lack of standardized methods to assess solar dryer performance. Studies mainly report parameters related to dryers’ thermal performance and physical features, thus neglecting parameters related to the quality of dried products and economics. Standardized and robust methodologies are urgently needed for more accurate conclusions and comparability of study results. Moreover, successfully applying passive solar dryers as an alternative to the traditional use of solar energy requires overcoming challenges such as time consumption, limited quantities of dried products, and the periodic nature of solar radiation. Thus, given its ability to significantly improve the self-life of food and overcome the current limitations for effective utilization of solar dryers in SSA, the use of mixed mode passive greenhouse dryers is proposed.
      PubDate: 2021-09-14
  • Hue and cry for Fritillaria cirrhosa D.Don, a threatened medicinal plant
           in the Western Himalaya

    • Abstract: The unique Himalayan ecosystems are repositories to the wild populations of diverse flora and fauna. The high value medicinal and aromatic plant species (MAPs) are an example of the same. Since time immemorial, these MAPs have been traditionally used by the local inhabitants and have eventually developed a high market value all over the world. Increasing market demand engenders over-extraction of species, unsustainable collection further catalyses decline in wild populations. The current communication raises high conservation concern on the rapid population decline of Fritillaria cirrhosa D.Don in the Western Himalaya. Harvested and traded with a new trade name i.e., ‘Jangli lehsun’ probably to disguise common Allium species, the species is facing tremendous decline in wild populations due to its illegal harvesting and trade in Himachal Pradesh. Further, F. cirrhosa faces threat due to unorganized, over-extraction, unsustainable and premature harvesting of the bulbs, coupled with illegal hidden markets functioning parallelly. Considering that this valuable species is under multiple threats being a medicinally important plant, priority should be given for its conservation through in-situ such as identification of medicinal plant conservation areas and ex-situ methods for its propagation and multiplication. Further, to ensure the long-term conservation of Fritillaria cirrhosa, prioritized conservation strategies such as strengthening of the Biodiversity Management Committees, capacity building through awareness programs for the key stakeholders and sustainable harvesting would be the practical solution.
      PubDate: 2021-08-30
  • Global externalities from avoided emissions in the Costa Rican cattle
           sector: opportunities for more efficient mitigation policies

    • Abstract: The livestock sector has had an important contribution to global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In Costa Rica, more than 20% of emissions come from beef and milk production. This paper performs a cost–benefit analysis of a climate policy in the Costa Rican cattle sector, and tries to innovate by including the positive global externality of emissions reduction into the analysis; to assess the extent to which it affects the attractivity of the referred policy. National sectorial policies for climate change mitigation generate global benefits, such as avoided GHG emissions into the atmosphere—a global public good. However, such global positive externalities, which represented 13% to 31% of the policy’s benefits in the widest scenario of our study, are usually not included in national climate planning, which may lead efficient policies to be dismissed. This paper shows that taking externalities into account makes sectorial climate mitigation policies more efficient, i.e., more appealing for investments. Benefit–cost ratios varied between 0.27 and 7.31 and break-even points average around the third and fourth years. Moreover, the results under different economic assumptions varied in terms of net benefits, but viability balance (viable vs. unviable scenarios) remained stable for different settings. The crucial question remains on how to best balance such global positive externalities to be advantageous to both funders and beneficiaries, enabling an efficient global climate mitigation strategy.
      PubDate: 2021-08-11
  • Human development, greenhouse gas emissions and sub-national mitigation
           burdens: a Brazilian perspective

    • Abstract: International frameworks for greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation usually disregard country-specific inequalities for the allocation of mitigation burdens. This may hinder low developed regions in a country from achieving development in a socioeconomic perspective, such as the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of eradicating poverty (SDG1) and hunger (SDG2). We use observed data (1991–2010) of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2eq) emissions and a sub-national human development index (MicroHDI, range [0, 1]) for Brazilian microregions to design a framework where regional mitigation burdens are proportional to the MicroHDI, without compromising national mitigation pledges. According to our results, the less developed Brazilian regions have not been basing their development in emission-intensive activities; instead, the most developed regions have. Between 2011 and 2050, Brazilian cumulative emissions from the sectors most correlated with MicroHDI are expected to be 325 Gt CO2eq, of which only 50 Gt are associated with regions of MicroHDI < 0.8. Assuming a national GHG mitigation target of 56.5% in 2050 over 2010 (consistent with limiting global warming to 2 ºC), Brazil would emit 190 Gt CO2eq instead of 325 Gt and the 135 Gt reduction is only accounted for by regions after reaching MicroHDI ≥ 0.8. Allocating environmental restrictions to the high-developed regions leaves ground for the least developed ones to pursue development with fewer restrictions. Our heterogeneous framework represents a fairer allocation of mitigation burdens which could be implemented under the concepts of green economy. This work could be an international reference for addressing both environmental and socioeconomic development in developing countries at sub-national level as emphasized by the SDGs.
      PubDate: 2021-08-09
  • Sustaining oil and gas multinational operations through corporate social
           responsibility practices

    • Abstract: The objective of this study is to provide empirical evidence from the perspective of prudent corporate social responsibility practices by oil and gas multinationals in emerging economies on how investments in and disclosure of the practices could enhance financial sustainability. Accounting-based measures on investments, financial performance, disclosures of activities and panel data set on company size (total assets) over a 10-year period (t) were analysed. Findings show that multinationals with interests in emerging economies take key aspects of their corporate social responsibility practices seriously. There was a significant positive relationship (p=0.0035 < 0.05) between investments in corporate social responsibility practices and sustainability of financial performance. No significant relationship (p=0.4409 > 0.05) was established between disclosure and financial performance. The paper concludes, by supporting the preposition with scientific data, that functional corporate social responsibility practices yield sustained dividend by presenting a stronger financial outlook for multinational oil and gas companies who engage in it. This is prudent for poverty alleviation initiatives and key to achieving the sustainable development goals and targets in emerging economies where they operate.
      PubDate: 2021-08-04
  • An inter-disciplinary approach to the energy transition in South Africa

    • Abstract: The compelling need to tackle climate change is well-established. It is a challenge which is being faced by all nations. This requires an approach which is truly inter-disciplinary in nature, drawing on the expertise of politicians, social scientists, and technologists. We report how the pace of the energy transition can be influenced significantly by both the operation of societal barriers, and by policy actions aimed at reducing these effects. Using the case study of South Africa, a suite of interviews has been conducted with diverse energy interests, to develop and analyse four key issues pertinent to the energy transition there. We do so primarily through the lens of delivering energy justice to that society. In doing so, we emphasise the need to monitor, model, and modify the dynamic characteristic of the energy transition process and the delivery of energy justice; a static approach which ignores the fluid nature of transition will be insufficient. We conclude that the South African fossil fuel industry is still impeding the development of the country’s renewable resources, and the price of doing so is being met by those living in townships and in rural areas.
      PubDate: 2021-07-31
  • COVID-19 and lockdown schooling: how digital learning environments
           influence semantic structures and sustainability knowledge

    • Abstract: Promoting sustainable lifestyles through Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) is part of the UN’s Agenda 2030. Earlier empirical studies proved direct interactions with and in natural environments to be effective ESD methods. Pandemic-related lockdowns rendered such courses nearly impossible, which raised concerns about achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in general. To evaluate what young learners know about the concept sustainability so far and how it can be taught effectively online, we designed an online learning module tackling sustainability issues and compared it with data from an on-site intervention module for Bavarian 5th graders (~ 10 years old). Cognitive learning as well as attitudinal preferences of 288 learners were monitored in a pretest–posttest design. The learning module comprised two sections: One about botany, plant characteristics, and plant families; the other about the advantages and disadvantages of traditional as well as sustainable farming methods. The customized cognitive test and semantic differentials for sustainability and environmental protection produced three major findings: (1) A digital learning environment successfully and significantly increased sustainability knowledge (2) Learners clearly distinguished the concepts Sustainability and Environmental Protection (3) There is no direct correlation between semantic differential scores and learning outcome.
      PubDate: 2021-07-25
  • The production of valuable products and fuel from plastic waste in Africa

    • Abstract: Global plastic waste generation is about 300 million metric tons annually and poses crucial health and environmental problems. Africa is the second most polluted continent in the world, with over 500 shipping containers of waste being imported every month. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) report suggests that about 75% of this plastic waste ends up in landfills. However, landfills management is associated with high environmental costs and loss of energy. In addition, landfill leachates end up in water bodies, are very detrimental to human health, and poison marine ecosystems. Therefore, it is imperative to explore eco-friendly techniques to transform plastic waste into valuable products in a sustainable environment. The trade-offs of using plastic waste for road construction and as a component in cementitious composites are discussed. The challenges and benefits of producing liquid fuels from plastic waste are also addressed. The recycling of plastic waste to liquid end-products was found to be a sustainable way of helping the environment with beneficial economic impact.
      PubDate: 2021-07-08
  • Analysis and prioritization of risk factors in the management of Halal
           supply chain management

    • Abstract: In the competitive globalized market, risk management is an important aspect of the supply chain, but it becomes crucial to the management of a faith-based supply chain. The halal supply chain is an emerging research era at an early stage. To retain the halalness from procurement to end customer, this research was aimed to identify and prioritize the important risk elements for managing the HSC. For this purpose, a literature review was studied, 42 risk factors, classified into seven dimensions, were categorized with the expert’s opinion. A fuzzy best–worst method was proposed to analyze and prioritize the risk elements. The results indicated production-related risks are highly significant and sustainability-related risks are the least important among risk elements in the Halal supply chain. This research makes a major contribution by compiling a detailed list of risks associated with Halal supply chain management. It may also assist the manager in mitigations of risks for the Halal supply chain on a priority basis.
      PubDate: 2021-06-29
  • Determinants of use of solar energy as an alternative means of energy by
           small and medium enterprises in Lagos State, Nigeria

    • Abstract: Frequent power outages and general electricity problems from the national grid in Nigeria have significantly increased in the last 5 years, and these are part of the reasons why many Small and Medium Enterprises in Lagos State, Nigeria find it difficult to survive and some have already folded up. Consequently, some Small and Medium Enterprises have relocated to other places, whilst others have resorted to the use of some alternative means of energy as backup facilities (inclusive of generating sets, and solar energy) to reduce the negative effect of frequent power outages from the national grid. Based on the foregoing, the aim of the study is to investigate whether Small and Medium Enterprises in Lagos State, Nigeria have considered solar energy as an alternative means of energy, find out whether Small and Medium Enterprises in Lagos State, Nigeria prefer solar energy to electricity from the national grid, and to also identify the determinants of use of solar energy as an alternative means of energy by Small and Medium Enterprises in Lagos State, Nigeria. The study covered selected Small and Medium Enterprises in Lagos State, Nigeria and primary data were generated from direct distribution of questionnaires to six hundred (600) qualified Small and Medium Enterprises in Lagos State. Using Descriptive Statistics and Binary Logistic Regression Model to analyze data generated from the questionnaires, the study affirmed that general cost of electricity from the national grid, poor organizational processes and procedures of Electricity Distribution Companies as well as policy support for solar energy by the government were major determinants of use of solar energy as an alternative means of power by Small and Medium Enterprises in Lagos State, Nigeria. However, the findings from the study indicate that poor customer services of Electricity Distribution Companies, inadequate access to electricity facilities of Electricity Distribution Companies, and frequent power outages were not major determinants of use of solar energy as an alternative means of energy by Small and Medium Enterprises in Lagos State, Nigeria as at the time of the research. Consequently, this study recommends that Electricity Distribution Companies should improve their organizational processes and procedures. The study also recommends that cost of maintenance and replacement of major facilities like defective transformers should not be transferred to Small and Medium Enterprises (inclusive of other clients).
      PubDate: 2021-06-23
  • Optimization of energy consumption and its effect on the energy use
           efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions of wheat production in Turkey

    • Abstract: This study aimed to model energy use, energy efficiency, and greenhouse gas emissions in rain-fed wheat production by using a nonparametric data envelopment analysis (DEA) method. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews with 140 wheat farmers in 4 districts of Antalya Province. The energy inputs (independent variables) were human labor, seeds, chemical fertilizers, herbicides, and diesel fuel, and the energy output was the dependent variable. The results showed that the average energy consumption and the output energy for the studied wheat production system were 21. 07GJ ha−1 and 50. 99 GJ ha−1, respectively, and the total GHG emissions were calculated to be 592.12 kg CO2eq ha−1. Chemical fertilizer has the highest share of energy consumption and total GHG emissions. Based on the results from DEA, the technical efficiency of the farmers was found to be 0.81, while pure technical and scale efficiencies were 0.65 and 0.76, respectively. The results also highlighted that there is a potential opportunity to save approximately 14% (2.93 GJ ha−1) of the total energy consumption and consequently a 17% reduction in GHG emissions by following the optimal amounts of energy consumption while keeping the wheat yield constant. Efficient use of energy and reduction in GHG emissions will lead to resource efficiency and sustainable production, which is the main aim of the green economy.
      PubDate: 2021-06-02
  • The consumer goods sector and the sustainability agenda in Ghana: a review
           of sustainability commitments

    • Abstract: Corporate entities are expected to show a great commitment to the sustainability agenda in response to the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG)-12—‘Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns’ by 2030. This study, therefore, analyses the sustainability commitments of two major consumer goods companies in Ghana; Unilever Ghana Limited, and PZ Cussons Ghana Limited. It uses the traditional qualitative literature review approach to identify and evaluate the varying commitments of the two entities through an analytic lens of the Sustainable Business Model (SBM) archetypes. The findings indicate that of the eight archetypes, Unilever Ghana Limited is committed to four of the archetypes—1, 3, 6, and 8—whereas PZ Cussons Ghana Limited’s commitments align with five of the archetypes—1, 2, 5, 6, and 8. This indicates a defining step in their sustainability commitments moving forward, however, the translation of the commitments of the two companies into actualities calls for a concerted effort involving the State, civil society, the academic community, and the entities themselves.
      PubDate: 2021-06-01
  • Development of top-dressing automation technology for sustainable shrimp
           aquaculture in India

    • Abstract: Globally, the shrimp farming industry faces increasing challenges and pressure to reduce the broken shrimps and maintain a healthier pond environment. Shrimps lack an adaptive immune system to combat invading pathogens due to an imbalance in beneficial gut microbiota. The use of top-dressing agents like probiotics and pond optimizes is an alternative strategy to improve the innate immune system leading produce disease-free shrimp in international markets. The cost of top-dressing agents is accounted for 20% of the production cost and therefore, the development of top-dressing automation technology is important to maintain and improve the financial and environmental viability of shrimp sustainable farming. This perspective described several sensor-based aquaculture technologies for on-farm management systems but sustainability in the aquaculture industry is not yet achieved in practice. The present technology is a new invention to reduce labor and production costs required for reducing bacterial and organic loads in Biofloc shrimp cultures. Aquaculture automation system disperses the top-dressing agents to the shrimp ponds based on the signals received from microbial and environmental sensors. Continuous monitoring of shrimp growth, mortality, immune responses, diseases, and pond water quality parameters will fetch larger profits with additional savings on labor and production costs for sustainable shrimp aquaculture in India.
      PubDate: 2021-05-24
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Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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